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Sample records for bulgaria

  1. Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    1983-04-01

    This discussion of Bulgaria focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy (economic reforms and plans, industry and agriculture, and trade); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Bulgaria. The population in December 1980 numbered 8,876,652; the annual growth rate was 3.6/1000. The infant mortality rate was 20.2/1000 with life expectancy 69 years for men and 74 years for women. Bulgaria, which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, extends from the western shore of the Black Sea to Yugoslavia in the west. In the north, the Danube River is a common boundary with Romania. Greece and European Turkey lie to the south and southeast. Population density is 1 of the lowest in Eastern Europe, about 80 persons per square kilometer. More than half of the population lives in urban areas, compared to 1/3 in 1956. Bulgarian is the primary language spoken. Religious activity is discouraged by the Bulgarian communists. Education is free and compulsory to age 15. A fully independent Bulgarian kingdom was proclaimed September 22, 1908. Communist rule began September 9, 1944, when a communist dominated coalition, called the Fatherland Front, seized power from a coalition government formed to arrange an armistice with the Allies. The constitution stipulates that the Communist Party is the leading force in society and in the state. It also provides for a unicameral 400 member National Assembly. The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) controls all phases of Bulgarian life. Party organization parallels the government structure with a central apparatus at Sofia and subordinate organizations in provinces and communes. At the end of World War 2, Bulgaria was among the least industrialized European countries. Bulgaria's national income grew rapidly in the 1960s and early 1970s, but increased by only 5.7% in 1980, down from 6.5% in 1979. A major factor in Bulgaria's growth rate has been Soviet assistance. The economic system is

  2. Terrorism in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Shanduorkov, George

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria is one of the smallest countries in southeastern Europe and has little experience with terrorist acts. During the past 20 years, only nine terrorism-related events have been recorded in Bulgaria, and no unconventional weapons have been used. Factors contributing to terrorism in Bulgaria have been: (1) Communist Party domination of the government and political process from 1944 to 1989; (2) ethnic and religious conflicts between the Bulgarian Orthodox Christian majority and the Turkish Muslim minority from 1983 to 1987; and (3) the relatively high level of organized crime after the Communist regime ended in 1990. The structure and function of the Disaster Relief System in Bulgaria not only are focused on the prevention of terrorism, but also on preparedness for the emergency response to terrorism-related events. Institutional components of the Disaster Relief System structure responsible for the emergency response to terrorism-related events include: (1) the Government of Bulgaria; (2) the State Agency for Civil Protection with 28 regional directorates; (3) the Ministry of Health with five national hospitals, 28 regional hospitals, and 28 EMS systems; (4) the Ministry of Defense with special military units for response to unconventional terrorist events, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; (5) the Ministry of Internal Affairs with 28 police departments, 28 fire departments, and specialized anti-terrorist units; and (6) the Bulgarian Red Cross. A major future challenge in Bulgaria is the prevention of terrorism through political stability, economic prosperity, ethnic and religious tolerance, and more effective measures against organized criminal activities. A related challenge will be to improve the level of preparedness of all components of Disaster Relief. PMID:15074485

  3. Thysanoptera of bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniellaoccidentalis, Thripstabaci and Haplothripstritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  4. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  5. Observations of Orionids from Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Todor; Velkov, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Presented are results from visual observations of the Orionds and other showers carried out in Bulgaria. Radiant positions of the basic active showers are obtained. Recorded is a possible new radiant in ARI.

  6. Bulgaria health system review.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  7. Bulgaria health system review.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  8. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Bulgaria consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on Bulgaria. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET, and legislative…

  9. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942

  10. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  11. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  12. Area Handbook for Bulgaria. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Eugene K.; And Others

    This volume on Bulgaria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University for use by military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and conditions in various countries. The emphasis is on description…

  13. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  14. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  15. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  16. Bulgaria and Romania: Lessons. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binger, Nancy

    This paper presents seven lessons intended to increase the cultural awareness of middle school students concerning life in Bulgaria, Romania, and other parts of the world. The lessons include: (1) "Getting Acquainted, Letter Writing"; (2) "Learning English as a Second Language"; (3) "Newspaper Sharing"; (4) "Monastery Comparison"; (5) "Comparisons…

  17. The Elimination of Turkish Language Instruction in Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminov, Ali

    The goals of language policies in Marxist-Leninist states tend to be applied in three stages: (1) pluralism, (2) bilingualism, and (3) monolingualism. The language policies in Bulgaria, particularly as applied to the Turkish minority, fit this pattern. A pluralistic language and education tradition in Bulgaria, inherited from the Ottoman Empire,…

  18. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  19. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  20. International Reports on Literacy Research: Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Presents part of a series that highlights this journal's interest in informing readers of international literacy research beyond what appears in featured articles. Discusses reports on literacy research in Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. (SG)

  1. 50th anniversary of the first public observatory in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisskinova, Nadya; Stoev, Alexey; Stoeva, Penka

    A brief history of the creating and developing of the public observatories in Bulgaria, and especially of the first of them, the Observatory in Stara Zagora, is presented. Being propagator of positive knowledge about the nature and the universe, this institution has been educated thousands young people and directed them to become scientists, engineers, teachers and other intellectuals. Today the graduates of the Observatory are working in the whole Bulgaria and the whole world.

  2. Ecological status assessment of Skalenski Lakes (Bulgaria)

    PubMed Central

    Teneva, Ivanka; Gecheva, Gana; Cheshmedjiev, Svetoslav; Stoyanov, Plamen; Mladenov, Rumen; Belkinova, Detelina

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade new ecological indices based on phytoplankton and macrophytes were developed as part of the tools for assessment of the ecological status of water bodies. This study demonstrates the applicability of two of them (Assemblage index /Q/ and Algae Group Index /AGI/) for evaluation of water bodies from a lake type L4 as well as their comparability. Assessment of the ecological status of two lake ecosystems was performed in order to ensure successful protection, enhancement and management of lowland and semi-mountain lakes in Bulgaria. Data on the aquatic flora from Golyamo Skalensko Lake and Malko Skalensko Lake over a period of two years were used to assess their ecological status. In addition, the toxic potential of the established dominant cyanoprokaryotic species was also evaluated. Phytoplankton- and macrophyte-based metrics resulted in complementary evaluation of temporary and long-term environmental conditions. Despite the hydraulic connection and proximity between the two lakes, Golyamo Skalensko Lake and Malko Skalensko Lake appear as completely different ecosystems, according to the phytoplankton structure (species composition, number of species, abundance, seasonal succession), macrophytes and ecological status. PMID:26019492

  3. Tectonic position, hydrocarbon exploration, and future potential in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Bokov, P. ); Gochev, P. ); Ognyanov, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The oil- and gas-prospective areas in northern and southeastern Bulgaria and the adjacent regions on the Black Sea shelf are accepted as a part of the Carpatho-Balkan oil- and gas-bearing province. The peculiarities of the tectonic structures are conditioned by some specific, mostly collision processes during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary. They are deciphered now with the help of the depth seismic explorations, and magnetotelluric, thermal, gravimetric, and magnetic data, in combination with geological mapping of south Bulgaria. The usual type of seismic data and well control as well exist in north Bulgaria and the Black Sea shelf zone; parts of this information has been published. Now an attempt is made for general overview of the three regions built by some parts of the Moesian platform; ForeBalkan, Balkan, and Srednogorie region; and the western part of the Black Sea megadepression, as well. Prospects of the Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments in north Bulgaria have been comparatively well studied, but questions remain for southeastern Bulgaria and the Black Sea shelf zone, coming from unresolved problems concerning the geological structure. Future regional exploration is expected to discover new deposits in the reef trends of Paleozoic, Triassic, and Late Jurassic-Valanginian age, and connected with usual local Tertiary and Mesozoic structures and vast overthrust structures of the Balkan and southward, in both the offshore and onshore.

  4. Women in physics in Bulgaria-Enhancing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Bulgaria currently has a relatively high number of women in top positions at the governmental level, yet the presidents of the important universities and most of the directors of research institutions are male. Gender balance is driven by the need to improve research quality in interdisciplinary fields, where the similarities and differences between men and women in creativity and thought play a crucial role.

  5. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.; Strelkova, L.; Yurukova, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  6. Therapeutic Art Practices with Orphan Children in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Alexandra S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents therapeutic art practices carried out with 60 orphan children in the small town of Ugarchin in northern Bulgaria. In 1999, a group of artists and teachers developed a varied program of art activities for these children. These activities included two 1-week visits and the opening of five art workshops--Art History, Ceramics,…

  7. Country Update: Recent Practices of Intercultural Education in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davcheva, Leah; Katsarska, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Education and schooling in Bulgaria bear the potential to address the challenges that arise from poverty, unemployment, demographic developments, social polarising, migration, and fractured identities. This paper briefly reviews four recent and ongoing projects illustrative of a wide scope of intercultural education programmes, currently initiated…

  8. Bulgaria: The Double Edge of Economy and Demography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgieva, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    The higher education and research sector in Bulgaria is undergoing a gradual change. Whether this transformation will bring success or failure depends on how prepared stakeholders are to meet associated challenges and opportunities. The mobility of academics and the related phenomenon of brain drain need careful investigation. Academic teachers…

  9. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…

  10. Building waste management in Bulgaria: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hadjieva-Zaharieva, R; Dimitrova, E; Buyle-Bodin, François

    2003-01-01

    Building waste recycling as aggregates is a modern approach for preventing environmental pollution through both reducing the stocks of waste and decreasing the use of natural aggregates. The reuse of building waste is a relatively new issue for Bulgaria despite the existing considerable quantity of building waste and the significant changes in the environmental rules applied. The paper discusses generated and potential waste streams in Bulgaria in the context of the social and economic restructuring and recent urban development undergone by the country. The main preliminary conditions for developing the recycling activity such as: streams of building waste, experience in recycling, technical and environmental standardization, appropriate technologies, etc. are examined. The authors analyze current practice and research activities with regard to the implementation of advanced EU building-waste recycling methods. Conclusions are drawn about existing opportunities and the priorities of the needed building waste management strategy in the country. PMID:14522194

  11. Epidemiology and molecular diversity of rabies viruses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Robardet, E; Ilieva, D; Iliev, E; Gagnev, E; Picard-Meyer, E; Cliquet, F

    2014-04-01

    A health emergency situation occurred in Bulgaria in 2007 when positive rabies cases were notified in Sofia district in the central-western part of the country, suggesting a southward spread of the disease for the first time in the last 10 years. Phylogenetic analysis on 49 isolates sampled between 2009 and 2011 showed, for the first time, evidence of the existence of NEE and D clustered lineages in Bulgaria. Their geographical distribution clearly reveals the permeability of natural barriers, as already suggested by the disease spread that occurred across the Balkan mountain range in 2007. The monitoring and passive surveillance programmes conducted since the first 2009 oral vaccination campaign, the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease in the country since 2007, and the need for further investigation of the role of jackals in virus dispersion are discussed. PMID:23830231

  12. Epidemiology and molecular diversity of rabies viruses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Robardet, E; Ilieva, D; Iliev, E; Gagnev, E; Picard-Meyer, E; Cliquet, F

    2014-04-01

    A health emergency situation occurred in Bulgaria in 2007 when positive rabies cases were notified in Sofia district in the central-western part of the country, suggesting a southward spread of the disease for the first time in the last 10 years. Phylogenetic analysis on 49 isolates sampled between 2009 and 2011 showed, for the first time, evidence of the existence of NEE and D clustered lineages in Bulgaria. Their geographical distribution clearly reveals the permeability of natural barriers, as already suggested by the disease spread that occurred across the Balkan mountain range in 2007. The monitoring and passive surveillance programmes conducted since the first 2009 oral vaccination campaign, the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease in the country since 2007, and the need for further investigation of the role of jackals in virus dispersion are discussed.

  13. [New materials on the history of veterinary medicine in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Popov, M

    1979-01-01

    Several tens of ritual plates are preserved in Bulgaria on which elements of glorification are found of god Mithras who gained popularity particularly in the 1st-IIIrd century in the regions of Thrace and today's North Bulgaria, then provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire. Mithras seemed to be respected by slaves, soldiers, and merchants alike, but was also an exemplar to the Roman emperors, being considered by them as Sol invictus or Deo invicto. The central scene in all plates is that of Mithras tauroctonus (Mithras, the killer of bulls). This scene is likewise of interest to veterinarians as it shows that in such early epoch the people that lived within the territory of Bulgaria of today used a method for the felling of large animals, the elements of which--fixing the head and bending it backwards, fastening the thorax with a belt or another loop, loading the animal's back--are still existing and are used in a number of modern methods of felling (that of Hess, the Caucasian way of felling, the Chinese one of Dou-Chan-Than, etc.) Besides, the people of ancient time knew that ruminants have an incomplete upper dentition. They skilfully employed this to bring animals that had to be felled into an unusual nonphysiologic posture. Not sooner than 16 centuries prior to the preformists (the spermists) they supported the concept that the testes were the source of life. PMID:390862

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Bulgaria and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Schuster, Isolde; Sas, Miriam A; Vatansever, Zati; Hubalek, Zdenek; Güven, Esin; Deniz, Ahmet; Georgiev, Georgi; Peshev, Raiko; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-09-01

    Infections of humans with the tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 80%. Most humans are infected by tick bite, crushing infected ticks by hand or by unprotected contact with blood of viremic mammals. Next to the notified human CCHF cases, the real distribution and the situation in animals in Southeastern Europe are nearly unknown. Since domestic ruminants play a crucial role in the life cycle of the vector ticks and the transmission and amplification of the virus, the antibody prevalence in those animals is a good indicator for the presence of CCHFV in a region. Therefore, the prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies was investigated in domestic ruminants of different regions of Bulgaria and Turkey. Sera of 1165 ruminants were tested and a prevalence of up to 90% was identified. The overall prevalence for Bulgaria was 26% and for Turkey 57%. The results highlight the risk of human infections in those regions and the importance of the investigation of the prevalence in animals for identification of risk areas. This article provides a unique overview about published CCHFV antibody prevalence in animals in comparison to human incidences in different areas of Bulgaria and Turkey. Although it will help to complete the understanding of the CCHFV situation in these countries, it also demonstrates the lack of unpublished and published data even in these highly endemic areas. PMID:27467142

  15. [New materials on the history of veterinary medicine in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Popov, M

    1979-01-01

    Several tens of ritual plates are preserved in Bulgaria on which elements of glorification are found of god Mithras who gained popularity particularly in the 1st-IIIrd century in the regions of Thrace and today's North Bulgaria, then provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire. Mithras seemed to be respected by slaves, soldiers, and merchants alike, but was also an exemplar to the Roman emperors, being considered by them as Sol invictus or Deo invicto. The central scene in all plates is that of Mithras tauroctonus (Mithras, the killer of bulls). This scene is likewise of interest to veterinarians as it shows that in such early epoch the people that lived within the territory of Bulgaria of today used a method for the felling of large animals, the elements of which--fixing the head and bending it backwards, fastening the thorax with a belt or another loop, loading the animal's back--are still existing and are used in a number of modern methods of felling (that of Hess, the Caucasian way of felling, the Chinese one of Dou-Chan-Than, etc.) Besides, the people of ancient time knew that ruminants have an incomplete upper dentition. They skilfully employed this to bring animals that had to be felled into an unusual nonphysiologic posture. Not sooner than 16 centuries prior to the preformists (the spermists) they supported the concept that the testes were the source of life.

  16. Geodynamic Study In The Region of Southwest Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, I.; Pashova, L.; Nikolov, G.; Dimitrov, D.; Botev, E.

    Southwestern (SW) Bulgaria is a region of the most expressed tectonic and seismic activity in the whole territory of Bulgaria. The area belongs to the zone of recent ex- tension of the earth crust with the complex interference the horizontal and vertical movements of geological structures. The tectonic activity is confirmed with the re- cent high seismicity in the region. The largest earthquake in Europe in the last two centuries had happened near the Krupnik-Kresna area in 04.04.1904 with magnitude M = 7.8 (Karnik, 1969). A complex geodynamic study of recent deformations in the SW Bulgaria is of particular importance because of the possibility the seismogenic faults to provoke strong earthquakes. Since 1970 the Central Laboratory of Geodesy has carried out a geodetic monitoring of the vertical movements in the local seismic active zone of Krupnik-Kresna. We present the results of this monitoring along with the analysis of the precise spirit levelling from tree epochs - 1978, 1986 and 2000 of the 1st class state levelling line crossing the Krupnik fault. They show significant ver- tical crustal movements in the neighbourhood of the main Krupnik normal fault and confirm its recent tectonic activity. In 2001 the Central Laboratory of Geodesy, the Ge- ological Institute and the Geophysical Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Geodetic Department of the University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy initiated a research project: "Multidisciplinary study on the active geodynamic setting of the Southwest Bulgaria". A regional GPS geodynamic network for long term monitoring of the recent crustal movements in this region was established. The GPS site locations were chosen after a detail study of the available seismotectonic and geologic data. The first GPS campaign was performed in the late summer of the last year. Some main seismotectonic features of the SW Bulgaria re- gion are discussed based on the new geological data and

  17. The Vocational Education and Training System in Bulgaria. Current Situation, Challenges and Reform Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleev, Tzako; Kalandarova, Natalia; Dineva, Nedka; Panev, Georgi; Petrova, Iskra

    This report reviews the current situation of Bulgaria's vocational education and training (VET) system to identify challenges facing the system and areas needing reform. Section 1 explores the following five aspects of Bulgaria's political and socioeconomic situation: (1) demography; (2) economic developments (privatization of state enterprises,…

  18. Chapter 5: Tertiary Short-Cycle Education in Bulgaria--In Search of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the development of short-cycle higher education in Bulgaria. An emphasis is placed on (a) the evolution of nonuniversity short-cycle institutes and (b) the challenges of bridging the gap between secondary and higher education and creating links between vocational and academic learning pathways. The case study of Bulgaria may…

  19. 76 FR 63985 - Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria, concerned that its cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage, made a request to the Government of the... Convention can be found at http://exchanges.state.gov/heritage . A public summary of Bulgaria's request...

  20. Some numerically studies of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhev, G. K.; Ganev, K. G.; Prodanov, M.; Syrakov, D. E.; Miloshev, N. G.; Georgiev, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. The system consists of three components: MM5 - the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-meteorological Model used as meteorological pre-processor; CMAQ - the Community Multiscale Air Quality System CMAQ; SMOKE - the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modelling System - the emission model [4]. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The air pollution pattern is formed as a result of interaction of different processes, so knowing the contribution of each for different meteorological conditions and given emission spatial configuration and temporal behaviour could be interesting. Therefore the Models-3 "Integrated Process Rate Analysis" option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment - calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble.

  1. Atmospheric characteristics statistic study of Ruse region, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, I.; Filipova, M.

    2016-10-01

    Temperature, air humidity and atmospheric pressure measurements in Ruse region for 40 years period are statistically studied in this paper. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression models for these characteristics are presented and commented. The most variable atmospheric parameter is air humidity during the spring seasons. The hardest change of temperature and atmospheric pressure is during January. Temperature has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Humidity has biggest change in April and smallest - in October. Atmospheric pressure has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Characteristics temperature and atmospheric pressure of spring (April) and autumn (October) are very similar. Summer temperatures and atmospheric pressure (July) have smallest change. The atmospheric temperature data for Ruse region are also compared with the official basic data for Bulgaria. It is shown that mean values of the temperature in Ruse region are bigger than the mean temperature for Bulgaria. It is shown that the winter and spring temperatures for Ruse region are slightly going up lately which could be connected with the typical for Ruse region air pollution especially by particle matter.

  2. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  3. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  4. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  5. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  6. Human echinococcosis in Bulgaria: a comparative epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Boeva, V.

    1999-01-01

    The present article describes the importance of human echinococcosis as a public health problem in Bulgaria, outlines the control measures carried out and evaluates comparatively the situation over three periods spanning 46 years (1950-1995). During the first period (1950-62), a total of 6469 new surgically confirmed cases of hydatid disease were recorded in Bulgaria, with an annual incidence of 6.5 per 100,000 population, and the infestation rate in domestic animals and dogs was high. Echinococcosis was endemic throughout the country. The organization of a control campaign, initiated in 1960, led to a considerable improvement in the situation during the second period (1971-82). Morbidity among humans gradually decreased, with an average incidence of 2.0 per 100,000, and the proportion of infected animals also fell. The distribution of echinococcosis was characterized as sporadic or of low endemicity. During the third period (1983-95), owing to administrative irregularities and economic changes, funds for supporting the campaign were reduced and control structures were dismantled. As a result, the incidence rose to 3.3 per 100,000. Echinococcosis again became endemic, in some regions hyperendemic. The findings provide convincing evidence that cessation of control measures or reduction of campaign activity can lead to intensification in the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and to a resurgence in echinococcosis to previous levels. PMID:10083708

  7. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases. PMID:25521059

  8. Importation and circulation of poliovirus in Bulgaria in 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharova, Mira; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Gyurova, Snejana; Fiore, Lucia; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Kunchev, Angel; Vladimirova, Nadejda; Korsun, Neli; Filipova, Radosveta; Boneva, Roumiana; Gavrilin, Eugene; Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Oblapenko, George; Wassilak, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the circumstances in which poliomyelitis occurred among three children in Bulgaria during 2001 and to describe the public health response. METHODS: Bulgarian authorities investigated the three cases of polio and their contacts, conducted faecal and serological screening of children from high-risk groups, implemented enhanced surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis, and conducted supplemental immunization activities. FINDINGS: The three cases of polio studied had not been vaccinated and lived in socioeconomically deprived areas of two cities. Four Roma children from the Bourgas district had antibody titres to serotype 1 poliovirus only, and wild type 1 virus was isolated from the faeces of two asymptomatic Roma children in the Bourgas and Sofia districts. Poliovirus isolates were related genetically and represented a single evolutionary lineage; genomic sequences were less than 90% identical to poliovirus strains isolated previously in Europe, but 98.3% similar to a strain isolated in India in 2000. No cases or wild virus isolates were found after supplemental immunization activities were launched in May 2001. CONCLUSIONS: In Bulgaria, an imported poliovirus was able to circulate for two to five months among minority populations. Surveillance data strongly suggest that wild poliovirus circulation ceased shortly after supplemental immunization activities with oral poliovirus vaccine were conducted. PMID:12973639

  9. HPC simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhev, Georgi; Ganev, Kostadin; Miloshev, Nikolay; Syrakov, Dimiter; Prodanova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. The system consists of three components: MM5 - the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-meteorological Model used as meteorological pre-processor; CMAQ - the Community Multiscale Air Quality System CMAQ; SMOKE - the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modelling System - the emission model. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The air pollution pattern is formed as a result of interaction of different processes, so knowing the contribution of each for different meteorological conditions and given emission spatial configuration and temporal behaviour could be interesting. Therefore the Models-3 'Integrated Process Rate Analysis' option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment - calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble, which makes it possible

  10. Measurement of indoor radon concentration in kindergartens in Sofia, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kremena; Stojanovska, Zdenka; Tsenova, Martina; Badulin, Viktor; Kunovska, Bistra

    2014-11-01

    As a part of the systematic survey of indoor radon in Bulgaria, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 296 kindergarten buildings of Sofia city during 3 months (February to April 2013) using the CR-39 nuclear tract detectors. In 256 buildings at least two frequently occupied rooms (mainly playrooms) were observed. Altogether, 922 measurements were performed. The frequency distribution was well described by the lognormal function. The measured radon concentrations range between 9 and 1415 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 101 Bq m(-3) (2.08) and an arithmetic mean 132 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 118 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations obtained in this survey were compared with that in Sofia city dwellings obtained from a previous study. A detailed statistical analysis of the building factors was presented.

  11. Aircrew ejections in the Republic of Bulgaria, 1953-93.

    PubMed

    Milanov, L

    1996-04-01

    We reviewed the ejections of 60 pilots who ejected from 54 aircraft of Soviet production in the Republic of Bulgaria from 1953-93. The following factors were correlated with the degree of injury during ejection: the fliers' height, weight, and age; type of aircraft and ejection seat; altitude and speed of the aircraft at ejection; and the reason for ejection. The act of ejection can be a life-saving procedure when the aircraft gets into a non-recoverable situation, especially when carried out at an altitude above of 300 m, or at ground level. Survival rate of pilots in those cases is 95-100% respectively, compared to the general survival rate, which is 83%. Of the 60 ejectees, 10 (16.7%) were killed, 14 (23.3%) suffered major injuries, 17 (28.3%) suffered minor injuries, and 19 (31.7%) were uninjured. PMID:8900991

  12. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  13. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  14. Operational pollution forecast for the region of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, D.; Etropolska, I.; Prodanova, M.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Slavov, K.

    2012-10-01

    An operational prototype of the Integrated Bulgarian Chemical Weather Forecasting and Information System is presented. This version of the system is limited to relatively low resolution (10 km) but covers all Bulgaria. It is based on the US EPA Models-3 System (MM5, SMOKE and CMAQ). The meteorological input to the system is the Bulgarian operational numerical weather forecast. The boundary conditions are taken from analogous Greek system (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki). Bulgarian system runs automatically twice a day (00 and 12 UTC) and produces 48-hour forecast. The part of the results of each System's run is post-processed in a way to be visualized and uploaded to a respective web site. In the paper, description of the System is given together with a demonstration of its products. In addition highlights of Systems upgrade will be given.

  15. Leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics education in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-12-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership training in Bulgaria with emphases on the country's economics, politics and geographical location as specific factors influencing leadership education. A short background of Bulgaria is presented with regard to population, gross domestic product, educational system, engineering force and possible need for leaders in industry in Bulgaria and the European Union. The paper provides an overall view about the current status of leadership training in all Bulgarian universities offering STEM education and concentrates specifically on two major universities by examining their currently offered programmes. As part of the discussion, similar training elements in other European countries and the USA are presented.

  16. Field experiments to evaluate host plant specificity of prospective agents of Onopordum acanthium in Bulgaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium, is an invasive alien weed in North America that originates from Europe. Previous field observations in Bulgaria have confirmed the presence of prospective biological control agents including Cassida rubiginosa, Chaetostomella cylindrica, Eublemma amoena, Larinus ...

  17. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country. PMID:26537337

  18. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  19. Advances in molecular surveillance of Clostridium difficile in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanov, Ivan N; Vathcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Petrov, Petar K; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2013-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Bulgaria has indicated the need to implement better surveillance approaches. The aim of the present work was to improve the current surveillance of CDI in Bulgaria by introducing innovative methods for identification and typing. One hundred and twenty stool samples obtained from 108 patients were studied over 4 years from which 32 C. difficile isolates were obtained. An innovative duplex EvaGreen real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous detection of the gluD and tcdB genes was developed for rapid C. difficile identification. Four toxigenic profiles were distinguished by PCR: A(+)B(+)CDT(-) (53.1 %, 17/32), A(-)B(+)CDT(-) (28.1 %, 9/32), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (9.4 %, 3/32) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (9.4 %, 3/32). PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA7) were used for molecular characterization of the isolates. In total, nine distinct ribotypes were confirmed and the most prevalent for Bulgarian hospitals was 017 followed by 014/020, together accounting for 44 % of all isolates. Eighteen per cent of the isolates (6/32) did not match any of the 25 reference ribotypes available in this study. Twenty-four MLVA7 genotypes were detected among the clinical C. difficile isolates, distributed as follows: five for 017 ribotype, two for 014/020, 001, 002, 012 and 046 each, and one each for ribotypes 023, 070 and 078. The correlation between the typing methods was significant and allowed the identification of several clonal complexes. These results suggest that most C. difficile cases in the eight Bulgarian hospitals studied were associated with isolates belonging to the outbreak ribotypes 017 and 014/20, which are widely distributed in Europe. The real-time PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of gluD and tcdB proved to be very effective and improved C. difficile identification and confirmation of clinical C. difficile isolates. PMID:23598377

  20. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  1. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  2. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K.

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  3. Climate change impacts on cereal crops in Northeast Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, V.

    2009-09-01

    Global climate change will impact all economic sectors to some degree, but agricultural production is perhaps the most sensitive and vulnerable. World agriculture, whether in developing or developed countries, remains very dependent on climate resources. For example, agriculture in Europe only accounts for a small part of the GDP, and the vulnerability in the overall economy to changes that affect agriculture is therefore low, however the local effects on society might be large. This study shows some model results on climate change impacts on crops in Northeast Bulgaria. Changes in phenological dates and crop yields of winter wheat and maize are simulated by a crop model. RoIMPEL model dynamically calculates the variables with a time step of 1 day as it has functions to derive daily weather data) from monthly values. A screening of soil/climate conditions to evaluate the land suitability for a given crop is first performed. For suitable land, the daily dynamics of the crop development stages up to harvest, and of water-, temperature-, and nitrogen-stresses are the main crop processes simulated in RoIMPEL for each crop. The accumulation of biomass is based on the radiation use efficiency and the net photosynthetically active radiation. The radiation use efficiency is CO2 concentration sensitive. The radiation-potential daily biomass increase is corrected by temperature, water and nitrogen stresses. Additional penalties on crop yields are included through alarm criteria (unfavourable weather parameters during the most sensitive development stages) based on crop specific physiology. The model results are presented in various maps, etc.

  4. [Retrospections on medical ethics and deontology in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Radanov, Stoycho

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the emergence and the development of the medical ethics and deontology from the foundations of the Bulgarian state till today. With the foundation of the Bulgarian state / 7th century / the traditions and the culture of Thracians, Slavs and Proto-Bulgarians have mixed, the ethnic rules at the beginning being traditional, closely connected with the customs and the beliefs of the ethnical groups taking part in the ethnogenesis of the Bulgarian people. After the baptizing the Christian faith is in the basis of the moral virtues of the folk healers. After the Liberation from the Turkish yoke the major legal and medical norms are being worked out, the first professional and ethical rules obligatory for all doctors and dentists have been adopted, lecturing on medical deontology and taking a Hippocratic oath have been introduced. During the totalitarian period - immediately after the Second World War the medical ethics and deontology are underestimated to a great extent. A correction is made later on after the Moral Code of the doctor in the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, taking of the Hippocratic oath is being renewed, and etc. In the period of democracy fundamental legal and deontological sources are established which are the key means to carry out the health reform, incl. also the deontological aspects of health care. A Code of the professional ethics of the doctors and dentists is adopted, lecturing in medical ethics is introduced, lecturing in deontology is renewed, the Hippocratic oath is being taken, various conventions are being conducted, and etc. PMID:16060044

  5. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    PubMed

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  6. Leadership Training in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership…

  7. Situation Report - Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth…

  8. Components of Environmental Literacy in Elementary Science Education Curriculum in Bulgaria and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Kostova, Zdravka; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which science education objectives in elementary schools addressed to the six basic components of environmental literacy (EL), and how this attention differed from Bulgaria to Turkey. The main method in the study involved comparative content analysis of these objectives. The courses sampled…

  9. Impact of Employment Restructuring on Disadvantaged Groups in Hungary and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sziraczki, Gyorgy; Windell, James

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of 900 manufacturers in Hungary and Bulgaria show that transition to a market economy is (1) marginalizing women, affected by segregation, layoff risk, and discrimination; (2) diminishing labor market role of older workers; and (3) increasing difficulties faced by youth seeking employment, whose skills do not match new employment needs.…

  10. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  11. Assessing Between-School Variation in Educational Resources and Mathematics and Science Achievement in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankov, Kiril; Mikova, Dilyana; Smith, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, along with other Central and Eastern European countries, began a transition towards a democratic political system and market-oriented economy. Socio-economic and political changes associated with this transition have created a growing need for a new kind of citizenry, one equipped with flexible…

  12. Dynamics of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Bulgaria in a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…

  13. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM.

  14. Music/Drama Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radashaw, Sharon L.

    This unit developed for middle school students utilizes the countries of Romania and Bulgaria as the basis for a study of their music and drama. Middle school students will recognize the commonalities of world music, dance, and theater by developing skills and understanding of elements of each art. Folk music and dance from Romania and Bulgaria…

  15. Interculturalizing Education in Bulgaria: The Contribution of the National Helpdesk for Intercultural Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Richard; Davcheva, Leah

    2005-01-01

    Whilst there has been extensive discussion of the models and policies concerning intercultural education in Bulgaria, there has been to date surprisingly little work undertaken regarding the potential contribution of Bulgarian school textbooks across the curriculum towards the objectives of intercultural education. The National Helpdesk for…

  16. Inclusive Education in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current…

  17. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  18. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    PubMed Central

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  19. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  20. [Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].

    PubMed

    Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

    2013-01-01

    There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures.

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

    2012-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the

  2. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change. PMID:24697714

  3. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  4. Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

    2010-01-01

    An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe.

  5. Outbreak Caused by NDM-1- and RmtB-Producing Escherichia coli in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, Laurent; Savov, Encho; Nazli, Arzu; Trifonova, Angelina; Todorova, Iva; Gergova, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Twelve consecutive carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from patients (infection or colonization) hospitalized between March and September 2012 in different units at a hospital in Bulgaria. They all produced the carbapenemase NDM-1 and the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase CTX-M-15, together with the 16S rRNA methylase RmtB, conferring high-level resistance to all aminoglycosides. All those isolates were clonally related and belonged to the same sequence type, ST101. In addition to being the first to identify NDM-producing isolates in Bulgaria, this is the very first study reporting an outbreak of NDM-1-producing E. coli in the world. PMID:24514099

  6. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change.

  7. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  8. Downscaling of Bulgarian chemical weather forecast from Bulgaria region to Sofia city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, D.; Etropolska, I.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Ljubenov, T.

    2013-10-01

    In the paper, Bulgarian Chemical Weather Forecast System (BgCWFS), version 3, will be described end the respective end-user products will be demonstrated. Chemical Weather is understood as concentration distribution of some key pollutants in a particular area and its changes during some forecast period. In Bulgaria, a prototype of such a system was built in the frame of a project with the National Science fund. It covers a relatively small domain including Bulgaria that requires the use of chemical boundary conditions (CBC) from similar foreign systems. The last version of the System is built in the frame of EU FP7 project PASODOBLE. Following its requirements, concentration data (CBC) for the region of Bulgaria are provided by SILAM System of Finish Meteorological Institute. It operates over the whole European region but is able to provide data for any European sub-domain by its THREDDS service. The customer makes an Internet request containing all necessary parameters - sub-region dimensions, pollutants, period of forecast etc. In a few minutes, the request is proceeded and all required data is downloaded as a single NetCDF file. This file is post-processed as to obtain the necessary boundary conditions. The new version of the system is built on the base of the nesting approach - two other domains with increasing resolution are nested in the Bulgaria one downscaling to 1 km space resolution over Sofia city. The System is fully atomized. Computations start at 00 UTC every day and the forecast period is 72 hours. It is based on the well known models WRF (Mesometeorological Model) and US EPA dispersion model CMAQ (Chemical Transport Model). As emission input the 2010 inventory data prepared by Bulgarian environmental authorities is exploited. The results are presented in the System's web-site (http://www.niggg.bas.bg/cw3/).

  9. Initial steps to the early warning systems in Bulgaria - earthquakes, tsunamis, marine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, Boyko

    2013-04-01

    Several projects on the early warning systems in Bulgaria are presented - some of them in phase of execution, some - in preparation and assessment. The work presents these projects related to the early warning systems (EWS). They are under execution in Bulgaria with wide participation of the international teams. The projects' parameters - partners involved, coordinators, main tasks and objectives, time duration, intended equipment, specific objectives and beneficiaries are discussed. The progress of these projects is presented. The projects themselves - according their acronyms are: MARINEGEOHAZARDS (mainly focused on marine hazards in the Black Sea - earthquakes and tsunamis). DACEA (about possibility of Vrancea seismic source earthquakes to be warned in Bulgaria and Romania). ESNET (about support of decision makers in case of earthquakes and other coastal hazards). SIMORA (about a local monitoring system of strong ground motions and its relevancy to the EWS). A comparison study about the level of reliability and security, as well as, some legislation issues are under investigations. The web-sites and other dissemination tools (like newsletters,webs,etc.) are also under presentation. The goal is to show the specific objectives, their effective execution and the research support to the society and decision makers.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from plants in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Michaylova, Michaela; Minkova, Svetlana; Kimura, Katsunori; Sasaki, Takashi; Isawa, Kakuhei

    2007-04-01

    One of the traditional ways of preparation of yogurt starter in Bulgaria is placing a branch of a particular plant species into boiled sheep's milk maintained at about 45 degrees C, which is further incubated until a dense coagulum is obtained. To investigate the possible origin of the yogurt starter bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), the traditional way of yogurt-starter preparation was followed. Hundreds of plant samples were collected from four regions in Bulgaria and incubated in sterile skim milk. The two target bacteria at low frequencies from the plant samples collected were successfully isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these bacterial isolates revealed that they were identified as L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Twenty isolates of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, were selected from the isolated strains and further characterized with regard to their performance in yogurt production. Organoleptic and physical properties of yogurt prepared using the isolated strains from plants were not significantly different from those prepared using commercial yogurt-starter strains. It was therefore suggested that L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains widely used for commercial yogurt production could have originated from plants in Bulgaria. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains from plants.

  11. Prevalence of Latin-American-Mediterranean genetic family in population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Valcheva, Violeta; Rastogi, Nalin; Mokrousov, Igor

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control remains an important public health priority for Bulgaria. The population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is clonal and certain genetic families of this species (e.g., Latin-American-Mediterranean [LAM]) have attracted more attention due to their global dissemination and/or particular pathogenic properties, e.g., association with multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the M. tuberculosis LAM family in Bulgaria based on the use of different molecular markers. A total of 101 previously spoligotyped M. tuberculosis strains were studied by LAM-specific PCR assay to detect an insertion of IS6110 in the specific genome region. On the whole, clear-cut results were obtained for most strains; spoligotype-based family was reassigned in some of them. At the same time, double bands were amplified in some cases and warrant further validation studies of this method. The higher MDR rate among LAM versus other genotype isolates was observed (P=0.04). In conclusion, these results suggest a low (<4%) prevalence rate of LAM in Bulgaria (that is similar to its Balkan neighbors) and highlight the importance of using robust markers for correct detection of the LAM family. PMID:27649865

  12. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  13. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REGISTRY OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS IN BULGARIA--A PILOT SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, R; Miteva-Katrandjieva, Ts; Iskrov, G; Damyanov, D; Korukov, B; Kermedchiev, M; Terziev, I; Madjov, R; Ivanov, K; Kolev, N; Chenopolski, P; Tsaneva, M; Dimitrova, V; Todorov, G; Hristova, S; Tosheva, E; Grozdev, K; Vladov, N; Mihova, A; Stoyanova, R; Cholakov, O; Haralanov, S; Draganov, K; Marinov, V; Radionov, M; Dimitrov, O; Kurtev, P; Angelova, E; Hadjiev, B; Murdjev, K; Dermendjieva, T; Deliisky, T; Valcheva-Petrova, G; Popovska, S; Julianov, A; Georgiev, I

    2014-01-01

    The National registry of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in Bulgaria was established in 2013 as a joint initiative of the Bulgarian Surgical Society and the Institute for Rare Diseases. The register aims to explore the epidemiology of NET in Bulgaria, as well as the different diagnostic and treatment approaches for the disease throughout the country. This the first of its kind retrospective study of NET in the country is covering the period January 2012 - January 2013. A total of 127 patients with NET were identified. At the time of the survey the average age of patients with NET was 58.61 ± 15.59 years. The data show almost equal distribution between the genders with a slight predominance of women. The largest relative part of NET is those of NET located in the gastrointestinal tract (54.10 ± 4.51%), followed by those located in the pancreas (12.30 ± 2.97%) and in the lungs (10.66 ± 2.79%). In 72.44 ± 3.96% of the patients a immunohistochemical diagnosis was performed. The study confirmed the leading role of the surgery method of the NET management. In 65.83 ± 4.33% of the patients a radical removal of the tumor was conducted, while the relative part of the undertaken partial resection was 7.50 ± 2.40%. A statistically significant association between the type of surgical treatment and during the follow-up of patients was found. An update of the information in the register will allow a more precise determining of the distribution and management of NET in Bulgaria.

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in women in some cities and regions of Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Stefan; Slavov, Victor; Slavova, Kremena

    2013-09-01

    This aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among women (aged 15-55 years) in four of the biggest cities and regions in Bulgaria (viz., Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, and Burgas), as well as in two other smaller cities (viz., Pleven and Vidin). Furthermore, study aimed to identify the prevalence of the 12 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in 2012, and to predict the benefits of a future national vaccination campaign for 12-year-old girls in Bulgaria. This HPV genotypes prevalence study covered 2,331,341 women from these cities and regions, representing 61.7% of the female population of Bulgaria. DNA-sorb-AM nucleic acid extraction kit was used to analyze the HPV status in cervical samples collected during a 4-year period (2008-2011) from 1,120 women aged 15-55 years (divided into four age groups) who had visited 47 gynecological clinics across the study sites. HR-HPV infections were confirmed in 435 (38.8%) of the women examined. The remaining 685 (61.2%) women were found to be HR-HPV negative. The most common genotype in all 435 infected women was HPV16, which was found in 200 women (46%), followed by HPV56 in 86 women (19.8%), HPV31 in 53 women (12.2%), and HPV33 in 50 women (11.5%). This is the first study to have established the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the larger Bulgarian regions and cities (including the capital), and to have drawn attention to the unusually high proportion of the different HR-HPV genotypes.

  16. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail.

    PubMed

    Mincheva, Yordanka; Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada

    2008-07-01

    A description of Xipinema pirinense n. sp. is provided. This is a parthenogenetic nematode found associated with Fragaria sp. and Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae) close to pine trees in the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria. The species is characterised by its medium body length (3.2-3.9 mm), rounded head region slightly demarcated by a shallow depression, long odontostyle (116-134.5 microm), tripartite uterus with a Z-differentiation consisting of 4-7 irregular moderately refractive bodies with a clear central part, and a digitate tail with a ventral peg. The new species is most similar to X. index Thorne & Allen, 1950 and X. diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939.

  17. Education of logopedists or speech-language pathologists in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and Russia.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of student training programs in logopedics in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and the Russian Federation. The data were collected using a special questionnaire developed by Söderpalm in 2006 and supplemented by the author. Bachelor's, master's and PhD programs in the field of pure logopedics no longer exist in some countries. In other locations, logopedics is included as a part of special education student training. In all cases, student education in logopedics is centralized in the universities. Educational programs are accredited by national agencies for accreditation or evaluation or by the respective Ministries of Education.

  18. Detection and characterization of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae originated in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Sabtcheva, Stefana; Ivanov, Ivan N; Todorova, Bozhana; Simeonov, Yordan; Dobreva, Elina; Ivanova, Krasimira; Velinov, Tzvetan; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2016-10-01

    We report the identification of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, causing peritonitis in a cancer patient admitted to the Oncology Hospital in Sofia. The isolate had reduced susceptibility to carbapenems but remained susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of blaOXA-48 gene flanked by two intact copies of IS1999 on truncated ΔTn1999.1. This transposon was located on unusual non-typeable 29-kb plasmid that could be transferred only by transformation. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) indicated the presence of the sequence type ST530.This is the first documented infection due to OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae strain in Bulgaria.

  19. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  20. Safety Assessment for the Kozloduy National Disposal Facility in Bulgaria - 13507

    SciTech Connect

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A.; Stefanova, I.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the early decommissioning of four Water-Water Energy Reactors (WWER) 440-V230 reactors at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near the city of Kozloduy in Bulgaria, large amounts of low and intermediate radioactive waste will arise much earlier than initially scheduled. In or-der to manage the radioactive waste from the early decommissioning, Bulgaria has intensified its efforts to provide a near surface disposal facility at Radiana with the required capacity. To this end, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium to provide the complete technical planning including the preparation of the Intermediate Safety Assessment Report. Preliminary results of operational and long-term safety show compliance with the Bulgarian regulatory requirements. The long-term calculations carried out for the Radiana site are also a good example of how analysis of safety assessment results can be used for iterative improvements of the assessment by pointing out uncertainties and areas of future investigations to reduce such uncertainties in regard to the potential radiological impact. The computer model used to estimate the long-term evolution of the future repository at Radiana predicted a maximum total annual dose for members of the critical group, which is carried to approximately 80 % by C-14 for a specific ingestion pathway. Based on this result and the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, existing uncertainties were evaluated and areas for reasonable future investigations to reduce these uncertainties were identified. (authors)

  1. Late Cretaceous UHP metamorphism recorded in kyanite-garnet schists from the Central Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, David; Savov, Ivan; Maneiro, Kathryn; Baxter, Ethan; Harvey, Jason; Dimitrov, Iliya

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the first discovery of microdiamond inclusions in kyanite-garnet schists from the Central Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria. These inclusions occur in garnets from metapelites that are part of a meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary mélange hosted by Variscan (Hercynian) orthogneiss. Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) conditions are further supported by the presence of exsolved needles of quartz and rutile in the garnet and by geothermobarometry estimates that suggest peak metamorphic temperatures of 750-800 °C and pressures in excess of 4 GPa. The discovery of UHP conditions in the Central Rhodopes of Bulgaria compliments the well-documented evidence for such conditions in the southernmost (Greek) part of the Rhodope Massif. Dating of garnets from these UHP metapelites (Chepelare Shear Zone) using Sm-Nd geochronology indicates a Late Cretaceous age (70.5-92.7 Ma) for the UHP metamorphic event. This is significantly younger than previously reported ages and suggests that the UHP conditions are associated with the Late Mesozoic subduction of the Vardar Ocean northward beneath the Moesian platform (Europe). The present-day structure of the RM is the result of a series of subduction-exhumation events that span the Cenozoic, alongside subsequent post-orogenic extension and metamorphic core complex formation.

  2. Aseptic meningitis outbreak caused by echovirus 30 in two regions in Bulgaria, May-August 2012.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Z; Buttinelli, G; Dikova, A; Stoyanova, A; Troyancheva, M; Komitova, R; Stoycheva, M; Pekova, L; Parmakova, K; Fiore, L

    2014-10-01

    An aseptic meningitis outbreak emerged in two regions in Bulgaria in 2012 and echovirus 30 (E30) was established as the aetiological agent by cell culture isolation, serological test, and molecular-based techniques. A total of 157 patients with aseptic meningitis were investigated, of which 117 were confirmed as having E30-associated disease. Molecular analysis of 12 E30 isolates revealed 99-100% nucleotide and amino-acid identity between them and a close correlation with a Greek strain involved in an E30 outbreak in 2012. Children aged 5-14 years were mainly affected, which could reflect the absence of E30 epidemics in Bulgaria for a period of 11 years. The first case with E30 isolation (a 2-year-old patient from Plovdiv) was notified at the end of April 2012. This was most likely the index case, from which the spread of the virus started, causing sporadic cases first, which later led to an aseptic meningitis outbreak facilitated by person-to-person viral transmission.

  3. Clonal dissemination of multilocus sequence type ST15 KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markovska, Rumyana; Stoeva, Temenuga; Schneider, Ines; Boyanova, Lyudmila; Popova, Valentina; Dacheva, Daniela; Kaneva, Radka; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitev, Vanyo; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    A total of 36 consecutive clinical and two fecal-screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two Bulgarian university hospitals (Varna and Pleven) were investigated. Susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid replicon typing were carried out. Beta-lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was investigated by RAPD and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Most of the isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance profile. Amikacin and tigecycline retained good activity with susceptibility rates of 95 and 87%, respectively. The resistance rate to colistin was 63%. Six RAPD- and MLST-types were identified: the dominating MLST-type was ST15 (27 isolates), followed by ST76 (six isolates), and ST1350 (two isolates). ST101, ST258, and ST151 were detected once. All except one of the K. pneumoniae produced KPC-2, mostly in combination with CTX-M-15, while for one isolate (ST101) the enzymes OXA-48 and CTX-M-14 were found. All KPC-2-producing transconjugants revealed the presence of IncFII plasmid. The OXA-48- and CTX-M-14-producing isolate showed the presence of L/M replicon type. The dissemination of KPC-2-producing K.pneumoniae in Bulgaria is mainly due to the sustained spread of successful ST15 clone and to a lesser extent of ST76 clone. This is the first report of OXA-48 producing ST101 K. pneumoniae in Bulgaria.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater macrophytes from the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Yurukova, L.; Kochev, K. )

    1994-08-01

    Man's impact on the environment has become global and presents an international problem. The selective ionic absorption by hydrophytes in littoral ecosystems may be used for indicating the chemistry of water medium and submersed soils. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the main species of aquatic macrophytes distributed in the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria. An evaluation of the anthropogenic contamination of this area will be made before the area is declared a protected locality. Aldomirovsko is one of the few inland swamps which is well preserved in Bulgaria. The swamp is situated to the northwest of Slivnica town, at the foot of the Tri Usi hills, around 650 m above sea level. It is of Karst origin. The area is about 2.5 km[sup 2]. The water capacity of the swamp varies throughout the year. Its depth decreases down to 1.10 m and is maintained by rainfall. The pH varies from 7.5 to 8.0. There is a considerable layer of silt at the bottom, with a pH of about 8.5. Thus far the swamp has been mainly a study area for floristic, faunistic, phytocoenological and ecological investigations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Mitev, M; Ilieva, K; Apostolov, T

    2009-07-01

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  6. Current Situation and Reforms Making Way for Future Positive Developments in the National Education System of Bulgaria: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper on the education system of Bulgaria is aimed at presenting its structure, current situation, problems and challenges that it faces, and on-going reforms leading to some positive trends in the development of the national education sector. At the moment of writing this paper in the year 2015, we will mark the 1160th anniversary of the…

  7. Slow Fires Still Burn: Results of a Preservation Assessment of Libraries in L'viv, Ukraine and Sofia, Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Brian J.; Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the threat of disintegration of library collections in East Central Europe focuses on a study of collection condition surveys and preservation operations of three major academic libraries in L'viv, Ukraine and Sofia, Bulgaria. Considers inferior materials used to produce most Slavic publications and inadequate facilities to house the…

  8. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  9. Intergenerational Communication Satisfaction and Age Boundaries in Bulgaria and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Christopher; Stoitsova, Tolya; Choi, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Bulgarian and American young adults’ perceptions of prior experiences of intergenerational communication. Irrespective of culture, as age of target increased from young adult to middle-aged and elderly adult, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, attributions of personal vitality and communication satisfaction decreased linearly. However, American youth reported more of a tendency to avoid, but expressed more respect when communicating with, older adults than their Bulgarian counterparts. In both settings, young adults’ avoidant communication with older people negatively, and the norm of politeness positively, predicted intergenerational communication satisfaction. In Bulgaria only, age stereotypes also predicted communication satisfaction whereas only in the USA was communicative respect a predictor. PMID:20393794

  10. Health hazards in the production and processing of some fibers, resins, and plastics in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Spassovski, M

    1976-10-01

    Results of the toxicological studies of working conditions, general and professional morbidity, and complex examinations carried out on workers engaged in the production of polyamides, polyacrylonitrile fibers, polyester fibers and poly (vinyl chloride) resin, urea-formaldehyde glue, glass fibre materials and polyurethane resins are given. An extremely high occupational hazard for workers in the production of poly (vinyl chloride) resin and porous materials from polyurethane resins and urea-formaldehyde glue has been established. Cases of vinyl chloride disease, poisoning from formaldehyde, isocyanates, and styrene were noted. Prophylactic measures were taken in Bulgaria to lessen the occupational hazard in the productions as set forth included limitation of the work day to 6 hr, free food, additional bonus and leave, and annual physical examinations of workers.

  11. Radioactive Releases Impact from Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Bulgaria into the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G. T.; Kuleff, I.; Tanev, N. T.; Delistoyanova, E. S.; Guentchev, T.

    2002-02-26

    The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the radioactive releases impact generated by Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), Bulgaria to the environment and public. The liquid releases presented are known as the so called controlled water discharges, that are generated after reprocessing of the inevitable accumulated liquid radioactive waste in the plant operation process. The radionuclides containing in the liquid releases are given in the paper as a result of systematic measuring. Database for radiation doses evaluation on the public around Kozloduy NPP site is developed using IAEA LADTAP computerized program. The computer code LADTAP represents realization of a model that evaluates the public dose as a result of NPP releases under normal operation conditions. The results of this evaluation were the basic licensing document for a new liquid release limit.

  12. Serotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in Bulgaria using the Lányi-Bergan combined scheme.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, P

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in hospitals in Bulgaria were serotyped according to the combined scheme of Lányi and Bergan, supplemented by Akatova and Smirnova and Homma, using agglutinating O-antisera prepared in the National Institute of Hygiene, Budapest. The most frequently encountered serogroup is O2 (29%) followed by O11 (28.5%), O6, O3, O10 etc. The results were compared with those obtained by using Difco antisera prepared according to Liu et al., and showed 96.5% coincidence. The strains were phage typed according to the scheme of Meitert and tested for antibiotic resistance to aminoglycosides (gentamicin, carbenicillin, tobramycin and amikacin). Phage groups 3 (3a and 3(3)) and 1 (1a) predominated. The strains exhibited sensitivity to amikacin (99%) and frequent resistance to gentamicin (45.8%, carbenicillin (40%) and tobramycin (28%). Subdivision of the serogroups into phage and resisto-types contributes to analysis of nosocomial infections.

  13. Pilot study of patient and phantom breast dose measurements in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramova-Cholakova, Simona; Vassileva, Jenia

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study of breast dose measurements on two mammography units in Bulgaria was conducted. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) to samples of approximately 60 women per unit were measured. MGD with a standard PMMA phantom was measured as well. The MGDs were calculated according to the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography as well as to the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening. The measured women's MGDs were divided into three groups depending on the compressed breast thicknesses. The results for the group of thicknesses in the interval 40-60 mm were compared with the results from the measurements on the standard 45 mm PMMA phantom. Some differences were found which could be due to errors in breast thickness measurements, differences in breast and phantom densities and other factors. A standardized procedure was elaborated for patient dose measurement and calculation both from patient and phantom studies.

  14. Supernumerary (B) chromosomes in populations of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. from Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria).

    PubMed

    Tashev, A N; Sedel'nikova, T S; Pimenov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on B chromosomes found for the first time for Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. have been conducted. Seeds of Picea abies from two populations of Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria) located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive were collected for this study. Mixoploidy was detected in some germinating seeds of Picea abies. It was found that metaphase cells of germinating seeds contain 0-4 B chromosomes of both metacentric and submetacentric types. The variability of B chromosomes number and their occurrence was observed. Along with B chromosomes, some chromosome aberrations such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of Picea abies from studied populations. The possible adaptive role of B chromosomes presence for Picea spp. is discussed.

  15. Formation conditions of paleovalley uranium deposits hosted in upper Eocene-lower Oligocene rocks of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Strelkova, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    The uranium deposits of Bulgaria related to the Late Alpine tectonomagmatic reactivation are subdivided into two groups: exogenic-epigenetic paleovalley deposits related to the basins filled with upper Eocene-lower Oligocene volcanic-sedimentary rocks and the hydrothermal deposits hosted in the coeval depressions. The geological and lithofacies conditions of their localization, the epigenetic alteration of rocks, mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium ore are exemplified in thoroughly studied paleovalley deposits of the Maritsa ore district. Argumentation of the genetic concepts providing insights into both sedimentation-diagenetic and exogenic-epigenetic mineralization with development of stratal oxidation zones is discussed. A new exfiltration model has been proposed to explain the origin of the aforementioned deposits on the basis of additional analysis with consideration of archival factual data and possible causes of specific ningyoite uranium ore composition.

  16. Parametric time-series analysis of daily air pollutants of city of Shumen, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Boyadzhiev, D.

    2012-10-01

    The urban air pollution is one of the main factors determining the ambient air quality, which affects on the human health and the environment. In this paper parametric time series models are obtained for studying the distribution over time of primary pollutants as sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and a secondary pollutant ground level ozon in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The methods of factor analysis and ARIMA are used to carry out the time series analysis based on hourly average data in 2011 and first quarter of 2012. The constructed models are applied for a short-term air pollution forecasting. The results are estimated on the basis of national and European regulation indices. The sources of pollutants in the region and their harmful effects on human health are also discussed.

  17. The use of GIS to support sustainable management of vineyards in Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Arnaudova, Zh; Bileva, T

    2011-01-01

    Vine is a traditional branch of plant growing in Bulgaria. The exact location of the vine culture is a specific complex of environmental factors influencing its development, such as climate, soil, landscape and traditions of the region. GIS is a platform to better manage, evaluate and present spatial data in a useful visual form. It's improves the decision-making by combining data with accurate location and management the vineyards. In the present survey were studied and analyzed the factors in choosing an appropriate location for the cultivation of vine varieties in selected regions of Plovdiv. Climatic and soil characteristics, topography and environmental factors as well as presence of virus vector nematodes from family Longidoridae in creating the vines through GIS spatial analysis are taken into account.

  18. Access of Roma to sexual and reproductive health services: qualitative findings from Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Manuela; Rechel, Bernd; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore access of Roma in South-Eastern Europe to sexual and reproductive health services. We conducted 7 focus group discussions with a total of 58 participants from Roma communities in Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia. Our study revealed a number of barriers for Roma when accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Among the most important were the overall lack of financial resources, requests by health care providers for informal payments, lack of health insurance and geographical barriers. Health systems in the region seem to have failed to provide financial protection and equitable services to one of the most vulnerable groups of society. There is also a need for overcoming racial discrimination, improving awareness and information and addressing gender inequalities.

  19. Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Petrov, Petar; Tchervenjakova, Tanja; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2015-03-01

    Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures. Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7 %), followed by noroviruses (19.4 %), enteric adenoviruses (7.5 %), astroviruses (6.0 %), bacteria and parasites (4.5 % each) and sapoviruses (1.4 %). Rotavirus predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (46.3 %) and G2P[4] (21.4 %); for astroviruses, type 1a was the most common, while the GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in five cases, with Salmonella sp. as the most prevalent, while parasites were found in ten stool samples, with Giardia intestinalis in five cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associated with viral infections and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with a temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains.

  20. Regulatory barriers to equity in a health system in transition: a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health reforms in Bulgaria have introduced major changes to the financing, delivery and regulation of health care. As in many other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, these included introducing general practice, establishing a health insurance system, reorganizing hospital services, and setting up new payment mechanisms for providers, including patient co-payments. Our study explored perceptions of regulatory barriers to equity in Bulgarian child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results The participants in our study reported a variety of regulatory barriers which undermined the principles of equity and, as far as the health insurance system is concerned, solidarity. These included non-participation in the compulsory health insurance system, informal payments, and charging user fees to exempted patients. The participants also reported seemingly unnecessary treatments in the growing private sector. These regulatory failures were associated with the fast pace of reforms, lack of consultation, inadequate public financing of the health system, a perceived "commercialization" of medicine, and weak enforcement of legislation. A recurrent theme from the interviews was the need for better information about patient rights and services covered by the health insurance system. Conclusions Regulatory barriers to equity and compliance in daily practice deserve more attention from policy-makers when embarking on health reforms. New financing sources and an increasing role of the private sector need to be accompanied by an appropriate and enforceable regulatory framework to control the behavior of health care providers and ensure equity in access to health services. PMID:21923930

  1. Budget impact of rare diseases: proposal for a theoretical framework based on evidence from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Iskrov, G; Jessop, E; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, T; Stefanov, R

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of rare disease (RD) drugs on Bulgaria's National Health Insurance Fund's (NHIF) total drug budget for 2011-2014. While standard budget impact analysis is usually used in a prospective way, assessing the impact of new health technologies on the health system's sustainability, we adopted a retrospective approach instead. Budget impact was quantified from a NHIF perspective. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse cost details, while dynamics was studied, using chain-linked growth rates (every period preceding the accounting period serves as a base). NHIF costs for RD therapies were expected to increase up to 74.5 million BGN in 2014 (7.8% of NHIF's total pharmaceutical expenditure). Greatest increase in cost per patient and number of patients treated was observed in conditions, for which there were newly approved for funding therapies. While simple cost drivers are well known - number of patients treated and mean cost per patient - in real-world settings these two factors are likely to depend on the availability and accessibility of effective innovative therapies. As RD were historically underdiagnosed, undertreated and underfunded in Bulgaria, improved access to RD drugs will inevitably lead to increasing budget burden for payers. Based on the evidence from this study, we propose a theoretical framework of a budget impact study for RD. First, a retrospective analysis could provide essential health policy insights in terms of impact on accessibility and population health, which are significant benchmarks in shaping funding decisions in healthcare. We suggest an interaction between the classical prospective BIA with the retrospective analysis in order to optimise health policy decision-making. Second, we recommend budget impact studies to focus on RD rather than orphan drugs (OD). In policy context, RD are the public health priority. OD are just one of the tools to address the complex issues of RD. Moreover, OD is a dynamic

  2. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    PLATIKANOVA, Magdalena; PENKOVA-RADICHEVA, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. Methods: A five year study (2009–2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Results: Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009–2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). Conclusion: The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies. PMID:27252921

  3. Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards

    PubMed Central

    Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Georgiev, Georgi; Seiler, Patrick; Darnell, Daniel; Franks, John; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    On March 15, 2010, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from the carcass of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) in Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analyses of the virus showed a close genetic relationship with influenza virus A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Tyva Republic and Mongolia during 2009–2010. Designated A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38WB/2010, this strain was highly pathogenic in chickens but had low pathogenicity in mice and ferrets and no molecular markers of increased pathogenicity in mammals. The establishment of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds in Europe would increase the likelihood of health threats to humans and poultry in the region. PMID:23017273

  4. Soon, later, or ever? The impact of anomie and social capital on fertility intentions in Bulgaria (2002) and Hungary (2001).

    PubMed

    Philipov, Dimiter; Spéder, Zsolt; Billari, Francesco C

    2006-11-01

    We use survey data from Bulgaria and Hungary to investigate the determinants of whether women intend to have a first or a second child and, if so, whether they intend to have the child within the ensuing 2 years or later. These determinants differ significantly by the order and timing of the intended birth. The variables used include measures of anomie and social capital and these appear to be among the factors that determine both whether to have a child and when. There is some evidence that these measures and economic factors are relatively more important in Bulgaria than in Hungary, and that ideational factors are more important in Hungary, particularly in the case of voluntary childlessness.

  5. Crop Monitoring Using SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 Time-Series Product for the Arable Land of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The objects of investigation are the major crops in Bulgaria (winter wheat, winter barley, sunflower and maize). The purpose of this paper is to 1) identify major crops using satellite data with low spatial resolution of 1000 m using agro-phenological information; 2) monitoring based on NDVI time-series values for the years 2007, 2008 and 2010, where anomaly events occur based on the information in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) agrometeorological monthly bulletins. The current paper shows the massive potential of using low spatial resolution satellite data in identfying crops and monitoring the development anomalies on crops. This research will contribute in applying and elaborating JRC MARS methodology in Bulgaria by using low resolution SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 satellite product.

  6. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  7. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  8. System of Earthquakes Alert (SEA) on the territory of Bulgaria developed as a result of DACEA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Dimitrova, Liliya; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Metodiev, Metodi

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of the natural disasters and the performing management of reactions to crisis are common problems for many countries. The Romania-Bulgaria border region is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both territories: on the one-hand, Vrancea seismic source, with intermediate-depth events and on the other hand, crustal seismicity recorded in the northern part of Bulgaria (Shabla, Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza). The general objective of DACEA (2010-2013) project is to develop an system of earthquake alert in order to prevent the natural disasters caused by earthquakes in the cross-border area, taking into account the nuclear power plants and other chemical plants located along the Danube on the territories of Romania and Bulgaria. An integrated warning system is designed and implemented in the cross-border area. A seismic detection network is put in operation in order to warn the bodies in charge with emergency situations management in case of seismic danger. The main purpose of this network is: • monitoring of the four seismogenic areas relevant for the cross-border area, in order to detect dangerous earthquakes • sending the seismic warning signals within several seconds to the local public authorities in the cross-border area On the territory of Bulgaria the seismic network belonging to SEA is consists of: • 8 seismic stations equipped with Basalt digitizer, accelerometer Epi-sensor and BB seismometer KS2000. • 8 seismic stations equipped with Basalt digitizer, accelerometer Epi-sensor, warning and visual monitoring equipment. The stations are spanned allover the North Bulgaria. The sites were thoroughly examined and the most important requirement was the low level of noise or vibrations. SEA centers were established both in Sofia (in National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography - NIGGG) and Bucharest (in National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics). Both centers are equipped with servers for data analyses

  9. Landscape change analysis and assessment (case studies in Slovakia and Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Jan; Kopecka, Monika; Vatseva, Rumiana; Stoimenov, Anton; Otahel, Jan; Betak, Juraj; Husar, Karol

    2009-03-01

    Landscape change assessment was conducted in selected areas of Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 using CORINE land cover (CLC) data layer analysis. Assessment of causes that led to these changes was undertaken, with an emphasis on those that determined the extensification of agriculture. The LC data were obtained under the CLC90 and I&CLC2000 projects, jointly managed by the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Denmark and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. The CLC1990-2000-changes data layer was generated by overlaying the CLC90 and CLC2000 data layers for change in areas of a minimum 5 ha. The analysed causes of changes (driving forces) were then classified. Land cover (LC) changes characterizing urbanization processes occurred only in the Trnava and Tatras areas. Intensification of agriculture was also higher in these two areas. LC changes characterizing the extensification of agriculture were dominant in Plovdiv and Trnava. Deforestation and forestation were identified in all areas (Trnava, Tatras, Plovdiv, and Burgas). The basic reasons of these changes were related to the transformation of national economies from being centrally planned to market controlled, following the fall of socialism and before the countries joined the European Union.

  10. Clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Almost one million new cases of gastric cancer were estimated to have occurred in 2012, making it the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death of people of both genders worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of some prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients treated at Aleksandrovska University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. This retrospective study includes patients diagnosed and treated at Department of Surgery of Aleksandrovska University Hospital for the 9-years period of time between January 2005 and December 2013. We classified the prognostic factors as patient-related (age at diagnosis specification, gender, and blood type), tumor-related (N-stage, tumor differentiation, process localization), and treatment related (patients who had radical surgery and adjuvant therapy). We found that blood type is the only statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival from the patients-related group of factors (p = 0.030). The only prognostic factor from the ones in the tumor related group remains the N-stage according to the TNM classification (p = 0.003). Adjuvant could not prove its value for overall survival (p = 0.675).

  11. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children < 15 years old. Vaccination status was available for 52% (n = 12,630) of cases. Of children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination.

  12. Soil tillage erosion estimated by using magnetism of soils--a case study from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Atanasova, Anna; Tsacheva, Tsenka; Petrov, Petar

    2011-12-01

    A detailed field and laboratory study on small 0.84-ha test site of agricultural land near Sofia (Bulgaria) has been carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods in soil erosion estimation in the particular case of strongly magnetic parent material. Field measurements of magnetic susceptibility were carried out with grid size of 6 m, resulting in 258 data points. Bulk soil material was gathered from 78 grid points. Natural, non-disturbed soil section was sampled near the agricultural field for reference profile of complete undisturbed soil. Surface susceptibility measurements reveal well-defined maxima down slope which, however, cannot be assigned directly to a certain depth interval, corresponding with susceptibilities along the non-disturbed soil profile. This is caused by the high magnetic susceptibility of the lithogenic coarse-grained magnetic fraction. Non-uniqueness is resolved by using magnetic susceptibility of coarse (1 mm > d > 63 μm) and fine (d < 63 μm) mechanical fractions and the parameter Δχ = 100*(χ (coarse) -χ (fine))/χ (bulk) (%). It shows increased values in the C-horizon of undisturbed soil profile, which corresponds to a certain part of the studied area. After the application of an empirical model to predict the values of magnetic parameter after tillage homogenization and removal of soil material from the surface, the amount of soil loss is estimated.

  13. Lunar cycle on an Eneolithic bone artifact from the town of Karnobat, Southeast Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Vesselina

    This article presents a well preserved bone artifact found in a prehistoric settlement mound near Karnobat, Bulgaria, and dated to the end of the V millennium BC. It has the shape of a shovel or shallow spoon with a short handle decorated with holes and notches (Figs.3,4). The author assumes that this is not a utilitarian object but rather a cultic one. It can be interpreted as both phallic shaped and as a stylized female figure. The total number of the holes and the long notches (31) is close to the number of days in a synodical lunar month: the notches on the "handle" can be used to count down the days in the waning and waxing moon phases, while the holes and the pits on the oval part correspond to the days around the full moon phase. The author brings out parallels from the Palaeolithic period in Ukraine (Fig. 5) and Italy (Fig. 6) with lunar calendar symbology on stylized anthropomorphic figures.

  14. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children < 15 years old. Vaccination status was available for 52% (n = 12,630) of cases. Of children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination. PMID:26967661

  15. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  16. Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au-Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field and petrographic study constrains the volcanic evolution and environment setting of the volcano-sedimentary-hosted Chelopech Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Bulgaria. Magmatic activity and associated high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization occurred at about 91 Ma in the Panagyurishte ore district of the Eastern European Banat-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity took place in a complex subaqueous setting, resulting in the intercalation of quartz sandstone with andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic breccia. There are also hypabyssal andesite intrusion, phreatomagmatic breccia and interbeds of pyroclastic, oolithic and bioclastic rocks. The presence of altered cerebroid ooid-bearing sedimentary units characteristic of salty environment is in accordance with a lagoon environment predating the mineralization at Chelopech. Four principal stages of evolution for the Chelopech district are proposed based on field and petrographic observations. Initial volcanism occurred in a lake or in a coastal, shallow lagoon environment above crystalline basement. The Chelopech "phreatomagmatic" breccia and subsurface andesites were emplaced at this time. Subsequent hydrothermal activity produced the different hydrothermal breccia types, advanced argillic and quartz-phyllic alteration, and Au-Cu vein and replacement mineralization. The end of volcanism and hydrothermal activity was associated with opening of a pull-apart basin that covered the Chelopech environment with a sedimentary flysch. Tertiary compression faulting juxtaposed various rocks and tilted the ore deposit during the Alpine orogeny.

  17. Antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative benthic bacteria isolated from the sediments of Kardzhali Dam (Bulgaria)

    PubMed Central

    Iliev, Ivan; Marhova, Mariana; Gochev, Velizar; Tsankova, Marinela; Trifonova, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a preliminary assessment for the occurrence of bacterial strains resistant to frequently used antibiotics in the sediments beneath the sturgeon cage farm in Kardzhali Dam (Bulgaria). Samples were taken from the top 2 cm of sediments under a fish farm and from a control station in the aquatory of the reservoir in the period July–October 2011. Surveillance of bacterial susceptibility to 16 antimicrobial agents was performed for 160 Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas mandelii – 100 strains; Hafnia alvei – 30 strains; and Raoultella ornithinolytica – 30 strains). No significant differences in the resistance to the tested antibiotics were observed between the strains isolated from the two stations (analysis of variance, P > 0.05). Widespread resistance to penicillins and certain cephalosporin antibiotics was observed in both stations. None of the studied strains showed resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics gentamicin and amikacin, or to ciprofloxacin. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were determined for five of the tested antimicrobial agents by the microdilution antibiotic sensitivity assay. The data indicate that amikacin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin effectively suppress the growth of the tested micro-organisms. The isolates from genus Pseudomonas showed the highest MIC and were characterized by the highest percentage of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26019641

  18. Phytoplankton abundance and structural parameters of the critically endangered protected area Vaya Lake (Bulgaria)

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Ralits; Nenova, Elena; Uzunov, Blagoy; Shishiniova, Maria; Stoyneva, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Vaya (Ramsar site, protected area and Natura 2000 site) is the biggest natural lake in Bulgaria and the shallowest Black Sea coastal lake, which during the last decades has undergone significant changes and was included as critically endangered in the Red List of Bulgarian Wetlands. Our studies were conducted during the summer and autumn months of three years – 2004–2006. The paper presents results on the phytoplankton abundance (numbers, biomass and carbon content) in combination with the indices of species diversity, evenness and dominance. Phytoplankton abundance was extremely high (average values of 1135 × 106 cells/L for the quantity and of 46 mg/L for the biomass) and increased in the end of the studied period (years 2005–2006), when decrease of species diversity and increase of the dominance index values were detected. The carbon content of the phytoplankton was at an average value of 9.7 mg/L and also increased from 2004 to 2006. Cyanoprokaryota dominated in the formation of the total carbon content of the phytoplankton, in its numbers (88%–97.8%), and in the biomass (62%–87.9%). All data on phytoplankton abundance and structural parameters in Vaya confirm the hypertrophic status of the lake and reflect the general negative trend in its development. PMID:26019571

  19. Psychotropic drugs in Bulgaria-frequency and risk of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Z; Doma, A; Petkova, V; Getov, I; Verkkunen, E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the frequency and risk of appearance of adverse drug reactions/ADRs/during the treatment with psychotropic drugs. The first part of the study is an analysis of the use of the psychotropic drugs for one-year period of time in our country, performed by DDD methodology. An attempt is made to equalize the Bulgarian list of the psychotropic drugs with the ATC classification and to estimate the DDD/1000/day. The data for Bulgaria is compared with that of the other countries. The collected data for the psychotropic drug use is divided into 2 groups: Psycholeptics and Psychoanaleptics. It is made an attempt to explain the main differences between them. The number of the standard therapeutic courses/NT/is used for assessment of the frequency and risk of ADRs. The results from the study show that the determined frequency of appearance of ADR for the different drugs is within "rare" and "very rare' for 100,000 inhabitants, according to the WHO terminology. Only for the drug Tardyl (EGIS Pharmaceuticals, Hungary) with INN Aminobarbitalum + Glutethimidum + Promethazini hydrochloridum the frequency is above 1%. That fact makes us to recommend a limitation of the prescription and usage of this drug to the Bulgarian Ministry of Health and to the National Drug Agency. PMID:12064062

  20. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees. PMID:26821353

  1. Public hearings for EIAs in post-communist Bulgaria: do they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Almer, Heather L.; Koontz, Tomas M

    2004-07-01

    The participatory practices required as part of the established systems of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practiced in the United States, Canada, Western Europe as well as several international agencies are more recent to the countries of Eastern Europe. The most common official forum for citizen participation in EIAs is the public hearing, which can provide important benefits. However, public hearings have been criticized as exhibiting several problems that preclude meaningful citizen input. This research explores three cases of public hearings held for EIA projects in Bulgaria. It argues that the public participation process and the public hearing in particular share the same problems that have been observed in other countries (including the United States and Canada). At the same time, however, Bulgarian public hearings do provide important indirect benefits that can contribute to the capacity for democratic governance and an active civil society. In the face of substantial economic obstacles and dramatic governmental reforms the country has endured since the end of communism, forums such as the public hearing are important means to foster institutional restructuring of a newly democratized country.

  2. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees.

  3. [Incidence study of endemic nephropathy among newcomers (immigrants) to endemic foci in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlov, T; Chantaliĭski, M

    1978-01-01

    The clinical-laboratory studies of 488 immigrants in 17 endemic settlements in Bulgaria are presented. The average age of the immigrants is 56 years and 31 years is the average duration of the sojourn in the endemic foci. From the total group of immigrants 30 per cent are "contact ímmigrants", i.e. immigrants that had lived together or are living at present with patients with endemic nephropathy or members of their families. The average duration of the sojourn of the contact immigrants in the endemic environment is the same as that of the whole group. Ten of the immigrants have come in their child-adolescent age into the endemic settlements. The average age of that group is 61 and the average duration of the sojourn in the endemic foci is 52 years. The following data are stressed upon: The total and renal morbidity of the immigrants in the endemic foci does not differ in structure from that of the country. No sufficient data are available about the existence of family domestic noxae or infections. No data indicating tumours in the urinary system were found in the immigrants examined. It is conculded that, at the stage of the examination, no definite data were established about the endemic nephropathy affection of the immigrants in the endemic foci which though indirectly support the genetic hypothesis of endemic nephropathy etiology. The dispensarization of the immigrants in the endemic foci favours the longitudinal examination which is the final aim of the authors.

  4. Diversity of human parechoviruses in Bulgaria, 2011: Detection of rare genotypes 8 and 10.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Dikova, Antoaneta; Thongprachum, Aksara; Petrov, Petar; Pekova, Liliq; Komitova, Radka; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections are commonly asymptomatic but are also found in association with symptoms of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, or central nervous system. In order to study their distribution and genetic diversity in Bulgaria, specimens from 229 children aged <5years old hospitalized due to neurological manifestations (n=104) and acute gastroenteritis (n=125) were analyzed. Stool samples were tested using reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction toward the 5'UTR region, and the HPeVs detected were identified by PCR directed to VP1 followed by sequencing. HPeV infection rates of 1.9% and 7.2% were found in children presented with neurological symptoms or with acute diarrhea, respectively. Four different HPeV genotypes, HPeV-3 (n=2), HPeV-5 (n=2), HPeV-8 (n=1) and HPeV-10 (n=1) were identified. All but two HPeVs were detected in acute diarrheal cases, while a single HPeV-3 strain and an HPeV-8 strain were detected in association with facial palsy and encephalitis, respectively. This is the first report of HPeV-8 and HPeV-10 in Europe. PMID:26453770

  5. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  6. LPHYS'14: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-18 July 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyev, Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS14) will be held from 14 July to 18 July 2014 in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Ramada Sofia Hotel hosted this year by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS14 continues a series of workshops that took place in Dubna,1992; Dubna/Volga river tour, 1993; New York, 1994; Moscow/Volga river tour (jointly with NATO SILAP Workshop), 1995; Moscow, 1996; Prague, 1997; Berlin, 1998; Budapest, 1999; Bordeaux, 2000; Moscow, 2001; Bratislava, 2002; Hamburg, 2003; Trieste, 2004; Kyoto, 2005; Lausanne, 2006; Len, 2007; Trondheim, 2008; Barcelona, 2009; Foz do Iguau, 2010; Sarajevo, 2011; Calgary, 2012 and Prague, 2013. The total number of participants this year is expected to be about 400. In the past, annual participation was typically from over 30 countries. 2014 Chairpersons Sanka Gateva (Bulgaria), Pavel Pashinin (Russia) LPHYS14 will offer eight scientific section seminars and one general symposium: Seminar 1 Modern Trends in Laser Physics Seminar 2 Strong Field and Attosecond Physics Seminar 3 Biophotonics Seminar 4 Physics of Lasers Seminar 5 Nonlinear Optics and Spectroscopy Seminar 6 Physics of Cold Trapped Atoms Seminar 7 Quantum Information Science Seminar 8 Fiber Optics Symposium Extreme Light Technologies, Science and Applications Abstract of your presentation A one-page abstract should contain: title; list of all co-authors (the name of the speaker underlined); affiliations; correspondence addresses including phone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses; and the text of the abstract. Abstracts should be sent to the following co-chairs of the scientific seminars and the symposium: Kirill A Prokhorov (Seminar 1) E-mail: cyrpro@gpi.ru Mikhail V Fedorov (Seminar 2) E-mail: fedorov@ran.gpi.ru Sergey A Gonchukov (Seminar 3) E-mail: gonchukov@mephi.ru Ivan A Shcherbakov (Seminar 4) E-mail: gbufetova@lsk.gpi.ru Vladimir A Makarov (Seminar 5) E-mail: makarov@msu.ilc.edu.ru Vyacheslav

  7. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  8. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  9. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  10. Distribution of radiocesium in soil and biomass of oak ecosystems in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovska, M.; Zhiyanski, M.; Bech, J.; Roca, N.; Slavtcheva, E.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium is characterized by a long-term impact on forest ecosystems determined by the fact that the isotope could be found in all compartments of these ecosystems. The forest vegetation has great capacity to catch radioactive deposits and to retain these deposits for a very long time. This study focuses on radiocaesium contamination, expressed in active concentration of the element (Bq.kg-1), in different compartments of the aboveground biomass (leaves, branches, bark and timber), in forest floor and in soil of representative oak forest ecosystems from the region of South Bulgaria affected by the Chernobyl accident (1986). The study shows that the radicaesium is mainly accumulated in bark of oak trees. The contamination of bark is 5 to 7 times higher than in other organs of studied trees. The highest contamination of bark is detected at distance of 1,3 m from the basis of the trunk (18-23 Bq.kg-1). In comparison with other organs of oaks the timber is low contaminated and the active concentration of caesium-137 varies from 0,8 to 1,5 Bq.kg-1. The presence of caesium in branches, leaves and timber, formed after 1986 shows that the main mechanism for contamination of trees is the root uptake. It is established that after Chernobyl accident 44% from Cs-137 in oak forest ecosystem is accumulated in forest floor layers and 30% in the superficial 0-5 cm of mineral soil. The peak in caesium-137 active concentration in forest floor has moved to the lower AoF layer. The major part of the Chernobyl radiocaesium accumulated in the topsoil is insoluble in water and its vertical migration in soil is very slow.

  11. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  12. [Effect of monensin (USA, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria) on fermentation of animal feed in an artificial rumen (Rusitec)].

    PubMed

    Jalc, D; Baran, M; Petkov, A I; Oblakov, N C; Enev, E I

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was made with the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec) in which the fermentation of a mixed ration of hay (12.8 g/d) and bruised barley (3.2 g/d) was compared with the fermentation of the same diet in the presence of 5 mg monensin/d from the USA, CSFR and Bulgaria. The fermentation of the mixed ration was significantly affected by all three kinds of monensin. The digestibility of dry matter (DM) in the rations declined in the presence of monensin from 48% to 40% (tab. I). The digestibility of detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose also declined in the presence of monensin (tab. I). The production of methane decreased (-70%) and CO2 production dropped too, but this decrease could be accounted for by the changes in the production of volatile fatty acids and redistribution of metabolic hydrogen (tab. I). Monensin decreased the production of total volatile fatty acids (-21%), the production of acetic (-35%), n-butyric, n-valeric and isovaleric acids (tab. II) and increased the production of propionic acid (+60%). The production, utilization and recovery of metabolic hydrogen were significantly increased in the presence of all three kinds of monensin (tab. IV). The end products of fermentation were affected by an addition of monensin to the mixed ration. All three kinds of monensin increased energic efficiency of volatile fatty acids, decreased adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) production, the amounts of fermented hexose, organic matter fermented and utilization of glucose (tab. III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641932

  13. Recovery of Hafnia alvei from diseased brown trout, Salmo trutta L., and healthy noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.), in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Orozova, P; Sirakov, I; Chikova, V; Popova, R; Al-Harbi, A H; Crumlish, M; Austin, B

    2014-10-01

    Hafnia alvei was isolated in Bulgaria from healthy noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.), and then from farmed diseased brown trout, Salmo trutta L., with signs of haemorrhagic septicaemia. The isolates were identified initially with conventional phenotyping and commercial Merlin Micronaut and API 20E rapid identification systems, followed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Hafnia alvei Bt1, Bt2 and Aa4 were of low virulence to rainbow trout and brown trout, although cytotoxicity was demonstrated by Bt1 and Bt2, but not by Aa4. PMID:24422558

  14. Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanka, Paskaleva; Mihaela, Kouteva; Franco, Vaccari; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2008-07-08

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

  15. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  16. A study on early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection, Bulgaria, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Todorova-Christova, M; Vacheva, R; Decheva, A; Nikolov, A; Slancheva, B; Stoichkova, D; Christova, E; Shopova, E; Hitrova, S; Masseva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, T S; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2014-09-01

    This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12.19 per 1000 live births. Maternal-fetal infection (MFI, a provisional clinical diagnosis in culture-proven colonized infants with initial signs of infection that is usually overcome with antibiotic treatment) and/or intrapartum asphyxia (IA) have been demonstrated as the most frequent clinical manifestations, with significant correlations for the primary diagnosis, but not affirmative for the final diagnosis at discharge, resulting from adequate treatment of neonates. MFI and IA were significantly related to prematurity, and reciprocally, prematurity was associated with the risk of MFI, indirectly suggesting that preterm birth or PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes, an obstetric indication associated with early labor and delivery, one of the major causes of preterm birth) is a substantial risk factor for EOGBSD. The regression analysis indicated that in the case of a newborn with MFI, a birth weight 593.58 g lower than the birth weight of an infant without this diagnosis might be expected. Testing the inverse relationship, i.e., the way birth weight influences a certain diagnosis (logistic regression) established the presence of a relationship between birth weight categories (degree of prematurity) and the diagnosis of MFI. The proportions and odds ratios, converted into probabilities that a baby would develop MFI, indicate the particularly high risk for newborns with extremely low and very low birth weight: extremely low birth weight (≤1000 g), the

  17. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Angelova, S.

    2010-01-21

    The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (mus-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  18. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  19. Criteria for Drug Reimbursement Decision-Making: An Emerging Public Health Challenge in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Iskrov, Georgi; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Background: During times of fiscal austerity, means of reimbursement decision-making are of particular interest for public health theory and practice. Introduction of advanced health technologies, growing health expenditures and increased public scrutiny over drug reimbursement decisions have pushed governments to consider mechanisms that promote the use of effective health technologies, while constraining costs. Aims: The study’s aim was to explore the current rationale of the drug reimbursement decision-making framework in Bulgaria. Our pilot research focused on one particular component of this process – the criteria used – because of the critical role that criteria are known to have in setting budgets and priorities in the field of public health. The analysis pursued two objectives: to identify important criteria relevant to drug reimbursement decision-making and to unveil relationships between theory and practice. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study was realized through a closed-ended survey on reimbursement criteria among four major public health stakeholders – medical professionals, patients, health authorities, and industry. Empirical outcomes were then cross-compared with the theoretical framework, as defined by current Bulgarian public health legislation. Analysis outlined what is done and what needs to be done in the field of public health reimbursement decision-making. Results: Bulgarian public health stakeholders agreed on 15 criteria to form a tentative optimal framework for drug reimbursement decision-making. The most apparent gap between the empirically found preferences and the official legislation is the lack of consideration for the strength of evidence in reimbursement decisions. Conclusion: Bulgarian policy makers need to address specific gaps, such as formal consideration for strength of evidence, explicit role of efficiency criteria, and means to effectively empower patient and citizen involvement in public health

  20. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  1. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  2. Bulgarian Modern Poetry [and] Dracula - Fact and Fiction, for a Western World Literature Class. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rang, Barbara L.

    This project developed two units for secondary students, one dealing with the modern poetry of Bulgaria and one with the legend of Dracula. The first unit includes poems, discussion questions, and a background essay. The second unit includes discussion materials largely based on Brian Stoker's novel "Dracula," and an historical essay on Vlad…

  3. Education and Turkish Communities in Bulgaria in the Years of Transformation (1989-2007): A Negotiated Formal Balance of Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliycheva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper on the education of the Turkish minority in Bulgaria in the years of transformation (1989-2007) aims to discuss the perceptions and experiences of minority members in schooling. After a succinct introduction into the historical development of minority education, the article focuses on research conducted among the Turkish communities in…

  4. Field-aligned currents onboard the Intercosmos Bulgaria-1300 satellite in comparison with modeled FAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danov, Dimitar

    2008-02-01

    Intercosmos Bulgaria-1300 satellite with three models: two empirical [Tsyganenko, N.A., 2001. A model of the near magnetosphere with a down-dusk asymetry (I. Mathematical structure). Journal of Geophysical Research 107(A8), doi:10.1029/2001JA000219; Weimer, D.R., 2005. Improved ionospheric electrodynamic models and application to calculating Joule heating rates. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, A05306, doi:10.1029/2004JA010884] and one computer-based MHD-simulation in "The Community Coordinated Modeling Center" (CCMC) [Toth, G., et al., 2005. Space weather modeling framework: a new tool for the space science community. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, A12226, doi:10.1029/2005JA011126]. We found that the position of the measured FAC is close to the positions predicted by the models, but the measured density can be greater than the model FAC densities. We discuss the possible reasons for the observed discrepancy between the measured and modeled FACs.

  5. Identifying extent of technogenous impact on the coastline of Bulgaria based on GIS methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancheva, Margarita; Palazov, Atanas; Peychev, Veselin; Stanchev, Hristo

    2010-05-01

    The Bulgarian Black Sea coast is about 412 km long, stretching between cape Sivriburun on the North and Rezovska River mouth on the South. At present, coastal erosion is a common process affecting 61% of the Bulgarian coast, while the sandy beaches comprise at least 30 %. Large number of coast-protection measures has been used to solve and manage the erosion/landslide problems, as most of these methods have involved "hard" stabilisation options such as: solid groins, dikes and seawalls. Design and construction of such protection structures has been increased in particular over the last few decades. About 217 technogenous objects have been indicated as port and coastal defence structures that currently constitute 17 % of the whole Bulgarian coastline. As a result, for a 50-year period (1960-2008) the amount of sediment material, incoming from cliff erosion, river solid discharge and wind-blown material has decreased from 4 979 700 Mg/y to 1 221 300 Mg/y. This in turn has provoked a reduction of sediment supply, sandy beach degradation and even occurrence of new erosion spots. Therefore, the major causes for progressive erosion along the Bulgarian coast could be mostly related to expanding human influence in terms of maritime constructions, dredging works and river corrections. The study is designed to trace the important issues of finding the extent of technogenous impact on the coastal zone of Bulgaria in order to delimitate the areas most influenced by coastline armouring. Topographic maps and GPS field survey data were used for identifying various types of port and coast-protection structures along the coastline. Data processing, mapping and analysis, as well as assessment of technogenous impact on the coastline were methodologically performed with tools of GIS ArcInfo 9.2. To evaluate the extent of anthropogenic influence on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast the coefficient of technogenous impact K was used, which serves for quantitative assessment of the impact of

  6. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    SciTech Connect

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I.

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Epidemiology of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in Bulgaria: a prospective, population-based surveillance study.

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharova, Mira; Gatcheva, Nina; Setchanova, Lena; Robertson, Susan E.; Wenger, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) among children in Bulgaria and to provide evidence for an informed decision on the use of Hib vaccines in Bulgaria. METHODS: From 1 July 1997 to 31 December 1999, active surveillance for meningitis was conducted in six regions. For children with suspected meningitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen was sent for cytology, chemistry, latex agglutination testing, culture and sensitivity. FINDINGS: During the 2.5-year study period, surveillance was conducted among 138 249 children aged <5 years - a sample representing 40% of all Bulgarian children in this age group. Overall, 285 children with suspected meningitis were identified. In eight children, clinical symptoms of meningitis resolved rapidly before a CSF specimen could be obtained. Of the remaining 277 children, 121 (44%) were classified as having probable bacterial meningitis on the basis of a CSF examination. An organism was identified for 88 (73%) of the 121 cases with probable bacterial meningitis. There were 21 cases of Hib, giving a mean annual incidence of 6.1 Hib meningitis cases per 100 000 children <5 years; the case-fatality rate was 10%. Nearly 60% of Hib isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, but they were not resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, Hib conjugate vaccines have been included in the list of vaccines recommended for children by the Bulgarian Ministry of Health. The recommended initial treatment for paediatric bacterial meningitis has been changed to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:12378285

  8. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age in primary care settings in Bulgaria: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiholova, Mayda; Gopala, Kusuma; Berberova, Magda; Strokova-Stoilova, Margarita; Tafalla, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) causes a high proportion of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among children under the age of five years old. This surveillance study was undertaken to study the incidence and severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in primary care settings in Bulgaria over a one-year period. Methods In this prospective, observational study of AGE cases in children under five years of age presenting in the primary care setting over a one year period, stool samples were collected and tested for RV using a rapid visual immunochromatographic test kit. After the first visit, parents monitored their child for about two weeks and reported the symptoms experienced by the child during the follow-up period to the physician in a follow-up phone call. The percentage of RVGE cases among AGE was calculated and the severity of AGE (according to the 20-point Vesikari scale) was assessed by the physician based on the symptoms reported by the parents. The seasonality of RVGE was also studied. Results The proportion of RVGE among the 624 AGE cases examined was 25.5%. Severe AGE was experienced by 81.8% RV-positive and 54.6% RV-negative children (p-value <0.001) and a third of all severe AGE cases occurred in RV-positive patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants of hospitalization indicated that severity of disease and RV-positivity were the statistically significant variables explaining hospitalization of AGE cases; even controlling for severity, RV-positive patients were more often hospitalized than RV-negative ones. RVGE cases occurred throughout the year, with peaks during August and September. Conclusion Our study emphasizes that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under five presenting in primary care settings in Bulgaria and a disproportionately high proportion of severe AGE cases may be attributed to RV infections. Trial registration number NCT01733849

  9. On space-time distribution of tornado events in Bulgaria (1956-2010) with brief analyses of two cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Petio; Bocheva, Lilia; Gospodinov, Ilian

    2013-04-01

    The first part of this study deals with the available information (date, time, location) of 57 thunderstorms with tornado or with waterspout (9 of which have evolved near the Black Sea coast and 4 are formed over dams). These are about all cases that have been reported in Bulgaria between 1956 and 2010. About half of all tornadoes (49%) that occurred in land are formed over mountainous or hilly terrain and usually move over the near river valleys. Almost all tornado events occur during the warm half of the year with maximum in June, when about 25% of all tornado storms take place. There are only 4 cases from the cold half of the year - 1 in December, 1 in February, and 2 in March. The second part of the paper gives some basic analysis of two severe thunderstorms, connected with the development of tornado events. The typical synoptic situation associated with the formation of a tornado is a slow-moving cold atmospheric front with meridional stretch. It should have bigger than usual temperature gradient between the cold and the warm air masses. A less common synoptic scale structure that leads to the formation of tornado is an upper-air summer low centred over the Black Sea. The first analysed storm is a “winter” case. The tornado occurred in South-central Bulgaria on 24 March 2004. The other one is a typical “summer” case. It occurred in the north-west of the country on 2 June 2009. The data and information that are used in these analyses come from classic meteorological observations, radar images, records from post-event in-situ field investigation as well as various media sources. The characteristics of these tornadoes give us reason to classify them as moderate (class F2 according to the Fujita scale).

  10. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age in primary care settings in Bulgaria: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiholova, Mayda; Gopala, Kusuma; Berberova, Magda; Strokova-Stoilova, Margarita; Tafalla, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) causes a high proportion of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among children under the age of five years old. This surveillance study was undertaken to study the incidence and severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in primary care settings in Bulgaria over a one-year period. Methods In this prospective, observational study of AGE cases in children under five years of age presenting in the primary care setting over a one year period, stool samples were collected and tested for RV using a rapid visual immunochromatographic test kit. After the first visit, parents monitored their child for about two weeks and reported the symptoms experienced by the child during the follow-up period to the physician in a follow-up phone call. The percentage of RVGE cases among AGE was calculated and the severity of AGE (according to the 20-point Vesikari scale) was assessed by the physician based on the symptoms reported by the parents. The seasonality of RVGE was also studied. Results The proportion of RVGE among the 624 AGE cases examined was 25.5%. Severe AGE was experienced by 81.8% RV-positive and 54.6% RV-negative children (p-value <0.001) and a third of all severe AGE cases occurred in RV-positive patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants of hospitalization indicated that severity of disease and RV-positivity were the statistically significant variables explaining hospitalization of AGE cases; even controlling for severity, RV-positive patients were more often hospitalized than RV-negative ones. RVGE cases occurred throughout the year, with peaks during August and September. Conclusion Our study emphasizes that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under five presenting in primary care settings in Bulgaria and a disproportionately high proportion of severe AGE cases may be attributed to RV infections. Trial registration number NCT01733849 PMID:27622162

  11. Innovative in-situ determination of unsaturated hydraulic properties in deep loess sediments in north-west Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Mallants, Dirk; Perko, Janez; Antonov, Dimitar; Karastanev, Doncho

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of selecting a suitable site for final disposal of low- and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LILW-SL) in Bulgaria, site characterization is ongoing at the Marichin Valog site, North-West Bulgaria. The site is characterized by a complex sequence of loess, clayey gravel, and clay layers, of which the first 30-40 m are unsaturated. Proper knowledge about unsaturated water flow and concomitant radionuclide transport is key input to safety assessment calculations. Constant-head infiltrometer tests were carried out at several meters below ground surface to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of silty loess, clayey loess, and clayey gravel layers. Individual infiltrometers were equipped with 0.5-m-long filter sections; the shallowest filter was from 2 to 2.5 m depth, whereas the deepest was from 9.5 to 10 m depth. Infiltration tests provided data on cumulative infiltration and progression of the wetting front in the initially unsaturated sediments surrounding the infiltrometer. A cylindrical time-domain reflectometry TRIME probe was used to measure water content variations with time during progression of the wetting front. Access tubes for the TRIME probe were installed at 0.3 to 0.5 m from the infiltrometer tubes. By means of an inverse optimization routine implemented in the finite element code HYDRUS-2D, field-scale soil hydraulic parameters were derived for all layers. Results show a great consistency in the optimized parameter values, although the test sites were several meters apart. Apparently the size of the affected volume of soil was large enough to reduce the effect of spatial variability and to produce average field-scale hydraulic parameters that are relevant for large-scale predictions of flow patterns and radionuclide migration pathways. (authors)

  12. The occurrence of five major Newcastle disease virus genotypes (II, IV, V, VI and VIIb) in Bulgaria between 1959 and 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Czeglédi, A.; Herczeg, J.; Hadjiev, G.; Doumanova, L.; Wehmann, E.; Lomniczi, B.

    2002-01-01

    Partial sequence and restriction enzyme cleavage site analyses of the fusion protein gene were used to genotype 47 Newcastle disease virus strains isolated between 1959 and 1996 in Bulgaria. Viruses belonged to five major genotypes that appeared to be associated with epizootics characterized by temporal and/or geographical restrictions. Genotype IV viruses (responsible for the European branch of the first panzootic) dominated the scene up to the early 1980s, interspersed with sporadic outbreaks caused by genotype II (US strains causing pneumoencephalitis) viruses. Genotype V viruses (transmitted by psittacines from South America) were first shown in 1973 and persisted until the late 1980s. Genotype VI (earliest members from the Middle-East 1968/70 outbreaks) was represented by scattered isolations between 1974 and 1996. A genotype VIIb (recent Middle East epizootic) virus was isolated as early as in 1984. Newcastle disease epizootics in Bulgaria were highlighted by multiple infection with more than one genotype at any one time. PMID:12558353

  13. Early traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Bulgaria: a joint analysis of marital and non-marital union formation, 1960-2004.

    PubMed

    Hoem, Jan M; Kostova, Dora

    2008-11-01

    We explore trends in first-union formation in Bulgaria from 1960, using data from the national Gender and Generations Survey of 2004. We analyse jointly the transition into cohabitation and directly into marriage. The standardized marriage rate falls dramatically from the early 1980s; the corresponding rate of entry into cohabitation has already increased from the early 1960s but (surprisingly) falls moderately toward the end of our period. Cohabitation also tends to last progressively longer in more recent periods. The analysis shows that a pregnancy leads to a dramatic increase in the rate of both kinds of union formation: the increase is by a factor of almost 20 for marriage formation and about 10 for entry into cohabitation, ceteris paribus. Our findings suggest that, in Bulgaria at least, some manifestations of the Second Demographic Transition can be detected as early as the 1980s. PMID:18937141

  14. Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Storms: Missed Opportunities and Continuing Development (case studies from USA and Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Robert; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Peek, Katie; Coburn, Andrew; Griffith, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Over the last several years, there have been significant discussions within the global scientific and coastal zone management communities about the need to adapt to the realities of long-term sea level rise and to make coastal development more "resilient" to hazards and climate change. With all of the talk, publications, and recognition of the problem, you would think that we had made significant progress, but this is not the case. Once again, the USA has experienced the impact of a significant coastal storm, Hurricane Sandy. There were initially some serious post-Sandy discussions regarding the need to ensure that we simply don't "just put everything back were it was." Almost a year later, there have been few substantive moves to relocate property away from coastal hazards or to change the footprint of vulnerable coastal communities. This is particularly true of coastal resort communities in New York and New Jersey. Some communities have initiated large-scale efforts to elevate (in situ) infrastructure and private property. Raising buildings is only a workable solution if you also commit to holding all the beaches in place . . . forever. This is what the federal government has done for New Jersey and New York. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers will be spending upward of US5 billion on shore protection projects following Hurricane Sandy. The vast majority of these funds will be spent pumping sand onto beaches from Delaware to Connecticut. The amount of sand they will move is staggering, approaching 25 to 35 million cubic meters. This is an adaptation model that cannot be exported to the rest of the USA. Nor can it be maintained for an extended period of time. Along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria the risk of storms is not as great as that of the US East Coast, but long-term sea level rise is still a threat. In Bulgaria, most coastal development problems occur simply because people continue to build in areas that are too close to the coast or in very high hazard

  15. Isotopic characterisation of lead in contaminated soils from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Jeffrey R; Dinev, Nikolai S

    2005-03-01

    Soil samples from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria contained very high concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc (up to 140, 4900 and 5900 mg kg(-1), respectively). A roadside soil in a relatively uncontaminated area also contained high concentrations of the same metals (24, 1550 and 1870 mg kg(-1), respectively) indicating that the transport of ores could be a source of contamination. Even though the lead isotope ratios in all the samples fell within a very narrow range (for example, 1.186-1.195 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb), the samples could be differentiated into three distinct groups: ores ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of 1.1874-1.1884 and 2.4755-2.4807, respectively), current deposition (1.1864 and 2.4704-2.4711, respectively) and local background (1.1927-1.1951 and 2.4772-2.4809, respectively). Although most of the current deposition has its origin in the ores used at the smelter, up to 12% could be from other sources such as petrol lead.

  16. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Martos, Rocío; Pujadas-Salvà, Antonio J.; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Stoyanov, Kiril; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms. PMID:25143963

  17. A Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruit Bodies of Bulgaria inquinans (Fries) and Its Anti-Malarial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hongtao; Han, Han; Li, Zonghong; Ni, Weihua; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Tingting; Hao, Miao; Zhou, Yifa

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BIWS-4b) was purified from the fruit bodies of Bulgaria inquinans (Fries). It is composed of mannose (27.2%), glucose (15.5%) and galactose (57.3%). Its molecular weight was estimated to be 7.4 kDa (polydispersity index, Mw/Mn: 1.35). Structural analyses indicated that BIWS-4b mainly contains (1 → 6)-linked, (1 → 5)-linked and (1 → 5,6)-linked β-Galf units; (1 → 4)-linked and non-reducing terminal β-Glcp units; and (1 → 2)-linked, (1 → 6)-linked, (1 → 2,6)-linked and non-reducing terminal α-Manp units. When examined by the 4-day method and in a prophylactic assay in mice, BIWS-4b exhibited markedly suppressive activity against malaria while enhancing the activity of artesunate. Immunological tests indicated that BIWS-4b significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis and splenic lymphocyte proliferation in malaria-bearing mice and normal mice. The anti-malarial activity of BIWS-4b might be intermediated by enhancing immune competence and restoring artesunate-suppressed immune function. Thus, BIWS-4b is a potential adjuvant of anti-malaria drugs. PMID:21785644

  18. Comparative analysis of therapeutic efficiency and costs (experience in Bulgaria) of oral antidiabetic therapies based on glitazones and gliptins.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Elena Pavlova; Uzunova, Katya Hristova; Vekov, Toni Yonkov

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a serious, chronic, progressive and widespread disease. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed initial therapy, but combination with other antidiabetic agents usually becomes necessary due to the progression of the disease. Pioglitazone is recommended as a second-line therapy because of its strong antihyperglycemic effect and its ability to reduce insulin resistance. Treatment with pioglitazone is associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular complications and hypoglycemia, while simultaneously improving the lipid profile and the symptomatic and histological changes in the liver. Gliptins (sitagliptin and vildagliptin) are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs which reduce glycated hemoglobin by a different mechanism. Although the efficacy of sitagliptin and vildagliptin is close to that of pioglitazone, the lack of long-term safety data and the higher price question their predominant use. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of mono- and combination therapy with pioglitazone in comparison with gliptins and to underline the inconsistencies in the medicinal and reimbursement policy in Bulgaria. PMID:26288659

  19. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies.

  20. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the southern Moesian platform and Balkan-Forebalken regions of northern Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M. ); Georgiev, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The major tectonic elements of northern Bulgaria are the east-west-trending Balkan-Forebalkan fold belt and the Moesian platform. Moderate hydrocarbon exploration potential exists in trapping geometries generated during the tectonic evolution of the region coupled with reservoir/seal pairs and source rocks within Mesozoic strata. The tectonic evolution of the region includes Early Triassic to Early Jurassic intracratonic rifting followed by multiphase compression that contracted the rift basin and produced a north vergent fold and thrust belt along the southern margin of the stable Moesian platform. Compression began during the Early Cretaceous, continued during the Paleocene, and concluded during the middle Eocene. Trap types generated during the tectonic evolution include normal fault-bounded rotated blocks in the autochthonous section and elongate, asymmetric anticlines in the allochthonous section. Triassic to Upper Jurassic Marine facies were deposited in an east-west-trending rift. Sediments deposited in a shallow foredeep, which evolved during Lower cretaceous compression, overlay the rift sequence. The Early Mesozoic rift sequence provides the depositional settings for Middle Triassic and lower Middle Jurassic source rock shales and sandstone/carbonate reservoirs ranging from Middle Triassic to Lower Cretaceous. Carbonate reservoirs generally are porous dolomites with intercrystalline, moldic, and vugular pore types interbedded with nonporous limestones. Clastic reservoirs are quartz-rich sandstones with pore types that are reduced intergranular, dissolution, and microporosity. These heterogeneous reservoir targets exhibit poor to good reservoir characteristics and are overlain with sealing lithologies of variable thicknesses.

  1. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Rechel, Boika; Blackburn, Clare M; Spencer, Nick J; Rechel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion. PMID:19566936

  2. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies. PMID:27241843

  3. Insights into epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 and detection of an unusual genotype 2 variant, Bulgaria, 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka Krumova; Mihneva, Zafira Georgieva; Toshev, Andon Krumov; Kovaleva, Valentina Pavlova; Andonova, Lubena Georgieva; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the role of human parvovirus В19 (B19V) as an aetiological agent in measles and rubella negative fever/rash patients from Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. A total of 1,266 sera from all over the country were tested for B19V IgM antibodies and all positives were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 280 sera (22%) were B19V IgM positive and 227 of these (81%) were also PCR positive. The highest number of IgM positives was found among five to nine year-old children (27%). Eight infected women gave birth to healthy children; one fetus was aborted with hydrops fetalis. Of the 55 genetic sequences obtained, 54 belonged to genotype 1a and one grouped as a genotype 2 outlier. Phylogenetic analysis of all available genotype 2 sequences covering the 994 nucleotide non-structural protein 1(NS1)/capsid viral protein 1 (VP1) unique region junction, showed that only one other sequence grouped with the outlier strain, forming a clearly distinct and well-supported cluster of genotype 2 (between-group genetic distance: 3.32%). In accordance with B19V nomenclature, this cluster may represent a new subgenotype 2b. The study showed that B19V infections may be falsely identified as rubella or measles in ca 22% of cases, emphasising the need for laboratory confirmation. PMID:26847955

  4. Reconstruction of the transmission history of RNA virus outbreaks using full genome sequences: foot-and-mouth disease virus in Bulgaria in 2011.

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Normann, Preben; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef M; Georgiev, Georgi K; Özyörük, Fuat; Sumption, Keith J; Belsham, Graham J; King, Donald P

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool

  5. Predictors of Patients’ Satisfaction with Health Care Services in Three Balkan Countries (Macedonia, Bulgaria and Serbia): a Cross Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevik, Vladimir; Kasapinov, Blasko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ satisfaction with provided healthcare services is one of the factors to measure the overall quality of the delivered health care. Main objective of our study was to determine the common predictors associated with patients ‘satisfaction in three Balkan countries. Methods: We conducted web based survey among population in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria using paid campaign over the social network Facebook. A questionnaire consisted of 31 questions was developed following studies on patients’ satisfaction conducted elsewhere. Descriptive analysis was performed to assess the predictors associated with patients’ satisfaction. In addition we performed content analysis to all open-ended responses. Results and discussion: In total 4118 respondents participated in the survey. Main predictors associated with low users satisfaction with the health care services in three surveyed countries are waiting time to appointments, huge administrative procedures, and attitudes of the medical personnel towards the patients. The analysis showed that there are many similarities in user experiences in three countries, but also there are some differences. Conclusions: The health care systems in these three counties are organized around centralized and monopolistic position of one health insurance fund that serves as main purchaser of health care services. Top three indicators of patients’ satisfaction across three countries are trust and overall satisfaction with the attention of the doctors, as well as satisfaction with the outcome of the treatment. Long waiting time and huge administrative procedures are determined as common predictor for lower patients’ satisfaction across these Balkan countries. Patients’ privacy protection is issue for concern in all three countries. PMID:25870493

  6. Chemical homogenization by fluid-present deformation in chromitites: An example from Golyamo Kamenyane chromitites, SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsukawa, T.; Piazolo, S.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Colás, V.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Gervilla, F.; Fanlo, I.

    2014-12-01

    Chromite is one of the main reservoirs of chromium in the Earth, and is an essential important accessory mineral in upper mantle peridotites preserved in ophiolites. Generally, chromite is better preserved than silicates of the host peridotitic rocks, because it is more resistant to fluid-related processes; this has led to the widespread use of chromitites to track the evolution of Earth's mantle convection. Deformed chromitites enclosed in serpentinized peridotites of Golyamo Kamenyane massif in SE Bulgaria have been studied as an example of chemical homogenization by deformation during metamorphism. Theses chromitites were affected by amphibolite-facies metamorphism and reacted with low fO2 fluids and subsequent oxidizing Fe3+-rich fluids (~ 1.0 GPa and 500-700ºC)(Gervilla et al., 2012). Here, we describe the details of how the microstructure was produced in chromite, showing the important role of deformation during metamorphism. They show porphyroclastic texture with coarse-grained porphyroclast (0.1 ~ 5 mm) and fine-grained neoblasts (> 100μm). Coarse-grained chromites show chemically zoned feature from core to rim, which preserve the initial igneous character, while at the rim a metamorphic signature is detectable. Our study using electron back-scattered diffraction reveals significant crystal-plastic deformation, such as inter-crystalline deformation defined by low-angle boundaries in the rim areas. Fine-grained chromites, both recrystallized and nucleated grains have higher Fe3+ and Cr and lower Mg# value compare to the core of coarse-grained chromites, which indicate that the fine- grained aggregates of chromite formed by both subgrain rotation and nucleation occurred in the presence of oxidizing fluids. Overall, deformation in a chemically distinct environment produced chemical homogenization of chromite.

  7. Asynchronous timing of extension and basin formation in the South Rhodope core complex, SW Bulgaria, and northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Drost, Kerstin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Böhme, Madelaine; Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Upper crustal extensional structures range from steep normal faults to shallow-dipping detachments. The relationship between extension and formation of synkinematic hanging wall basins including their relative timing is not well understood. The South Rhodope core complex, Southern Balkans, has experienced extension for >40 Ma leading to a number of extensional structures and Cenozoic sedimentary basins. We present new bedrock and basin detrital zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Pirin and Rila Mountains and the Sandanski basin. Results identify three episodes of Cenozoic extension in SW Bulgaria accommodated by (1) the Eocene/Oligocene Mesta detachment; (2) the early to middle Miocene Gorno Spanchevo fault (circa 18-15 Ma), which is the northern prolongation of the Strymon low-angle detachment; and (3) the late Miocene West Pirin fault (≤10 Ma). Detachment faulting on the Strymon fault accommodated tens of kilometers of ENE-WSW extension and created ~1500 m topographic relief, but because the resulting hillslopes were gentle (≤10°), extension did not lead to enhanced footwall erosion or formation of a hanging wall basin. In contrast, the West Pirin normal fault resulted in mostly vertical motion of its footwall causing steep topography, rapid erosion, and formation of the synrift Sandanski basin. Digital topographic analysis of river channel profiles identifies the latest episodes of deformation including westward tilting of the Sandanski and Strymon basins and Quaternary N-S extension. This study demonstrates that basin formation in the South Rhodope core complex is related to normal faulting postdating the main episode of crustal stretching by detachment faulting.

  8. Monitoring of acid-base status of workers at a methyl methacrylate and polymethyl methacrylate production plant in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Prakova, Gospodinka R

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out on 104 workers at three work operations and a control (nonproduction) area, within a methyl methacrylate (MMA)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) production facility in Bulgaria. Airborne monitoring was conducted over a 10-year period for MMA and the reactant chemicals methanol and acetone cyanhydrine at the MMA operation, and MMA was monitored at the PMMA operation. Acid-base status of the workers was evaluated using traditional criteria (pH, pCO(2), pO(2), and HCO(3) in plasma). Data from retrospective monitoring of air levels of the chemicals were compared with the acid-base status of workers at the plant. In some cases air concentrations exceeded the threshold limit value, with the highest percentage of overexposure occurring with airborne MMA in the PMMA production operation. Acid-base disruption indicated by reductions in plasma pH and HCO(3) was found for all groups except the control population. The highest percentage reduction was associated with PMMA production workers. Additionally, respiratory acidosis, indicated by increased pCO(2), was noted in the MMA production and maintenance groups, implying that the response to MMA exposure may involve both the metabolic and respiratory acidosis component. This study was unique in that the combined exposure to MMA and the precursor chemical (methanol) were shown to produce the same effects in workers. It is suggested that when combined exposure occurs, disruption of acid-base status may occur. Enforcement of PPM requirements for coveralls and gloves should prevent skin contamination. Additionally, improvement of equipment in MMA and PMMA production areas is recommended: (1) automation of some manual operations; (2) use of respiratory protection during equipment cleaning; and (3) installation of local ventilation when applicable.

  9. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Peneva, Vlada K.; Lazarova, Stela S.; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 μm); lip region wide (21.5–24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30–37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96–120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  10. Probe experiment for measurement of plasma parameters and ion drift velocities in the ionospheric plasma onboard the Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimov, K.; Bankov, L.; Gusheva, M.; Ivanova, T.; Markov, V.; Chapkunov, S.; Kutiev, I.; Genov, V.

    In agreement with the scientific program Bulgaria-1300, a complex of probe instruments was designed for the measurements equipment: ID-1, P-6, P-7 and DIET-2 to define the local plasma parameters. The instruments measure: electron temperature Te, electron density Ne, ion temperature Ti, ion density Ni, ion energy distribution f(E j), mass ion composition Mi, complete ion drift vector V D 0.1 to 5 km/s and ion density variations ΔN j/N j within the range 0.50-100%.

  11. An historical overview of the activities in the field of exposure and risk assessment of non-ionizing radiation in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The exposure and risk evaluation process in Bulgaria concerning non-ionizing radiation health and safety started in the early 1970s. Then, the first research laboratory "Electromagnetic fields in the working environment" was founded in the framework of the Centre of Hygiene, belonging to the Medical Academy, Sofia. The main activities were connected with developing legislation, new equipment for measurement of electromagnetic fields, new methods for measurement and exposure assessment, in vivo and human studies for developing methods, studying the effect of non-ionizing radiation on human body, developing exposure limits. Most of the occupations as metal industry, plastic welding, energetics, physiotherapy, broadcasting, telephone stations, computer industry, etc., have been covered by epidemiological investigations and risk evaluation. In 1986, the ANSI standard for safe use of lasers has been implemented as national legislation that gave the start for studies in the field of risk assessment concerning the use of lasers in industry and medicine. The environmental exposure studies started in 1991 following the very fast implementation of the telecommunication technologies. Now, funds for research are very insignificant, and studies in the field of risk assessment are very few. Nevertheless, Bulgaria has been an active member of the WHO International EMF Project, since 1997, and that gives good opportunity for collaboration with other Member states, and for implementation of new approach in the EMF policy for workers and people's protection against non-ionizing radiation exposure.

  12. Treatment of Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis in Patients from the Southeastern Rhodope Region of Bulgaria in 2004-2013: Comparison of Current Practices with Expert Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Muhtarov, Marin; Rainova, Iskra; Tamarozzi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a clinically complex chronic parasitic disease, management options for which include surgery, percutaneous treatments, and treatment with albendazole (ABZ) for active cysts, and the "Watch-and-Wait" approach for uncomplicated, inactive cysts. We examined, retrospectively, the clinical management of 334 patients with hepatic CE from the southeastern Rhodope region of Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. Cysts were reclassified according to the World Health Organization Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO-IWGE) on the basis of ultrasound reports and images. The majority (62.3%) of uncomplicated cysts were CE1, 66% of which were treated surgically. Of all interventions, 5% were performed on inactive uncomplicated CE4-CE5 cysts. About half (47.6%) of these cysts were therefore treated inappropriately, exposing patients to unnecessary treatment-related risks and the health system to unnecessary costs. No management change was observed after the publication of the WHO-IWGE Expert Consensus recommendations in 2010. In Bulgaria, ABZ is still used in interrupted cycles as this is reimbursed, and peri-interventional chemoprophylaxis was not administered in the majority of surgical patients. Efforts are needed to introduce the WHO-IWGE classification and management recommendations and to encourage reception of state-of-the-art practices by public health regulatory bodies to improve patient quality of care and optimization of health resources. PMID:26834196

  13. Crop Investigation Using High-Resolution Worldview-1 and Quickbird-2 Satellite Images on a Test Site in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The paper aims to investigate the capabilities of using high-resolution satellite images: panchromatic WorldView-1 satellite image acquired on 30/11/2011 and multispectral QuickBird-2 satellite image acquired on 31/05/2009 for crop analysis, which includes crop identification, crop condition assessment and crop area estimates applications in Bulgaria using the power and flexibility of ERDAS IMAGINE tools. The crop identification was accomplished using unsupervised and supervised classification processing techniques using as reference ground data. After the supervised classification, fuzzy convolution filter was applied to reduce the mixed pixels using ERDAS Imagine software. Accuracy totals, error matrix and kappa statistics were calculated using accuracy assessment tool in ERDAS Imagine to assess the quality of the classification process. Crop condition assessment was accomplished using the derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image from the QuickBird-2 image, which was reclassified and was given meaningful estimations on the crop condition. Crop area was estimated using pixel counting approach. Pixel counting methods are known for introducing bias to the crop area estimates but using the high Overall Accuracy of 90.86% and overall Kappa Statistics of 0.8538 for the classified QuickBird-2 image and Overall Accuracy of 86.71% and overall Kappa Statistics of 0.7721% for the classified WorldView-1 allows that option to be utilized according to (Gallego, 2004). As a conclusion it can be stated that using the benefits that high-resolution satellite images gives in combination with the power and flexibility of ERDAS Imagine tools, crop identification can be achieved more accurately by increasing the identification accuracy and also by having the necessary ground information for selecting appropriate training samples. Crop identification by applying an arable mask is better practice, because it is reducing the mixed pixels problem i.e. also known as

  14. Diversification of Higher Education. Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Relationship between General Education, Vocational Training, and Further Training in Higher Education (Sofia, Bulgaria, November 30-December 2, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education in Europe, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of an international symposium on the relationship between general education, vocational training, and further training held in Bulgaria in 1987 are presented. The 20 papers fall under three headings: (1) Overview, including: "Problems Concerning the Linkage Between General and Vocational Education and Higher Education" (I.…

  15. Supplement to the Study on the Structures of the Education and Initial Training Systems in the European Union. The Situation in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This document consists of six reports that each provide essential basic information on the organization of the education system of one of the following countries as of 1995-1996: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Each report includes information on some or all of the following aspects of the given country's initial…

  16. Planned Parenthood in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Stoimenov, G

    1976-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Bulgarian birthrate has decreased from 42.2/1000 in 1900 to 14.0/1000 in 1966. By 1974, it had risen slightly to 17/1000. In 1975 the Family Development Council became an associate member of International Planned Parenthood Federation. Almost all Bulgarian births occur in hospitals; about 85% of pregnant women receive early prenatal care; and planned parenthood consultation is available free as part of the public health service. Th e cost of contraceptives and abortion, which is legal, are minimal. Studies show that the desired family size is 2.2 and completed family size 1.8. Planned parenthood is regarded as an important element in the government demographic policy, which is clearly pronatalist. Many organizations cooperate with the government in enabling families to plan their number of children.

  17. Risk Methodologies for Technological Legacies : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Bourgas, Bulgaria from 2 to 11 May 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, Dennis C.; Droppo, James G.; Eremenko, Vitaly A.

    2003-05-01

    The Cold War Era left the major participants, the United States and the former Soviet Union (FSU), with large environmental legacies in terms of facility contamination and environmental degradation. Although the countries face similar issues from similar activities, important differences in waste management practices make the potential environmental and health risks of more immediate concern in the FSU and Eastern Europe. In the West, most nuclear and chemical waste is stored in known contained locations, while in the East much of the equivalent material is unconfined, contaminating the environment. The knowledge and experiences of the U.S. in these initial cleanup efforts are seen as important information in many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Partner countries, where the environmental problems are more severe and the cleanup budgets more limited. An Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on ''Risk Assessment Activities for the Cold War Facilities and Environmental Legacies'' was held in Bourgas, Bulgaria, May 2-11, 2000. The objective of the ASI was to provide information to facilitate and enable decision-making activities affecting the environment and human populations in the NATO and Partner countries. Specifically, the ASI provided a forum to communicate the current status of risk analysis and management methodologies and their appropriate application. It addressed scientific approaches and application experiences from the initial U.S. risk assessment activities. This book is the product of the ASI. The power of the text lies in linking information on legacies with an integrated view of controlling the risk of those legacies. Risk can only be effectively controlled by proper balance of three central concepts: risk analysis, risk perception, and risk management. The editors were drawn together by the joint recognition that risk analysis methods had matured over the past 30 years in several fields, relatively independent of each other. It was time to

  18. Colloidal origin of colloform-banded textures in the Paleogene low-sulfidation Khan Krum gold deposit, SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Irina; Ganev, Valentin; Titorenkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    We studied both colloform-banded macro- and micro-textures as well as the composition of electrum from the epithermal Khan Krum (or Ada Tepe) gold deposit, Bulgaria (5 Mt at 5.1 g/t Au + 2.7 g/t Ag) using optical and electron scanning microscopy, vibration spectroscopy, electron micro-probe analysis, and LA-ICP-MS. The individual textural bands differ in grain size, porosity, quartz-to-adularia ratio, and abundance of electrum, pyrite, and scattered dusty opaque micro-inclusions. The individual macro-bands have formed successively via intermittent fault dilation from episodic hydrothermal pulses, as a result of regional extension and most likely originated from colloidal solutions formed by vigorous boiling during rapid pressure drop and supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica in a closed or quasi-closed hydrothermal system. Electrum is highly concentrated in the finest quartz-adularia colloform micro-bands, which fill joints with widths up to 1-2 mm. We presume that the joints have filled in with more concentrated colloidal solutions than those in the macro-bands, most likely due to extreme boiling of fluids in open or quasi-open hydrothermal system. Electrum in the micro-bands forms transverse dendrite- and chain-like aggregates as well as oval clots along the banding, all of globular morphology. We explain these locations of electrum with reorientation of aggregated electrum globules during plastic deformation of a mixed electrum-silicate gel and in result from the consequent crystallization of silicates. At the same time, electrum is not present in pores and cracks of syneresis, which indicates that it had not been a soluble phase at the time of syneresis, rather colloidal particles. Electrum also forms dense sprinkles of globular morphology deposited in open space on the surfaces of some quartz-adularia bands, due to a condensation of gaseous phase, separated during the boiling of fluids. We found that the electrum-rich quartz-adularia micro

  19. U-Pb zircon isotope system in mingled and mixed magmas:an example from Central Srednogorie, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peytcheva, I.; von Quadt, A.

    2003-04-01

    Mingling and mixing of granitic and gabbroic magma occur often in volcanic-arc and postcollisional geodynamic environments. Good opportunities for studying the different stages of reaction of the two magmas provide the Srednogorie zone in Bulgaria -- elongated belt of intensive Late Cretaceous magmatic activity and related important Cu-Au-Mo ore-deposits. Present study concentrate on the behavior of the U-Pb-zircon isotope system in mingled and mixed magmas. Zircons are separated from plutons of southern part of Central Srednogorie. According to Ivanov et al. (2001) the plutons show characteristics of layered intrusions (Wiebe &Collins, 1998): their lower parts consist of crystal rich phase porphyry granodiorites, and the upper ones -- of felsic, crystal poor phase granites. Between these two not entirely crystallized parts sheet-like gabbro or gabbro-diorites bodies are intruded. Boshulya pluton represents the middle levels of the complex. Samples are collected from outcrops with sharp contact between gabbro and granodiorite and from mingled/mixed layers. The granodiorite contains concordant zircons, three of them determining a mean 206Pb/238U age of 84.6 ± 0.3 Ma. Abraded grains point to contamination of the Cretaceous magma with crustal material of different age -- Early Paleozoic (?) and older one. Calculated initial (87Sr/86Sr)T-90Ma ratio is 0.70577. Three types of accessory zircons are distinguished in the gabbro. Brown zircons are prevailing in the sample. They show negligible lead inheritance and lead loses and only for the concordant two grains a mean 206Pb/238U age of 82.16 ± 0.10 Ma is calculated. Milky zircons are about 25% in the sample and for 3 concordant grains a mean 206Pb/238U value of 85.0 ± 0.5 Ma is determined. Colorless sparkle zircons from the small size fractions give an upper intercept age of 442.7 ± 8.3 Ma. The e-HfT-440Ma of 0.85 to 1.20 suggest the hosting gneisses of the metamorphic fundament or the lower crust as possible source

  20. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (< 800m) of metagabbroic rocks underlined by Cambro-Ordovician metasediments. Petrostructural observations on metagabbroic rocks coupled with mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono

  1. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs.

  2. Detachment vs. normal faulting: Diachronous Cenozoic extension and rift basin formation in the Southern Balkans (Pirin Mts. and Sandanski basin, SW Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Böhme, Madelaine; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Balkans are a landscape of basins and ranges formed by more than 40 Ma of extension in thickened post-collisional crust and above the retreating Hellenic trench. One of the best-studied extensional systems in the Southern Balkans is the South Rhodope core complex in northern Greece and southern Bulgaria, which records multiple stages of detachment faulting, including the Miocene Strymon detachment. Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary basins are associated with stages of extension. We present new (U-Th)/He thermochronology ages from bedrock samples of the Pirin mountains and detrital samples of the adjacent Sandanski basin, SW Bulgaria. In combination with sediment paleomagnetic ages, structural data, and geomorphic analyses, our results document two episodes of Eocene/Oligocene and early to middle Miocene detachment faulting that were probably not associated with significant relief or basin development. In contrast, the Sandanski basin formed in the late Miocene (10-6 Ma) above the West Pirin and Melnik normal faults. Late Miocene E-W extension resulted in uplift of the Pirin Mts. and the development of a mountain landscape similar to the modern topography. In the Quaternary, the stress field switched to N-S extension reflected in E-W trending faults and Quaternary basins and recorded by river profiles. Our results advance our understanding of extension processes in the Southern Balkans in general and yield first constraints on the Neogene evolution of topography in the Southern Balkans with important implications on the evolution of regional climate and on Neogene paleoecology. Our study also documents a dichotomy between low-relief detachment faulting and steeply dipping normal faulting associated with relief and basin development.

  3. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs. PMID:26152413

  4. Widespread detection of VEB-1-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among nosocomial ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Sofia, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Strateva, T; Ouzounova-Raykova, V; Markova, B; Todorova, A; Marteva-Proevska, Y; Mitov, I

    2007-04-01

    A total of 132 ceftazidime-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected during 2001-2005 from 5 university hospitals in Sofia, Bulgaria to assess the current levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and to evaluate resistance mechanisms to beta-lactams. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were detected by a disk diffusion method and E-test. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of bla(VEB-1 )and bla(PER-1 )were performed. The antibiotic resistance rates were: to piperacillin 90.2%, piperacillin/tazobactam 52.3%, ceftazidime 94.7%, cefepime 88.6%, cefpirome 98.5%, aztreonam 85.6%, imipenem 66.6%, meropenem 63.6%, amikacin 81.1%, gentamicin 84.8%, tobramycin 89.4%, netilmicin 57.6%, ciprofloxacin 83.4%. Structural genes for VEB-1 extended-spectrum beta -lactamases (ESBLs) were found in 75 (56.8%) of the isolates. PER-1 ESBLs were not detected. The VEB-1-producing strains were more resistant than VEB-1 non-producers to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin ( P<0.001). VEB-1 appears to have a significant presence among ceftazidime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Sofia.

  5. Study of anthropogenic and natural impacts on archaeological sites of the Volga Bulgaria period (Republic of Tatarstan) using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Sitdikov, A. G.; Usmanov, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the possibility of using remote sensing data for determining various negative factors affecting archaeological objects condition on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications, were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. In our view, the analysis of medieval Volga Bulgars (X-XIII centuries A.D.), the most common in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, has the highest priority. The first task by using remote sensing was to obtain actual data on the current condition of archaeological monuments located on the Kuibyshev reservoir shore, where the threat of destruction is maximized. Due to the fact, that most of the Volga-Bulgaria settlements, is located on the small rivers banks, the second task was geomorphological description of monuments placement in order to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. Third objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. Ancient settlements under different types of negative impact were selected for the study. Deciphering of multitemporal remote sensing data allowed to assess the objects condition and to predict the risk of further damage. Additionally, it made able to correct the form of the Bulgars hillforts in comparison with existing plans, as well their size and location in the landscape, to restore the original appearance of destroyed fortified settlements, to determine precise coordinates for the further use of these data in the archaeological geographic information systems.

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected. PMID:26894493

  7. High-Risk Sexual Behavior, HIV/STD Prevalence, and Risk Predictors in the Social Networks of Young Roma (Gypsy) Men in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Kabakchieva, Elena; Antonova, Radostina; Vassileva, Sylvia; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Vassilev, Boyan; Petrova, Elena; Khoursine, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Roma (Gypsies), the largest and most disadvantaged ethnic minority group in Europe, are believed to be vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. This study’s aim was to examine HIV risk in 6 Roma male sociocentric networks (n=405 men) in Bulgaria. Methods Participants were interviewed concerning their risk practices and tested for HIV/STDs. Results High-risk sexual behaviors were common. Over 57% of men had multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months. Over one-third of men reported both male and female partners in the past year. Condom use was low. Greater levels of sexual risk were associated with lower intentions and self-efficacy for using condoms, drug use, having male partners, knowing HIV-positive persons, and having higher AIDS knowledge but no prior HIV testing. Two men had HIV infection, 3.7% gonorrhea, and 5.2% chlamydia. Discussion HIV prevention interventions directed toward high-risk social networks of Roma are needed before HIV infection becomes more widely established. PMID:22370730

  8. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylaxridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko M; Mehterov, Nikolay H; Popgeorgiev, Georgi S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to present data that show the seasonal changes (spring-summer-autumn) of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters (ЕL: Erythrocyte length, ЕW: Erythrocyte width, ЕL/ЕW, ES: Erythrocyte size; NL: Nucleus length, NW: Nucleus width, NL/NW; NS: Nucleus size, NS/ES: Nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio) in Pelophylax ridibundus populations from three biotopes located on two rivers in Southern Bulgaria (less disrupted biotope, with domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). Differences of high statistical significance were found among the different populations. Within the population living in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, for the entire period of the investigation the erythrocytes and their nuclei had an elliptical shape (a slight elongation of ellipses in autumn) and the biggest sizes (EL, EW, ES, NL and NS were constantly higher than the less disrupted biotope), NS/ES, became significantly smaller in autumn. Throughout the period of investigation, the values of all nine cellular and nuclear parameters were statistically-significantly the lowest in the population from the biotope with heavy metal pollution. The parameters: EL, ЕW, NL, NW and ES became significantly lower, progressively and statistically, during seasonal transitions. Cells and nuclei grew ovular in shape in comparison to the populations from the other two biotopes (this process was most pronounced in autumn) and NS/ES numbers were significantly decreased in summer and autumn.

  9. Increased detection of G3P[9] and G6P[9] rotavirus strains in hospitalized children with acute diarrhea in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Nawaz, Sameena; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus severe disease in children is now vaccine-preventable and the roll-out of vaccination programs globally is expected to make a significant impact in the reduction of morbidity and mortality in children <5 years of age. Rotavirus is also a pathogen of other mammals and birds, and its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human population via interspecies transmission and reassortment events. Despite the efficacy and impact of rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe diarrhea, the correlates of protection remain largely unknown. Therefore, rotavirus strain surveillance before, during and after the introduction of immunization programs remains a crucial for monitoring rotavirus vaccine efficacy and impact. In this context, molecular characterization of 1323 Bulgarian rotavirus strains collected between June 2010 and May 2013 was performed. A total of 17 strains of interest were analyzed by partial sequence analysis. Twelve strains were characterized as G3P[9] and G6P[9] of potential animal origin. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with the same specificity strains detected sporadically between 2006 and 2010 revealed the constant circulation of these unusual human strains in Bulgaria, although in low prevalence, and their increased potential for person-to-person spread.

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected.

  11. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylaxridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko M; Mehterov, Nikolay H; Popgeorgiev, Georgi S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to present data that show the seasonal changes (spring-summer-autumn) of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters (ЕL: Erythrocyte length, ЕW: Erythrocyte width, ЕL/ЕW, ES: Erythrocyte size; NL: Nucleus length, NW: Nucleus width, NL/NW; NS: Nucleus size, NS/ES: Nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio) in Pelophylax ridibundus populations from three biotopes located on two rivers in Southern Bulgaria (less disrupted biotope, with domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). Differences of high statistical significance were found among the different populations. Within the population living in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, for the entire period of the investigation the erythrocytes and their nuclei had an elliptical shape (a slight elongation of ellipses in autumn) and the biggest sizes (EL, EW, ES, NL and NS were constantly higher than the less disrupted biotope), NS/ES, became significantly smaller in autumn. Throughout the period of investigation, the values of all nine cellular and nuclear parameters were statistically-significantly the lowest in the population from the biotope with heavy metal pollution. The parameters: EL, ЕW, NL, NW and ES became significantly lower, progressively and statistically, during seasonal transitions. Cells and nuclei grew ovular in shape in comparison to the populations from the other two biotopes (this process was most pronounced in autumn) and NS/ES numbers were significantly decreased in summer and autumn. PMID:26606180

  12. The Maritsa strike-slip shear zone between Kostenets and Krichim towns, South Bulgaria — Structural, petrographic and isotope geochronology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht; Sarov, Stoyan; Kolcheva, Krastina; Dimov, Dimo

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the characteristics of the Maritsa Shear Zone (MSZ), a major tectonic element in the Balkanides in South Central Bulgaria. Metamorphic rocks of four lithotectonic units — Madan, Chepinska, Asenitsa and Thrace units crop out in the study area. Strike-slip ductile deformation in MSZ affects the Thrace Lithotectonic Unit (TLU) for up to 15 km. The stratigraphy of this unit is divided in two: Parvenets succession and variegated succession. U-Pb zircon dating reveals Late Jurassic protolith age for metagranitoids and metagabbros of the variegated succession. For its metasedimentary part Triassic to Upper Jurassic age is suggested based on the strontium isotope signature of the marbles. The Parvenets succession affiliates to the Variscan metamorphic basement of Europe. The metamorphic evolution of the zone is subdivided into synmetamorphic strike-slip deformations and annealing stages. The ductile shearing occurred in greenschist to lower amphibolite facies between 130 Ma (discordant U-Pb ages) and 82-78 Ma (late-syntectonic granites). This stage is connected with the oblique collision of the Rhodope Late Jurassic arc with the European platform. With the docking of the arc and the triggering of the strike-slip movements, MSZ represents an orogen-scale border between the Rhodope south-vergent thrust complex and the north-vergent deformations in the Srednogorie and Sakar-Strandzha zones. During the Late Cretaceous MSZ is the contact between the Srednogorie magmatic arc (part of the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Belt) and the Rhodopean metamorphic core complexes. NW-SE dextral faulting characterized the brittle tectonics along the zone. Strike-slip faults of the southern border of the TLU are transferred into reverse faults, along which the TLU overthrusted Oligocene sediments. MSZ is an orogen-scale transpressional shear zone and an important border in the structure of the Balkanides. This multidisciplinary research emphasizes its role as a

  13. Stroke in urban and rural populations in north-east Bulgaria: incidence and case fatality findings from a 'hot pursuit' study

    PubMed Central

    Powles, John; Kirov, Philip; Feschieva, Nevijana; Stanoev, Marin; Atanasova, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    Background Bulgaria's official stroke mortality rates are higher for rural than urban areas. Official mortality data has indicated that these rates are amongst the highest in Europe. There has been a lack of studies measuring stroke incidence in urban and rural populations. Methods We established intensive notification networks covering 37791 residents in Varna city and 18656 residents (55% of them village-dwellers), all aged 45 to 84, in 2 rural districts. From May 1, 2000 to April 30, 2001 frequent contact was maintained with notifiers and death registrations were scanned regularly. Suspected incident strokes were assessed by study neurologists within a median of 8 days from onset. Results 742 events were referred for neurological assessment and 351 of these, which met the WHO criteria for stroke, were in persons aged 45 to 84 and were first ever in a lifetime. Incidence rates, standardised using the world standard weights for ages 45 to 84, were 909 (/100000/year) (95% CI 712–1105) and 597 (482–712) for rural and urban males and 667 (515–818) and 322 (248–395) for rural and urban females. Less than half were admitted to hospital (15% among rural females over 65). Twenty-eight day case fatality was 35% (123/351) overall and 48% (46/96) in village residents. The excess case fatality in the villages could not be explained by age or severity. Conclusions Rural incidence rates were over twice those reported for western populations but the rate for urban females was similar to other western rates. The high level and marked heterogeneity in both stroke incidence and case fatality merit further investigation. PMID:12323079

  14. Subionospheric VLF/LF radio waves propagation characteristics before, during and after the Sofia, Bulgaria Mw=5.6 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Nenovski, Petko; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. On May 22nd, 2012 an earthquake with Mw=567 occurred in Bulgaria, near Sofia, inside the "sensitive" area of the INFREP VLF/LF electromagnetic network. The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May 2012 were studied using different methods of analysis: daily correlation methods, spectral approaches and terminator time techniques, in order to find out possible connections between the seismic activity and the subionospheric propagation properties of radio waves. The studies were performed with the help of a specially designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed (spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass). JTFA spectrograms (Cone-Shaped Distribution CSD, Gabor, Wavelet, short-time Fourier transform STFT, Wigner-Ville Distribution WVD, Choi-Williams Distribution CWD) are used, too.

  15. High-precision Pb isotopic measurements of teeth and environmental samples from Sofia (Bulgaria): insights for regional lead sources and possible pathways to the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, George D.

    2008-08-01

    High-precision Pb isotopic measurements on teeth and possible sources in a given area can provide important insights for the lead (Pb) sources and pathways in the human body. Pb isotopic analyses on soils from the area of Sofia, Bulgaria show that Pb is contributed by three end-members represented by two natural sources and leaded gasoline. Sequential leaching experiments reveal that the alumosilicate fraction of the soils is mainly controlled by natural Pb derived from two mountain massifs bordering the city. Around 1/3 to a half of the Pb in the soil leachates, however, can be explained by contamination from leaded gasoline. Contemporary teeth from Sofia residents show very similar Pb isotopic compositions to the soil leachates, also indicating that around 1/3 to a half of the Pb can be explained by derivation from leaded gasoline. The remarkable isotopic similarities between the teeth and the most labile fractions of the local soils suggest that the lead can be derived from the latter. Pb incorporation in the human body via soil-plant-human or soil-plant-animal-human chains is unlikely due to the fact that no significant farming occurs in the city area. The isotopic compositions of the local soil labile fractions can be used as approximation of the bioaccessible lead for humans. Considering all possible scenarios it appears that soil and/or soil-born dust inhalation and/or ingestion is the most probable pathway for incorporation of local soil lead in the local population. The high-precision Pb isotope data presented in this work indicate that apparently the local soil is what plays major role in the human Pb exposure.

  16. Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: the example of Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever.

  17. Teaching of Geometry in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankov, Kiril

    2013-01-01

    Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…

  18. Chemical composition and varieties of fahlore-group minerals from Oligocene mineralization in the Rhodope area, Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repstock, Alexander; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Zeug, Manuela; Melfos, Vasilios; Zhai, Mingguo; Li, Hongzhong; Kartal, Tamara; Matuszczak, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Fahlore-group minerals in Oligocene magmatic-hydrothermal deposits from the central and eastern Rhodope area, Bulgaria and Greece (e.g. porphyry-epithermal systems at Pagoni Rachi, Maronia and Kassiteres-Sapes, polymetallic epithermal high- and intermediate-sulfidation veins at Kirki, Perama Hill, Mavrokoryfi, Pefka, Zvezdel-Pcheloyad and Madzharovo, skarn-carbonate replacement deposits at Laki, Davidkovo, Madan, Enyovche and intrusion-related deposits at Kimmeria), cover the whole range of the tetrahedrite-tennantite solid solution series and are dominated by zincian and ferroan varieties reflecting deposition from Zn-(and Fe)-rich fluids. The majority of the studied fahlores are "normal" fully-substituted with Cu (+Ag) close to 10 apfu. However, high-sulfidation epithermal deposits in Greece contain "Cu-excess" tetrahedrite-tennantite; those with extreme high Cu-excess > Fe + Zn occur in transitional high- to intermediate-sulfidation systems, whereas low "Cu-excess" tetrahedrite-tennantite with Zn > Cu-excess + Fe and Fe > Cu-excess + Zn are part of tellurides-bearing intermediate-sulfidation assemblages. The epithermal St. Demetrios and Pefka deposits display the most Cu-rich tetrahedrites (11.039 apfu Cu) and tennantite (11.784 apfu Cu) worldwide. Although Ag substitutes for Cu in the structure of Ag-rich tetrahedrite in several deposits, freibergite with 6.800 apfu Ag occurs only at Mavrokoryfi; in particular, the cadmian freibergite at Mavrokoryfi is the second finding of this variety worldwide. Tellurium-bearing fahlore varieties occur in association with enargite/luzonite and native gold in high-sulfidation ore assemblages. Tetravalent tellurium substitutes for trivalent As and Sb in goldfieldite and Te-rich tennantite and tetrahedrite at Mavrokoryfi, Perama Hill, St. Demetrios and Pefka deposits. Goldfieldite at Mavrokoryfi and Perama Hill is remarkably Te-rich (up to 3.766 apfu and 3.711 apfu Te, respectively), with total metal content of 10.591 apfu and

  19. Application of low-temperature thermochronology to hydrothermal ore deposits: Formation, preservation and exhumation of epithermal gold systems from the Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, István; Moritz, Robert; Spikings, Richard

    2010-03-01

    New low-temperature thermochronological data have been used to quantify the protracted, Eocene-Miocene cooling histories of upper and lower plate rocks of the Kesebir-Kardamos extensional dome, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria. 40Ar/ 39Ar and apatite fission-track data reveal that the lower plate has experienced continuous cooling and exhumation, since the Late Eocene. Muscovite 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of 36.90 ± 0.16 Ma and 37.28 ± 0.19 Ma (2 σ) from metamorphic rocks of the footwall reveal the approximate time span during which they cooled below ˜ 350 °C during exhumation caused by detachment faulting. The sedimentary rock-hosted gold mineralization, which represents a thermal event at ˜ 250-220 °C, developed during the early stage of basin formation between 34.71 ± 0.16 Ma and 35.36 ± 0.21 Ma (adularia 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages; 2 σ). The termination of hydrothermal mineral deposition at Ada Tepe occurred contemporaneously with the earliest phase of calc-alkaline type magmatism at Iran Tepe (33.97 ± 0.36 Ma to 34.62 ± 0.46 Ma, hornblende and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages, 2 σ). Thermal history modelling of apatite fission-track data shows that the lower plate rocks cooled through ˜ 120 °C at ˜ 18.3 ± 1.9 Ma (1 σ). A time-temperature model obtained from zircon and apatite fission-track data from the upper plate reveals that it was being buried during the late Eocene. At ˜ 33-30 Ma, a dramatic change of the time-temperature path was caused by the initiation of horst-graben structures, resulting in rapid exhumation of the upper plate. Our new thermochronological data reveal many aspects of the mechanisms of formation of sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits. The heat accumulated during sedimentary burial of the upper plate is a plausible heat source to drive hydrothermal fluid circulation and ore formation. The development of large half-graben basins in the hanging walls of detachment faults, accompanied by a favourable climate, may have created a

  20. Petrology, geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of magmatic rocks from the high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2007-10-01

    The Chelopech deposit is one of the largest European gold deposits and is located 60 km east of Sofia, within the northern part of the Panagyurishte mineral district. It lies within the Banat-Srednegorie metallogenic belt, which extends from Romania through Serbia to Bulgaria. The magmatic rocks define a typical calc-alkaline suite. The magmatic rocks surrounding the Chelopech deposit have been affected by propylitic, quartz-sericite, and advanced argillic alteration, but the igneous textures have been preserved. Alteration processes have resulted in leaching of Na2O, CaO, P2O5, and Sr and enrichment in K2O and Rb. Trace element variation diagrams are typical of subduction-related volcanism, with negative anomalies in high field strength elements (HFSE) and light element, lithophile elements. HFSE and rare earth elements were relatively immobile during the hydrothermal alteration related to ore formation. Based on immobile element classification diagrams, the magmatic rocks are andesitic to dacitic in compositions. Single zircon grains, from three different magmatic rocks spanning the time of the Chelopech magmatism, were dated by high-precision U-Pb geochronology. Zircons of an altered andesitic body, which has been thrust over the deposit, yield a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 92.21 ± 0.21 Ma. This age is interpreted as the crystallization age and the maximum age for magmatism at Chelopech. Zircon analyses of a dacitic dome-like body, which crops out to the north of the Chelopech deposit, give a mean 206Pb/238U age of 91.95 ± 0.28 Ma. Zircons of the andesitic hypabyssal body hosting the high-sulfidation mineralization and overprinted by hydrothermal alteration give a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 91.45 ± 0.15 Ma. This age is interpreted as the intrusion age of the andesite and as the maximum age of the Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit. 176Hf/177Hf isotope ratios of zircons from the Chelopech magmatic rocks, together with published data on the

  1. Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte District, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht; Chiaradia, Massimo; Peytcheva, Irena; Fontignie, Denis; Ramboz, Claire; Bogdanov, Kamen

    2009-08-01

    Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa represents the best example of paired porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au deposits within the Late Cretaceous Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic and metallogenic belt of Eastern Europe. The two deposits are part of the NW trending Panagyurishte magmato-tectonic corridor of central Bulgaria. The deposits were formed along the SW flank of the Elshitsa volcano-intrusive complex and are spatially associated with N110-120-trending hypabyssal and subvolcanic bodies of granodioritic composition. At Elshitsa, more than ten lenticular to columnar massive ore bodies are discordant with respect to the host rock and are structurally controlled. A particular feature of the mineralization is the overprinting of an early stage high-sulfidation mineral assemblage (pyrite ± enargite ± covellite ± goldfieldite) by an intermediate-sulfidation paragenesis with a characteristic Cu-Bi-Te-Pb-Zn signature forming the main economic parts of the ore bodies. The two stages of mineralization produced two compositionally different types of ores—massive pyrite and copper-pyrite bodies. Vlaykov Vruh shares features with typical porphyry Cu systems. Their common geological and structural setting, ore-forming processes, and paragenesis, as well as the observed alteration and geochemical lateral and vertical zonation, allow us to interpret the Elshitsa and Vlaykov Vruh deposits as the deep part of a high-sulfidation epithermal system and its spatially and genetically related porphyry Cu counterpart, respectively. The magmatic-hydrothermal system at Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa produced much smaller deposits than similar complexes in the northern part of the Panagyurishte district (Chelopech, Elatsite, Assarel). Magma chemistry and isotopic signature are some of the main differences between the northern and southern parts of the district. Major and trace element geochemistry of the Elshitsa magmatic complex are indicative for the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of

  2. Late Cretaceous structural control and Alpine overprint of the high-sulfidation Cu-Au epithermal Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie belt, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit is located in the Panagyurishte ore district in Bulgaria, which is defined by a NNW alignment of Upper Cretaceous porphyry-Cu and Cu-Au epithermal deposits, and forms part of the Eastern European Banat-Srednogorie belt. Detailed structural mapping and drillcore descriptions have been used to define the structural evolution of the Chelopech deposit from the Late Cretaceous to the present. The Chelopech deposit is characterized by three fault populations including ˜N55, ˜N110, and ˜N155-trending faults, which are also recognized in the entire Panagyurishte district. Mapping and 3-D modeling show that hydrothermal alteration and orebody geometry at Chelopech are controlled by the ˜N55-trending and ˜N110-trending faults. Moreover, the ˜N155-trending faults are parallel to the regional ore deposit alignment of the Panagyurishte ore district. It is concluded that the three fault populations are early features and Late Cretaceous in age, and that they were active during high-sulfidation ore formation at Chelopech. However, the relative fault chronology cannot be deduced anymore due to Late Cretaceous and Tertiary tectonic overprint. Structurally controlled ore formation was followed by Senonian sandstone, limestone, and flysch deposition. The entire Late Cretaceous magmatic and sedimentary rock succession underwent folding, which produced WNW-oriented folds throughout the Panagyurishte district. A subsequent tectonic stage resulted in overthrusting of older rock units along ˜NE-trending reverse faults on the Upper Cretaceous magmatic and sedimentary host rocks of the high-sulfidation epithermal deposit at Chelopech. The three fault populations contemporaneous with ore formation, i.e., the ˜N55-, ˜N110- and ˜N155-trending faults, were reactivated as thrusts or reverse faults, dextral strike-slip faults, and transfer faults, respectively, during this event. Previous studies indicate that the present-day setting is

  3. Time evolution of a rifted continental arc: Integrated ID-TIMS and LA-ICPMS study of magmatic zircons from the Eastern Srednogorie, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, S.; von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.; Marchev, P.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern Srednogorie in Bulgaria is the widest segment of an extensive magmatic arc that formed by convergence of Africa and Europe during Mesozoic to Tertiary times. Northward subduction of the Tethys Ocean beneath Europe in the Late Cretaceous gave rise to a broad range of basaltic to more evolved magmas with locally associated Cu-Au mineralization along this arc. We used U-Pb geochronology of single zircons to constrain the temporal evolution of the Upper Cretaceous magmatism and the age of basement rocks through which the magmas were emplaced in this arc segment. High precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) was combined with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) for spatial resolution within single zircon grains. Three tectono-magmatic regions are distinguished from north to south within Eastern Srednogorie: East Balkan, Yambol-Burgas and Strandzha. Late Cretaceous magmatic activity started at ~ 92 Ma in the northernmost East Balkan region, based on stratigraphic evidence and limited geochronology, with the emplacement of minor shallow intrusions and volcanic rocks onto pre-Cretaceous basement. In the southernmost Strandzha region, magmatism was initiated at ~ 86 Ma with emplacement of gabbroic to dioritic intrusions and related dikes into metamorphic basement rocks that have previously been overprinted by Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous metamorphism. The Yambol-Burgas region is an extensional basin between the East Balkan and the Strandzha regions, which broadens and deepens toward the Black Sea further east and is filled with a thick pile of marine sediments and submarine extrusive volcanic rocks accompanied by coeval intrusions. This dominantly mafic magmatism in the intermediate Yambol-Burgas region commenced at ~ 81 Ma and produced large volumes of potassium-rich magma until ~ 78 Ma. These shoshonitic to ultrapotassic basaltic to intermediate magmas formed by differentiation of ankaramitic (high

  4. [Study of taeniarhynchosis in 5 districts of the People's Republic of Bulgaria with reference to chemoprophylaxis. Report given during the IVth symposium of the GDR on "Taeniarhynchosis-Cysticercosis" on April 26th, 1974 in Schwerin].

    PubMed

    Genoff, G; Nenoff, S; Ivanoff, I; Maneff, I; Mischonoff, W; Iwanowa, N; Tschawdarowa, M; Parwanoff, K

    1975-12-01

    1968-1972 in five districts of DR Bulgaria 666 persons with Taeniarhynchus saginatus infection were registered, 64% of these tapeworm carriers lived in the country, 36% were townspeople. The incidence of infection in women was twice as high as in man. There were differences in incidence in jobs, 21.6% in farm workers, 20.2% in industrial workers, 13.8% in workers in the tobacco industry, 14.2% in housewives, 12.1% in pulls, 9.2% in office workers and 8.1% in pensioners carried tapeworms. Only 1.4% of animal breeders were infected with T. saginatus. The incidence of infestation increased in relation to the age. - In the Kardschali district, the tobacco farmers with a disease incidence of 34.8% represented a large part of the total incidence in the country. The private keeping of animals is still widespread in the country. The disease incidence increases between the age groups 20-40 years. The reason for the above is people eating increased uncontrolled animals. Individual food preparation habits and ignorance of the source of meat also account for spread of infection of people. As a trial three prophylactic methods were tested to establish a reduction of this disease.

  5. Bilateral comparison of 100 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.b) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 100 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Bilateral comparison of 10 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 10 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Historical development of environmental education in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Abdullah; Atasoy, Emin; Kostova, Zdravka

    2012-04-01

    The article discusses the periods of environmental education (EE) development in connection with internal social and global international influences, mainly the effect of the First United Nations Conference on Human environment in Stockholm 1972, the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and the 2002 Earth Summit in Johannesburg. It pays attention to the impact of the social background and the role of science and pedalogical research on the different stages in the curricular and textbooks development. The school subjects' contents and educational technologies also evolved towards student-centered interactive education in school and out of school. A system of EE from nursery to postgraduate and lifelong education was developed in 1984 and a great part of it has been introduced in the different educational stages since then. After 1989 more than 132 NGOs and communities on ecology and environmental education were established and many others incorporated environmental education aspects in their activities. Still there are many unsolved problems in EE.

  8. William Russell on Schools in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay; Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    William Russell became one of the most influential educators in the field of international and comparative education in the first half of the 20th century. In 1914, William Russell obtained his PhD from Teachers College and, within few years, became a prominent figure internationally. He traveled through Europe and taught in Japan and Siberia, as…

  9. Pattern of radiotherapy care in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Hadjieva, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The paper reveals the changing pattern of Bulgarian Radiotherapy (RT) care after the successful implementation of 15 projects for 100 million euro under the European Regional Development Fund in Operational Programme for Regional Development 2007-2013. The project enables a total one-step modernization of 14 Bulgarian RT Centres and creation of a new one. At the end of the Programme (mid 2015), 16 new Linacs and 2 modern cobalt machines will be available together with 11 virtual CT simulators, 5 CT simulators, 1 MRI and 1 PET CT for RT planning and all dosimetry facilities needed. Such a modernization has moved Bulgarian RT forward, with 2.7 MV units per one million of population (MV/mln.inh) in comparison with 0.9 MV/mln.inh in 2012. Guild of Bulgarian Radiotherapists includes 70 doctors, 46 physicists and 10 engineers, together with 118 RTTs and 114 nurses and they all have treated 16,447 patients in 2013. Major problems are inadequate reimbursement from the monopolistic Health Insurance Fund (900 euro for 3D conformal RT and 1500 euro for IMRT); fragmentation of RT care with 1-2 MV units per Centre; no payment for patient travel expenses; need for quick and profound education of 26% of doctors and 46% of physicists without RT license, along with continuous education for all others; and resource for 5000-9000 more patients to be treated yearly by RT in order to reach 45-50% from current service of 32%. After 15 years of struggle of RT experts, finally the pattern of Bulgarian RT care at 2014-2015 is approaching the level of modern European RT. PMID:26549991

  10. Innovation in teaching deaf students physics and astronomy in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfirov, Milen; Saeva, Svetoslava; Popov, Tsviatko

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy to be implemented in Bulgarian schools in teaching physics and astronomy to students with impaired hearing at grades 7 (13-year-old students) and 8 (14-year-old students). The strategy provides effective education for students with hearing disabilities in mainstream schools as well as for those attending specialized schools. A multimedia CD has been developed, which offers a large number of basic terms from the corresponding fields of physics and astronomy, accompanied by textual explanation and various illustrations. The terms are explained in Bulgarian, Bulgarian Sign Language and English. This multimedia product can be used by children with hearing disabilities, as well as by children without disorders.

  11. Assessment of pollution with aquatic bryophytes in Maritsa River (Bulgaria).

    PubMed

    Gecheva, Gana; Yurukova, Lilyana; Ganeva, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Bryophyte species composition and 26 common physico-chemical and inorganic chemical parameters were assessed at 23 selected sites in the Maritsa River (BG) over a 4-year period. Principal components analyses (PCA) of both bryophytes and water variables distinguished different locations in the ecosystem. The data imply that the content of elements measured in bryophytes represents river contamination, while species compositional patterns reflect hydromorphology and general degradation. This study for the first time combined aquatic bryophyte occurrence, the bioaccumulation of 17 macro-and microelements in 17 species, and 26 water factors by principal components analysis (PCA) in an assessment of river pollution.

  12. Developing Competencies in Science and Maths in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Most countries are either reforming their education systems, or thinking about doing so. The EU, through its "Transversal" programme, funds hundreds of study visits every year to enable education professionals to learn at first hand about developments in its member states. The author joined a group from France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain and…

  13. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  14. Geophysical analysis for the Ada Tepe region (Bulgaria) - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Petya; Metodiev, Metodi; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Vatseva, Rumiana

    2013-04-01

    According to the current archeological investigations Ada Tepe is the oldest gold mine in Europe with Late Bronze and Early Iron age. It is a typical low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit and is hosted in Maastrichtian-Paleocene sedimentary rocks above a detachment fault contact with underlying Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Ada Tepe (25o.39'E; 41o.25'N) is located in the Eastern Rhodope unit. The region is highly segmented despite the low altitude (470-750 m) due to widespread volcanic and sediment rocks susceptible to torrential erosion during the cold season. Besides the thorough geological exploration focused on identifying cost-effective stocks of mineral resources, a detailed geophysical analysis concernig diferent stages of the gold extraction project was accomplished. We present the main results from the geophysical investigation aimed to clarify the complex seismotectonic setting of the Ada Tepe site region. The overall study methodology consists of collecting, reviewing and estimating geophysical and seismological information to constrain the model used for seismic hazard assessment of the area. Geophysical information used in the present work consists of gravity, geomagnetic and seismological data. Interpretation of gravity data is applied to outline the axes of steep gravity transitions marked as potential axes of faults, flexures and other structures of dislocation. Direct inverse techniques are also utilized to estimate the form and depth of anomalous sources. For the purposes of seismological investigation of the Ada Tepe site region an earthquake catalogue is compiled for the time period 510BC - 2011AD. Statistical parameters of seismicity - annual seismic rate parameter, ?, and the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter exponential relation for Ada Tepe site region, are estimated. All geophysical datasets and derived results are integrated using GIS techniques ensuring interoperability of data when combining, processing and visualizing obtained information from different sources.

  15. Bulgaria, Romania, and Poland: Case Studies of a Changing Region. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory-Boyle, Nancy

    This paper presents a unit for government and economics and one for world history on the dramatic regional changes which have occurred in Central and Eastern Europe since the late 1980s. The units can be taught cohesively covering 2-3 weeks or as modules integrated into relevant themes in the curriculum. The "case studies" approach allows students…

  16. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  17. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  18. PREFACE: Conference Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov - Chairman, Kiril Blagoev - Vice-Chairman, Margarita Grozeva - Scientific secretary, Kostadinka Gesheva, Anna Szekeres, Hassan Chamati, Diana Nesheva, Peter Rafailov, Yordan Marinov, Emilia Dimova, Tatyana Ivanova, Radostina Kamburova, Ekaterina Iordanova, Julia Genova, Alexander Donkov, Emilia Vlaikova SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov, Bulgaria; Nikola Sabotinov, Bulgaria; Kiril Blagoev, Bulgaria; Nicholay Tonchev, Bulgaria; Hassan Chamati, Bulgaria; Marin Gospodinov, Bulgaria; Peter Rafailov, Bulgaria; Emil Vlakhov, Bulgaria; Kostadinka Gesheva, Bulgaria; Anna Szekeres, Bulgaria; Diana Nesheva, Bulgaria; Albena Paskaleva, Bulgaria; Tatyana Ivanova, Bulgaria; Alexander Dreischuh, Bulgaria; Evgenia Valcheva, Bulgaria; Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova, Bulgaria; Sanka Gateva, Bulgaria; Frank Hamelmann, Germany; Nicola Scaramuzza, Italy; G.M.W. Kroesen, Netherlands; Jan van Dijk Netherlands; Andrzej Szewczyk, Poland; Henryk Szymczak, Poland; Krzistof Rogacki, Poland; Ion Mihailescu, Romania; Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sweden; Mikael Jonsson, Sweden; Andrew Livingston, UK; Ludmila Peeva, UK

  19. Neotectonics and Geodynamics In The Region of The Town of Bankya, Sofia Kettle (bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, D.

    The Bankya tectonic node represents one of the most active contemporary mor- phostructural nodes in the SW part of the Sofia kettle. It is characterized geomorphp- logically as a region with active relief formation since the Upper Cretaceous till now. The emphasis in the present work is laid on the endogenic predetermination of the relief, formed in a zone with a dense network of fault structures along which slow and rapid tectonic movements have repeatedly proceeded. Lithostratigraphic units from the Upper Cretaceous series and the Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary sys- tems are found in the studied region. The old tectonics is characterized by well pre- served fragments of the Late Cretaceous Lyulin volcanic apparatus. It was formed under island-arc conditions. The Senonian synsedimentary olistostromes and olisto- plates connected with tectonic landslides and klippes of a local thrust were related to the gravitation tectonics. The Middle Miocene thrust over Lyulin to the N was re- lated to the post-sedimentary processes. The following stage was that of the regional Neogene-Quaternary extension and the formation of the Sofia graben. The Lyulin Mt. morphostructure was formed starting with its orogenic (volcanic) stage and passing through the building and transformation of the younger geological cycles. The con- trast between the mountain and the Sofia kettle was not significant until the final cycle of the Neogene. Active movements took place along the faults striking to the between 30-40 to the E of the town of Bankya. A local widely opened to the NE graben was formed and loaded with sediments. The terrain was subjected to vertical compression. The organogenic construction of the Lyulin Mt. was formed and the contrast between the two morphostructures became stronger. The process of construction still contin- ues as seen from the incomplete profile, the anomalous falls, the deformations and displacements of the river terraces, the different alluvium thickness, etc. The gravi- tation process including almost entirely the valley slopes is tectonically and erosion- tectonically predetermined. Most of the landslides are of the circus type but there are landslides of the linear type too. The erosion incision of the riverbeds resulting from the contemporary tectonic movements is in the range of 10-12 to 20 m. There was a local earthquake (intensity of VI degree, epicentre depth between 8 and 10 km) in the region of Bankya in 1910. This earthquake disturbed the Plio-Pleistocene 1 erosion-accumulation level. Considerable relief deformations took place due to a pa- leoearthquake of the seismic-gravitational type and three landslide terraces with a slope height of more than 10 m were formed. The analysis shows that the relief of the Bankya tectonic node is a result of long-term endogenic processes. The fault structures are characterized by high activity, which is classified as potentially seismic hazardous in combination with their complex morphology. The relief is under the conditions of unstable dynamic equilibrium that provides the grounds to presume that there is a change in the local stress field. It is necessary to build a geodynamic monitoring polygon. 2

  20. Indoor smoking bans in Bulgaria, Croatia, Northern Cyprus, Romania and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Muilenburg, J L; Burdell, A

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes towards attempts to limit second-hand smoke (SHS) in five Eastern European nations. Methods The data consist of a Eurobarometer (64.3) survey distributed from November to December 2005. Logistic regression was employed to investigate support levels for indoor smoking bans across the five political units. Results Across nations, there is more support for smoking bans in offices and indoor work spaces and indoor public space as opposed to restaurants and bars and pubs. Personal smoking behaviours are linked strongly with the smoking bans. Most importantly, it is specific knowledge about the health dangers of smoking which fosters support for indoor smoking bans. Conclusion Policy implications suggest that government and the media must disseminate accurate information about the harm of smoking to broader segments of the population to gain support for policies that affect the dangers of SHS in these nations. PMID:20675690

  1. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  2. Global Neo-Liberalism, Global Ecological Modernization, and a Swine CAFO in Rural Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenna, Leland L.; Mitev, Georgi V.

    2009-01-01

    Rural and development sociology studies have tended to credit globalization with low-wage, extractive, environmentally destructive outcomes. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been treated as a local manifestation of the destructive tendencies of globalization. However, recent scholarship on globalization suggests that…

  3. Some aspects on the dermatoglyphics of normal and defective children in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Tornjova-Randelova, S G

    1994-12-01

    By comparison with a sample of normal Bulgarian children aged 3 to 18 years, children with visual, auditory and mental insufficiency differ in the relative frequency of pattern types on the digits. These differences are particularly noticeable on the second and fourth digits. It is suggested that the restriction to these two digits is related to the differing evolutionary histories of the different digits, and differences in their innervation.

  4. Multivariate statistical assessment of the pollution sources along the stream of Kamchia River, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Mihailov, G; Simeonov, V; Nikolov, N; Mirinchev, G

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen sampling sites along the stream of Kamchia River were considered as environmental objects in the multivariate statistical study aimed to identify and apportion patterns of sampling sites, latent factors responsible for the data structure and their relation to the emitter industrial and anthropogenic sources in the vicinity of the sampling sites. As variables 11 surface water parameters monitored for a long time period (up to 11 years) were used. Four main site patterns were revealed by cluster analysis (urban, rural, near-to dam and estuary) and for each site latent factors were identified and apportioned (among them "metallurgical", "food production", "winery", domestic wastes", "natural"). The relative contribution of each identified pollution source to the formation of the total concentration of each chemical species or physicochemical parameter was determined and compared to the real emitters in the region of interest.

  5. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... account of old age, retirement, or death; and (b) Permits individuals who are United States citizens but... actuarial equivalent thereof, on account of old age, retirement, or death; and (b) Permits United States... third pillar of voluntary individual accounts. The Bulgarian social insurance system provides old...

  6. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  7. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power plants can be economically substituted by low carbon based technologies. Furthermore, the integrated annual load management notably contributes to innovative process integration becoming economic in an energy system affected by low efficiency and flexibility. Further limiting flexibility, the geographic location of this innovative low carbon energy production technology strictly depends on geological boundary conditions, namely the presence of exploitable coal resources, and availability of energy transport networks to supply potential end users with the product. Hereby, feeding upgraded synthesis gas directly into the Bulgarian gas pipeline network avoiding its conversion into electricity is an alternative approach with relevant economic potentials. For that purpose, the proximity and availability of these transport networks as well as the demand of end users are validated by the integrated energy system model. Coupling our techno-economic process model to an energy system-modelling framework allows the determination of the future economical potentials and the limitations for the implementation of a low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system. The obtained results show that the Bulgarian energy system can significantly benefit from the integration of underground coal gasification considering carbon dioxide mitigation technologies potentially initiating a continuous substitution of imported fuels by domestic coal resources.

  8. Basic Training and Professional Qualifications of Teachers in Bulgaria and Turkey: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evgenieva, Emilia; Arslan, Serife

    2012-01-01

    The professional qualification of teachers is a derivative of the career development system, the lifelong study model, the expected efficiency of the learning process and others. Motivating a teacher with regard to the need for continuous development depends on the order of the profession with respect to other professions, the remuneration, the…

  9. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice.

    PubMed

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D

    2015-07-01

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated. PMID:25836697

  10. First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

  11. Provenance of Tertiary volcanoclastic sediment in NW Thrace (Bulgaria): Evidence from detrital amphibole and pyroxene geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, Luca; Orlando, Andrea; Marchev, Peter; Critelli, Salvatore; Manetti, Piero; Raycheva, Raya; Riley, David

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy mineral and bulk rock geochemistry and a review of sandstone petrographic data have been used to investigate the post-collisional effusive magmatism that followed the closure of the Vardar Ocean and the generation of volcanic sediments in a complex and compositionally variable volcanic region. Available petrographic data gives evidence of contributions from three key source areas corresponding to the three main tectonic units: the structurally lower Gneiss-Migmatite Complex (Byala Reka-Kechros and Kesebir-Kardamos domes) and the upper Variegated (Kimi) Complex, both fringed by the low-to-medium-grade Mesozoic rocks of the Circum-Rhodope Belt. Besides the deposition of siliciclastic material, volcanic contributions from both, intermediate and acid products represent an important source of sediment in the area. Despite dominant intermediate to acid volcanic products, volcanic lithic fragments in sandstones (microlithic, lathwork and brown vitric textures) indicate main inputs from intermediate and basic-intermediate products generating questions on the interpretation of volcanic detritus in reconstruction of provenance. Detrital amphibole and pyroxene chemistry is used to characterise the supply of volcanic material as well as the dispersal mechanisms and understand the role played by each of the volcanic centers present in the area in the infill of the north-western Thrace basin. Amphibole chemistry reveals high compositional heterogeneity according to both compositional variability of the numerous volcanic centres active at the time of deposition and presence of metamorphic amphibole. 4Al and AlT apfu values indicate that most of the amphiboles from the NERZ are not of volcanic origin and their presence can only be attributed to the numerous amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks abundantly documented in the area. Detrital amphibole compositions from the ZKVS indicate major contributions from the Iran Tepe and Zvedzel volcanoes. Analysed detrital clinopyroxenes from the NERZ are mostly diopside-augite, with no hedenbergite or Fe-augite detected. The 4Al/6Al ratio is comparable with compositions of volcanic pyroxenes from the Momchilgrad-Arda (ZKVS) region and products from the pre-caldera phase of the Borovitza.

  12. Psychopathy in Bulgaria: The cross-cultural generalizability of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael J.; Abramowitz, Carolyn; Vasilev, Georgi; Bozgunov, Kiril; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    The generalizability of the psychopathy construct to Eastern European cultures has not been well-studied, and no prior studies have evaluated psychopathy in non-offender samples from this population. The current validation study examines the factor structure, internal consistency, and external validity of the Bulgarian translation of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Two hundred sixty-two Bulgarian adults from the general community were assessed, of which 185 had a history of substance dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the two-, three-, and four-factor models of psychopathy. Zero-order and partial correlation analyses were conducted between the two factors of psychopathy and criterion measures of antisocial behavior, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, personality traits, addictive disorders and demographic characteristics. Relationships to external variables provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the psychopathy construct in a Bulgarian community sample. PMID:25313268

  13. Why Teach Abroad: Two American Teachers Explain Their Motivations and Experiences Teaching in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Betsy; Potash, Brett

    2011-01-01

    A Fulbright poster on the bulletin board, a Search Associates flier in the mailbox, a rumor of something different--everyone has heard about teaching abroad. But is it worth filling out all that paperwork, installing Skype on the family's computers, and learning a new language? In this article, two American teachers explain their motivations and…

  14. Observations of Orionids and eta-Aquariids in 2006 from Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhurova, Eva; Zhivkova, Desislava

    2010-12-01

    We present observations of the eta-Aquariid and Orionid meteor showers collected during observing expeditions. The 2006 May 4-6 expedition with two observers yielded 63 meteors in 4.14 h of total effective observing time. A radiant was derived from 34 eta-Aquariids. The October campaign surprised all observers with the unusually high Orionid activity about twice as high as the average. In our analysis we include observing data of Boris Stoilov (STOBO), Natasha Ivanova (IVANA) and Ivan Gradinarov (GRAIV). Based on 107 recorded meteors from which 47 were Orionids seen in 9.8 total effective time for the night of 21/22 October, we obtained a mean ZHR equal to 41.5 assuming a population index r = 2.0.

  15. Exploring Cultures and Their Stories: Stories from Uganda, Bolivia, Sri Lanka, Korea, Bulgaria, Germany, and Macedonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Flora

    Intended for teachers of middle and secondary schools, this book presents folk-stories to provide readers (listeners) with insight into other cultures. The book is organized into eight sections, each featuring a country or a people. Each section has a divider page (which gives the story title, the country or region of the culture, and a map), a…

  16. Kinematics of Tertiary convergence and extension at the western margin of the Rhodopes (SW Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, Jan; Georgiev, Neven; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sarov, Stoyan; Jahn-Awe, Silke; Nagel, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Integrating the results of recent structural geological fieldwork with age constraints reported in the literature we propose a kinematic model for Eocene to Miocene tectonics in the western Rhodopes. In the past years, several authors have claimed that low-angle normal faults in the western Rhodopes and adjacent external Hellenides formed in the framework of beginning Aegean extension. The oldest low-angle normal faults identified so far were active since the Middle or Late Eocene, among them the Vertiskos-Kerdilion (Brun & Sokoutis 2007) and Ribnovo faults (Burchfiel et al. 2003) which separate "Rhodopean" rock units (Sidironero-Mesta and Asenica units) characterized by Jurassic protolith ages of orthogneiss in the footwall from "Serbomacedonian" units (Vertiskos-Ogražden unit) with significantly older orthogneiss protolith ages in the hanging wall. Activity of these extensional faults temporally overlaps with that of the Nestos shear zone. The Nestos shear zone was probably active during the entire Eocene (Jahn-Awe et al. in press) and accommodated thrusting of the Sidironero-Mesta unit onto the Pangaion-Pirin unit which we interpret to be derived from the Apulian plate (see also Dinter 1998). The fault geometries observed in the field suggest that the Ribnovo fault soles into the Nestos faults forming a large scale Late Eocene extensional fault system (Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system) with a consistent top-to-the-SW displacement sense. This implies that in the Middle or Late Eocene the Nestos shear zone changed its kinematics from reverse to normal faulting. After the first period of extensional faulting, the Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system was offset by a series of steeply NE-dipping normal faults in the NE slopes of the Pirin mountains. Following a tectonically quiet period in the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene, the Strimon valley detachment became active in the Middle Miocene. It obliquely cuts through the Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system resulting in the offset between the Vertiskos-Kerdilion and Ribnovo faults which probably originally were one coherent fault. Although the shear sense of the Strimon valley detachment is also top-to-the-SW, it was thus kinematically indepent of the Mesta-Kerdilion detachment system. Since the horizontal displacement amount of the Strimon valley detachment increases from N to S, we assume that the Strimon valley detachment accommodated relative rotation between the Rhodopes and Hellenides starting in the Middle Miocene (Kissel & Laj 1988) that resulted in particularly strong extension within the Aegean and corresponds to the the evolution of the curvature of the Aegean arc. References Brun J.P., Sokoutis D., 2007: Int. J. Earth Sci. 96, 1079-1099. Burchfiel, B.C., Nakov, R., Tzankov, T., Royden, L.H., 2000: Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 173, 325-352. Dinter, D.A., 1998: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 110, 1208-1230. Jahn-Awe, S., Froitzheim, N., Nagel, T.J., Frei, D., Georgiev, N., Pleuger, J. in press: Tectonics. Kissel, C., Laj, C., 1988: Tectonophysics 146, 183-201.

  17. Soil magnetic properties in Bulgaria at a national scale-Challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Petrov, Petar

    2016-02-01

    Establishing topsoil magnetic database at a national scale provides important information for soil classification, evaluation of soil drainage, indirect estimation of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. The Bulgarian database consists of 511 topsoil samples from the upper 20 cm of natural unpolluted soils. Samples have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, isothermal remanence and their ratios, hysteresis parameters and ratios, as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database show specific peculiarities and dependence from various parameters. Statistical factor analysis revealed that 87% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, second one reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction, the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material, fourth one is governed by the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1 sample/200 km2. Spatial interpolation of different magnetic parameters using modelled experimental variograms and kriging algorithm highlight lateral peculiarities in the concentration and grain size of the strongly magnetic iron oxides in the topsoils. Additional geochemical data for selected set of samples and meteorological information reveal the role of climate characteristics (mean annual temperature and precipitation) on the formation and development of the strongly magnetic pedogenic fraction in soils developed on the same parent material.

  18. [Superovulation and the production of embryos in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Vlakhov, K; Karaivanov, Kh; Petrov, M; Kacheva, D

    1986-01-01

    A total of thirty water buffalo cows aged 3 to 8 years were treated for superovulation over the July-October period. Nine of the animals were injected with FSH at the rate of 40 mg at 12-hour intervals in the course of 4 consecutive days, and the remaining 21 animals were injected with 3,000 IU gestyl in the middle of the luteal phase. Forty-eight hours after stimulation started both groups were treated with 500 micrograms cloprostenol. Five out of the 9 buffalo cows (55.5 per cent) of group I and 15 out of 12 buffalo cows (71.4 per cent) of group II manifested estrus at an average interval of 44.4 +/- 3.6 and 40.5 +/- 3.29 hours, respectively, following the application of cloprostenol. The superovulatory treatment of the animals of the two groups led to average values of 5.6 +/- 1.89 and 4.0 +/- 0.98 corpora lutea and 1.0 +/- 0.63 and 2.7 +/- 1.41 follicules larger than 8 mm; 2.6 +/- 1.60 and 2.1 +/- 0.94 embryos of high quality were obtained through the use of a nonsurgical method of flushing.

  19. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice.

    PubMed

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D

    2015-07-01

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated.

  20. Observations of the Perseids 2007 meteor shower from Bulgaria during the National astronomy summer school in Belite Brezi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, Plamena; Stoilov, Boris

    2010-08-01

    The Perseid meteor shower is undoubtedly one of the most interesting and unpredictable showers. Our observations took place near the site of the National Astronomy Summer School - Beli Brezi not far from the city of Kardzhali during the period 02 - 14. 08. 2007. A large volume of data obtained by observers from different places is included. It counts more than 4000 meteors 1088 of which were plotted. An overall low activity is registered in comparison with previous years. The highest values are recorded on 12/13 August 2007. A radiant position with coordinates α = 43,1°; δ = 58,7° is determined based on visual data and using the RADIANT software for standard velocity of 60 km/sec. An activity from the radiant in Cassiopeia with coordinates α= 7,7° ; δ = 59,4°, which has been monitored from many years in our club, was confirmed.

  1. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Popov, Ivan; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity. PMID:24711725

  2. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and practical…

  3. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkov, Alexander; Bechtel, Achim; Ćorić, Stjepan; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.

    2015-10-01

    The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (sub)units contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III), locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI) and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC) and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC). TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good) hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair) potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  4. Fluid-present deformation aids chemical modification of chromite: Insights from chromites from Golyamo Kamenyane, SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsukawa, Takako; Piazolo, Sandra; González-Jiménez, José María; Colás, Vanessa; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Gervilla, Fernando; Fanlo, Isabel; Kerestedjian, Thomas N.

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signatures of chromitites are commonly used to track the evolution of the Earth's mantle. However, chemical modification during deformation may have important implications for the interpretation of chromites' signatures. Here, we describe the details of how deformation promotes chemical modification in chromite. Physicochemical characteristics of the chromites were quantified by measuring crystallographic orientation relationships using Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and electron microprobe analysis (EMP). Chromites show porphyroclastic textures with coarse-grained porphyroclasts (ca. 0.2-5 mm) and fine-grained neoblasts (< 200 μm). Coarse-grained chromites are chemically zoned in terms of major elements from core to rim, preserving this initial igneous feature in the cores, while the outer rims reveal a metamorphic signature. Large chromite grains are characterized by local crystal-plastic deformation, exhibiting distinct inter-crystalline deformation including continuous crystal bending and subgrain boundaries as well as chemical modification in their outer, deformed parts. Two types of fine-grained chromite, F1 and F2, are present. While F1 exhibits a well-developed polygonal texture, straight grain boundaries and low intercrystal misorientation (< 1°), F2 shows low-angle boundaries and significant intercrystalline misorientation (2-8°). Both F1 and F2 have higher Fe3 + and Cr and lower Mg# values than the cores of large grains. We interpret F1 and F2 to represent chromite recrystallized by heterogeneous nucleation and subgrain rotation recrystallization, respectively. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and misorientation data on the well-developed low-angle (subgrain) boundaries in coarse grains and F2 grains indicate that deformation in chromite was accommodated mainly by dislocation creep with the dominant activation of the {111}<100 > slip system. The retrograde P-T exhumation path predicted by thermodynamic and chemical modeling suggests that these fine-grained chromites were produced when the initial chromitites reacted with oxidizing fluids during retrograde metamorphism ( 1.0 GPa and 500-700 °C). Our results show that deformation in the dislocation-creep regime in a chemically open system has induced chemical modification and homogenization within chromite aggregates as well as strain localization. This close physicochemical link offers new avenues of interpreting the chemical signatures of chromites, utilizing their microstructurally controlled variation or lack thereof.

  5. Towards an improved International Reference Ionosphere; Proceedings of the Workshop, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, August 30-September 3, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawer, K.; Serafimov, K. B.; Minnis, C. M.

    Various research papers on the ionosphere are presented. The subjects addressed include: new description of the electron density profile, geometry of the 'exponential middle ionosphere', prediction of total electron content using IRI, model representation of midlatitudinal electron density with Interkosmos-19 data, observed and model N(h) profiles for the Bulgarian region, bottomside N(h) profiles over Vietnam and their comparison with IRI, state of the art in D-region IRI modelling, solar effects cycle effects on the relationship of N(e) and T(e) in the F-region. Also discussed are: comparison between IRI ion composition and incoherent scatter measurement and theoretical values, ion composition behavior in low and midlatitudes during high solar activity, approximation of the height of the O(+)-H(+) transition level for use in IRI, hybrid quadri-ionics model of the lower ionosphere, measurement possibilities for improving IRI, improving IRI profiles of O2(+), NO(+), and O(+) with Airglow Measurements, and plan for compilation of experimental data on drifts for IRI.

  6. Structure and U-Pb zircon geochronology of an Alpine nappe stack telescoped by extensional detachment faulting (Kulidzhik area, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Neven; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Cherneva, Zlatka; Frei, Dirk; Grozdev, Valentin; Jahn-Awe, Silke; Nagel, Thorsten J.

    2016-10-01

    The Rhodope Metamorphic Complex is a stack of allochthons assembled during obduction, subduction, and collision processes from Jurassic to Paleogene and overprinted by extensional detachment faults since Middle Eocene. In the study area, the following nappes occur in superposition (from base to top): an orthogneiss-dominated unit (Unit I), garnet-bearing schist with amphibolite and serpentinite lenses (Unit II), greenschist, phyllite, and calcschist with reported Jurassic microfossils (Unit III), and muscovite-rich orthogneiss (Unit IV). U-Pb dating of zircons from a K-feldspar augengneiss (Unit I) yielded a protolith age of ca. 300 Ma. Garnet-bearing metasediment from Unit II yielded an age spectrum with distinct populations between 310 and 250 Ma (detrital), ca. 150 Ma, and ca. 69 Ma (the last two of high-grade metamorphic origin). An orthogneiss from Unit IV yielded a wide spectrum of ages. The youngest population gives a concordia age of 581 ± 5 Ma, interpreted as the age of the granitic protolith. Unit I represents the Lower Allochthon (Byala Reka-Kechros Dome), Unit II the Upper Allochthon (Krumovitsa-Kimi Unit), Unit III the Uppermost Allochthon (Circum-Rhodope Belt), and Unit IV a still higher, far-travelled unit of unknown provenance. Telescoping of the entire Rhodope nappe stack to a thickness of only a few 100 m is due to Late Eocene north directed extensional shearing along the newly defined Kulidzhik Detachment which is part of a major detachment system along the northern border of the Rhodopes. Older top-to-the south mylonites in Unit I indicate that Tertiary extension evolved from asymmetric (top-to-the-south) to symmetric (top-to-the-south and top-to-the-north), bivergent unroofing.

  7. Stochastic univariate and multivariate time series analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 air pollution: A comparative case study for Plovdiv and Asenovgrad, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Stoimenova, M.; Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Iliev, I.

    2016-10-01

    Fine particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 air pollutants are a serious problem in many urban areas affecting both the health of the population and the environment as a whole. The availability of large data arrays for the levels of these pollutants makes it possible to perform statistical analysis, to obtain relevant information, and to find patterns within the data. Research in this field is particularly topical for a number of Bulgarian cities, European country, where in recent years regulatory air pollution health limits are constantly being exceeded. This paper examines average daily data for air pollution with PM2.5 and PM10, collected by 3 monitoring stations in the cities of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad between 2011 and 2016. The goal is to find and analyze actual relationships in data time series, to build adequate mathematical models, and to develop short-term forecasts. Modeling is carried out by stochastic univariate and multivariate time series analysis, based on Box-Jenkins methodology. The best models are selected following initial transformation of the data and using a set of standard and robust statistical criteria. The Mathematica and SPSS software were used to perform calculations. This examination showed measured concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the region of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad regularly exceed permissible European and national health and safety thresholds. We obtained adequate stochastic models with high statistical fit with the data and good quality forecasting when compared against actual measurements. The mathematical approach applied provides an independent alternative to standard official monitoring and control means for air pollution in urban areas.

  8. Dominance of multidrug-resistant Denmark(14)-32 (ST230) clone among Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A isolates causing pneumococcal disease in Bulgaria from 1992 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Setchanova, Lena Petrova; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Dacheva, Daniela; Mitov, Ivan; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio

    2015-02-01

    A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in Bulgarian national immunization program since April 2010. Clonal composition based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing genotyping of 52 serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates was analyzed. These were invasive and respiratory isolates collected between 1992 and 2013 from both children (78.8% <5 years) and adults with pneumococcal infections. Multidrug resistance was found in 82.7% of all 19A isolates. The most prevalent genotype (63.5%) among serotype 19A pneumococcal strains was the multidrug-resistant clonal complex CC230, which is a capsular switched variant of the Denmark(14)-32 (ST230) global clone. The most frequent sequence type (ST) was ST230 (48.1%) and together with four other closely related STs (15.4%), belonging to ST1611, ST276, ST7466, and ST2013, which were single- and double-locus variants; they were included in the main CC230. The disappearance of highly drug-resistant ST663 clone and emergence of new clones as CC320 and CC199 was also observed among the rest 19A isolates. A comparison of clonal composition between invasive and noninvasive isolates did not show a great genetic diversity among both kinds of isolates. Continuous surveillance of serotype 19A population following the introduction of PCV10 is essential to evaluate the impact of the vaccine on the epidemiology of this serotype.

  9. Concentration of caesium-137, cobalt-60 and potassium-40 in some wild and edible plants around the nuclear power plant in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Djingova, R; Kuleff, I

    2002-01-01

    The activities of 137Cs, 60Co and 40K were determined in samples of wild (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata and Populus nigra 'Italica') and edible (vegetable, corn, fruit) plants as well as soil collected from the 30 km safety zone of the Bulgarian NPP "Kozloduy" and comparisons with earlier measurements and analyses of samples from other regions and with literature values were performed. The derived transfer factors for 137Cs and 40K from soil to plants ranged between 0.002 and 0.009 for 137Cs, and between 0.09 and 0.35 for 40K. The individual effective dose (calculated from the present results and data on the activity of other foodstuffs and from information about dietary habits) comprises 4.5% of the annual dose limit.

  10. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)]. PMID:27611674

  11. International Congress on the Occasion of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Associated Schools Project. (Sofia, Bulgaria, September 12-16, 1983). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report of the Proceedings of an international congress to mark the 30th anniversary of the Associated Schools Project of UNESCO is divided into seven sections. Section I, an introduction, outlines the background of the congress and initial proceedings: the opening address, election of officers, presentation of the program and rules of…

  12. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)].

  13. [Basic theoretical and methodological principles of developing a population and housing census program in the People's Republic of Bulgaria in 1985].

    PubMed

    Minkov, M

    1985-01-01

    "Proceeding from the Marxist approach to the relation between population and social development, a significantly broader theoretical model of studying the population by means of the forthcoming [Bulgarian] census is justified." The model includes demographic, educational, and socioeconomic aspects, as well as labor force activity. The collection of data by means of sample surveys is assessed, with a focus on areas concerning fertility and reproductive behavior, migration, labor needs and resources, health, and the social system. (summary in ENG, RUS) PMID:12267125

  14. The Reform of Vocational Curricula: Outcomes of the 2005 ETF Peer Reviews in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David; Nielsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    The European Training Foundation EU European (ETF) Peer Review is an initiative that was launched in the South Eastern European countries in 2002. It combines policy advice to individual countries with a regional dimension. The key objectives for the peer reviews are to: (1) provide an external assessment of VET (vocational education and training)…

  15. Educational Research in Five European Socialist Countries, A Survey 1970-1972: Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia. Recherche pedagogique dans cinq pays socialistes europeens, une enquete 1970-1972: Bulgarie, Hongrie, Pologne, Roumanie, Yougoslavie. Documents on Educational Research 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzea, Cesar, Comp.

    Intended as a follow-up to a 1969 survey of educational research institutes and projects in various European countries, this volume covers research units and projects of five European socialist countries for 1970-72. The main purpose of this raw, working document is to increase the exchange of information on educational research. Data was…

  16. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Europe (defined to mean the following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia..., Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Wales), or...

  17. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Europe (defined to mean the following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia..., Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Wales), or...

  18. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Europe (defined to mean the following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia..., Switzerland, Wales, West Germany, Yugoslavia), or Greenland shall meet each applicable minimum requirement...

  19. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ..., Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Kazakhstan... request from the Government of Egypt to allow the importation of garlic bulbs from Egypt into...

  20. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... deleted, and the following countries would be added to the remaining list: Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic... following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  1. Suggestopedia and Memory Training in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Based on observations made in Bulgaria in the 1970s, it is proposed that the original version of Suggestopedia for second language training, used in Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries in the late 1960s and early 1970s, differs significantly from the techniques developed later, in particular in concentration on and memorization of…

  2. 78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Romania acceded to the European Union (EU), and the EU customs union of 25 member countries (``EU-25'') was enlarged to a customs union of 27 member countries (``EU-27''). At that time, Bulgaria and Romania... tariff of the EU-25 to imports into the EU-27. To recognize the membership of Bulgaria and Romania in...

  3. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 58856) waiving the Buy American Act and other... Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic... * * * * * (b) * * * Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech...

  4. A resolution urging the governments of Europe and the European Union to designate Hizballah as a terrorist organization and impose sanctions, and urging the President to provide information about Hizballah to the European allies of the United States and to support to the Government of Bulgaria in investigating the July 18, 2012, terrorist attack in Burgas.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2012-12-11

    12/21/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Voice. (text: CR S8379-8380) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. The Lozanov Method for Accelerating the Learning of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the Lozanov Method of teaching foreign languages developed by Lozanov in Bulgaria. This method (also known as Suggestopedia) uses various techniques such as physical relaxation exercises, mental concentration, classical music, and ego-enhancing suggestions. (CFM)

  6. Pardon granted to health care workers sentenced to death by Libyan court.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Courtney

    2007-12-01

    On 24 July 2007, five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor sentenced to death in Libya for intentionally infecting children with HIV were extradited to Bulgaria and pardoned by Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov.

  7. Find a Diabetes Educator

    MedlinePlus

    ... BOLIVIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA BRAZIL BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS BRUNEI BULGARIA BURKINA FASO BURUNDI CAMBODIA CAMEROON CANADA CAPE VERDE CAYMAN ISLANDS CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CHAD CHILE CHINA CHRISTMAS ISLAND ...

  8. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  9. [Historia magistra vitae: on the methods of historical demography].

    PubMed

    Botev, N

    1992-01-01

    Indirect estimation techniques are applied to data for Bulgaria from 1891 to 1958 to assess trends in population dynamics. An interdisciplinary approach is suggested for the study of countries where data are often incomplete. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  10. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  11. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  12. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  15. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France..., Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom....

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  19. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: Bulgarians Sue CERN for Leniency.

    PubMed

    Koenig, R

    2000-10-13

    In cash-strapped Bulgaria, scientists are wondering whether a ticket for a front-row seat in high-energy physics is worth the price: Membership dues in CERN, the European particle physics lab, nearly equal the country's entire budget for competitive research grants. Faced with that grim statistic and a plea for leniency from Bulgaria's government, CERN's governing council is considering slashing the country's membership dues for the next 2 years.

  20. Perceptions of societal developmental hierarchies in Europe and beyond: A Bulgarian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Melegh, Attila; Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter; Young-DeMarco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine how ordinary citizens in Bulgaria view the developmental levels of European countries and certain states outside of Europe. Our research is motivated by the understanding that scholars and policy makers have for centuries used developmental hierarchies to characterize countries and that this perception of differential development has shaped interactions among different groups, countries and regions. We expect that views of such developmental hierarchies and models have great potential for influencing demographic and family behavior and political and cultural identities of ordinary people. Using data from a 2009 survey in Bulgaria we document that developmental hierarchies are widely perceived in Bulgaria, but are distributed differentially by age, education, and degree of urbanization. We also consider internal mechanisms underlying this hierarchical understanding of development and how hierarchical understandings may be related to national identities. PMID:23807821

  1. Quality, Social Justice and Accountability in Education Worldwide. BCES Conference Books, Volume 13, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigisheva, Oksana, Ed.; Popov, Nikolay, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings is divided into two parts. Volume 13, Number 1 contains papers presented at the thirteenth annual international conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES) held in Sofia, Bulgaria June 10-13, 2015. Volume 13, Number 2 contains papers presented at the third International Partner Conference, organised by the…

  2. Infants Prefer the Musical Meter of Their Own Culture: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Gaye; Hannon, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Infants prefer native structures such as familiar faces and languages. Music is a universal human activity containing structures that vary cross-culturally. For example, Western music has temporally regular metric structures, whereas music of the Balkans (e.g., Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey) can have both regular and irregular structures. We…

  3. Correlates of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Six Countries: Development of an International Screening and Assessment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow; and Others

    The aim of this study was to develop tools for screening and assessment of socio-medical effects of alcohol use which are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in any primary health care setting. A test protocol was prepared by a group of investigators from Australia, Bulgaria, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, and the United States. Based on a number of…

  4. Teacher Education Models in Geography: An International Comparison. Papers Prepared in Conjunction with the International Geographical Union Congress (25th, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Wm., Ed.

    Thirteen essays discussing how teachers are trained to teach geography in various countries are presented. The papers are: "Teacher Education in Geography: The Comparative View" (W. E. Marsden); "The Training of Geography Teachers in the People's Republic of Bulgaria" (Paulina Vekilska and Dimitar Kantchev); "Note Sur la Formation des Maitres…

  5. Reflective Implementation of DERIVE in Teaching Mathematics at the University of Food Technology, Plovdiv

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Eva D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Mathematics at the University of Food Technology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, has introduced the Computer Algebra System DERIVE into the Mathematics courses with a view to increasing student motivation and understanding of the material taught as well as the efficiency of the teaching process. With the aim of investigating the effect of…

  6. Language Education for Intercultural Communication. Multilingual Matters 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

    Essays address the relationship between second language education and intercultural communication in several countries. Following an introduction are the following papers: "Second Language Learning in Belgium" (Ludo Beheydt); "Foreign Language Education in Bulgaria: Present-Day Situation and Future Tendencies" (Madeleine Danova, L.…

  7. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Woman: Memory, Myth, and the Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Chad

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the development of a young poet from Bulgaria, Indiana Pehlivanova, who experienced an explosive growth as a poet. Activating memory, myth, and reality, Pehlivanova's imagination wove together what the author terms as "the finest lines I have ever witnessed in youth poetry."

  8. Family Size Preferences in Europe and USA: Ultimate Expected Number of Children. Comparative Studies Number 26: ECE Analyses of Surveys in Europe and USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Jerzy

    This survey analysis compares fertility levels in the United States and European countries, discusses socioeconomic influences in ultimate expected family size, and examines birth rate trends. The average number of ultimately expected children varies from 2.13 children per woman in Bulgaria to 2.80 in Spain. Eighty to 90 percent of U.S. and…

  9. Extra-Curricular and out-of-School Education in European Socialist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegerich, Hans-Joachim

    1988-01-01

    Describes extra-curricular activities in East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and the USSR, and provides an annotated bibliography that covers activities in the social sciences; science and technology; natural sciences; arts and culture; sports; tourism; mass media; after school centers; holiday activities; and youth…

  10. European Glossary on Education. Volume 1: Examinations, Qualifications and Titles. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This glossary clarifies the meaning of titles, qualifications, and examinations relating to education systems in the following European countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Bulgaria, the Czech…

  11. Capitalism Reborn, Chaos and the Post-Socialist Freefall: A View from Europe's "New Periphery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The present paper--from a vantage in Bulgaria, and focusing in significant part on this country as an iconic example of the "post-socialist freefall' and its dystopia on European capitalism's neocolonial "new periphery"--is a revised version of an earlier chapter in "Immiseration Capitalism and Education: Austerity,…

  12. 75 FR 21096 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: 2010 Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... eligible individuals to experience best practices, learn about effective models of public and community... ground and augment the fellowship experience with leadership development activities that relate to civic... Malaysia. Europe: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. South and Central...

  13. Cross-Language Analysis and Second Language Acquisition. Volume 1. Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

    A collection of 17 papers, most presented at the Fifth International Conference on Contrastive Projects in June 1982 in Finland, includes: "Present Trends in Contrastive Linguistics,""Contrastive Linguistics in Bulgaria,""Communicative Competence in Foreign Language Teaching: A Project Report,""From Traditional Contrastive Linguistics Towards a…

  14. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  15. European Approaches To Widening Participation in Higher Education: A Commentary in Light of the Role of the Society for Research into Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of Estonia, Bulgaria, and the United Kingdom illustrate how the access and equity agenda in each country reflect national social concerns and priorities and how individual institutions reinterpret national agendas in light of institutional missions and objectives. Sees a role for the Society for Research into Higher Education in…

  16. Self-Conscious Emotions in Response to Perceived Failure: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidjerano, Temi

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the occurrence of self-conscious emotions in response to perceived academic failure among 4th-grade students from the United States and Bulgaria, and the author investigated potential contributors to such negative emotional experiences. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that regardless of country, negative…

  17. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  18. Suggestopedia: A Teaching Strategy for the Severely Disabled Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bobby M.

    The use of suggestopedia--a technique combining memory expansion and relaxation--as a teaching technique for disabled readers is examined in this paper. The paper first describes the origin of suggestopedia as a therapeutic technique in Bulgaria; it then describes some components of suggestopedia: the creation of physical relaxation, the use of…

  19. Christos Patriotis, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Christos Patriotis obtained his MSc in Biochemistry from the University of Sofia, Bulgaria in 1985 and his PhD in Molecular Biology from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1990. Postdoctoral training focused on signal transduction and tumor cell biology. |

  20. Gender Neutral Engineering: An Impossible Dream?--The Case of Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durndell, A.; Uzunova, F.; Asenova, D.; Asenov, A.; Thomson, K.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys student and qualified engineers (N=189) in Bulgaria via a questionnaire. Results stress the importance of the need for women to work for economic reasons and the role of the communist system in emphasizing engineering and gender equity. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  1. Bulgarians: Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Walter W.

    The escapades and contributions of eight outstanding heroes and legendary heroic figures in Bulgarian history are introduced in this booklet. The document is part of an ethnic heritage teaching unit intended for use by elementary and secondary social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural awareness programs on Bulgaria.…

  2. Education Provision to Every One: Comparing Perspectives from around the World. BCES Conference Books, Volume 14, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigisheva, Oksana, Ed.; Popov, Nikolay, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Papers from the proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society were submitted in two volumes. Volume 1 contains papers submitted at the conference held in Sofia, Bulgaria, June 14-17, 2016. Volume 2 contains papers submitted at the 4th International Partner Conference of the International Research Centre…

  3. A new species of Leipothrix Keifer, 1966 (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Dipsacus spp. in Europe and reassignment of two Epitrimerus spp. (Acari: Eriophyidae) to the genus Leipothrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of eriophyid mite, Leipothrix dipsacivagus n. sp., collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) and D. fullonum L. in Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, and France, is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Leipothrix knautiae (Liro) n. co...

  4. "Bringing Learning Closer to Home": The Value and Impact of the Lisbon Strategy for Strengthening the Role of Local Learning Centres and Partnerships in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative examination of four local learning centres that provide learning opportunities throughout life in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey. The paper aims to assess some of the strengths and weaknesses of different types of local learning centres and partnerships in South-Eastern Europe--in line with the value and…

  5. Educational Research in Seven European Socialist Countries. A Survey, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Zdenek

    This volume incorporates the documents on educational research institutions and their research projects which were prepared for the Seminar for Directors of Educational Research Institutes and Professors of Education held at the Unesco Institute for Education, November, 1969. These documents, dealing with 32 institutions from Bulgaria,…

  6. Bulgarians: Costumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Walter W.

    This booklet presents background information and descriptions of Bulgarian national costumes. The document is part of an ethnic heritage unit intended for use by elementary and secondary social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural awareness educational programs on Bulgaria. Costumes from 11 Bulgarian regions are…

  7. Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Kay U.

    The suggestive-accelerative approach to foreign language instruction is described. This method, first used in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, emphasizes bringing the imagination to bear on the learning task, in a relaxed classroom environment. After establishing a calm atmosphere through direct and indirect suggestion, the teacher proceeds to…

  8. Suggestology as an Effective Language Learning Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MaCoy, Katherine W.

    The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes of…

  9. The Lozanov Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

  10. The Tomatis Method and Suggestopedia: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Developed in Bulgaria in the 1960's by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, Suggestopedia is a unique system of foreign language teaching, combining yoga relaxation and verbal suggestion with the direct method. In the 1950's in France, Dr. Alfred Tomatis began his research into the ear and the voice and subsequently developed his own unique system for treating…

  11. 15 CFR 748.9 - Support documents for license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agency(ies), other than the government of the People's Republic of China. To determine whether the... security reasons? Does your transaction involve items destined for the People's Republic of China (PRC)? (i... Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria China (PRC) Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece...

  12. The Dynamic Model of a Coverage of the Current National Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cybulski, Radoslaw; Zotova, Kremena

    This report describes the principal problems connected with the registration of documents in the current national bibliography (CNB) of the socialist countries, particularly the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic, Bulgaria, and Poland. Sections detail the following: (1) definition of CNB, (2) coverage of CNB, (3) the dynamic model of…

  13. Enlargement Project: Insight into ICT Professional Skills and Jobs in the Candidate Countries. Enlargement Futures Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta

    A study examined information and communication technologies (ICT) job trends and the prospects for preservation and supply of high skilled professionals in the medium and longer term in candidate countries (CCs), for admission into the European Union, focusing on Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland. Rapidly changing technology and growth of…

  14. Galanthamine distribution in Bulgarian Galanthus spp.

    PubMed

    Sidjimova, B; Berkov, S; Popov, S; Evstatieva, L

    2003-12-01

    Sixteen populations of Galanthus elwesii Hook.fil and five populations of Galanthus nivalis L. growing in Bulgaria were investigated for the presence of galanthamine by TLC and GC-MS. Between 3 and 11 alkaloids were detected by TLC in the total alkaloid fractions. Galanthamine was found in 2 populations of G. elwesii.

  15. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [August 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-14

    This report presents the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) East Asia; Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, (3) Brazil, (4) Near East and South Asia; India, Syria, Pakistan, (5) East Europe; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia (6) West Europe; Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Finland, Italy, Switzerland (7) South Africa, and (8) Soviet Union.

  16. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-19

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Panama; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Israel, Afghanistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  17. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-04

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Peru; (5) India, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Mauritania, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, Canada, Italy, Spain; and (8) South Africa.

  18. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  19. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  20. [Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, S

    1989-01-01

    The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  1. Silencing in genetically engineered Prunus domestica provides durable and safe resistance to Plum pox virus (sharka disease)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally identified in Bulgaria in 1915, Plum pox virus (PPV) is the most damaging virus of stone fruit trees including apricot, plum, peach, and cherry. PPV steadily spread throughout Europe over the years since its discovery, and at the turn of the century (1999-2000), it reached North America ...

  2. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  3. Children in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendov, Blagovest

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the main themes and presents recommendations of the international conference, "Children in an Information Age: Tomorrow's Problems Today," that was held in Bulgaria in 1985. Topics discussed include computer training for children; the need for well designed research; the teacher-computer relationship; artificial intelligence; and reform…

  4. Education in One World: Perspectives from Different Nations. BCES Conference Books, Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Chigisheva, Oksana, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains papers submitted to the 11th Annual International Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES), held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 14-17 May 2013, and papers submitted to the 1st International Distance Partner Conference, organized by the International Research Centre "Scientific Cooperation,"…

  5. International Perspectives on Education. BCES Conference Books, Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Leutwyler, Bruno, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains papers submitted to the 10th Annual Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society, held in Kyustendil, Bulgaria, 12-15 June 2012. The overall goal of the 10th BCES conference is to facilitate discussion of different perspectives on international education providing a forum for scientific debate and constructive…

  6. Education Provision to Every One: Comparing Perspectives from around the World. BCES Conference Books, Volume 14, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Kalin, Jana, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Niemczyk, Ewelina, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Papers from the proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society was submitted in two volumes. Volume 1 contains papers submitted at the conference held in Sofia, Bulgaria, June 14-17, 2016. Volume 2 contains papers submitted at the 4th International Partner Conference of the International Research Centre…

  7. Is It Reasonable to Speak of a Crisis of the Family?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhomova, E. I.

    2007-01-01

    The early 1990s were marked by the onset of a period of lengthy depopulation in Russia. A number of countries confronted a natural decline in population in the 20th century, in particular Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. What is specific to Russia, however, is that the depopulation relates to both components of…

  8. Newsletter EIC FET; Volume 1. Supplement to Numbers 1 and 2. Information Review Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsletter EIC FET, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts based on documents from the UNESCO International Meeting on Post-graduate Qualifications of Mathematics and Physics Teachers, 1973, in Varna, Bulgaria, are presented in this newsletter. The following subjects are covered: (1) further education of teachers of mathematics and physics; (2) the system of raising the qualifications of…

  9. Security of Data, Stored in Information Systems of Bulgarian Municipal Administrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralyakov, Petko

    2011-12-01

    Massive influx of information technology in municipal administrations increases their efficiency in delivering public services but increased the risk of theft of confidential information electronically. The report proposed an approach for improving information security for small municipal governments in Bulgaria through enhanced intrusion detection and prevention system.

  10. Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1985. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1985 have been annotated in this bibliography. Entries from 25 journals representing nine countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed at the beginning of the volume. Countries represented include: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; Federal Republic of…

  11. Social Structure and Social Change in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, George; Schenkel, Walter

    This specialized bibliography of scholarly writings since 1945 on Eastern Europe covers the countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Distinct entries number about 700 and cover works published in English in the United States and Great Britain and also sources in French and German published…

  12. Roosters to Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.; Suiter, Mary, Ed.

    This publication contains six lessons for elementary, secondary, and high school classrooms developed by writers from Belarus, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, and the United States. The authors of these lessons were participants in the Training of Writers program developed and conducted by the National Council on Economic Education,…

  13. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  14. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  15. 15 CFR 748.9 - Support documents for license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(ies), other than the government of the People's Republic of China. To determine whether the parties to... transaction involve items destined for the People's Republic of China (PRC)? (i) If yes, continue with... Belgium Bulgaria China (PRC) Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong Hungary...

  16. Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund: A Composite Report on the National, Supplementary and Local Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phases 2 and 3 of the Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which involved national, supplementary, and local seminars to assess the following countries' needs for assistance from the ESF: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak…

  17. The Courtship and Consequences of Liberalization: A Snapshot of Educational Restructuring in Central East Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    Trends of educational change in (formerly) East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria are examined as restructuring takes place during the establishment of democratic political processes. These trends are culled from over 50 onsite semistructured interviews in August 1990, as part of a longitudinal study to document educational…

  18. Business Education and Change in Russia and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Fred J.; Birch, Nancy J.

    1995-01-01

    Business and economics students in Russia (n=69), Poland (n=184), Yugoslavia (n=81), Bulgaria (n=32) and two Western countries (France--n=129, United States--n=140) responded to a survey. Western students were significantly more satisfied with their education (23% to 7.5%). Only 22% of Eastern Europeans considered faculty very knowledgeable; 52%…

  19. Transnational Analysis of Vocational Education and Training in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Vocational education and training (VET) in 10 Central and Eastern European countries--Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia--was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: socioeconomic context of VET reforms; VET at the start of reforms; the European Union Phare…

  20. Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Institutional Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The role of social partner organizations in vocational education and training (VET) has been compared for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In these countries, a system of industrial relations comparable to those existing in western Europe is emerging gradually.…

  1. Preschool Education: Selective Bibliography of 1988. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opravilova, Eva, Ed.

    A total of 577 annotated citations of materials concerning preschool education and related topics are provided in this selective bibliography of the 1988 literature from Austria, Czechoslovakia, Russia, Canada, France, Sweden, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, Poland, and Switzerland. Sections of the bibliography provide references to materials on: (1)…

  2. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  3. Review of Progress in Vocational Education and Training Reform of the Candidate Countries for Accession to the European Union in the Light of Developments in European Policy on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reviews progress in vocational education and training (VET) reform in the candidate countries for accession to the European Union in light of developments in European policy on vocational training. The document consists of a cross-country overview and individual overviews of VET in 12 candidate countries: Bulgaria, the Czech…

  4. Participant Observations of Soviet National Planning in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lee

    In 1972, an education delegation of administrators in higher education visited preschool through higher education schools in Russia and Bulgaria and participated in informal seminars with directors and faculty of various institutions. In this paper one member of that delegation who visited schools in Moscow, Leningrad, and Sophia, Bulgaria…

  5. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech..., Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom....

  6. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic..., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom....

  7. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic..., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom....

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aircraft and related articles from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt..., Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom. (c) For the purpose of this...

  9. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Statute for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisitions of civil aircraft and related articles from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the...

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aircraft and related articles from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt..., Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom. (c) For the purpose of this...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (c) For the purpose of this waiver, an article is a product of a country... aircraft and related articles from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany,...

  12. Migration Processes and Mechanisms of Youth Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitev, Peter-Emil

    The dramatic changes in Bulgaria's agriculture, labor structure, and demography caused by the establishment of socialism in the country in the mid-1940s have resulted in changing mechanisms of youth socialization. Industrialization and agricultural consolidation precipitated a rural-urban migration boom and a resulting higher education level,…

  13. Informationstechnische Weiterbildung Fur Frauen Von Frauen: Internationaler Workshop = Education in Informatics for Women By Women: International Workshop (Hamburg, Germany, November 30-December 3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellebrecht, Ingrid, Ed.; And Others

    This document presents workshop results and participants' reports from the international conference "Train the Trainers in Information and Communication Technology." The participants consisted of 18 women and one man from Czechoslovakia, Russia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, Mongolia, Jordan, Egypt, and the Philippines. Eleven reports were presented…

  14. MetaPath: An Electronic Knowledge Base for Collating, Exchanging and Analyzing Case Studies of Xenobiotic Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new MetaPath information system was developed through a collaborative effort between the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry (Bourgas, Bulgaria), EPA’s Office of Research and Development (NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN and NERL, ERD, Athens, GA), and EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety a...

  15. M-Learning Systems Design--Technology and Pedagogy Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta; Asenova, Asya; Dulev, Pavlin

    2013-01-01

    Technology developments face universities with many challenges--to integrate technologies in educational processes, design new electronic materials, change teaching styles, and better meet the demands of the technology-savvy generation. The paper considers problems of m-learning adoption in Bulgaria at one Faculty of the Technical…

  16. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  17. UBV observations of the flickering of T CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanov, R.; Semkov, E.; Stoyanov, K.; Tomov, T.

    2016-02-01

    In 2015 the recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis has entered a super-active state (Munari, Dallaporta & amp; Cherini, 2016, NewA, in press). On February 7, 2016, we observed the flickering of T CrB in three filters (UBV) using the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen (Bulgaria).

  18. Lake Wobegon Upside Down: The Paradox of Status-Devaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sgourev, Stoyan V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines a cognitive bias whereby respondents in postcommunist Bulgaria systematically decrease their self estimates on material welfare in contrast to the well-established status-enhancement bias. The analysis shows that the main reason for the occurrence of status-devaluation is the experience of relative deprivation in postcommunism,…

  19. The Future of Schools from a European Union Perspective: Selecting, Analyzing and Disseminating the Most Innovative Approaches towards the School of Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Henrik; Hall, Scott

    2005-01-01

    What can we learn from European Union (EU) school projects about future learning approaches? The EU has invested massively in information and communication technologies (ICT) projects promoting innovative use of new technologies in school settings. The aim of the project "School Foresight", with partners in Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Romania, the…

  20. Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

  1. Comparison of Learning Strategies for Mathematics Achievement in Turkey with Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Serpil; Cene, Erhan; Demir, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning strategies accounted for mathematics achievement across Turkey and neighboring countries. Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Israel, Serbia, Romania and Jordan were involved in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) study. Since other neighbors of Turkey…

  2. Computer Based Learning and Training in Colour Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikov, Alexander S.; Georgiev, Georgi G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an interactive computer program, COLOR-TEST, that was developed at the Technical University of Sofia (Bulgaria) to teach color harmony and color coordination to industrial design students. A brief evaluation of the program is presented, and further developments for the program are suggested. (nine references) (LRW)

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Phare Countries. Report on Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuebart, Friedrich

    A cross-country analysis based on 11 case studies on vocational education and training (VET) in Eastern and Central Europe was conducted. The countries are: Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, and Albania. Data gathered included information about the following: political and economic…

  4. Structures of School Systems Worldwide: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    In the past 20 years I have been examining the structures of school systems worldwide. This ongoing research has been enriched by the findings obtained from the lecture course on Comparative Education I have been delivering to students in the Bachelor and Master's Education Programs at Sofia University, Bulgaria. This paper presents some results…

  5. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…

  6. Assisting Bulgarian Special Educators with Competency Development Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rob; Herrington, Jan; Konza, Deslea; Tzvetkova-Arsova, Mira; Stefanov, Krassen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss an expansion of the Special Education Bulgaria (SEB) internet community that is required to pilot software created by the European Union's (EU's) Sixth Framework integrated project, TENCompetence. Design/methodology/approach: SEB is the product of a two-year research project designed to create a…

  7. [The effects of population policy on fertility trends in the smaller European Warsaw Pact countries].

    PubMed

    Vortmann, H

    1992-01-01

    The impact of population policies on fertility trends in Eastern European countries between 1960 and the mid-1980s is analyzed. Countries covered include East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania. The data are from a study carried out by the German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin.

  8. 19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the mid-eighteenth century CBP Dec. 12-14... ethnological material representing Bulgaria's Middle Ages (681 A. D.) through approximately1750 A. D CBP Dec. 14-01 Cambodia Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era....

  9. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  10. Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

  11. Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  12. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

  13. The Practice of Media Education: International Research on Six European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parola, Alberto; Ranieri, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of OnAir, a European project on Media Education funded by the European Commission. This two-year project aimed at collecting, documenting, and developing media education practices across Europe, especially in Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, and Romania. In particular, the paper focuses on…

  14. Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  15. Internal and External Ethnic Assessments in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Patricia; Feliciano, Cynthia; Emigh, Rebecca Jean

    2007-01-01

    Survey data for majority and minority ethnicities in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Russia illustrate how internal ethnic identification and other social characteristics influence external ethnic classification. Logistic regressions show how interviewers use negative social characteristics (poverty, low education) to classify respondents as Roma…

  16. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  17. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  18. Stolbur Phytoplasma Transmission to Maize by Reptalus panzeri and the Disease Cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 4...

  19. Content Reading in Four European Union Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.; Flynt, E. Sutton

    2009-01-01

    Is content literacy exclusively a U.S. phenomenon? In this installment we report on the state of content literacy from four international perspectives. Descriptions of content literacy from Ireland, Sweden, Germany, and Bulgaria offer insights into (a) the value policymakers may be placing on reading practices for content learning, and (b) the…

  20. New approximating results for data with errors in both variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, N.; Todorov, S.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce new data from mineral water probe Lenovo Bulgaria, measured with errors in both variables. We apply our Orthonormal Polynomial Expansion Method (OPEM), based on Forsythe recurrence formula to describe the data in the new error corridor. The development of OPEM gives the approximating curves and their derivatives in optimal orthonormal and usual expansions including the errors in both variables with special criteria.

  1. Optical follow-up of the flaring QSO TXS 2241+406

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachev, Rumen; Strigachev, Anton

    2014-12-01

    Following the reported NIR flare (ATel #6780) of the gamma-ray source TXS 2241+406 (BZB J2244+4057), z=1.17, we performed broadband optical observations with the 0.6m telescope of Belogradchik Observatory, Bulgaria.

  2. News of Projects in Associated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes projects for the development of international understanding which were organized by elementary and secondary schools around the world as part of Unesco's Associated Schools program. Project descriptions from schools in Bulgaria, Colombia, Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Phillipines, Thailand, and the United States are…

  3. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to... produced within the country or if it may be obtained by that country from a third country. Ordinarily.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  4. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to... produced within the country or if it may be obtained by that country from a third country. Ordinarily.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  5. Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.; And Others

    Historical summaries and annotated bibliographies are provided for chapters focusing on national minorities in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy and Austria, Bulgaria, and Albania between 1919 and 1980. Chapter 1, "Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980" (Stephen M. Horak), includes an historical summary focusing…

  6. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  7. Part II: Is There a Role for Education in the Way towards Stability and Democratisation in the Balkans? A Critical Review of BA.SO.P.ED's Aims and Publications (1997-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonidis, Kyriakos Th.; Zarifis, George K.

    2006-01-01

    November 1997 witnessed the formation of the Balkan Society for Pedagogy and Education (BA.SO.P.ED) in Thessaloniki, with the support of individual academics and pedagogues from many Balkan Universities and research institutes, but also with the participation of representatives of Educational Societies from Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav…

  8. Stocktaking Research on Policies for Education for Democratic Citizenship and Management of Diversity in Southeast Europe. Regional Analysis and Intervention Proposals. Regional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cameron; Baumgartl, Bernd

    This report is a contribution to the Stocktaking Research Project on national government policies within the field of education for Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC) and the Management of Diversity (MofD) in the countries of South East Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia). The…

  9. Training of Adult Educators in East Europe. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Ed.

    The purpose of this volume is to present information on the training of adult educators in East European countries. All but two of these countries, Albania and Bulgaria, are described. The first of nine articles provides an overview of the research and preparation of adult education staff in some East European countries. Factors cited as…

  10. A Cross-National Study of the Learning Environment in Chemistry Classes at Albanian, Kosovar, Romanian and Turkish Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilov, Iliya; Tafrova-Grigorova, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a cross-national research entitled "In the past and now: Constructivist practices in teaching chemistry--Bulgaria, the Balkans and Europe." The purpose of the research is to explore science secondary classroom environments in terms of the constructivist approach. The study has been carried out at international…

  11. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  12. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  13. Oil-soluble vitamins: illegal use for lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Kamouna, B; Kazandjieva, J; Balabanova, M; Dourmishev, L; Negentsova, Z; Etugov, D; Nikolova, A; Miteva, L; Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Fillers for lip augmentation have become more and more popular in recent years and seem to be indispensable in the cosmetic market nowadays. A series of six young females is presented who developed massive swellings and pain after vitamins A and/or E lip augmentation. The vitamins were extracted from gelatinous capsules (Gericaps [Adipharm EAD, Sofia, Bulgaria], Geritamins [Actavis EAD, Balkanpharma-Dubnitsa AD, Bulgaria], or vitamin E yellow gel capsules) and injected by unprofessional physicians and beauticians in different cosmetic centers. Physical examination revealed firm indurations of the lips and perioral skin, tenderness, erythema, and hard dermal nodules. Histological analysis revealed numerous round-to-ovoid cavities of varying sizes, resulting in a Swiss cheese-like appearance, consistent with lipogranulomas. The patients were treated with systemic and intralesional triamcinolone injections and broad-spectrum antibiotics with good clinical response. In conclusion, these cases demonstrate the danger of the use of unregistered products as fillers injected by unprofessional physicians and beauticians.

  14. Ethnic and religious differentials in Bulgarian mortality, 1993–98

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Iliana V.; Preston, Samuel H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated ethnic/religious mortality differentials in Bulgaria during the 1990s. The analyses employed a unique longitudinal data set covering the entire population of Bulgaria from the census of 1992 until 1998. The mortality of Roma is very high compared to all other ethnic/religious groups. The excess applies to nearly every cause of death examined and is not entirely explained by the adverse location of Roma on social and economic variables. For young men, Muslim mortality is substantially lower than that of non-Muslims when socioeconomic differences are controlled. An analysis of causes of death suggests that lower consumption of alcohol may contribute to this ‘Muslim paradox’. For older Muslim women, a significant mortality disadvantage remains after controls are imposed. Suicide mortality is lower for Muslims than for Christian groups of the same ethnicity. Consistent with deteriorating economic conditions over the study period, mortality was rising, particularly for women. PMID:21294054

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis D viruses indicating a new genotype I subgroup among African isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Y; Tsega, E; Hansson, B G

    1996-01-01

    Genetic analysis was performed on 13 hepatitis D virus (HDV) isolates from Ethiopia, Somalia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bulgaria, Moldavia, and Sweden. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization are described for the first time for two African HDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed all the African isolates to be intrarelated and to form a novel group within HDV genotype I; the suggested designation for this group is IC. The genetic distance to previously described type I isolates was about 0.15. The HDV genotype I isolates (total of 22 examined) phylogenetically formed three clusters, each of them corresponding to certain geographic regions; the "western" group consisted of six HDV isolates from western Europe and the United States plus one from Kuwait; the "eastern" group consisted of two isolates from Moldavia and one each from Bulgaria, Nauru, mainland China, and Taiwan; and the "African-Middle East" group consisted of six HDV isolates from Ethiopia and one from Somalia, Jordan, and Lebanon. PMID:8940442

  16. Physical parameters of eclipsing binary components, discovered by STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcheva, Maya; Markov, Haralambi; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Iliev, Ilian; Stateva, Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Using photometric observations made with the Heliospheric Imager 1 onboard NASA's STEREO mission a list of eclipsing binary systems was prepared which can be observed with the Coude spectrograph of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria, Smolyan, Bulgaria. The epoch and orbital period of each system were determined. The full complement of data consist of light curves extracted from STEREO HI-1 cameras photometry, wide coverage Echelle spectra obtained with the ARCES spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico, USA, for stellar characterization and Coude spectra with R ≈ 15000 and R ≈ 30000 obtained at NAO Rozhen for radial velocity curves. Here we present preliminary results from applying the Wilson-Devinney models for the determination of some physical parameters of three SB2 eclipsing binary systems - HD 103694, HD 185990, and HD 214688.

  17. A Journal of travel of an astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.

    2015-06-01

    The authors is descibing personal impressions from a number of scientific conferences took between 1993 and 1998 in Trieste (ICTP,with the participation of 2 Nobel Laureats Winners: Professor Abdus Salam (1926-1996) and Professor Gert t'Hooft), Catania astrophysical Observatory and University (1995-JENAM 1995), Athens Observatory and University (1996-Wide Field Spectroscopy), Prague Technicke Museum (1996- Symposium "Mysterium Cosmographicum"),Prague technical University (1998 -JENAM 1998),which in fact contained also a trip to Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center in Torun (Poland). Besides,some details on trips through Ukraine, Poland, Serbia, where a kind meeting with astronomers from Belgrade took place in 1995, former Yugoslav Countries: Monetnegro, Slovenija and Croatia, Bulgaria, where another meeting with physicists from the Academy of Sciences of Bulgaria took place has been given also.

  18. Electric field and ion density anomalies in the mid latitude ionosphere: Possible connection with earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gousheva, M. N.; Glavcheva, R. P.; Danov, D. L.; Hristov, P. L.; Kirov, B. B.; Georgieva, K. Y.

    2008-07-01

    The problem of earthquake prediction has stimulated the search for a correlation between seismic activity and ionospherical anomalies. We found observational evidence of possible earthquake effects in the near-equatorial and low latitude ionosphere; these ionospheric anomalies have been proposed by Gousheva et al. [Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov P., Hristov, P., Influence of earthquakes on the electric field disturbances in the ionosphere on board of the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite. Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 58 (8) 911-916, 2005a; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Observation from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite of anomalies associated with seismic activity. In: Poster Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies: Space in the Service of Society, RAST '2005, June 9-11, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 119-123, 2005b; Gousheva, M., Glavcheva, R., Danov, D., Angelov, P., Hristov, P., Kirov, B., Georgieva, K., Satellite monitoring of anomalous effects in the ionosphere probably related to strong earthquakes. Adv. Space Res. 37 (4), 660-665, 2006]. This paper presents new results from observations of the quasi-static electric field and ion density on board INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite in the mid latitude ionosphere above sources of moderate earthquakes. Data from INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite and seismic data (World Data Center, Denver, Colorado, USA) for magnetically quiet and medium quiet days are juxtaposed in time-space domain. For satellite's orbits in the time period 15.09-01.10.1981 an increase in the horizontal and vertical components of the quasi-static electric field and fluctuations of the ion density are observed over zones of forthcoming seismic events. Some similar post effects are observed too. The emphasis of this paper is put on the anomalies which specify the mid latitude ionosphere. The obtained results contain

  19. Recent optical activity of Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, E.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Ibryamov, S.; Peneva, S.; Gupta, A. C.

    2013-04-01

    Our BVRI optical observations of Mrk 421 were performed within the multiwavelength international campaign (December 2012-June 2013), with the participation of GASP-WEBT, Swift, MAGIC, VLBA, NuSTAR, Fermi, VERITAS, F-GAMMA and other collaborations. Following the reports of enhanced X-ray and gamma activity of Mrk 421 (ATel #4978, ATel #4977, ATel #4976, ATel #4974, ATel #4918), we observed this blazar with the optical telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen and the Astronomical Observatory Belogradchik, Bulgaria.

  20. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  1. Technology and malaria control, 1930-1960: the career of Rockefeller Foundation engineer Frederick W. Knipe.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    2000-06-01

    Frederick W. Knipe was a malaria-control engineer with the Rockefeller Foundation, serving in Bulgaria, Albania, India, Mexico, Italy, and the United States. There were two phases to his career: from 1930 to 1943 he focused on drainage works that reduced or eliminated mosquito habitat, and from 1944 to 1960 he supervised DDT spraying programs. His appointments to the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides, 1948-55, demonstrate that his contributions to malaria-control were highly regarded by his peers.

  2. Descriptions of two new species of Aelurillus Simon, 1884 (Araneae, Salticidae) from the Mediterranean, with the synonymization of A.steliosi Dobroruka, 2002.

    PubMed

    Azarkina, Galina N; Komnenov, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Two Aelurillus species are described as new, Aelurillusalboclypeus sp. n. (♂♀, from Turkey) and Aelurillusdeltshevi sp. n. (♂, from Macedonia, Bulgaria and Azerbaijan). Aelurillussteliosi Dobroruka, 2002 is synonymized with Aelurillusleipoldae (Metzner, 1999). Additional distributions of the closely related species Aelurillusv-insignitus are provided for the region of study. Distributional maps are provided for the five species reported in this paper. PMID:26312023

  3. Descriptions of two new species of Aelurillus Simon, 1884 (Araneae, Salticidae) from the Mediterranean, with the synonymization of A. steliosi Dobroruka, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Azarkina, Galina N.; Komnenov, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two Aelurillus species are described as new, Aelurillus alboclypeus sp. n. (♂♀, from Turkey) and Aelurillus deltshevi sp. n. (♂, from Macedonia, Bulgaria and Azerbaijan). Aelurillus steliosi Dobroruka, 2002 is synonymized with Aelurillus leipoldae (Metzner, 1999). Additional distributions of the closely related species Aelurillus v-insignitus are provided for the region of study. Distributional maps are provided for the five species reported in this paper. PMID:26312023

  4. Development of models for exchange of electronic documents

    SciTech Connect

    Glavev, Victor

    2014-11-18

    The report presents a model for exchange of electronic documents between different government administrations. It defines electronic messages that are transmitted between them and the way that messages should be processed by software systems. The proposed approach is sufficiently general and allows use of the best applicable information technologies such as data presentation structures and communication protocols. Within the study, a simple implementation of the model is implemented and deployed in various government administrations in Republic of Bulgaria.

  5. [Testing the identity of hashish samples with ICP-AES and NAA and data handling with neural networks. 2. Data verification with the use of artificial neural networks].

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, A; Feuring, T; Lippe, W M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty different hashish samples, which were confiscated in Irak, Iran, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Great Britain and Germany were analysed by means of NAA and ICP-AES. We used modified ANNs to identify a repeated analysed sample out of that data pool. The ANNs are described. Especially the learning rule, a modified backpropagation method, is presented. It is obvious, that neural networks can solve the described classification tasks. There is no significant difference in the power of the applied analytical methods. PMID:9476257

  6. A GNSS-derived Velocity Field of the Southern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangl, Günter; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    GNSS stations of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece are combined between 2006 and 2014 to a velocity filed. This area covers a part of the transition zone between the Eurasian and Nubian Plate. Even not yet totally reprocessed within IGb08, the lateral components are at the precision of 1 mm/year. The density of stations allows to separate regions with abrupt changes of velocities coinciding with major faults already known from seismology and geology.

  7. Acculturation orientations mediate the link between religious identity and adjustment of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need to examine religiousness and conduct research on its influence on acculturation and adjustment among ethnic minorities (Güngör et al. in Int J Behav Dev 36:367-373, 2012. doi:10.1177/0165025412448357). The present study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining relationships among religious identity, acculturation orientations (i.e., cultural maintenance and adoption) and acculturation outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction and socio-cultural adjustment to the Turkish and mainstream cultures). Participants were 161 youth in Bulgaria and 155 in Germany who completed measures on religious identity, acculturation orientations and adjustment. Results revealed that religious identity and Turkish culture maintenance are more important for Turkish-German, than for Turkish-Bulgarian youth. A multigroup path model showed that for both samples acculturation orientations partially mediated the link between religious identity and adjustment to the Turkish culture, whereas religious identity was directly related both to adjustment to the mainstream culture and to life satisfaction. Findings highlight the centrality of religious identity and Turkish domains of acculturation for positive adjustment outcomes for Turkish youth in Bulgaria and Germany.

  8. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  9. Earthquake scenarios based on lessons from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stella; Aleksandrova, Irena; Popova, Iliana

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are the most deadly of the natural disasters affecting the human environment; indeed catastrophic earthquakes have marked the whole human history. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The implementation of the earthquake scenarios into the policies for seismic risk reduction will allow focusing on the prevention of earthquake effects rather than on intervention following the disasters. The territory of Bulgaria (situated in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula) represents a typical example of high seismic risk area. Over the centuries, Bulgaria has experienced strong earthquakes. At the beginning of the 20-the century (from 1901 to 1928) five earthquakes with magnitude larger than or equal to MS=7.0 occurred in Bulgaria. However, no such large earthquakes occurred in Bulgaria since 1928, which may induce non-professionals to underestimate the earthquake risk. The 1986 earthquake of magnitude MS=5.7 occurred in the central northern Bulgaria (near the town of Strazhitsa) is the strongest quake after 1928. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. In the present study deterministic scenarios (expressed in seismic intensity) for two Bulgarian cities (Rouse and Plovdiv) are presented. The work on

  10. PREFACE: Fifteenth International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerassimov, Nikolay; Möller, Wolfhard; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2008-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biannually since 1977. It is a forum for the interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the event (since 2001) have been the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany, and the Evrika Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria. The fifteenth meeting of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sozopol, Bulgaria from 17-21 September 2007 and was attended by around 120 participants from 17 countries: Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Pakistan, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all peer reviewed to meet the originality and quality criteria of the journal. The school consisted of 11 oral and 3 poster sessions. There were 17 invited talks of general interest and 12 progress reports were presented orally. In total 86 contributed papers were presented during the three poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights covering the fundamentals of gas discharges and interaction of fast particles with solids, a wide range of conventional and novel applications such as for hard coatings and optical/protective layers, nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. Recent achievements in the modification of materials using charged particles or laser beams, thin layers deposition, properties, and characterization and novel materials, techniques, devices were highlighted. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal

  11. High prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing O25b-ST131 Escherichia coli clone in Bulgarian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Markovska, Rumyana; Schneider, Ines; Ivanova, Dobrinka; Keuleyan, Emma; Stoeva, Temenuga; Sredkova, Mariya; Markova, Boyka; Bojkova, Kalina; Gergova, Raina; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System project results, Bulgaria has become one of the European countries with dramatically increasing rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Bulgaria, collected from seven clinical centers in three towns, during two study periods: 2002-2003 and 2006-2009. For 193 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, phylogenetic typing, and screening for O25b-ST131 isolates were carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility, ESBL-type and transferability of resistance determinants were analyzed. Four different ESBL-types, namely TEM-139, SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found. CTX-M-15 dominated, being found in 88% of the isolates. RAPD-typing revealed 35 types, among which type A dominated, comprising 65% of the isolates. Sixty-eight percent of the 193 isolates belonged to the O25b-ST131 clone, to the phylogenetic group B2, mostly showed RAPD-type A (92%) and were found in all participating hospitals. O25b-ST131 isolates predominantly produced CTX-M-15 (96%), and less SHV-12 (n=3) or TEM-139 (n=2). In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time the country-wide dissemination of a highly resistant B2 O25b-ST131 CTX-M-15 producing E. coli clone in Bulgaria.

  12. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  13. Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Fornarino, Simona; Nesheva, Desislava; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Carossa, Valeria; Yordanov, Yordan; Torroni, Antonio; Galabov, Angel S.; Toncheva, Draga; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible. PMID:23483890

  14. Space weather and myocardial infarction diseases at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Kleimenova, Natalia; Petrova, Palmira

    The relationship of the number of calls for the emergency medical care in Yakutsk (subauroral latitudes) in connection with myocardial infarction diseases during years near the maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) of the 11-year geomagnetic disturbance cycle to space weather parameters has been studied. It is found that at subauroral latitudes, the increase of geomagnetic activity, namely, the occurrence of night magnetospheric substorms, plays the important role in the exacerbation of myocardial infarctions. Substorms are accompanied by Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations with periods of (0.5-3.0) Hz, coinciding with heart rhythms of a human being, thus, these waves can be a biotropic factor negatively influencing on the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. The comparison of seasonal change of the number of calls for emergency medical care to patients at subauroral latitudes with a simultaneous seasonal change of fatal endings because of an infarction at low latitudes (Bulgaria) has shown their essential difference. Thus, in Bulgaria the maximum of infarctions have been marked in winter, and minimum - in summer, and in Yakutsk a few maxima coinciding with the sharp and considerable increases of the level of the planetary geomagnetic disturbances have been observed. In this case, in Bulgaria the infarctions could be connected with availability of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations. Thus, the stable quasi-sinusoidal Pc1 pulsations can be a biotropic factor influencing on the development of myocardial infarctions at middle latitudes and the Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations, which do not propagate to the lower latitudes, could be a biotropic factor at subauroral latitudes.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  16. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voynikova, D. S.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Ivanov, A. V.; Iliev, I. P.

    2015-10-01

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants - sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  17. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. PMID:27451111

  18. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  19. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    SciTech Connect

    Voynikova, D. S. Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G. Ivanov, A. V.; Iliev, I. P.

    2015-10-28

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants – sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  20. Optical Observations of the Nearby Galaxy IC342 with Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetic, M. M.; Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Dobardzic, A.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Pannuti, T. G.; Petrov, N.

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.

  1. BR-confirmation of the probable nova M31 2016-07c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcheva, A.; Kurtenkov, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Kostov, A.; Minev, M.; Nedialkov, P.

    2016-07-01

    We report BR-photomerty of the probable nova M31 2016-07c (PNV J00435768+4134528) located at RA(2000) = 00h43m57.94s, Dec(2000) = +41d34'54.6", which is 830.0" east and 1126.1" north of the center of M31. The coordinates uncertainties are 0''.24 in RA and 0''.12 in DEC. The images are obtained with the 50/70cm Schmidt telescope at Rozhen NAO, Bulgaria.

  2. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, K; Kovacheva, N; Vosman, B; Zhang, L; Rajapakse, S; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I

    2005-08-01

    Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same time, the data indicated that modern industrial oil rose cultivation is based on a very narrow genepool and that oil rose collections contain many genetically identical accessions. The study of long-term vegetative propagation of the Damask roses also reveals high somatic stability for the microsatellite loci analyzed.

  3. The 2012 MW5.6 earthquake in the vicinity of the city of Sofia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Aleksandrova, Irena; Dimitrova, Liliya; Popova, Iliana; Raykova, Plamena

    2013-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The neotectonic movements on the Balkan Peninsula were controlled by extensional collapse of the Late Alpin orogen, and were influenced by extension behind the Aegean arc and by the complicated vertical and horizontal movements in the Pannonian region. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia seismic zone that is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. Seismicity in the zone is related mainly to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=IX-X MSK64. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the town of Sofia and the appearance of thermal springs in the western part of the town. After a quiescence of about 50 years a strong event with M=6.5 occurred in 1905 near the western marginal part of the Sofia zone. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK64). The earthquake caused a lot of damages in the town and changed the capacity of the thermal mineral springs in Sofia and the surrounding villages. The earthquake was felt in an area of 50000 km2 and followed by aftershocks, which lasted more than one year. Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012, at 25 km south west of the city of Sofia. This shallow earthquake was largely felt in the region and up to Greece, FYROM, Serbia and Romania. No severe injuries have been reported so far, though

  4. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  5. [The bronze head of Seuthes III. A maxillofacial surgery case from antiquity].

    PubMed

    Dozio, Esaù; von Allmen, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The authors had the opportunity to visit the tumulus of Golijama Kosmatka in todays central Bulgaria and the there found burial artefacts of Seuthes III., a Thracian King who lived in the 4th-3rd century BC. The beautiful bronze head of the king found in front of the burial site shows the typical sequelae of a dislocated lateral mid face fracture in all details. These findings do fit and also confirm the troublesome times this local king went through after the death of Alexander the Great.

  6. DigiPlace4all: an online peer support community for digital skills.

    PubMed

    Magennis, Mark; Murphy, Esther; Lazarov, Andrean; Van Isacker, Karel; Dumnicka, Kinga; Polak, Malgorzata; Meagher, Bernadette; Penny, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The DigiPlace4all online peer support community supports people with disabilities in developing digital literacy skills needed to transition from Vocational and Educational Training (VET) to mainstream education & employment. It facilitates the development of informal one-to-one peer support relationships between members who can post and respond to requests and offers of peer support and share information on a range of associated topics. It is active in Ireland, Belgium, Poland and Bulgaria and is being spread internationally. PMID:26294478

  7. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-03-15

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Three proposed COLs expected in 2007, by Dale E. Klein, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Delivering behaviors that our customers value, by Jack Allen, Westinghouse Electric Company; Facilitating high-level and fuel waste disposal technologies, by Malcolm Gray, IAEA, Austria; Plant life management and long-term operation, by Pal Kovacs, OECD-NEA, France; Measuring control rod position, by R. Taymanov, K. Sapozhnikova, I. Druzhinin, D.I. Mendeleyev, Institue for Metrology, Russia; and, 'Modernization' means higher safety, by Svetlana Genova, Kozluduy NPP plc, Bulgaria.

  8. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  9. Fatal outcome of coinfection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and malaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Petrov, Andrei; Papa, Anna; Vutchev, Dimitar; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Vatev, Nikolay; Stoycheva, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a Bulgarian patient with imported falciparum malaria that manifested 6 days after his arrival in Bulgaria, which was complicated by bloody diarrhea 2 days later. Blood smear revealed high parasitemia, with annular forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, RNA of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was detected in the blood sample by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and nested RT-PCR. The obtained sequence was found to be clustered within the Europe 1 lineage close to the other Bulgarian strains. Notably, the two infectious diseases may appear with many similar symptoms that are difficult to distinguish. PMID:25420643

  10. Nikolay Kirov Nikolov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Minko; Reynolds, Steve

    2014-12-01

    Professor Nikolay Kirov Nikolov graduated in Chemistry from Sofia University 'St. Kliment Ohridski', Bulgaria, in 1968. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1973, D.Sc. in 1988 and was appointed to the position of Professor of Physics in the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), in 1989. Prof. Kirov rose to become an international authority in the area of molecular spectroscopy, and in particular in the vibrational spectroscopy of thermotropic liquid crystals. Prof. Kirov was a scientist of high reputation both in Bulgaria and globally. His scientific papers, numbering some 150, focus on the physics of liquid crystals. His systematic investigations of the vibrational spectroscopy of a wide class of thermotropic liquid crystals were collected in the monograph Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid crystals (1984), in which the molecular structure and properties of various liquid crystals, vibrational assignments, orientational order parameters and their calculation by molecular dynamics are presented. A range of liquid crystal materials was categorised and reported in his second book Atlas of vibrational spectra of liquid crystals (1988). Both publications remain a valuable source of information for specialists in the field of molecular spectroscopy. The outstanding contributions and growing reputation of Prof. Kirov led to periods as Visiting Scientist in the Universities of Parma, Calabria and Wroclaw. His abilities as a scientific organizer and leader were also notable, and led to a long and distinguished period of service in the Institute of Solid State Physics, being first appointed in 1980 as Scientific Secretary, and subsequently as Head of the Laboratory of Optics and Spectroscopy (1990-1998) and Director of the Institute (1991-1999). He was Chairman of the Scientific Council of ISSP over this period, and a member of the Specialized Scientific Council on Condensed Matter Physics. Prof. Kirov was a member of the High Testimonial

  11. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure.

  12. Spacecraft tables 1957 - 1990.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J.

    This book presents a record of all space launches of all space-active countries from 1957 to 1990. In each case, the name and number designation, launch date, reentry date (when applicable) are given. Launches are organized by country, and by type of mission. If known, the purpose of the mission is indicated. The countries represented include the U.S., U.S.S.R., Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom. Among organizations covered are NASA, Amsat, Intelsat, ESA, Interkosmos, NATO, Inmarsat, Entelsat, Arabsat.

  13. New data on Longidorus aetnaeus Roca, Lamberti, Agostinelli & Vinciguerra, 1986 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Iran and Ajaria (Georgia).

    PubMed

    Amrei, Shahrbanou Bakhshi; Pedram, Majid; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Elshishka, Milka; Ghaemi, Razieh; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    Longidorus aetnaeus Roca, Lamberti, Agostinelli & Vinciguerra, 1986 is reported for the first time from Iran and Ajaria (Georgia). Morphological and morphometric data are provided for two Iranian and one Ajarian populations. The D2-D3 region of 28S rDNA for both Iranian populations was sequenced for the first time and the data reported. A detailed study of juveniles of L. aetnaeus from Iran, Georgia and Bulgaria demonstrated that this species develops through three juvenile stages. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies inferred from sequences for the D2-D3 region of 28S rRNA gene revealed that L. aetnaeus is most closely related to L. leptocephalus.

  14. Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. DA distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria. PMID:21637604

  15. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials.

  16. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure. PMID:17688110

  17. [The 1988 general census in light of the expected recommendations of the CMEA Permanent Statistical Commission].

    PubMed

    Zalewski, L

    1987-11-01

    The author describes a set of principles concerning census procedures agreed to by the countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. These include an agreement to conduct a decennial census at the end of each decade and close to the beginning of a year, and an agreed number of minimum and optimum components. Dates of future censuses include: Poland, 1988; USSR, 1989; Mongolia, 1989; Viet Nam, 1989; Romania, 1990; Hungary, 1990; Cuba, 1990; Czechoslovakia, 1990; German Democratic Republic, 1991; Yugoslavia, 1991; and Bulgaria, 2000.

  18. Optical observation of supernova remnant in elliptical galaxy NGC 185

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vučetić, M.; Arbutina, B.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Ciprijanovic, A.; Urosevic, D.; Petrov, N.; Onić, D.; Trcka, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the previously known optical supernova remnant (SNR) in NGC 185 galaxy, a dwarf elliptical companion of the Andromeda galaxy, in order to gain more information about its properties and evolutionary status. To this end, we observed a central portion of NGC 185, through the narrowband Hα and [SII]} filters, on a 2m RCC-telescope at National astronomical observatory Rozhen, Bulgaria. Also, we performed MHD simulations using the Pluto code, for the case of low environmental density and high pressure, in order to discuss evolution of a SNR in a gas poor dwarf galaxy.

  19. Two new high-altitude subspecies of Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus) cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćurčić, Srećko; Ilić, Nastas; Vesović, Nikola; Antić, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858 currently comprises around 60 species belonging to eight subgenera, inhabiting mostly the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor (Schatzmayr 1942, 1943; Bousquet 2003; Ćurčić et al. 2008; Arndt et al. 2011; Lohaj et al. 2012). The taxa live in limited geographic areas and are mostly montane (Trautner & Geigenmüller 1987; Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1998). The territory of Serbia is inhabited by two species of Tapinopterus, T. (T.) cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (recorded in Bulgaria and Romania as well) and T. (T.) miridita (Apfelbeck, 1904) (recorded in Albania and the Republic of Macedonia as well), as well as by the three subspecies, T. (T.) cognatus cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (known from Mt. Suva Planina in Serbia and from Bulgaria), T. (T.) cognatus winkleri Mandl, 1936 (known from the Svrljiške Planine Mts. and Mt. Stara Planina in both Serbia and Bulgaria), and T. (T.) miridita miridita (Apfelbeck, 1904) (known from Mt. Šar Planina in both Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia), respectively (Mandl 1936; Schatzmayr 1942, 1943; Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1995; Drovenik & Peks 1999; Bousquet 2003; Ćurčić et al. 2007; Guéorguiev & Giachino 2008). In our opinion, T. (T.) cognatus cognatus does not live in Bulgaria (as was previously reported) (Bousquet 2003), while the older Schatzmayr's (1943) record "Klisura" should refer to the Iron Gate Gorge in SW Romania and NE Serbia, not to any Bulgarian place. The other mentioned locality, i.e., Mt. Suva Planina in Serbia, is situated far from the type locality (Iron Gate). Since nearly all Tapinopterus taxa are regional or local endemics, this southernmost record in SE Serbia for T. cognatus cognatus seems unlikely. In view of the high diversity of Tapinopterus on the Balkan Peninsula, it is expected that new taxa exist in border areas of the distribution in Serbia. During the last years, the first (SĆ), second (NI) and fourth author (DA) of the paper investigated a number of epigean montane

  20. ICP-MS determination of lead isotope ratios in legal and counterfeit cigarette tobacco samples.

    PubMed

    Judd, Christopher D; Swami, Kamal

    2010-12-01

    A method for the determination of Pb isotope ratios (IR) in cigarette tobacco by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) has been developed and applied to tobacco samples from genuine and counterfeit cigarettes obtained in the USA. The IR ²⁰⁷Pb/²⁰⁶Pb, (208)Pb/²⁰⁶Pb, ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁴Pb, ²⁰⁷Pb/²⁰⁴Pb and ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁴Pb were measured using a Q-ICP-MS instrument. Two certified reference materials, grown in the USA and Bulgaria, were also analysed for comparison with the tobacco samples, as were tobacco samples from cigarettes obtained in Pakistan and China. The precision of the results was sufficient to distinguish between the counterfeit and genuine USA cigarettes. All of the genuine cigarettes and both reference materials, grown in different regions, were statistically distinct based on the measured ratios. The counterfeit cigarettes were indistinguishable from the reference material grown in Bulgaria. The technique shows promise as a method for identifying counterfeit cigarettes, possibly determining the source region.

  1. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  2. A rare case of multiple rattlesnake bites.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Yanko T; Kristeva, Sasha A; Prancheva, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic. The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria--it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

  3. Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 and T. pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) are a complex of fourteen species in Europe and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tachysphex pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) and Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 species subgroups belong to the Tachysphex pompiliformis species group, and both subgroups consist of morphologically similar species. The Tachysphex austriacus Kohl species subgroup comprises four species in Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex austriacus and Tachysphex prismaticus Straka, 2005 are presented, and Tachysphex hungaricus sp. n. from Hungary and Tachysphex smissenae sp. n. from Spain, France and Turkey are described. The Tachysphex pompiliformis species subgroup consists of ten species from Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex ferrugineus Pulawski, 1967 and Tachysphex opacus F. Morawitz, 1893, as well as the differential diagnosis and redescription of Tachysphex pompiliformis, are presented. Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer, 1809), Tachysphex jokischianus (Panzer, 1809) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola, 1808) are resurrected from synonymy with Tachysphex pompiliformis and redescribed. Neotypes of Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola) are designed. Tachysphex bohemicus sp. n. from the Czech Republic; Tachysphex cretensis sp. n. from Crete, Greece; Tachysphex nobilis sp. n. from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Turkey; and Tachysphex punctipleuris sp. n. from Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Turkey are described. Identification keys to all species from Tachysphex pompiliformis and Tachysphex austriacus species subgroups known from Europe and Turkey are presented. PMID:27110190

  4. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found.

  5. Graphical study of reasons for engagement in physical activity in European Union.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Daniel; Cubedo, Marta; Ríos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    We collect data on 15 reasons why people in the 27 EU countries engage in physical activity, from the European Commission's Special Eurobarometer. A graphical output was obtained using classical Principal Component Analysis techniques in order to analyse types of motivation in the EU. Cluster Analysis method were used to define the interrelationship between the data in the 27 countries. People in Sweden, Denmark and Finland were the most highly motivated. High rates were detected in Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Estonia, Luxembourg and Latvia while low rates were found in Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Greece, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. The lowest motivation rates were in the Netherlands. Regarding the reasons for engaging in exercise (a sport or physical activity), we observed two motivation types. The first group was related to health and physical appearance while the second was associated with social reasons: to be with friends, to better integrate into society, to meet people from other cultures. For citizens of Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania, health and physical appearance carried greater importance than the European average while for citizens of Germany, Finland and Sweden the second motivation type was higher than the European average. PMID:24102045

  6. Investigation of the white light coronal structure during the total solar eclipse on March 29, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, P.; Stoev, A.; Kuzin, S.; Shopov, Y.; Kiskinova, N.; Stoyanov, N.; Pertsov, A.

    2008-02-01

    Results from photographic observations of the white light solar corona conducted during the total phase of the total solar eclipse on March 29, 2006 in Manavgat, Turkey are shown in this work. Spectroscopic study of the green 530.3 nm line of Fe XIV in the corona of the Sun has also been made. The spectrograph was designed by specialists from the STIL-BAS "Acad. D. Mishev", Stara Zagora Department, Bulgaria; the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia; and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. It has been found that the axis of symmetry of the "helmet"-type streamers is tilted towards the solar equator and the deviations from a radial direction in the western hemisphere are greater than those in the eastern one (21°/8°). The solar corona flattening is [epsilon]=0.098, which corresponds to an intermediate (before the minimum) type of corona. We have obtained that the solar cycle phase is [Phi]=0.17 for the 2006 TSE. White light corona is asymmetric, in contrast to solar corona observed during the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse.

  7. Helicopsis persica n. sp. from northern Iran (Gastropoda: Geomitridae).

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Bössneck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Müller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island Öland in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran. PMID:27395547

  8. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Deli, Tamás; Irikov, Atanas; Harl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania), Orcula zilchi (Bulgaria), and Orcula wagneri (Albania) is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum) shell characters (sculpture and shape) and unpublished molecular data the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. Orcula zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia) subgen. n.; Orcula jetschini, Orcula wagneri, and Orcula schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica) subgen. n. (type species: Pupa schmidtii) whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia) is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica) inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula) are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia). The occurrence of only one Orcula species namely Orcula jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and Orcula gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica) is considered as a synonym of Sphyradium doliolum. PMID:23794893

  9. Parameterization of SURFEX-TOPMODEL river velocity based on instant discharge dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedkov, Nikolay; Artinyan, Eram; Tsarev, Petko

    2016-04-01

    SURFEX-TOPMODEL distributed physical model is used to analyze and forecast stream flow discharges including flash floods occurring in a Mediterranean river basin in Bulgaria. River velocity is one of the parameters that need to be calibrated in order to achieve acceptable representation of peak floods but in the same time to produce a smooth hydrograph during the low flow periods. The coupled model showed great sensibility to the parameter but when focusing to reproduce high peaks low discharge hydrograph presented unrealistic small peaks too. The dependency between the measured instant discharge and mean section velocity was established for the Bulgarian hydrometric stations on rivers using 20 years of direct discharge-velocity measures of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria. The relationship is used to avoid the calibration of the velocity parameter for the measured cross-sections. It was coded within the model thus permitting dynamical adjustment of the velocity with respect to the computed instant discharge in the river section. We present the results of river flow simulations with the modified parameterization compared to those with the original model for the hydrological year 2014-2015. Keywords: SURFEX-TOP, river speed parameter

  10. COMMITTEES COMMITTEES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE Chairman: Alexander G Petrov Director, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria Chairman Emeritus: Nikolay Kirov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria Local Organising Committee: Chairman: Alexander G Petrov Members: Diana Nesheva, Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Eleonora Popova, Lyubomila Dedinska, Christo Popov, Vasil Lovchinov, Marina Primatarowa, Emilia Vlaikova, Irina Velkova, Hassan Chamati PROGRAMME COMMITTEE Chairman: A G Petrov Members: D Alexandrov (Thunder Bay), V Celebonovic (Belgrade), D Dimova-Malinovska (Sofia), B Dulmet (Besancon), A Grechnikov (Moscow), M Gunes (Mugla), C Main (Dundee), D Nesheva (Sofia), M C Petty (Durham), M Popescu (Bucharest), S Reynolds (Dundee), K Shimakawa (Gifu), J Singh (Darwin), N Starbov (Sofia), M Tomilin (St Petersburg), Ph Vanderbemden (Liege), A Vaseashta (Washington) LOCAL SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL Chairman: A G Petrov Members: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences N Sabotinov (President) I Nedkov (Scientific Secretary, Physics) Institute of Solid State Physics N Kirov, D Nesheva, V Lovchinov, St Andreev, M Primatarowa Institute of Electronics R Enikov (Director) Central Lab. of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources D Dimova-Malinovska Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies V Saynov, N Starbov Central Lab. of Applied Physics R Kakanakov (Director) Sofia University - Faculty of Physics A Andreeva, S Russev (Heads of Departments)

  11. Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 and T. pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) are a complex of fourteen species in Europe and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Straka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Tachysphex pompiliformis (Panzer, 1804) and Tachysphex austriacus Kohl, 1892 species subgroups belong to the Tachysphex pompiliformis species group, and both subgroups consist of morphologically similar species. The Tachysphex austriacus Kohl species subgroup comprises four species in Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex austriacus and Tachysphex prismaticus Straka, 2005 are presented, and Tachysphex hungaricus sp. n. from Hungary and Tachysphex smissenae sp. n. from Spain, France and Turkey are described. The Tachysphex pompiliformis species subgroup consists of ten species from Europe and Turkey. For this subgroup, differential diagnoses of Tachysphex ferrugineus Pulawski, 1967 and Tachysphex opacus F. Morawitz, 1893, as well as the differential diagnosis and redescription of Tachysphex pompiliformis, are presented. Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer, 1809), Tachysphex jokischianus (Panzer, 1809) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola, 1808) are resurrected from synonymy with Tachysphex pompiliformis and redescribed. Neotypes of Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer) and Tachysphex nigripennis (Spinola) are designed. Tachysphex bohemicus sp. n. from the Czech Republic; Tachysphex cretensis sp. n. from Crete, Greece; Tachysphex nobilis sp. n. from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Turkey; and Tachysphex punctipleuris sp. n. from Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Turkey are described. Identification keys to all species from Tachysphex pompiliformis and Tachysphex austriacus species subgroups known from Europe and Turkey are presented.

  12. Genetic, Genomic and Epigenomic Studies of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Ben).

    PubMed

    Staneva, Rada G; Balabanski, L; Dimova, I; Rukova, B; Hadjidekova, S; Dimitrov, P; Simeonov, V; Ivanov, S; Vagarova, R; Malinov, M; Cukuranovic, R; Stefanovic, V; Polenakovic, M; Djonov, V; Galabov, A; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    BEN is a primary, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized with chronic anemia, absence of edema, xantoderma, normal blood pressure and normal findings on the fundus oculi. The disease is distributed in restricted areas in Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia. Despite numerous studies on genetic and environmental factors and their possible involvement in BEN, its etiopathogenesis still remains elusive. Our recent study aim to elucidate the possible epigenetic component in BEN development. Whole genome DNA array methylation analysis was applied to compare the methylation profiles of male and female BEN patients from endemic regions in Bulgaria and Serbia and healthy controls. All three most prominent candidate genes with aberrations in the epigenetic profile discovered with this study are involved in the inflammatory/immune processes and oncogenesis. These data are in concordance with the reported pathological alterations in BEN. This research supports the role of epigenetic changes in BEN pathology. Exome sequencing of 22.000 genes with Illumina Nextera Exome Enrichment Kit revealed three mutant genes (CELA1, HSPG2, and KCNK5) in BEN patients which encode proteins involved in basement membrane/extracellular matrix and vascular tone, tightly connected to process of angiogenesis. We suggest that an abnormal process of angiogenesis plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of BEN. PMID:27442376

  13. New report of Phoma glomerata on Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Rodeva, R; Carrieri, R; Stoyanova, Z; Dacheva, S; Lahoz, E; Fanigliulo, A; Crescenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, coriander plants (Coriandrum sativum L.), showing symptoms of greyish to hell brown lesions with dark brown border between discoloured and asymptomatic tissues, were observed in Bulgaria. Pycnidia with small unicellular conidia appeared in the pale centre of the lesions. In this work, the identification of the causal agent of this disease was made applying Koch's postulates. Moreover, for a rapid and unambiguous identification of the fungal species, the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8 rDNA gene (ITS1-5.8-ITS2) were amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from the isolated colonies. The amplicon was sequenced and analyzed using BLASTn, and showed a homology of 100% with a corresponding sequence of Phoma glomerata (accession number DQ093699). The fungus isolated, after the morphological and molecular characterization, was ascribed to the species Phoma glomerata (Corda) Wollenweber and Hochapfel. This is the first report of P. glomerata as agent of stem rot of coriander in Bulgaria and elsewhere.

  14. Redescriptions and comments on the validity of Acuaria subula and A. skrjabini (Nematoda, Spirurida, Acuariidae), parasites of passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Kontrimavichus, Vytautas L; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2013-09-01

    Acuaria subula (Dujardin, 1845) is redescribed by light microcopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of specimens from its type host, Erithacus rubecula (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae), from Curonian Spit (Kaliningradskaya Oblast', Russia) and Bulgaria. Acuaria skrjabini (Ozerskaya, 1926) is redescribed by LM and SEM on the basis of specimens from Passer domesticus (type host) and P. hispaniolensis (Passeriformes, Passeridae) from Bulgaria. Contrary to previous opinions recognizing A. skrjabini as a junior synonym of A. subula, the present study confirms that they are distinct species. They can be distinguished on the basis of the ratio between the length of cordons and the body length, the ratio between the length of muscular oesophagus and glandular oesophagus, and the ratio between the total length of oesophagus and the body length. In addition, the plates forming the cordons in these two species exhibit different morphological characters. Another difference between these two species is associated with the particular irregular mosaic ornamentation of the cuticle on the ventral and lateral sides of body around the region of vulva of A. subula and its absence in A. skrjabini. Data on their host and geographical ranges are surveyed. The type series of Acuaria buttnerae Chabaud et Petter, 1961, described as a parasite of Calandrella brachydactyla (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in France, is re-examined; the latter species is recognized as a junior synonym of A. skrjabini (new synonymy). PMID:23990424

  15. Antifungal activity and identification of Lactobacilli, isolated from traditional dairy product "katak".

    PubMed

    Tropcheva, Rositsa; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana; Danova, Svetla

    2014-08-01

    Filamentous moulds are the main spoilage microorganisms, responsible for significant economic losses and several healthy risks in human food chain. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially lactobacilli could be a natural antagonist of these dangerous organisms. In Bulgaria, a very limited data exists on the antifungal activity of LAB microbiota of fermented dairy products. In the present study, four active strains were isolated from traditional fermented curd/yogurt-like product "katak", produced in Bulgaria from centuries. The new isolates KR3, KR4, KR51 and KR53 were identified by API 50 CH biochemical test and different molecular methods (species-specific PCR, RAPD-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis) as Lactobacillus brevis. According to our knowledge, this is the first data on the molecular characterization of the Lactobacillus microbiota of "katak". A broad spectrum of antifungal activity of the four L. brevis KR strains against test-cultures representatives of carcinogenic, toxigenic, deteriorative and allergenic fungi from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma was estimated. Strains L. brevis KR3, KR4 and KR51 completely suppress the growth of Penicillium claviforme, Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus niger. With regard to Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride, a lower and strain-specific inhibitory activity was observed. The antifungal activity of our new L. brevis isolates seems to be a promising advantage of these four strains, suggesting their potential applications in different food technologies as bio-preservative agents against moulds. PMID:24887637

  16. The effect of space weather on human heart diseases in subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Petrova, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this work the relationship between emergency medical calls for myocardial infarction in Yakutsk (subauroral geomagnetic latitudes) and parameters of the space weather near maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) geomagnetic activity is studied. The comparison of the seasonal behavior of the number of calls with the simultaneous seasonal behavior of deaths from myocardial infarctions at low latitudes (Bulgaria) exhibited significant differences. Namely, in Bulgaria, the maximum and minimum of infarctions were observed in winter and in summer, respectively; in Yakutsk, several observed maximums coincided with the sharp and considerable increase in planetary geomagnetic activity. An analysis of experimental results made it possible to suppose that, in subauroral latitudes, unlike low latitudes, a major role in the increase in the number of infarctions is played by the increase in geomagnetic activity, namely, by the appearance of night magnetospheric substorms, which are also observed in subauroral latitudes in magnetically disturbed times. Substorms are always accompanied by irregular geomagnetic Pi1 pulsations with periods of 0.5-3 Hz. These pulsations can be biotropic, like stable quasi-sinusoidal geomagnetic Pc1 pulsations in middle and low latitudes.

  17. Trees annual rings and "Sun-Climate" connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komitov, Boris; Duchlev, Peter; Bjandov, Georgy; Kirilova, Daniela

    The subject of the present work is an investigation of the relationship "Sun-Climate" for the territory of Central Bulgaria for the period from the end of 18th to the beginning of 21st century, based on dendro-chronoligical data. For this purpose the smoothed time series of the widths of annual rings of two beech samples from the region of Central Balkan Range are used. Special attention is paid to the 22 yr oscillations in the growth of tree mass and the relationship between the oscillation amplitude and the phase of solar cycles with sub-century and two-century duration. It is shown that the attenuation of 20-22 yr magnetic solar cycle during the hyper-centurial Dalton minimum (1795-1825/1830) is accompanied by strong drying and warming of the summers in Central Southern Bulgaria during this time. The onset of new Dalton-type hyper-centurial minimum in the beginning of the 21st century corresponds to an analogous climatic situation.

  18. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done. PMID:26505204

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Rhodiola rosea L. of three different origins

    PubMed Central

    Evstatieva, Ljuba; Todorova, Milka; Antonova, Daniela; Staneva, Jordanka

    2010-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae), or “rose root” is a perennial herbaceous plant, distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Pharmacological studies have shown that R. rosea exhibits different biological activities – antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, etc. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from rhizomes of three commercial samples of R. rosea originated from Bulgaria (sample 1), China (sample 2) and India (sample 3). The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thus, the main volatile component in the Bulgaria and Chinese R. rosea was geraniol, followed by myrthenol in sample 1 or octanol in sample 2. Phenethylalcohol was a principal constituent in the Indian oil. Myrtenol and octanol were in significant amounts too. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were characteristic of the latter sample. It is notable that cinnamyl alcohol, which was present in large concentration in Bulgarian sample, was not detected in the other two samples. The obtained results showed considerable differences in the composition of the studied three origins of R. rosea. PMID:21120024

  20. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    PubMed

    Enchev, Yavor; Eftimov, Tihomir

    2010-05-01

    After 45 years as a closest ally of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw Pact, founded mainly against the US and the Western Europe countries, and 15 years of democratic changes, since 2004 Bulgaria has been a full member of NATO and an equal and trusted partner of its former enemies. The unprecedented transformation has affected all aspects of the Bulgarian society. As a function of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarian military medicine and in particular Bulgarian military neurosurgery is indivisibly connected with their development. The history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery is the history of the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics military system and military medicine to NATO standards in every aspect. The career of the military neurosurgeon in Bulgaria is in many ways similar to that of the civilian neurosurgeon, but there are also many peculiarities. The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization.

  1. [ADHERING TO MEDICAL STANDARTS, EVIDENCE-BASED STAGING IN GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Chakalova, G

    2016-01-01

    Among the key factors that influence the survival of patients is adherence to medical treatment standards. Indicators are assessing the degree of adherence to medical standards and represent the relative shares (%) of patients who fulfilled the relevant aspect of any subject. Data from the BNCR of 9842 cases of patients with malignant diseases of the female reproductive diagnosed in 2011-2013 in Bulgaria has been analyzed. Patients with tumors of the vulva were incorrectly staged in 15% to 30% of the cases, and those with vaginal tumors were incorrectly staged in 20% to 23% of cases. In patients with malignant tumors of the cervix incorrect staging was established in 19% to 47% of the cases. Patients with tumors of the uterus were incorrectly staged in 6% to 26% of the cases. Among the patients with ovarian tumors were incorrectly staged in 18% to 43%. Our results show that one in three patients with gynecological cancer in Bulgaria was incorrectly staged. We recommend using the current TNM and FIGO systems. PMID:27514165

  2. A new species and new records of Molophilus Curtis, 1833 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from the Western Palaearctic Region

    PubMed Central

    Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Molophilus Curtis, 1833 is the most species-rich Limoniidae genus with a total number of 1006 species and subspecies, from which 97 are recorded in the Western-Palaearctic region so far. However new species are still expected from less investigated regions, like the Balkans or the Eastern Europe. New information In the present article, we desrcibe a new limonid crane fly species, Molophilus balcanicus Kolcsár sp. n. from the Central Balkan area (Bulgaria). This new taxa is closely related to M. serpentiger Edwards, 1938 and M. variispinus Starý​, 1971 based on the external male genital structures, but differs from its siblings mostly in the structure of the inner and outer gonostylus. Additionally, a number of species are reported for the first time from various European countries, like M. variispinus Starý, 1971 and M. occultus de Meijere, 1918 from Romania; M. crassipygus de Meijere 1918, M. obsoletus Lackschewitz, 1940 and M. medius de Meijere, 1918 from Greece; M. flavus Goetghebuer, 1920 from Andorra; M. cinereifrons de Meijere, 1920 from Bulgaria and M. corniger Meijere, 1920 from Spain. PMID:26379460

  3. EDITORIAL: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    Dear Readers, The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop, LPHYS'14, took place in the City of Sofia, Bulgaria. 361 participants from 35 countries attended the conference. It was hosted by the Institute of Electronics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. This year's Workshop was dedicated to paying tribute to two major events: • 50th anniversary of 1964 Nobel Prize in physics, • 145th anniversary of the establishment of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS'14 has been taken under the High Patronage of Rosen Plevneliev, President of the Republic of Bulgaria. The LPHYS'14 Steering Committee and the Advisory & Program Committee would like to extend their sincere gratitude to Professor Sanka Gateva (Co-Chair) and Professor Ekaterina Borisova (Head of the Local Organizing Committee) and to their team for the outstanding job performed in organizing, arranging, managing and putting in order the conference. Their combined efforts lead to a successful result. In this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series you will find selected proceedings of the Workshop in Sofia. Please make a note that the 24th annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'15) will take place from August 21 to August 25, 2015 in the city of Shanghai, China hosted by Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With kind regards, Steering and Advisory & Program committees LPHYS'14

  4. The inability to pay for health services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Out-of-pocket payments for health services constitute a major financial burden for patients in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Individuals who are unable to pay use different coping strategies (e.g. borrowing money or foregoing service utilization), which can have negative consequences on their health and social welfare. This article explores patients’ inability to pay for outpatient and hospital services in six CEE countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine. Methods: The analysis is based on quantitative data collected in 2010 in nationally representative surveys. Two indicators of inability to pay were considered: the need to borrow money or sell assets and foregoing service utilization. Statistical analyses were applied to investigate associations between the indicators of inability to pay and individual characteristics. Results: Patient payments are most common in Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania and Lithuania and often include informal payments. Romanian and, particularly, Ukrainian patients most often face difficulties to pay for health services (with approximately 40% of Ukrainian payers borrowing money or selling assets to cover hospital payments and approximately 60% of respondents who need care foregoing services). Inability to pay mainly affects those with poor health and low incomes. Conclusion: Widespread patient payments constitute a major financial barrier to health service use in CEE. There is a need to formalize them where they are informal and to take measures to protect vulnerable population groups, especially those with limited possibilities to deal with payment difficulties. PMID:24065370

  5. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world. During the last four years, So-lar-Terrestrial Influences Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium, Stara Zagora succeeded to build an ex-cellent partnership, working on the International Heliophysical year and International Year of Astronomy -global efforts initiated by the UNESCO and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe. They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day,Yuri's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy 2009. A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized. Stara Zagora became a host of IHY Space Weather Monitor -SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances), numerous of educational materials have been adapted and translated in Bulgarian. Cycle of lectures "Epock of Great astronomical discoveries", devoted to the International Year of Astronomy was given in April 2009 in the Stara Zagora Art Gallery. Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was organized: "100 hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April

  6. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  7. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  8. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  9. Evolution of the Cretaceous magmatism in the Apuseni-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt and implications for the geodynamic reconstructions: new insight from geochronology, geochemistry and isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Heinrich, C. A.; Frank, M.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2003-04-01

    Most major Cu-Au (-PGE) deposits in the Carpathian Balkan orogen are related to a 1500 km long belt of Upper Cretaceous magmatism extending from southern Romania through Yugoslavia to Bulgaria, with a likely continuation southeast of the Black Sea into Turkey, known as the Apuseni Banat Timok Srednogorie (ABTS) belt (Popov et al., 2000). In the frame of ABTS belt a new investigation was started to reveal the relation between Cretaceous magmatism and the Cu-Au-PGE deposits across the belt in East Serbia (Yugoslavia) and the Panagyurishte district (Bulgaria). The Late Cretaceous (Palaeogene?) magmatism of East Serbia developed along the Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC) in the east and the Ridanj Krepoljin Zone (RKZ) in the west. High precision U-Pb single zircon dating and a combination of isotope tracing, geochronological data as well as petrological data were used to provide additional data for the geodynamic evolution. A maximum life span of 2.5 Ma could be calculated for the first phase of volcanic activity in TMC, starting with the Amf-andesites of Veliki Kravelj (86.29 ± 0.32 Ma) and finishing with the Timozites (84.66 ± 0.5 Ma). Ore bearing magmatism in a single deposit (Veliki Kravelj) extended a maximum of 0.6 Ma ("pre-ore": 86.29 ± 0.32 Ma, "post-ore": 86.17 ± 0.15 Ma). Preliminary data for the dacites (70.3 ± 3.5 Ma) outcropping near Krepoljin give evidence for a shifting of the volcanic activity from TMC to RKZ together with changing the ore-deposit type from Cu-Au-PGE (TMC) to Pb-Zn-Cu (RKZ). Isotope tracing give evidence for mantle dominated source with increasing of crustal contamination in the same direction: (87Sr/86Sr ratios: 0.70388 to 0.706050, e-Hf-zircon data: +12 in TMC to +4.5 in RKZ). The Panagyurishte district (Bulgaria) show a duration time of the magmatic activity of 14 Ma, starting in the north at 92 Ma and finishing in the south at 78 Ma. Ore-related magmatism becomes younger in the same direction but finishes with 86 Ma. Multiple short

  10. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  11. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The scientific information is the latest and one of the best bedrock on which effective policy to combat and cope with natural disasters have to be built. Understanding, monitoring and information for future natural disasters are the way to assist the government and society. Different types of networks provide reliable information on various natural disasters. For example, one of the main priorities of the networks are directed to study seismicity of the Earth, its physical phenomena and fields - with an emphasis on tectonic movements and related risk processes, global changes, rotation and position of the Earth in space. Therefore seismological network using advanced electronic systems and digital seismographs transmission of signals from seismic stations to the centres and the registration, processing and archiving of information is carried out by a specialized computer system. Thus improve the monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the whole plan. Another type networks as permanent GPS/GNSS networks are associated with processing and data analysis, as well as monitoring of recent movements of the earth crust. In this study we focus on Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks on the territory in Bulgaria. At present NIGGG-BAS runs both Bulgarian seismological and GPS/GNSS networks. The Bulgarian seismological network - NOTSSI (National Operative Telemetric System for Seismological Information) was founded at the end of 1980. The network comprises today 15 permanent seismic stations spanning the entire territory of the country and two local net works that are deployed around the town of Provadia and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. Since 2005-2006, real-time data exchange between Bulgaria and Greece, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and other regional and national seismological data centers was implemented. NIGGG, respectively NOTSSI, is responsible for rapid earthquake determination, public information trough media, and information of

  12. Phenolic Profile and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Endemic Bulgarian Carduus Species

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova-Dyulgerova, Ivanka; Zhelev, Iliya; Mihaylova, Dasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant species from genus Carduus are widely distributed in the world and represented in Bulgaria by 14 species. Previous investigations on this genus demonstrated a strong antioxidant potential of extract from some Bulgarian Carduus species. Objective: The present study investigates the phenolic profile and the antioxidant potential of different extracts obtained from four endemic Compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus Boiss and Heldr., Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit ssp. globifer (Velen.) Kazmi., Carduus rhodopaeus Velen. and Carduus thracicus (Velen.) Hayek. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacity of the obtained extracts was estimated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power and copper reduction antioxidant assays. Phenolic profile was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were quantified in the inflorescences. Sinapic (2760.72 ± 15.68 μg/g dry weight [dw]), chlorogenic (2564.50 ± 19.73 μg/g dw) and ferulic acids (1648.71 ± 19.57 μg/g dw), as well as luteolin (2345.45 ± 18.61 μg/g dw) and apigenin (1332.75 ± 12.05 μg/g dw) were found to be the predominant compounds. The above contents are the highest values found in C. candicans ssp. globifer. The highest established antioxidant activity (AOA) was in favor of the ethanolic extracts, and the extract of C. rhodopaeus affirmed with the highest AOA among the investigated plant species. Conclusion: All identified phenolic compounds were reported for the 1st time in the studied endemic Carduus species, as well as their antioxidant capacities. The present study revealed that these plant species could be used as sources of antioxidants with potential medicinal properties. SUMMARY Phenolic acids and flavonoid profiles of four endemic compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus, Carduus candicans ssp

  13. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  14. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Schools lecture: Institute of Physics roadshow is a lecture series with a difference Rugby Meeting: 17th Annual Meeting for Teachers of Physics boasts an impressive schedule Courses: Year-12 pupils go to Open University Camera Competition: Enter now to win a new camera! Conference: Teachers invited to CERN in September New Zealand: Royal Society of New Zealand tackles fear of physics Bulgaria: Fairies, witches and extraterrestrials: how to teach science using theatre Schools lecture: Institute seeks speaker for its annual lecture series Competition: Critical thinking is encouraged by global warming competition Scotland: Two good reasons to visit Scotland this summer Competition: Test your knowledge Free Event: June IOP conference Conference: Also in Liverpool…

  15. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  16. The portrayal of men and women in television advertisements: an updated review of 30 studies published since 2000.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Paltzer, Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    In 1999, Furnham and Mak published a review of 14 content-analytic studies of sex roles stereotyping in television commercials. All these studies were based on the McArthur and Resko (1975) content categories. This paper updates that review considering 30 studies in over 20 countries published between 2000 and 2008. Studies were from Australasia, Austria, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hong Kong, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. They examined over 8,000 advertisements. National and cultural differences in gender stereotypes are also considered in the light of this data. The popularity of, and the problems associated with, the research paradigm are considered.

  17. Morphometric Evidence for Three Juvenile Stages in Some Species of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Halbrendt, J M; Brown, D J

    1992-06-01

    One to two hundred nematodes from each of seven Xiphinema americanum-group populations were measured to determine the range of stylet and body lengths for juveniles and adults. First-stage juveniles were identified by the position of the replacement odontostyle (i.e., the tip of the replacement odontostyle overlapped the base of the odontophore). Nematodes were identified as second stage if the functional odontostyle was the same length as the replacement odontostyle of the first stage. Subsequent stages were similarly identified by establishing the range of corresponding replacement and functional odontostyle lengths. In all populations examined, this procedure created natural divisions that clearly grouped nematodes by stylet and body length. Presumably these groups identified all juvenile and adult stages. Populations of X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum from the United States had three juvenile stages, but a population of X. pachtaicum from Bulgaria had four juvenile stages.

  18. Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences? A comparison of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Dimitrova, Radosveta

    2016-02-01

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish-Bulgarians, but not for Turkish-Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on "healthy" identity formation among immigrants for research and practice. PMID:26478532

  19. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P; Voice, Thomas C; Long, David T; Petropoulos, Evangelos A; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-03-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination.

  20. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.