Science.gov

Sample records for bulk solids handling

  1. Understanding particulate solids: Five classifications represent the first step in specifying bulk solids handling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Kolatac, R.P.

    1996-04-01

    Guidelines for the classification of bulk solids are presented, and considered with respect to the development of equipment specifications for processing and conveying. The broad-based classifications are for particulate solids considered ready for processing. The main properties considered for classification are directly related to particle size and shape and to adhesive/cohesive tendencies. Equipment and system design considerations due to static and dynamic bulk density, compressibility, particle size distribution, angle of repose, and angle of slide are also outlined. 2 tabs.

  2. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  3. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  4. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  5. Solid handling valve

    DOEpatents

    Williams, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

  6. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  7. 46 CFR 97.12-1 - Definition of a bulk solid cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of a bulk solid cargo. 97.12-1 Section 97.12... OPERATIONS Bulk Solid Cargoes § 97.12-1 Definition of a bulk solid cargo. (a) A bulk solid cargo— (1.... (b) Additional requirements for bulk solid materials needing special handling are contained in...

  8. Bulk transport of solid waste: Payload efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Municipal Solid Waste is a bulk commodity with its own unique characteristics. Unlike coal, grain, aggregate or wood chips it is compressible. Its composition is of organic and inorganic elements; its particles are of unequal size and density; it smells; it leaks and blows away; and it has an inherent negative public image. As stewards of our industry we must handle waste in an acceptable ascetic and environmental method that is economically viable. Since disposal sites are no longer near the source of generation, a transportation system to move large quantities of solid waste becomes necessary. An acceptable system involves a reload function where refuse is transferred from collection vehicles to larger vehicles at a facility called a transfer station. Today the transfer facility may contain a MRF (materials recycling facility) where reusable materials are separated from the trash to be recycled and reused. This report describes the transport of wastes as related to payload/volume effciency.

  9. 49 CFR 176.72 - Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials. 176.72... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.72 Handling of break-bulk hazardous materials. (a) A metal bale hook may not be used for handling any package of hazardous materials. (b) The use of equipment...

  10. 75 FR 34682 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code; Correction AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code.'' This correction provides... (IMSBC) Code,'' which published in the June 17, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, make the following...

  11. 76 FR 8658 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information... carriage of solid hazardous materials in bulk to allow use of the IMSBC Code as an equivalent form of... 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 1, 2011, compliance with the IMSBC Code became...

  12. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to harmonize its regulations with International Maritime Organization (IMO) amendments to Chapter VI and Chapter VII to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, (SOLAS) that make the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code mandatory. The amendments require that all vessels subject to SOLAS and carrying bulk solid......

  13. APPARATUS FOR HANDLING MIXTURES OF SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.P.

    1959-08-25

    An apparatus is described for handling either a mixture of finely subdivided materials or a single material requiring a compacting action thereon preparatory to a chemical reducing process carried out in a crucible container. The apparatus is designed to deposit a mixture of dust-forming solid materials in a container while confining the materials against escape into the surrounding atmosphere. A movable filling tube, having a compacting member, is connected to the container and to a covered hopper receiving the mixture of materials. The filling tube is capable of reciprocating in the container and their relative positions are dependent upon the pressure established upon the material by the compacting member.

  14. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain. PMID:27640724

  15. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  16. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  17. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  18. Review of Solids Handling. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit which summarizes and reviews most of the solids handling processes in common use in municipal treatment plants. No attempt is made to detail the theory and operation of the processes. Topics discussed include: (1) sources of sludge; (2) the importance of sludge management;…

  19. Review of Solids Handling. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) summarizes and reviews most of the solids handling processes in common use in municipal treatment plants. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of 72 slides); (4) student worksheet (with answers); and (5) two…

  20. Surface and bulk photochemistry of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchy, René

    1998-06-01

    This article reviews aspects of photochemistry on solid surfaces. In order to understand the photo-induced processes a brief introduction is given to the interaction between light and the solid-gas interfaces. The adsorption of molecules on solid surfaces, and the negative ion resonances (NIR) by inelastic electron scattering are briefly discussed. There are three photoinduced processes which occur on surfaces: photoinduced desorption (PID), photoinduced dissociation and photoinduced reactions. The mechanisms of the photoinduced processes are discussed and related to the experimentally determined cross sections. Photoinduced processes are driven: (i) by direct electronic excitation of the adsorbate, (ii) by substrate excitation, (iii) by both adsorbate and substrate excitation, or (iv) by charge transfer dissociation. The usual experimental methods and the light sources are presented. Most of the experimental examples deal with photo-stimulated experiments in the IR-visible and UV region. In some examples photon stimulated desorption of ions of physisorbed molecules is studied by using VUV synchrotron radiation in the energy range between 13-40 eV. In addition to desorption and dissociation, photo-excited molecules can react with each other and form new chemical bonds leading to new species on the surface. Photoinduced polymerizations of formaldehyde on Ag(111) occur after irradiation with light at 0034-4885/61/6/003/img1.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  2. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; ...

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. In conclusion, the liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  3. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  4. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  5. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  6. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2017-09-29

    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  8. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  9. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  10. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  11. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  12. Chirality-dependent friction of bulk molecular solids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dian; Cohen, Adam E

    2014-08-26

    We show that the solid-solid friction between bulk chiral molecular solids can depend on the relative chirality of the two materials. In menthol and 1-phenyl-1-butanol, heterochiral friction is smaller than homochiral friction, while in ibuprofen, heterochiral friction is larger. Chiral asymmetries in the coefficient of sliding friction vary with temperature and can be as large as 30%. In the three compounds tested, the sign of the difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction correlated with the sign of the difference in melting point between racemate (compound or conglomerate) and pure enantiomer. Menthol and ibuprofen each form a stable racemic compound, while 1-phenyl-1-butanol forms a racemic conglomerate. Thus, a difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction does not require the formation of a stable interfacial racemic compound. Measurements of chirality-dependent friction provide a unique means to distinguish the role of short-range intermolecular forces from all other sources of dissipation in the friction of bulk molecular solids.

  13. 46 CFR 97.12-5 - Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy. 97.12-5 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Bulk Solid Cargoes § 97.12-5 Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy. If the information provided in § 97.12-3(a) or (b) indicates that the bulk solid cargo to be carried is prone to...

  14. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. In conclusion, the liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  15. Manufacturing Solid Dosage Forms from Bulk Liquids Using the Fluid-bed Drying Technology.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianping; Lu, Y I; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Solid dosage forms are better than liquid dosage forms in many ways, such as improved physical and chemical stability, ease of storage and transportation, improved handling properties, and patient compliance. Therefore, it is required to transform dosage forms of liquid origins into solid dosage forms. The functional approaches are to absorb the liquids by solid excipients or through drying. The conventional drying technologies for this purpose include drying by heating, vacuum-, freeze- and spray-drying, etc. Among these drying technologies, fluidbed drying emerges as a new technology that possesses unique advantages. Fluid-bed drying or coating is highly efficient in solvent removal, can be performed at relatively low temperatures, and is a one-step process to manufacture formulations in pellet forms. In this article, the status of the art of manufacturing solid dosage forms from bulk liquids by fluid-bed drying technology was reviewed emphasizing on its application in solid dispersion, inclusion complexes, self-microemulsifying systems, and various nanoscale drug delivery systems.

  16. Handling of solid brain tumor tissue for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Christer; Nistér, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Optimal protein analysis requires unfixed tissue samples. We suggest handling the brain tumor tissue sterilely and coldly (on ice) for as short time as possible prior to processing, but for no more than 8 h. This simple protocol results in apparently intact morphology, immunoreactivity, protein integrity, and protein phosphorylation with the criteria we apply. Sample handling for Pathological Anatomical Diagnosis (PAD) and for protein analysis can be one and the same.

  17. 49 CFR 173.242 - Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards. 173.242 Section 173.242 Transportation Other... medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards. When § 172.101 of this subchapter...

  18. Handling of solids-laden hydrocarbonaceous bottoms in a retort using solid heat-carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, H.B.

    1981-01-20

    Crushed mined coal, oil shale or tar sands, feedstocks are retorted in a retort using heat-carrying solids to supply at least fifty percent of the heat required to produce an average retort temperature of between 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C) and 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C) to produce hydrocarbonaceous gases and oil. The hydrocarbon oils are treated in a manner such that there is produced a bottoms fraction containing organic carbon compounds having a boiling point above 950* F. And particulate inorganic matter derived from the retorted material. The bottoms fraction is fed directly or indirectly into the retort in a manner such that the bottoms fraction does not contact the reheated heat carriers before the heat carrying solids are contacted with the crushed mined feedstock. The bottoms fraction may be fed directly into the retort downstream of the point where the feedstock and heat carriers are first mixed, or the bottoms fraction may be fed into the feedstock before the feedstock enters the retort. This method of handling the bottoms fraction prevents breakage or agglomeration of the heat carrying solids.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office

  20. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. 173.240 Section 173.240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When §...

  1. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When § 172... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof...

  2. Method of altering the effective bulk density of solid material and the resulting product

    DOEpatents

    Kool, Lawrence B.; Nolen, Robert L.; Solomon, David E.

    1983-01-01

    A method of adjustably tailoring the effective bulk density of a solid material in which a mixture comprising the solid material, a film-forming polymer and a volatile solvent are sprayed into a drying chamber such that the solvent evaporates and the polymer dries into hollow shells having the solid material captured within the shell walls. Shell density may be varied as a function of solid/polymer concentration, droplet size and drying temperature.

  3. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  4. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid... specification cargo tank motor vehicles suitable for transport of liquids. (c) Portable tanks. DOT...

  5. Methods for the Safe Storage, Handling, and Disposal of Pyrophoric Liquids and Solids in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Quigley, David; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Simmons, Fred; Freshwater, David; Bigger, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel.12 Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior to performing the experimental task. The purpose of this article is three fold: 1) to provide guidelines and general safety precautions to avoid accidents, 2) describe proper techniques on how to successfully handle, store, and dispose of pyrophoric liquids and solids, and 3) illustrate best practices for working with this class of reactants in a laboratory environment.

  6. Comparison of Customer Preference for Bulk Material Handling Equipment through Fuzzy-AHP Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Kingshuk; Ghosh, Surojit; Sarkar, Bijan

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, customer's perception has played one of the important roles for selection of the exact equipment out of available alternatives. The present study is dealt with the method of optimization of selection criteria of a material handling equipment, based on the technical specifications considered to be available at the user end. In this work, the needs of customers have been identified and prioritized, that lead to the selection of number of criteria, which have direct effect upon the performance of the equipment. To check the consistency of selection criteria, first of all an AHP based methodology is adopted with the identified criteria and available product categories, based upon which, the judgments of the users are defined to derive the priority scales. Such judgments expressed the relative strength or intensity of the impact of the elements of the hierarchy. Subsequently, all the alternatives have ranked for each identified criteria with subsequent constitution of weighted matrices. The same has been compared with the normalized values of approximate selling prices of the equipments to determine individual cost-benefit ratio. Based on the cost-benefit ratio, the equipment is ranked. With same conditions, the study is obtained again with a Fuzzy AHP concept, where a fuzzy linguistic approach has reduced the amount of uncertainty in decision making, caused by conventional AHP due to lack of deterministic approach. The priority vectors of category and criteria are determined separately and multiplied to obtain composite score. Subsequently, the average of fuzzy weights was determined and the preferences of equipment are ranked.

  7. Comparison of Customer Preference for Bulk Material Handling Equipment through Fuzzy-AHP Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Kingshuk; Ghosh, Surojit; Sarkar, Bijan

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, customer's perception has played one of the important roles for selection of the exact equipment out of available alternatives. The present study is dealt with the method of optimization of selection criteria of a material handling equipment, based on the technical specifications considered to be available at the user end. In this work, the needs of customers have been identified and prioritized, that lead to the selection of number of criteria, which have direct effect upon the performance of the equipment. To check the consistency of selection criteria, first of all an AHP based methodology is adopted with the identified criteria and available product categories, based upon which, the judgments of the users are defined to derive the priority scales. Such judgments expressed the relative strength or intensity of the impact of the elements of the hierarchy. Subsequently, all the alternatives have ranked for each identified criteria with subsequent constitution of weighted matrices. The same has been compared with the normalized values of approximate selling prices of the equipments to determine individual cost-benefit ratio. Based on the cost-benefit ratio, the equipment is ranked. With same conditions, the study is obtained again with a Fuzzy AHP concept, where a fuzzy linguistic approach has reduced the amount of uncertainty in decision making, caused by conventional AHP due to lack of deterministic approach. The priority vectors of category and criteria are determined separately and multiplied to obtain composite score. Subsequently, the average of fuzzy weights was determined and the preferences of equipment are ranked.

  8. Crucial role of quantum entanglement in bulk properties of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Brukner, Caslav; Vedral, Vlatko; Zeilinger, Anton

    2006-01-15

    We demonstrate that two well-established experimental techniques of condensed-matter physics, neutron-diffraction scattering and measurement of magnetic susceptibility, can be used to detect and quantify macroscopic entanglement in solids. Specifically, magnetic susceptibility of copper nitrate (CN) measured in 1963 cannot be described without presence of entanglement. A detailed analysis of the spin correlations in CN as obtained from neutron-scattering experiment from 2000 provides microscopic support for this interpretation and gives the value for the amount of entanglement. We present a quantitative analysis resulting in the critical temperature of 5 K in both, completely independent, experiments below which entanglement exists.

  9. Optical Characterization of Bulk ZnSeTe Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, S.; Zhu, Shen; Lehoczky, S. L.; Wang, Ling Jun

    2000-01-01

    Optical characterization was performed on wafers sliced from crystals of ZnSe, ZnTe, and ZnSe(1-x)Te(x)(0 less than x less than 0.4) grown by physical vapor transport. Energy band gaps at room temperature were determined from optical transmission measurements on 11 wafers. A best fit curve to the band gap versus composition x data gives a bowing parameter of 1.45. This number lies between the value of 1.23 determined previously on ZnSeTe bulk crystals and the value of 1.621 reported on ZnSeTe epilayers. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured on six samples. The spectra of ZnSe and ZnTe were dominated by near band edge emissions and no deep donor-acceptor pairs were observed. The PL spectrum exhibited a broad emission for each of the ZnSe(1-x)Te(x) samples, 0.09 less than x less than 0.39. For x=0.09, this emission energy is about 0.2 eV lower than the band gap energy measured at low temperature. As x increases the energy discrepancy gradually decreases and reduces to almost zero at x=0.4. The single broad PL emission spectra and the spectra measured as a function of temperature were interpreted as being associated with the exciton bound to Te clusters because of the high Te content in these samples.

  10. Optical Characterization of Bulk ZnSeTe Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, S.; Zhu, Shen; Lehoczky, S. L.; Wang, Ling Jun

    2000-01-01

    Optical characterization was performed on wafers sliced from crystals of ZnSe, ZnTe, and ZnSe(1-x)Te(x)(0 less than x less than 0.4) grown by physical vapor transport. Energy band gaps at room temperature were determined from optical transmission measurements on 11 wafers. A best fit curve to the band gap versus composition x data gives a bowing parameter of 1.45. This number lies between the value of 1.23 determined previously on ZnSeTe bulk crystals and the value of 1.621 reported on ZnSeTe epilayers. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured on six samples. The spectra of ZnSe and ZnTe were dominated by near band edge emissions and no deep donor-acceptor pairs were observed. The PL spectrum exhibited a broad emission for each of the ZnSe(1-x)Te(x) samples, 0.09 less than x less than 0.39. For x=0.09, this emission energy is about 0.2 eV lower than the band gap energy measured at low temperature. As x increases the energy discrepancy gradually decreases and reduces to almost zero at x=0.4. The single broad PL emission spectra and the spectra measured as a function of temperature were interpreted as being associated with the exciton bound to Te clusters because of the high Te content in these samples.

  11. Optical Characterization of Bulk ZnSeTe Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, S.; Zhu, Shen; Lehoczky, S. L.; Wang, Ling Jun

    2000-01-01

    Optical characterization was performed on wafers sliced from crystals of ZnSe, ZnTe and ZnSe (sub 1-x) Te (sub x) (0 less than x less than 0.4) grown by physical vapor transport technique. The energy band gaps at room temperature were determined from optical transmission measurements on 11 wafers. The best fit to the band gap vs. composition, x, data gives a bowing parameter of 1.336 which is between the value of 1.23 determined previously on ZnSeTe bulk crystals by reflectivity and the value of 1.621 reported on epilayers by photoconductivity. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured on 6 samples. The spectra of ZnSe and ZnTe were dominated by near band edge emissions and no deep donor-acceptor pairs were observed. The PL spectrum exhibited a broad emission for each of the ZnSe (sub 1-x) Te (sub x) samples, 0.09 less than x less than 0.39. For x = 0.09, this emission energy is about 0.2eV lower than the band gap energy measured at low temperature. As x increases the energy discrepancy gradually decreases and reduces to almost zero at x = 0.4. The single broad PL emission spectra and the spectra measured as a function of temperature were interpreted to be associated with the exciton bound to Te clusters because of the high Te content in these samples.

  12. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... table. (a) Rail cars: Class DOT 103, 104, 105, 109, 111, 112, 114, 115, or 120 tank car tanks; Class 106... solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  13. Effects of adding bulking agents on biostabilization and drying of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yun; Chadwick, David; Li, Guoxue; Li, Yu; Du, Longlong

    2017-04-01

    The influence of adding a bulking agent on the bio-stabilization and drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Three treatments were considered: the addition of either cornstalks or wood peat to MSW as a bulking agent before bio-drying and a control treatment that contained no bulking agent. Addition of bulking agents to MSW produced less leachate, higher moisture-removal rates, and consumed less volatile solids. Bulking with cornstalks achieved the highest water-removal rate (0.58-0.65kgkg(-1)). The extent of organic degradation was related to temperature integration during bio-drying. Lipids and cellulose were the main components of organic losses in all treatments and adding a bulking agent changed the sequence and extent of degradation of biochemical components. The bio-drying index values were 1.75, 3.18, and 2.64 for MSW alone, MSW with cornstalks, and MSW with wood peat, respectively. Evaporation heat was the main component of heat consumption, accounting for 58.1-60.7% of the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    Pyrophoric reagents represent an important class of reactants because they can participate in many different types of reactions. They are very useful in organic synthesis and in industrial applications. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) define Pyrophorics as substances that will self-ignite in air at temperatures of 130 F (54.4 C) or less. However, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) uses criteria different from the auto-ignition temperature criterion. The DOT defines a pyrophoric material as a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air when tested according to the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria. The Environmental Protection Agency has adopted the DOT definition. Regardless of which definition is used, oxidation of the pyrophoric reagents by oxygen or exothermic reactions with moisture in the air (resulting in the generation of a flammable gas such as hydrogen) is so rapid that ignition occurs spontaneously. Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel. Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior

  15. A new highly versatile handle for chemistry on a solid support: the pipecolic linker.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Nomezine, Gaël; Masurier, Nicolas; Amblard, Muriel; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2010-07-05

    The design, synthesis, and potential application of the pipecolic linker is presented. This new versatile handle can immobilize primary, secondary, and aromatic amines, as well as alcohols, phenols, and hydrazides, on a solid support. Compared with other linkers, the anchoring step is easy and efficient. The release of final products from the resin proceeds upon acidic treatment with high purities. The pipecolic linker offers the promise of being using in peptide chemistry to produce peptides modified at the N and C terminus, peptidomimetics, as well as small organic molecules.

  16. A Teflon microreactor with integrated piezoelectric actuator to handle solid forming reactions.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Simon; Noël, Timothy; Gu, Lei; Heider, Patrick L; Jensen, Klavs F

    2011-08-07

    We present a general inexpensive method for realizing a Teflon stack microreactor with an integrated piezoelectric actuator for conducting chemical synthesis with solid products. The microreactors are demonstrated with palladium-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions, which are prone to clogging microchannels by forming insoluble salts as by-products. Investigations of the ultrasonic waveform applied by the piezoelectric actuator reveal an optimal value of 50 kHz at a load power of 30 W. Operating the system at these conditions, the newly developed Teflon microreactor handles the insoluble solids formed and no clogging is observed. The investigated reactions reach full conversion in very short reaction times and high isolated yields are obtained (>95% yield).

  17. Computer-controlled system for measuring bulk resistivity of insulating solids as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ahmed

    1986-07-01

    A computer-controlled system for measuring bulk resistivity of insulating solids as a function of temperature is described. The measuring circuit is a modification of that given in the ASTM standard D257-66, to allow for a number of operations during the data-acquisition cycle. The bulk resistivity of an acceptor-doped morphotropic lead zirconate-titanate piezoelectric composition has been measured over the temperature range +40 to +200 °C. The activation energy derived from the experimental data is compared to the published values of similar morphotropic compositions.

  18. Brazing of bulk graphite/solid tritium breeder materials to metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, David J.; Bowers, David A.; Morgan, Grover D.; Trachsel, Clarence A.; Wille, Gerald W.

    1984-05-01

    The preliminary study involved evaluation of a brazed joint concept for obtaining improved heat transfer conditions between a coolant-containing metal structure and a solid tritium breeder or bulk graphite. A titanium-based braze alloy was used to successfully bond: a) POCO AXF-5Q bulk graphite to metal substrates (OFHC Cu, 316 SS, and Inconel 625), and b) solid tritium breeders (Li 2O, γ-LiAlO 2, Li 4SiO 4, Li 2TiO 3, and Li 2ZrO 3) to a 316 SS sample by employing an intermediate compliant metal layer to accommodate differences in linear thermal expansion of the materials.

  19. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    PubMed

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  20. Dynamics of bulk electron heating and ionization in solid density plasmas driven by ultra-short relativistic laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L. G. Kluge, T.; Cowan, T. E.

    2016-06-15

    The dynamics of bulk heating and ionization is investigated both in simulations and theory, which determines the crucial plasma parameters such as plasma temperature and density in ultra-short relativistic laser-solid target interactions. During laser-plasma interactions, the solid density plasma absorbs a fraction of laser energy and converts it into kinetic energy of electrons. A portion of the electrons with relativistic kinetic energy goes through the solid density plasma and transfers energy into the bulk electrons, which results in bulk electron heating. The bulk electron heating is finally translated into the processes of bulk collisional ionization inside the solid target. A simple model based on the Ohmic heating mechanism indicates that the local and temporal profile of bulk return current is essential to determine the temporal evolution of bulk electron temperature. A series of particle-in-cell simulations showing the local heating model is robust in the cases of target with a preplasma and without a preplasma. Predicting the bulk electron heating is then benefit for understanding the collisional ionization dynamics inside the solid targets. The connection of the heating and ionization inside the solid target is further studied using Thomas-Fermi model.

  1. A solid target system with remote handling of irradiated targets for PET cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Siikanen, J; Tran, T A; Olsson, T G; Strand, S-E; Sandell, A

    2014-12-01

    A solid target system was developed for a PET cyclotron. The system is compatible with many different target materials in the form of foils and electroplated/sputtered targets which makes it useful for production of a wide variety of different PET radionuclides. The target material is manually loaded into the system. Remote handling of irradiated target material is managed with a pneumatic piston and a vacuum technique which allows the targets to be dropped into a shielded transport container. To test the target performance, proton irradiations (12.8 MeV, 45 μA) of monoisotopic yttrium foils (0.64 mm, direct water cooling) were performed to produce 89Zr. The yields were 2200±200 MBq (1 h, n=13) and 6300±65 MBq (3 h, n=3).

  2. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.

  3. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect

    Basoli, Francesco; Senesi, Roberto; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  4. Effects of bulk and interfacial anharmonicity on thermal conductance at solid/solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam Q.; Polanco, Carlos A.; Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Zhang, Jingjie; Ghosh, Avik W.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations to assess the relative contributions to interfacial thermal conductance from inelastic phonon processes at the interface and in the adjacent bulk materials. The simulated system is the prototypical interface between argon and "heavy argon" crystals, which enables comparison with many past computational studies. We run simulations interchanging the Lennard-Jones potential with its harmonic approximation to test the effect of anharmonicity on conductance. The results confirm that the presence of anharmonicity is correlated with increasing thermal conductance with temperature, which supports conclusions from prior experimental and theoretical work. However, in the model Ar/heavy-Ar system, anharmonic effects at the interface itself contribute a surprisingly small part of the total thermal conductance. The larger fraction of the thermal conductance at high temperatures arises from anharmonic effects away from the interface. These observations are supported by comparisons of the spectral energy density, which suggest that bulk anharmonic processes increase the interfacial conductance by thermalizing energy from modes with low transmission to modes with high transmission.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS MEASUREMENTS TO BULK ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN AN AQUIFER CONTAMINATED WITH HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent conceptual model links high bulk electrical conductivities at hydrocarbon impacted sites to higher total dissolved solids (TDS) resulting from enhanced mineral weathering due to acids produced during biodegradation. In this study, we investigated the vertical distributio...

  6. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  7. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  8. Observation of Nonclassical Rotational Inertia in Bulk Solid ^4He Confined to a Cylindrical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahama, Keiya; Kondo, Motoshi; Takada, Shunichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki

    2006-03-01

    Recent observation of nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid ^4He by Kim and Chan has attracted great interest in physics of supersolid, and motivated a number of theoretical studies. However, there have been surprisingly few experiments to pursuit the nature of their observation. Thus, we have begun a torsional oscillator experiment for bulk solid ^4He. In order to study the effects of sample geometry and crystal quality, we employ a cylindrical cell, 8 mm high and 8 mm in diameter, which is mounted on an aluminum alloy torsion rod. The resonant torsion frequency is about 1750 Hz, which is 2 ˜5 times the frequencies in the Kim and Chan's experiments. In a preliminary experiment we have observed an increase in the frequency below about 250 mK, indicating the existence of NCRI. The frequency shift shows a substantial driving amplitude dependence, which is also consistent with the previous observation.

  9. Observation of Non-Classical Rotational Inertia in Bulk Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Motoshi; Takada, Shunichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

    2007-09-01

    In recent torsional oscillator experiments by Kim and Chan (KC), a decrease of rotational inertia has been observed in solid 4He in porous materials (Kim, E., Chan, M.H.W. in Nature 427:225, 2004; J. Low Temp. Phys. 138:859, 2005) and in a bulk annular channel (Kim, E., Chan, M.H.W. in Science 305:1941, 2004). This observation strongly suggests the existence of “non-classical rotational inertia” (NCRI), i.e. superflow, in solid 4He. In order to study such a possible “supersolid” phase, we perform torsional oscillator experiments for cylindrical solid 4He samples. We have observed decreases in rotational inertia below 200 mK for two solid samples (pressures P=4.1 and 3.0 MPa). The observed NCRI fraction at 70 mK is 0.14%, which is about 1/3 of the fraction observed in the annulus by KC. Our observation is the first experimental confirmation of the possible supersolid finding by KC.

  10. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-01-11

    Here, the crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism was confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.

  11. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-10-01

    The crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism was confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.

  12. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-01-11

    Here, the crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism wasmore » confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.« less

  13. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  14. Accelerated Metastable Solid-liquid Interdiffusion Bonding with High Thermal Stability and Power Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Smet, Vanessa; Kawamoto, Satomi; Pulugurtha, Markondeya R.; Tummala, Rao R.

    2017-09-01

    Emerging high-performance systems are driving the need for advanced packaging solutions such as 3-D integrated circuits (ICs) and 2.5-D system integration with increasing performance and reliability requirements for off-chip interconnections. Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding resulting in all-intermetallic joints has been proposed to extend the applicability of solders, but faces fundamental and manufacturing challenges hindering its wide adoption. This paper introduces a Cu-Sn SLID interconnection technology, aiming at stabilization of the microstructure in the Cu6Sn5 metastable phase rather than the usual stable Cu3Sn phase. This enables formation of a void-free interface yielding higher mechanical strength than standard SLID bonding, as well as significantly reducing the transition time. The metastable SLID technology retains the benefits of standard SLID with superior I/O pitch scalability, thermal stability and current handling capability, while advancing assembly manufacturability. In the proposed concept, the interfacial reaction is controlled by introducing Ni(P) diffusion barrier layers, designed to effectively isolate the metastable Cu6Sn5 phase preventing any further transformation. Theoretical diffusion and kinetic models were applied to design the Ni-Cu-Sn interconnection stack to achieve the targeted joint composition. A daisy chain test vehicle was used to demonstrate this technology as a first proof of concept. Full transition to Cu6Sn5 was successfully achieved within a minute at 260°C as confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) analysis. The joint composition was stable through 10× reflow, with outstanding bond strength averaging 90 MPa. The metastable SLID interconnections also showed excellent electromigration performance, surviving 500 h of current stressing at 105 A/cm2 at 150°C.

  15. Thermoelectric properties of bulk MoSi2 synthesized by solid state microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yu; Xie, Mianyu; Ouyang, Ting; Yue, Song

    2016-07-01

    In this research, single phase α-MoSi2 was prepared by solid state hybrid microwave heating within 90 min at relatively low temperature 1273 K. Such precursor powders were then ball milled and sintered by microwave heating at different temperatures. The thermoelectric (TE) properties of MoSi2 bulks were investigated in the temperature range of 300-673 K. When the sintering temperature increases from 973 K to 1273 K, the electrical resistivity decreases significantly and the Seebeck coefficients increase obviously, leading to the maximum TE powder factor of 6.2 × 10-6Wm-1K-2 at 673 K. These results demonstrate the feasibility of high efficient and economical synthesis of MoSi2 by microwave heating technique, with the final products having comparable TE performance in comparison to those from typical methods with long duration and energy-extensive consumption.

  16. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D1 (500-700kgm(-3)), D2 (900-1000kgm(-3)), D3 (1100-1200kgm(-3)) and D4 (1200-1400kgm(-3)) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm(-3) may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave-induced plasma reactor based on a domestic microwave oven for bulk solid state chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David J.; Douthwaite, Richard E.

    2004-12-01

    A microwave-induced plasma (MIP) reactor has been constructed from a domestic microwave oven (DMO) and applied to the bulk synthesis of solid state compounds. Low pressure MIP can be initiated and maintained using a range of gases including Ar, N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. In order to obtain reproducible synthesis conditions the apparatus is designed to allow control of gas flow rate, gas composition, and pressure. The use of the reactor is demonstrated by the synthesis of three binary metal nitrides formed in a NH{sub 3} MIP. The reactions are rapid and the products show good crystallinity and phase purity as judged by powder x-ray diffraction.

  18. Investigation of preparation methods on surface/bulk structural relaxation and glass fragility of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ke, Peng; Hasegawa, Susumu; Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham

    2012-01-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the surface/bulk molecular mobility and glass fragility of solid dispersions. Solid dispersions containing indomethacin and PVP K30 were chosen as the model system. An inverse gas chromatography method was used to determine the surface structural relaxation of the solid dispersions and these data were compared to those for bulk relaxation obtained by DSC. The values of τ(β) for the surface relaxation were 4.6, 7.1 and 1.8h for melt quenched, ball milled and spray dried solid dispersions respectively, compared to 15.6, 7.9 and 9.8h of the bulk. In all systems, the surface had higher molecular mobility than the bulk. The glass fragility of the solid dispersions was also influenced by the preparation methods with the most fragile system showing the best stability. The zero mobility temperature (T(0)) was used to correlate with the physical stability of the solid dispersions. Despite having similar T(g) (65°C), the T(0) of the melt quenched, ball milled and spray dried samples were 21.6, -4.2 and 16.7°C respectively which correlated well with their physical stability results. Therefore, T(0) appears to be a better indicator than T(g) for predicting stability of amorphous materials.

  19. Improved liquid/solids handling module. Final report 2321:01, 1 September 1979-31 October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    A Mobile Liquid/Solids handling (L/S) unit was constructed that is the active element for a low cost Advanced Primary Geothermal Heat Exchanger (APEX), presently under development. The L/S system incorporates two alternating hydrocyclone-accumulator tank combinations and an injection pump. Sand particles are injected into the main flow and then separated and recirculated at capture efficiencies of greater than 99%. The system was tested at varying flowrates, solids concentrations, and particle sizes to determine an optimum operating point.

  20. Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaly, Eugene G.; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishimura, Koichi; Misawa, Hiroaki; Luther-Davies, Barry; Hallo, Ludovic; Nicolai, Philippe; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir T.

    2006-06-01

    We present here the experimental and theoretical studies of a single femtosecond laser pulse interaction inside a bulk of transparent media (sapphire, glass, polymer). This interaction leads to the drastic transformations in a solid resulting in a void formation inside a dielectric. The laser pulse energy is absorbed within a volume of approximately 0.15μm3 creating a pressure and temperature comparable to that in the core of a strong multi-kilo-tons explosion. The material within this volume is rapidly atomized, ionized, and converted into a tiny super-hot dense cloud of expanding plasma that generates strong shock and rarefaction waves which result in the formation of a void, whose diameter is ˜200nm (for a 100nJ pulse in sapphire). The way this structure forms can be understood from high-temperature plasma hydrodynamics. We demonstrate that unique states of matter characterized by temperatures ˜105K , heating rates up to the 1018K/s , and pressures more than 100 times the strength of any material were created using a standard table-top laser in well-controlled laboratory conditions. We discuss the properties of the laser-affected solid and possible routes of laser-affected material transformation to the final state long after the pulse end. These studies will find application for the design of new materials and three-dimensional optical memory devices, and for formation of photonic band-gap crystals.

  1. Prediction and improvement of the solid particles transfer rate for the bulk handing system design of offshore drilling vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Mincheol; Jeon, Dong Soo; Kim, Yooil

    2015-11-01

    Numerous experiments with a scaled pilot facility were carried out to compare the relative bulk transfer performance of three special devices for applications to drilling systems. The pipe diameter for bulk transportation was 3 in., which corresponds to around half of the actual system dimensions. Two different pressures, 3 and 4 bar, were considered to check the relative performance under different pressure conditions at a bulk storage tank. And to make a practical estimation method of the bulk transfer rate at the early design stages of the bulk handling system, a series of experiments were conducted for real scaled bulk handing systems of two drilling vessels. The pressure drops at each pipe element as well as the bulk transfer rates were measured under different operating conditions. Using the measured results, the friction factor for each pipe element was calculated and a procedure for transfer rate estimation was developed. Compared to the measured transfer rate results for other drilling vessels, the estimated transfer rates were within a maximum 15% error bound.

  2. Molecular simulation of fluid mixtures in bulk and at solid-liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jesse L.

    The properties of a diverse range of mixture systems at interfaces are investigated using a variety of computational techniques. Molecular simulation is used to examine the thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of heterogeneous systems of theoretical and practical importance. The study of binary hard-sphere mixtures at a hard wall demonstrates the high accuracy of recently developed classical-density functionals. The study of aluminum--gallium solid--liquid heterogeneous interfaces predicts a significant amount of prefreezing of the liquid by adopting the structure of the solid surface. The study of ethylene-expanded methanol within model silica mesopores shows the effect of confinement and surface functionalzation on the mixture composition and transport inside of the pores. From our molecular-dynamics study of binary hard-sphere fluid mixtures at a hard wall, we obtained high-precision calculations of the wall-fluid interfacial free energies, gamma. We have considered mixtures of varying diameter ratio, alpha = 0.7,0.8,0.9; mole fraction, x 1 = 0.25,0.50,0.75; and packing fraction, eta < 0.50. Using Gibbs-Cahn Integration, gamma is calculated from the system pressure, chemical potentials, and density profiles. Recent classical density-functional theory predictions agree very well with our results. Structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the aluminum--gallium solid--liquid interface at 368 K are obtained for the (100), (110), and (111) orientations using molecular dynamics. Density, potential energy, stress, and diffusion profiles perpendicular to the interface are calculated. The layers of Ga that form on the Al surface are strongly adsorbed and take the in-plane structure of the underlying crystal layers for all orientations, which results in significant compressive stress on the Ga atoms. Bulk methanol--ethylene mixtures under vapor-liquid equilibrium conditions have been characterized using Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics. The

  3. Surface hydrodynamics of viscoelastic fluids and soft solids: Surfing bulk rheology on capillary and Rayleigh waves.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Francisco

    2017-07-18

    From the recent advent of the new soft-micro technologies, the hydrodynamic theory of surface modes propagating on viscoelastic bodies has reinvigorated this field of technology with interesting predictions and new possible applications, so recovering its scientific interest very limited at birth to the academic scope. Today, a myriad of soft small objects, deformable meso- and micro-structures, and macroscopically viscoelastic bodies fabricated from colloids and polymers are already available in the materials catalogue. Thus, one can envisage a constellation of new soft objects fabricated by-design with a functional dynamics based on the mechanical interplay of the viscoelastic material with the medium through their interfaces. In this review, we recapitulate the field from its birth and theoretical foundation in the latest 1980s up today, through its flourishing in the 90s from the prediction of extraordinary Rayleigh modes in coexistence with ordinary capillary waves on the surface of viscoelastic fluids, a fact first confirmed in experiments by Dominique Langevin and me with soft gels [Monroy and Langevin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3167 (1998)]. With this observational discovery at sight, we not only settled the theory previously formulated a few years before, but mainly opened a new field of applications with soft materials where the mechanical interplay between surface and bulk motions matters. Also, new unpublished results from surface wave experiments performed with soft colloids are reported in this contribution, in which the analytic methods of wave surfing synthetized together with the concept of coexisting capillary-shear modes are claimed as an integrated tool to insightfully scrutinize the bulk rheology of soft solids and viscoelastic fluids. This dedicatory to the figure of Dominique Langevin includes an appraisal of the relevant theoretical aspects of the surface hydrodynamics of viscoelastic fluids, and the coverage of the most important experimental

  4. Communication: Distinguishing between bulk and interface-enhanced crystallization in nanoscale films of amorphous solid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2017-01-01

    The crystallization of amorphous solid water (ASW) nanoscale films was investigated using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. Two ASW film configurations were studied. In one case the ASW film was deposited on top of and capped with a decane layer ("sandwich" configuration). In the other case, the ASW film was deposited on top of a decane layer and not capped ("no cap" configuration). Crystallization of ASW films in the "sandwich" configuration is about eight times slower than in the "no cap." Selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film was used to determine the crystallization mechanism. In the "sandwich" configuration, the crystallization kinetics were independent of the isotopic layer placement whereas in the "no cap" configuration the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These results are consistent with a mechanism whereby the decane overlayer suppresses surface nucleation and provide evidence that the observed ASW crystallization in "sandwich" films is the result of uniform bulk nucleation.

  5. EPR study of the mobility of paramagnetic species on the surface and in the bulk of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrek, K.; Adamski, A.; Sojka, Z.

    1998-12-01

    The temperature dependence of EPR spectra provides information on the mobility of paramagnetic species at the gas (liquid)/solid interface and in the bulk of solids. Changes in the environment of molecules on solid surfaces caused by their motion occurring upon thermal treatment at various temperatures are observed. Superoxide radical can migrate from Co(III) to Mg(II) surface sites of the CoO-MgO solid solutions. In aqueous solutions transition metal ions coordinate water molecules, forming aquacomplexes which are usually free to tumble within the liquid medium. Their mobility is, however, strongly modified in the vicinity of the solid surface or inside the narrow pores. In solids the migration of paramagnetic species from the surface into the bulk is controlled by the temperature of thermal treatment. In the case of V 2O 5-ZrO 2 catalyst this process is strongly influenced by the phase transitions occurring in the solid matrix and by the presence of alkali metals.

  6. Testing a simple method for computing directly the bulk modulus by NPT simulation: The case of polydisperse hard sphere solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    The bulk modulus of hard sphere solids has been computed directly by constant pressure Monte-Carlo simulations, using the histogram of the volume fluctuations. In considering first the one-component system, we show that the method is accurate in a large range of pressures, including high-pressure regime. The method is then applied to a polydisperse solid with relatively low polydispersity index. For illustrative purpose, we took a three-component mixture with symmetric size-distribution, and we studied the solid phase (fcc crystal) of this system. Our results show that the equation of state is very sensitive to the polydispersity. Furthermore, in the high-pressure region, where no (accurate) analytical fit for the equation of state exists, our simulations are able to predict the bulk modulus of such systems.

  7. Automated, Ultra-Sterile Solid Sample Handling and Analysis on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mora, Maria F.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Willis, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    There are no existing ultra-sterile lab-on-a-chip systems that can accept solid samples and perform complete chemical analyses without human intervention. The proposed solution is to demonstrate completely automated lab-on-a-chip manipulation of powdered solid samples, followed by on-chip liquid extraction and chemical analysis. This technology utilizes a newly invented glass micro-device for solid manipulation, which mates with existing lab-on-a-chip instrumentation. Devices are fabricated in a Class 10 cleanroom at the JPL MicroDevices Lab, and are plasma-cleaned before and after assembly. Solid samples enter the device through a drilled hole in the top. Existing micro-pumping technology is used to transfer milligrams of powdered sample into an extraction chamber where it is mixed with liquids to extract organic material. Subsequent chemical analysis is performed using portable microchip capillary electrophoresis systems (CE). These instruments have been used for ultra-highly sensitive (parts-per-trillion, pptr) analysis of organic compounds including amines, amino acids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and thiols. Fully autonomous amino acid analyses in liquids were demonstrated; however, to date there have been no reports of completely automated analysis of solid samples on chip. This approach utilizes an existing portable instrument that houses optics, high-voltage power supplies, and solenoids for fully autonomous microfluidic sample processing and CE analysis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Furthermore, the entire system can be sterilized and placed in a cleanroom environment for analyzing samples returned from extraterrestrial targets, if desired. This is an entirely new capability never demonstrated before. The ability to manipulate solid samples, coupled with lab-on-a-chip analysis technology, will enable ultraclean and ultrasensitive end-to-end analysis of samples that is orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ppb goal given

  8. Bulk materials handling equipment roundup

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-07-15

    The article reports recent product developments in belt conveyors. Flexco Steel Lancing Co. (Flexco) has a range of light, portable maintenance tools and offers training modules on procedures for belt conveyor maintenance on its website www.flexcosafe.com. Siemens recently fitted a 19 km long conveyor belt drive system at a Texan aluminium plant with five 556-kW Simovent Masterdrive VC drives. Voith recently launched the TPKL-T turbo coupling for users who want an alignment-free drive solution. Belt cleaners newly on the market include the RemaClean SGB brush and ASGCO Manufacturing's Razor-Back with Spray bar. Continental Conveyor has introduced a new line of dead-shaft pulleys offering increased bearing protection. 6 photos.

  9. The range of options for handling plane angle and solid angle within a system of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The radian and steradian are unusual units within the SI, originally belonging to their own category of ‘supplementary units’, with this status being changed to dimensionless ‘derived units’ in 1995. Recent papers have suggested that angles could be handled in two different ways within the SI, both differing from the present system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for putting such suggestions into context, outlining the range of options that is available, together with the advantages and disadvantages of these options. Although less rigorously logical than some alternatives, the present SI approach is generally supported, but with some changes to the SI brochure to make the position clearer, in particular with regard to the designation of the radian and steradian as derived units.

  10. Analog earthquakes: Friction experiments with bulk solids and implications for fault dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, M.; Klinkmueller, M.; Oppelt, A.; Kemnitz, H.; Oncken, O.; Schreurs, G.

    2008-12-01

    We report on friction experiments on dry bulk solids used to simulate slow ("aseismic") and fast ("seismic") slip in analog laboratory experiments. Ring shear tests have been performed at typical experimental conditions, i.e. in the very low stress regime (normal loads < 0.02 MPa, shear velocities 0.05 - 25 mm/min, T = 23°), and compared to similar tests at higher stresses (Mair and Marone 1999; Mair et al., 2002). Friction tests have been complemented with scanning electron microscope analysis to explore the control of particle characteristics (size, shape, sorting, roughness) on the strength and stability of frictional deformation. By varying the ratio between particle size and displacement we aim at simulating different brittle deformation mechanisms: Fine-grained material (sand, glass beads, sugar, salt) exposed to relatively fast shear undergoes distributed granular flow (DGF) including particle rotation, dilation and sliding. Rather slow shear of coarse material (rice) is accommodated mainly by localized particle boundary sliding (LBS). Both mechanisms are capable to produce frictional instabilities resulting in stick-slip motion. We found that frictional strength during DGF is controlled by particle shape: the frictional coefficient increases with the amount of angular particles consistent with previous findings by Mair et al. (2002) in the high stress regime (> 5 MPa). Also consistent with their work, unstable slip during DGF occurs if well-sorted and isometric particles dominate presumably controlled by the breakdown of force bridges. Frictional strength and stability during LBS seems to be controlled by surface roughness consistent with the concept of asperities. For particle surfaces with a scale-invariant roughness similar to natural faults, the critical distance over which slip has to accelerate to become unstable is not constant but increases with "interseismic" sliding velocity both during LBS (this study) and DGF (Mair and Marone, 1999). We found

  11. 49 CFR 173.242 - Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids..., MC 307, MC 310, MC 311, MC 312, MC 330, MC 331, DOT 406, DOT 407, and DOT 412 cargo tank motor..., Packing Group I and II). Pressure relief devices on MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tanks must meet the...

  12. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Puvanesuaran, Vignesh R.; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes. PMID:23435587

  13. EUDAT strategies for handling dynamic data in the solid Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto; Evans, Peter; Kemps-Snijder, Mark; Heikkinen, Jani; Buck, Justin; Misutka, Jozef; Drude, Sebastian; Fares, Massimo; Cacciari, Claudio; Fiameni, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Some dynamic data is generated by sensors which produce data streams that may be temporarily incomplete (owing to latencies or temporary interruptions of the transmission lines between the field sensors and the data acquisition centres) and that may consequently fill up over time (automatically or after manual intervention). Dynamic data can also be generated by massive crowd sourcing where, for example, experimental collections of data can be filled up at random moments. The nature of dynamic data makes it difficult to handle for various reasons: a) establishing valid policies that guide early replication for data preservation and access optimization is not trivial, b) identifying versions of such data - thus making it possible to check their integrity - and referencing the versions is also a challenging task, and c) performance issues are extremely important since all these activities must be performed fast enough to keep up with the incoming data stream. There is no doubt that both applications areas (namely data from sensors and crowdsourcing) are growing in their relevance for science, and that appropriate infrastructure support (by initiatives such as EUDAT) is vital to handle these challenges. In addition, data must be citeable to encourage transparent, reproducible science, and to provide clear metrics for assessing the impact of research, which also drives funding choices. Data stream in real time often undergo changes/revisions while they are still growing, as new data arrives, and they are revised as missing data is recovered, or as new calibration values are applied. We call these "dynamic" data sets, DDS. A common form of DDS is time series data in which measurements are obtained on a regular schedule, with a well-defined sample rate. Examples include the hourly temperature in Barcelona, and the displacement (a 3-D vector quantity) of a seismograph from its rest position, which may record at a rate of 100 or more samples per second. These form streams

  14. 49 CFR 173.242 - Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids and solids, including solids with dual hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...,300 90 71,200 100 79,100 120 94,900 140 110,700 160 126,500 1 Interpolate for intermediate sizes. 2... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain medium hazard liquids... provisions specified in column 7 of the § 172.101 table. (a) Rail cars: Class DOT 103, 104, 105, 109, 111...

  15. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tank car tanks; and metal non-DOT specification, sift-proof tank car tanks and sift-proof closed cars...: (i) Packing Group I liquids; and (ii) Packing Group I solids that may become liquid during transportation. (2) The following IBCs may not be used for Packing Group II and III solids that may become liquid...

  16. On the difference of equilibrium constants of DNA hybridization in bulk solution and at the solid-solution interface.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Giulio; Federici, Stefania; Colombi, Paolo; Bergese, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the difference between the equilibrium (affinity) constants of ligand-receptor binding in bulk solution and at a solid-solution interface is discussed in terms of Gibbsian interfacial thermodynamics. It results that the difference is determined by the surface work that the ligand-receptor interaction spends to accommodate surface binding, and in turn that the value of the surface equilibrium constant (strongly) depends on the surface that confines the event. This framework consistently describes a wide set of experimental observations of DNA surface hybridization, correctly predicting that within the surface work window for DNA hybridization, that ranges from -90 to 75 kJ mol(-1), the ratio between surface and bulk equilibrium constants ranges from 10(-16) to 10(13), spanning 29 orders of magnitude.

  17. Self-trapping of optical beams in a self-written channel in a solid bulk photopolymer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haoyu; Qi, Yue; Malallah, Ra'ed; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the light can be self-focused and self-trapped in a self-written optical waveguide in a bulk acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA) solid photopolymer material volume. The manufacture method, i.e., how to prepare the AA/PVA photopolymer material is detailed. In our experimental observation the refractive index changes induced are permanent. The resulting optical waveguide channel has good physical stability and can be integrated with optoelectronic devices as part of integrated optical systems. The theoretical model developed predicts the formation/evolution of the observed self-written waveguides inside the bulk material. The model involves appropriately discretizing and then numerically solving the paraxial wave equation in Fourier space and the material equation in time space.

  18. Use of complementary neutron techniques in studying the effect of a solid/liquid interface on bulk solution structures

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.D.; Hamilton, W.A.; Magid, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    By appropriate combination of neutron scattering techniques, it is possible to obtain structural information at various distances from a solid/liquid interface and thus probe in some detail how the surface structures evolve into bulk structures. We have used neutron reflectometry (NR) with a newly developed shear cell, near surface small angle neutron scattering (NSSANS) again in combination with the new shear cell, and regular small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with a standard Couette shear cell to probe the structures formed in our aqueous surfactant systems and how they react to a flow field, particularly in the near surface region of a solid/liquid interface. We present data for a 20mM aqueous solutions of 70% cetyltrimethylammonium 3,5-dichlorobenzoate (abbreviated CTA3,5ClBz) and 30% CTAB. This system forms a very viscoelastic solution containing long threadlike micelles. NR only probes to a depth of about 0.5 {mu}m from the surface in these systems and clearly indicates that adsorbed onto the surface is, surfactant layer which is insensitive to shear. The depth probed by the NSSANS is on the order of 20-30 {mu}m and is determined by the transmission of the sample, the angle of incidence, and the wavelength. In this region, the rods align under shear into a remarkably well ordered hexagonal crystal. The SANS from the Couette cell averages over the entire sample, so that the signal is dominated by scattering from the bulk. While the near surface hexagonal structure is clearly visible, these data are not consistent with the crystal structure persisting throughout the bulk, leading to the postulate that the bulk structure is a two dimensional (2D) liquid where the rods align with the flow, but do not order in the other two dimensions.

  19. Gauge invariance and interpretation of interband and intraband processes in high-order harmonic generation from bulk solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földi, Péter

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical model for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in bulk solids is considered. Our approach treats laser-induced inter- and intraband currents on an equal footing. The sum of these currents is the source of the high-order harmonic radiation, and does not depend on the particular electromagnetic gauge we choose to describe the process. On the other hand, as it is shown using analytical and numerical calculations, the distinction between intra- and interband dynamics is gauge dependent, implying that the interpretation of the process of HHG using these terms requires carefulness.

  20. Strongly connected ex situ MgB2 polycrystalline bulks fabricated by solid-state self-sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ogino, Hiraku; Kishio, Kohji

    2012-11-01

    The transport current carrying capacity of ex situ processed MgB2 is expected to be greatly enhanced if a strong intergrain connectivity can be realized. Although percolation theory predicts that ex situ MgB2 samples should have a high connectivity of over 30% due to their high bulk density (P ≈ 75%), the reported connectivities of ex situ MgB2 bulks and wires are generally less than 10%. This is presumably because ex situ MgB2 has a much weaker intergrain connectivity than in situ MgB2. It is well known that heat treatment after cold working of ex situ MgB2 improves the connectivity and the critical current density. However, it is currently unclear whether such heat treatment induces self-sintering that results in the formation of necks, the elimination of pores, and an increase in contact area. In the present study, we investigated the microstructure, normal-state electrical connectivity, and critical current density of ex situ MgB2 polycrystalline bulks prepared by systematically varying the sintering conditions under low pressure. Samples heated at a high temperature of ˜900 °C for a long period showed an increased packing factor, a larger intergrain contact area, and a significantly enhanced electrical connectivity, all of which indicate solid-state self-sintering of MgB2. Sintered ex situ MgB2 bulks from a laboratory-made ball-milled powder exhibited a greatly enhanced connectivity of 28%, which is the highest connectivity of pressureless ex situ MgB2 bulks, wires, and tapes. Surprisingly, grain growth did not occur during long-duration (˜100 h) sintering in the sintered ex situ MgB2 bulks. This is in marked contrast to in situ processed MgB2 samples, for which significant grain growth occurred during heat treatment at ˜900 °C, producing grains that are several tens of times larger than the initial boron grains. Consequently, the critical current density as a function of the external magnetic field at 20 K progressively improved with sintering due

  1. Bulk and surface acoustic waves in solid-fluid Fibonacci layered materials.

    PubMed

    Quotane, I; El Boudouti, E H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; El Hassouani, Y; Velasco, V R

    2015-08-01

    We study theoretically the propagation and localization of acoustic waves in quasi-periodic structures made of solid and fluid layers arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. We consider two types of structures: either a given Fibonacci sequence or a periodic repetition of a given sequence called Fibonacci superlattice. Various properties of these systems such as: the scaling law and the self-similarity of the transmission spectra or the power law behavior of the measure of the energy spectrum have been highlighted for waves of sagittal polarization in normal and oblique incidence. In addition to the allowed modes which propagate along the system, we study surface modes induced by the surface of the Fibonacci superlattice. In comparison with solid-solid layered structures, the solid-fluid systems exhibit transmission zeros which can break the self-similarity behavior in the transmission spectra for a given sequence or induce additional gaps other than Bragg gaps in a periodic structure.

  2. Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste & Status of Implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling), Rules, 2000 in the State of Madhya Pradesh, 2008 - a case study.

    PubMed

    Lal Patel, Munna; Jain, Rajnikant; Saxena, Alok

    2011-05-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW), generated from different activities in the township and city areas is a subject of deep concern for its proper management. The improper management of the MSW is a major cause for water, air and soil pollution. The population explosion and sustained drive for economic progress and development have resulted in a remarkable increase/ change in quantity and characteristics of MSW generation over the last 20 years. The local bodies are responsible for the management of the MSW in the State. The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling), Rules, 2000 came into force from the date of its publication in the official Gazette of India and are applicable to every local body responsible for the proper management of the MSW in the State. The status report of the implementation of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling), Rules, 2000 in the State of Madhya Pradesh, is prepared as per the MOU signed by the State Pollution Control Board with the Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. The necessary data for the preparation of the report, collected from the respective local bodies through the regional offices of the Board during the period February to December 2008. There are 342 local bodies (municipal corporations, 14; municipal committees or municipalities, 86; Nagar Panchyats, 237; and cantonment boards, 5) responsible for the implementation of the MSW, in the State. It is estimated that around 4500 Mt day(-1) MSW is generated from all the 342 local bodies. The local bodies of the State are not well equipped for the proper management of the MSW. A total of 323 local bodies has identified land for the development of the landfill sites as per the provisions of the Rules but only 90 local bodies acquired the same. As an outcome of this assessment, the local bodies are not financially and technically capable for the proper implementation of the Rules. The collection of the waste is around 60-70%. This status report will serve as an

  3. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Unemoto, Atsushi Ikeshoji, Tamio; Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki; Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-25

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  4. Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store, and Deliver High-Tonnage Low-Moisture Switchgrass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Womac, Alvin; Groothuis, Mitch; Westover, Tyler; Phanphanich, Manunya; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Turhollow, Anthony

    2013-09-24

    This project evaluates and compares comprehensive feedstock logistics systems (FLS), where a FLS is defined to comprehensively span from biomass material standing in a field to conveyance of a uniform, industrial-milled product into the throat of a biomass conversion facility (BCF). Elements of the bulk-format FLS evaluated in this project include: field-standing switchgrass dry chopped into bulk format on the farm, hauled (either loose or bulk compacted) to storage, stored with confining overburden in a protective facility, reclaimed and conveyed to bulk-format discharge, bulk compacted into an ejector trailer, and conveyed as bulk flow into the BCF. In this FLS evaluation, bulk storage bins served as a controlled and sensored proxy for large commercial stacks protected from moisture with a membrane cover.

  5. Infra-red imaging of bulk water and water-solid interfaces under stable and metastable conditions.

    PubMed

    Mercury, Lionel; Jamme, Frédéric; Dumas, Paul

    2012-02-28

    Superheated water has been studied by infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the special ability of liquid water to undergo such a metastable state corresponds to the development of peculiar inter-molecular networking under tension. As the best technique to superheat water is to trap the liquid inside micro-cavities in solids (the so-called "fluid inclusions"), the role of the water-solid interfaces to stabilize the adjoining liquid is also explored with the same infra-red micro-spectroscopy tool. The key signal is the intra-molecular OH stretching band, sensitive to the networking in the probed material. The sample of choice is liquid water occluded inside a quartz cavity of micrometric size, synthesized in laboratory from pure quartz and milli-Q water. The stretching band of the superheated water shows no significant spectral difference from that of a bulk "normal" water, which means that the molecular properties of the superheating liquid are quite similar to those of the stable bulk liquid. Liquid water is readily "superheatable" but retains its "normality" under these special conditions. Additionally, this result establishes a firm ground to justify that the properties of the former are predicted extrapolating the usual (though empirical) equation of state of the latter. The infra-red signals of the water-solid interfaces are more complex. The water-solid interfaces blue-shift the signal, affecting differently the three sub-bands of the OH-stretching. This effect was unexpected since the micro-IR spectroscopy probes volume beyond what is classically assigned for the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial signature is clearer under superheating than under the saturation conditions, which offers an interesting (and unexpected) way to interpret the special stability of the occluded metastable water. These encouraging results give confidence on the potentialities of the high-resolution micro-spectroscopy to get insights into the molecular basis of

  6. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    PubMed

    Rao, A Gangagni; Naidu, G Venkata; Prasad, K Krishna; Rao, N Chandrasekhar; Mohan, S Venkata; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2004-07-01

    Studies are carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater are found to be very high with low Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and start up of the reactor is carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor is studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it is found that the optimum OLR is 10 kg COD/m3/day. The wastewater under investigation, which is having considerable quantity of SS, is treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. The COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater are monitored and reduction at steady state and optimum OLR is observed to be 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD. The reactor is subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and it is observed that the reactor could withstand shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    PubMed

    Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.

  8. Methods, setup and safe handling for anhydrous hydrogen fluoride cleavage in Boc solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Muttenthaler, Markus; Albericio, Fernando; Dawson, Philip E

    2015-07-01

    Solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) using tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc)/benzyl (Bzl) chemistry is an indispensable technique in many laboratories around the globe, and it provides peptides to the pharmaceutical industry and to thousands of scientists working in basic research. The Boc/Bzl strategy has several advantages, including reliability in the synthesis of long and difficult polypeptides, alternative orthogonality regarding protecting groups and ease of producing C-terminal thioesters for native chemical ligation applications. In this process, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) is used to remove the side chain protecting groups of the assembled peptide and to release the peptide from the resin, a process typically described as 'HF cleavage'. This protocol describes the general methodology, apparatus setup and safe handling of HF, with the aim of providing comprehensive information on the safe use of this valuable, well-studied and validated cleavage technique. We explain the cleavage mechanism, the physicochemical properties and risks of HF, first aid measures and the correct use of the apparatus. In addition, we provide advice on scavenger selection, as well as a troubleshooting section and video material illustrating key steps of the procedure. The protocol comprises precleavage sample preparation (30 min-2.5 h), complete HF cleavage procedure (2 h) and reaction workup (30 min).

  9. Connecting point defect parameters with bulk properties to describe diffusion in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chroneos, A.

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental process that can have an impact on numerous technological applications, such as nanoelectronics, nuclear materials, fuel cells, and batteries, whereas its understanding is important across scientific fields including materials science and geophysics. In numerous systems, it is difficult to experimentally determine the diffusion properties over a range of temperatures and pressures. This gap can be bridged by the use of thermodynamic models that link point defect parameters to bulk properties, which are more easily accessible. The present review offers a discussion on the applicability of the cBΩ model, which assumes that the defect Gibbs energy is proportional to the isothermal bulk modulus and the mean volume per atom. This thermodynamic model was first introduced 40 years ago; however, consequent advances in computational modelling and experimental techniques have regenerated the interest of the community in using it to calculate diffusion properties, particularly under extreme conditions. This work examines recent characteristic examples, in which the model has been employed in semiconductor and nuclear materials. Finally, there is a discussion on future directions and systems that will possibly be the focus of studies in the decades to come.

  10. Tunable Quantum Dot Solids: Impact of Interparticle Interactions on Bulk Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Fan, Hongyou; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Li, Binsong

    2015-09-01

    QD-solids comprising self-assembled semiconductor nanocrystals such as CdSe are currently under investigation for use in a wide array of applications including light emitting diodes, solar cells, field effect transistors, photodetectors, and biosensors. The goal of this LDRD project was develop a fundamental understanding of the relationship between nanoparticle interactions and the different regimes of charge and energy transport in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) solids. Interparticle spacing was tuned through the application of hydrostatic pressure in a diamond anvil cell, and the impact on interparticle interactions was probed using x-ray scattering and a variety of static and transient optical spectroscopies. During the course of this LDRD, we discovered a new, previously unknown, route to synthesize semiconductor quantum wires using high pressure sintering of self-assembled quantum dot crystals. We believe that this new, pressure driven synthesis approach holds great potential as a new tool for nanomaterials synthesis and engineering.

  11. Time evolution of reflective thermal lenses and measurement of thermal diffusivity in bulk solids.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Serge; Haché, Alain

    2004-07-20

    A simple method for optically measuring the thermal diffusivity of solids is demonstrated. The thermal displacement created on a substrate by a focused laser beam is determined from the divergence that it induces in a weak probe beam. The dynamics of the surface lens and the amplitude of the probe beam's divergence are then used to determine the thermal diffusivity of the substrate. Several materials that span a wide range of thermal properties are studied.

  12. Bulk hydrolysis and solid-liquid sorption of heavy metals in multi-component aqueous suspensions containing porous inorganic solids: are these mechanisms competitive or cooperative?

    PubMed

    Prelot, Benedicte; Einhorn, Valery; Marchandeau, Franck; Douillard, Jean-Marc; Zajac, Jerzy

    2012-11-15

    Fundamental aspects of the removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams under conditions of competition among the various species have been studied between pH 3 and 9 on Spherosil XO75LS, ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and MCF silicas, as well as a MCF sample grafted with (3-aminopropyl)methoxydimethylsilane (AMPS-MCF). Cd(II), Co(II), Pb(II), or Sr(II) nitrate solutions were used to determine the percentage of metal uptake by each solid at 298 K as a function of the pH of the equilibrium solution, at an initial metal concentration of 0.0001 mol L(-1) and the ionic strength being fixed with 0.01 mol L(-1) NaNO(3). Almost complete retention of the heavy metals on the four solid samples was observed, with the process beginning at pH values smaller than those marking the onset of "bulk" precipitation of a given metal in "free" solution. The heavy metal-uptake mechanism was regarded as hydrolysis-like phenomenon in metal-containing solid suspensions. Weak adsorption of metal species from slightly acidic and neutral solutions was a kind of nucleation step. Adding cadmium to an equimolar solution containing cobalt, lead, or strontium showed no significant effect on the retention of the main metal component. This indicated the great independence of the retention mechanisms.

  13. Determination of the main solid-state form of albendazole in bulk drug, employing Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Arias, Juan M; Altabef, Aída Ben; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2016-09-10

    Albendazole (ALB) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which exhibits two solid-state forms (Forms I and II). The Form I is the metastable crystal at room temperature, while Form II is the stable one. Because the drug has poor aqueous solubility and Form II is less soluble than Form I, it is desirable to have a method to assess the solid-state form of the drug employed for manufacturing purposes. Therefore, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was developed for the determination of Form I of ALB in its mixtures with Form II. For model development, both solid-state forms of ALB were prepared and characterized by microscopic (optical and with normal and polarized light), thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, Raman) techniques. Mixtures of solids in different ratios were prepared by weighing and mechanical mixing of the components. Their Raman spectra were acquired, and subjected to peak smoothing, normalization, standard normal variate correction and de-trending, before performing the PLS calculations. The optimal spectral region (1396-1280cm(-1)) and number of latent variables (LV=3) were obtained employing a moving window of variable size strategy. The method was internally validated by means of the leave one out procedure, providing satisfactory statistics (r(2)=0.9729 and RMSD=5.6%) and figures of merit (LOD=9.4% and MDDC=1.4). Furthermore, the method's performance was also evaluated by analysis of two validation sets. Validation set I was used for assessment of linearity and range and Validation set II, to demonstrate accuracy and precision (Recovery=101.4% and RSD=2.8%). Additionally, a third set of spiked commercial samples was evaluated, exhibiting excellent recoveries (94.2±6.4%). The results suggest that the combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could be applied to the assessment of the main crystal form and its quantitation in samples of ALB bulk drug, in the routine quality control laboratory.

  14. A multi-fiber handling device for in vivo solid phase microextraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry applications.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, Erasmus; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-04-06

    Solid phase microextraction, an in vivo and ex vivo sample preparation method, continues to capture growing interest among researchers for bioanalytical applications. When coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, the procedure often involves large numbers of fibers in, for example, both pharmacokinetic and pharmadynamic studies as well as other bioapplications. In this regard, appropriate and adequate precaution will be critical in preventing the fibers firstly from any possible external contamination and damage to maintain high analytical data integrity. In addition, improving the offline desorption of fibers specifically for in vivo SPME will not only help in improving data quality, but will also significantly decrease the overall analysis time. This article introduces a prototype multi-fiber handling device capable of simultaneous extraction/desorption of multiple solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers on a 96-deep well plate format. This device thus provides an alternative approach to improving higher sample throughput for in vivo SPME liquid chromatography mass spectrometry applications. The portable design of the device ensures effective protection and prevention of fibers against damage and possible contamination and thus maintains analytical data reliability. To ensure its suitability for parallel extraction/desorption, the device was carefully evaluated using four benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam and lorazepam) as model drugs by monitoring inter- and intra-well variability. The effect of agitation speed on data precision and accuracy, effect of device weight on data precision, and comparison of the overall performance of the device with traditional manual desorption approach were also assessed. Results obtained from evaluation of the device with particular focus on the desorption process indicated that the weight of the device has no effect on the reliability and reproducibility of data acquired using the device. The average

  15. Simple Rules for Solid-state Design: From Bulk to Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Keith; Walsh, Aron; Jackson, Adam; Davies, Dan; Oba, Fumiyasu; Kumagai, Yu; Walsh Materials Design Team; JSPS Collaboration

    High-throughput screening enterprises such as Materials Project and the OQMD are well suited to the application of density functional theory for assessing the merits of known bulk materials. The blind exploration of the new combinations and permutations of the periodic table is a daunting task, to paraphrase Samuel Beckett we feel lost before the confusion of innumerable prospects. Centuries of research have provided us with myriad rules for assessing the feasibility of a given stoichiometry and the likelihood of particular crystal arrangements. We explore the ways in which chemical knowledge and state-of-the-art computational physics can be combined to accelerate materials design. We present the SMACT (Semiconducting Materials by Analogy and Chemical Theory) package, which combines these rules with searching of chemical space to predict plausible and heretofore unknown compounds. I will then provide some illustrative examples of materials' design focusing on several important issues: (i) designing new photovoltaic materials, (ii) the role of surfaces and polymorphism in controlling electronic properties, and (iii) the design of porous materials.

  16. Breakdown in a bulk of transparent solids under irradiation of a nanosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Z. U.; Grigorov, Y. V.; Tran, K. A.; Janulewicz, K. A.

    2014-10-01

    A single pulse of a nanosecond laser was tightly focused in the bulk of transparent materials (soda lime glass, borosilicate glass, fused silica , sapphire and Gorilla Glass) to a beam spot diameter of ~ 2.1μm. A value of the total energy absorbed in the materials was measured with corrections for the transmitted, scattered and reflected components of the incident energy. It was found that 3-11% of the incident radiation was scattered but the total absorption still achieved a very high level of up to 88%. Absorptance dependence on the incident fluence was reasonably approximated by the sigmoidal Hill function. Here we suggest using this analytical description to identify empirical intrinsic laser-induced breakdown threshold (LIBT). Optical damage threshold (ODT) was identified by optical inspection. The results for some materials suggest significantly lower breakdown threshold than that reported earlier for more loosely focused beams. A study of the damage area morphology with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high resolution transmission microscope (HRTEM) revealed existence of the shock waves-affected area with a localized nano-crystallization. Spectroscopic study of the light emission accompanying breakdown showed typical quasi-continuum emission with temperature as high as 8917K (0.8 eV).

  17. Separation of solids by varying the bulk density of a fluid separating medium

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Palmer L.; Duffy, James B.; Tokarz, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating objects having a density greater than a selected density value from objects having a density less than said selected density value. The method typically comprises: (a) providing a separation vessel having an upper and lower portion, said vessel containing a liquid having a density exceeding said selected density value; (b) reducing the apparent density of the liquid to said selected density value by introducing solid, bubble-like bodies having a density less than that of the liquid into the lower portion of the vessel and permitting them to rise therethrough; (c) introducing the objects to be separated into the separation vessel and permitting the objects having a density greater than the apparent density of the liquid to sink to the lower portion of the vessel, while the objects having a density less than said selected density value float in the upper portion of the vessel; and (d) separately removing the higher density objects in the lower portion and the lower density objects in the upper portion from the separation vessel. The apparatus typically comprises: (a) a vessel containing a liquid having a density such that at least part of said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value will float therein; (b) means to place said objects into said vessel; (c) means to reduce the effective density of at least a portion of said liquid to said selected density value, whereby said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value sink into said liquid and said objects having a density less than said selected density value remain afloat, said means to adjust the effective density comprising solid, bubble-like bodies having a density less than said selected density value and means for introducing said bodies into said liquid; and (d) means for separately removing said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value and said objects having a density less than said selected density value

  18. Integrated Solid/Nanoporous Copper/Oxide Hybrid Bulk Electrodes for High-performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chao; Lang, Xing-You; Han, Gao-Feng; Li, Ying-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Lian, Jian-She; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g−1 for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications. PMID:24096928

  19. Integrated solid/nanoporous copper/oxide hybrid bulk electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chao; Lang, Xing-You; Han, Gao-Feng; Li, Ying-Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Lian, Jian-She; Jiang, Qing

    2013-10-07

    Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g(-1) for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications.

  20. Why is the bulk modulus of jammed solids and granular packings much larger than the shear modulus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Weaire, Denis

    2013-03-01

    In granular packings and metallic glasses, the rigidity to compression is much more pronounced than with respect to shear, resulting in the bulk modulus being much larger than the shear modulus. This state of affairs becomes dramatic in marginal jammed solids which are solid-like to compression but not to shear (Ellenbroek, Zeravcic, van Saarloos, van Hecke, EPL 87, 34004 (2009)). For metallic glasses, it was argued by Weaire et al. some time ago (Acta Metall. 19, 779 (1971)) that this effect might be due to the nonaffinity of the particle displacements. These arise because the force acting on a particle upon strain as a result of the strain-induced motion of its neighbors is not balanced in the absence of local order. Hence the particles undergo nonaffine displacements to relax these forces to the expense of the elastic storage energy, leading to lower values of the elastic moduli. Using the nonaffine theory of Zaccone and Scossa-Romano (PRB, 83, 184205 (2011)) we found a conclusive solution to this long standing problem. We show that in packings and related materials the excluded volume between neighbors induces geometric correlations which significantly reduce the nonaffinity under compression but leave the nonaffinity in shear substantially unaltered.

  1. Full-solid-angle photoelectron diffraction from bulk and surface atoms of clean W(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Ynzunza, R. X.; Tober, E. D.; Palomares, F. J.; Wang, Z.; Daimon, H.; Chen, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Van Hove, M. A.; Fadley, C. S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have studied the atomic structure of the clean W(110) surface by means of site-resolved scanned-angle W4f{sub 7/2} photoelectron diffraction (PD) data obtained over nearly the full 2{pi} solid angle above the surface. Prior to the availability of high-brightness sources such as the Advanced Light Source, such large high-resolution data sets were prohibitively time consuming to obtain. The well characterized W(110) system was used as a reference case to check the accuracy of structure determinations from such scanned-angle data via R-factor comparisons of experiment with theoretical multiple scattering calculations. The photoelectron kinetic energy of {approximately}40 eV used was also lower than in many prior PD studies, providing further challenges to theory. The influence of various non-structural theoretical input parameters (e.g., scattering phase shifts, electron inelastic attenuation length, and inner potential) was thus also assessed. A final optimized structure is presented, together with comments on the future applications of this method.

  2. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p < .0001). The presence of houseflies in the kitchen during cooking is correlated with the incidence of childhood diarrhea (r = .36, p < .0001). Inadequate solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p < .0001) and children (r = .22, p < .05). Poor handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra.

  3. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  4. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature

  5. Addressing the Interface Issues in All-Solid-State Bulk-Type Lithium Ion Battery via an All-Composite Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bing-Qing; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-03-22

    All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO4 particles) of ∼300 μm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm(2), exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

  6. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  7. Superconducting and mechanical properties of the bulk Bi(pb)SCCO system prepared via solid state and ammonium nitrate precipitation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, S.; Kılıçarslan, E.; Ozturk, H.; Alp, M.; Akdogan, M.; Asikuzun, E.; Ozturk, O.; Kılıç, A.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of preparation method on superconducting and mechanical properties of Bi(Pb)-2223 bulk samples using Bi1.85Pb0.35Sr2Ca2Cu3O10±y stoichiometry. Solid-state reaction and ammonium nitrate precipitation methods have been used for fabrication of the bulk samples. In addition, the effect of annealing time on BSCCO samples have been studied. Structural, electrical, magnetic and microhardness analyses of samples are performed by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), DC resistivity, AC susceptibility and Vickers microhardness test. The critical transition temperature, phase purity, surface morphology and crystallinity of the prepared bulk samples are compared with each other. Elasticity (E), brittleness (Bi), fracture toughness (KIC) and yield strength (Y) values are also determined according to annealing time, applied load and production parameters of materials.

  8. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  9. Fe-doped CeO2 solid solutions: Substituting-site doping versus interstitial-site doping, bulk doping versus surface doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huizhi; Qian, Kun; Fang, Jun; Huang, Weixin

    2017-08-01

    Doping CeO2 cubic fluorite with transitional metal ions can effectively improve its redox behavior, oxygen storage capacity and catalytic performance, but the relevant fundamental understanding of the promotion effect is still insufficient due to the difficulty on determining the distribution of dopant. We herein demonstrate an effective approach to determine this dopant distribution by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and selective chemisorption. Cubic CexFe1-xO2 fluorite solid solutions (x ≥ 0.70) were prepared by co-precipitation method. With the increasing of Fe molar ratio in CexFe1-xO2, Fe3+ initially substitutes Ce4+ and/or occupy intersitial sites with x ≥ 0.80, and then transfers to form sub-Fe2O3 structure in fluorite lattice as more Fe3+ are present; meanwhile, the Fe3+ doping initially occurs only in the bulk with x ≥ 0.96 and then extends to the surface with 0.87 ≤ x < 0.96. Low calcinations temperature facilitates the doping of Fe3+ in the bulk of cubic CexFe1-xO2 solid solutions. These results reveal the structures of CexFe1-xO2 fluorite solid solutions at the molecular level that are of great importance for the fundamental understanding of their properties.

  10. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  11. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  12. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-15

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  13. Handling the influence of chemical shift in amplitude-modulated heteronuclear dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basse, Kristoffer; Shankar, Ravi; Bjerring, Morten; Vosegaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Nielsen, Anders B.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the influence of chemical shifts on amplitude-modulated heteronuclear dipolar recoupling experiments in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The method is demonstrated using the Rotor Echo Short Pulse IRrAdiaTION mediated Cross-Polarization (RESPIRATIONCP) experiment as an example. By going into the pulse sequence rf interaction frame and employing a quintuple-mode operator-based Floquet approach, we describe how chemical shift offset and anisotropic chemical shift affect the efficiency of heteronuclear polarization transfer. In this description, it becomes transparent that the main attribute leading to non-ideal performance is a fictitious field along the rf field axis, which is generated from second-order cross terms arising mainly between chemical shift tensors and themselves. This insight is useful for the development of improved recoupling experiments. We discuss the validity of this approach and present quaternion calculations to determine the effective resonance conditions in a combined rf field and chemical shift offset interaction frame transformation. Based on this, we derive a broad-banded version of the RESPIRATIONCP experiment. The new sequence is experimentally verified using SNNFGAILSS amyloid fibrils where simultaneous 15N → 13CO and 15N → 13Cα coherence transfer is demonstrated on high-field NMR instrumentation, requiring great offset stability.

  14. Analysis of matching conditions at the boundary surface of a fluid-saturated porous solid and a bulk fluid: the use of Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubik, J.; Cieszko, M.

    2005-12-01

    The compatibility conditions matching macroscopic mechanical fields at the contact surface between a fluid-saturated porous solid and an adjacent bulk fluid are considered. The general form of balance equations at that discontinuity surface are analyzed to obtain the compatibility conditions for the tangent and normal components of the velocity and the stress vector fields. Considerations are based on the procedure similar to that used in the phenomenological thermodynamics for derivation of constitutive relations, where the entropy inequality and the concept of Lagrange multipliers are applied. This procedure made possible to derive the compatibility conditions for the viscous fluid flowing tangentially and perpendicularly to the boundary surface of the porous solid and to formulate the generalized form of the so called slip condition for the fluid velocity field, postulated earlier by Beavers and Joseph, J. Fluid. Mech. 30, 197-207 (1967).

  15. Enhanced plane wave expansion analysis for the band structure of bulk modes in two-dimensional high-contrast solid-solid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baboly, Mohammadhosein Ghasemi; Soliman, Yasser; Su, Mehmet F.; Reinke, Charles M.; Leseman, Zayd C.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2014-11-01

    Plane wave expansion analyses that use the inverse rule to obtain the Fourier coefficients of the elastic tensor instead of the more conventional Laurent's rule, exhibit faster convergence rates for solid-solid phononic crystals. In this work, the band structure convergence of calculations using the inverse rule is investigated and applied to the case of high acoustic impedance contrast solid-solid phononic crystals, previously known for convergence difficulties. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the conventional plane wave expansion method. The inverse rule is found to converge at a much rate for all ranges of impedance contrast, and the ratio between the computational times needed to obtain a convergent band structure for a high-contrast solid-solid phononic crystal with the conventional plane wave expansion method using 1369 reciprocal lattice vectors is as large as 6800:1. This ratio decreases for material sets with lower impedance contrast; however, the inverse rule is still faster for a given error threshold for even the lowest impedance contrast phononic crystals reported in the literature. This convergence enhancement is a major factor in reconsidering the plane wave expansion method as an important tool in obtaining propagating elastic modes in phononic crystals.

  16. Rungs 1 to 4 of DFT Jacob's ladder: Extensive test on the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Fabien; Stelzl, Julia; Blaha, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A large panel of old and recently proposed exchange-correlation functionals belonging to rungs 1 to 4 of Jacob's ladder of density functional theory are tested (with and without a dispersion correction term) for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy of solids. Particular attention will be paid to the functionals MGGA_MS2 [J. Sun et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 044113 (2013)], mBEEF [J. Wellendorff et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 144107 (2014)], and SCAN [J. Sun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] which are meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGA) and are developed with the goal to be universally good. Another goal is also to determine for which semilocal functionals and groups of solids it is beneficial (or not necessary) to use the Hartree-Fock exchange or a dispersion correction term. It is concluded that for strongly bound solids, functionals of the GGA, i.e., rung 2 of Jacob's ladder, are as accurate as the more sophisticated functionals of the higher rungs, while it is necessary to use dispersion corrected functionals in order to expect at least meaningful results for weakly bound solids. If results for finite systems are also considered, then the meta-GGA functionals are overall clearly superior to the GGA functionals.

  17. Rungs 1 to 4 of DFT Jacob's ladder: Extensive test on the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy of solids.

    PubMed

    Tran, Fabien; Stelzl, Julia; Blaha, Peter

    2016-05-28

    A large panel of old and recently proposed exchange-correlation functionals belonging to rungs 1 to 4 of Jacob's ladder of density functional theory are tested (with and without a dispersion correction term) for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy of solids. Particular attention will be paid to the functionals MGGA_MS2 [J. Sun et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 044113 (2013)], mBEEF [J. Wellendorff et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 144107 (2014)], and SCAN [J. Sun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] which are meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGA) and are developed with the goal to be universally good. Another goal is also to determine for which semilocal functionals and groups of solids it is beneficial (or not necessary) to use the Hartree-Fock exchange or a dispersion correction term. It is concluded that for strongly bound solids, functionals of the GGA, i.e., rung 2 of Jacob's ladder, are as accurate as the more sophisticated functionals of the higher rungs, while it is necessary to use dispersion corrected functionals in order to expect at least meaningful results for weakly bound solids. If results for finite systems are also considered, then the meta-GGA functionals are overall clearly superior to the GGA functionals.

  18. Antimony leaching and chemical species analyses in an industrial solid waste: Surface and bulk speciation using ToF-SIMS and XANES.

    PubMed

    Kappen, P; Ferrando-Miguel, G; Reichman, S M; Innes, L; Welter, E; Pigram, P J

    2017-05-05

    The surface chemistry and bulk chemical speciation of solid industrial wastes containing 8wt-% antimony (Sb) were investigated using synchrotron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Time-of-Flight Ion Secondary Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Leaching experiments were conducted in order to better understand the behavior of Sb in waste streams and to inform regulatory management of antimony-containing wastes. The experiments also demonstrate how a combination of XANES and ToF-SIMS adds value to the field of waste investigations. Leaching treatments (acid and base) were performed at a synchrotron over 24h time periods. Surface analyses of the wastes before leaching showed the presence of Sb associated with S and O. Bulk analyses revealed Sb to be present, primarily, as trivalent sulfide species. Both acid and base leaching did not change the antimony speciation on the solid. Leaching transferred about 1% of the total Sb into solution where Sb was found to be present as Sb(V). XANES data showed similarities between leachate and FeSbO4. During base leaching, the Sb content in solution gradually increased over time, and potential desorption mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Simulation study of a chaotic cavity transducer based virtual phased array used for focusing in the bulk of a solid material.

    PubMed

    Delrue, Steven; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2016-04-01

    In acoustic and ultrasonic non-destructive testing techniques, it is sometimes beneficial to concentrate sound energy at a chosen location in space and at a specific instance in time, for example to improve the signal-to-noise ratio or activate the nonlinearity of damage features. Time Reversal (TR) techniques, taking advantage of the reversible character of the wave equation, are particularly suited to focus ultrasonic waves in time and space. The characteristics of the energy focusing in solid media using principles of time reversed acoustics are highly influenced by the nature and dimensions of the medium, the number of transducers and the length of the received signals. Usually, a large number of transducers enclosing the domain of interest is needed to improve the quality of the focusing. However, in the case of highly reverberant media, the number of transducers can be reduced to only one (single-channel TR). For focusing in a non-reverberant medium, which is impossible when using only one source, an adaptation of the single-channel reciprocal TR procedure has been recently suggested by means of a Chaotic Cavity Transducer (CCT), a single element transducer glued on a cavity of chaotic shape. In this paper, a CCT is used to focus elastic energy, at different times, in different points along a predefined line on the upper surface of a thick solid sample. Doing so, all focusing points can act as a virtual phased array transducer, allowing to focus in any point along the depth direction of the sample. This is impossible using conventional reciprocal TR, as you need to have access to all points in the bulk of the material for detecting signals to be used in the TR process. To asses and provide a better understanding of this concept, a numerical study has been developed, allowing to verify the basic concepts of the virtual phased array and to illustrate multi-component time reversal focusing in the bulk of a solid material.

  20. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... box: 6HA2, 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2 or 6HG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, plywood or fiber drum: 6PA1, 6PB1, 6PD1 or 6PG1 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, wooden or fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic...

  1. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fiberboard box: 6HA2, 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2 or 6HG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, plywood or fiber drum: 6PA1, 6PB1, 6PD1 or 6PG1 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, wooden or fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic...

  2. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fiberboard box: 6HA2, 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2 or 6HG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, plywood or fiber drum: 6PA1, 6PB1, 6PD1 or 6PG1 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, wooden or fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic...

  3. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... box: 6HA2, 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2 or 6HG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, plywood or fiber drum: 6PA1, 6PB1, 6PD1 or 6PG1 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in steel, aluminum, wooden or fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic...

  4. Modeling target bulk heating resulting from ultra-intense short pulse laser irradiation of solid density targets

    SciTech Connect

    Antici, P.; Gremillet, L.; Grismayer, T.; Audebert, P.; Mančic, A.; Fuchs, J.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C. A.

    2013-12-15

    Isochoric heating of solid-density matter up to a few tens of eV is of interest for investigating astrophysical or inertial fusion scenarios. Such ultra-fast heating can be achieved via the energy deposition of short-pulse laser generated electrons. Here, we report on experimental measurements of this process by means of time- and space-resolved optical interferometry. Our results are found in reasonable agreement with a simple numerical model of fast electron-induced heating.

  5. New method of the precise measurement for the thickness and bulk etch rate of the solid-state track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Yasuda, N.; Hasebe, N.; Doke, T.; Ota, S.; Ogura, K.

    2007-04-01

    New optical system with an optical displacement sensor has been developed to measure the local thickness of CR-39 track detector. It can be applied to measure locally the thicknesses of whole detector area for making a map of the amount of bulk etch. The accuracy of the thicknesses measurement was found to be ±0.2 μm using CR-39 detector. This accuracy is one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional methods, such as the Micrometer method, and is comparable to that of track size measurement under the optical microscope. It will also greatly improve the charge and mass resolutions of CR-39 detector that we can apply to measure galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) nuclei, especially the trans-iron nuclei (Z⩾30) in GCRs.

  6. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Bag, woven plastic: 5H1, 5H2 or 5H3 Bag, plastic film: 5H4 Bag, textile: 5L1, 5L2 or 5L3 Bag, paper, multiwall, water resistant: 5M2 Plastic... Plastic drum: 1H1 or 1H2 Wooden barrel: 2C2 Steel jerrican: 3A1 or 3A2 Plastic jerrican: 3H1 or...

  7. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-06-01

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of log ≤ft( σ /S c{{m}-1} \\right)=-3.3 at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g-1 for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  8. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-26

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of [Formula: see text] at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g(-1) for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  9. Evaluation of high-resolution gamma-ray methods for determination of solid plutonium holdup in high-throughput bulk-processing equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, P.A.; Siebelist, R.; Painter, J.A. ); Gilmer, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The first field testing of high-resolution gamma-ray methods and current hardware and software technologies applied to measurements of solid plutonium holdup in high-throughput bulk-processing equipment has shown promising results. The gamma-ray assays agree reasonably with the quantities recovered from the cleanout of a continuous-feed rotary calciner. The limitations on these measurements are primarily the uncertainties in the equipment attenuation factors. Approaches to reduce these uncertainties and to correct for effects of deposit self-attenuation are discussed. The criteria for success in measurements of this type are reviewed, and the impact of anticipated holdup on the recommended startup procedures for new facilities is addressed. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Solid-state colloidal CuInS2 quantum dot solar cells enabled by bulk heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    So, D; Pradhan, S; Konstantatos, G

    2016-09-22

    Colloidal copper indium sulfide (CIS) nanocrystals (NCs) are Pb- and Cd-free alternatives for use as absorbers in quantum dot solar cells. In a heterojunction with TiO2, non-annealed ligand-exchanged CIS NCs form solar cells yielding a meager power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.15%, with photocurrents plummeting far below predicted values from absorption. Decreasing the amount of zinc during post-treatment leads to improved mobility but marginal improvement in device performance (PCE = 0.30%). By incorporating CIS into a porous TiO2 network, we saw an overall drastic improvement in device performance, reaching a PCE of 1.16%, mainly from an increase in short circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) and a 10-fold increase in internal quantum efficiency (IQE). We have determined that by moving from a bilayer to a bulk heterojunction architecture, we have reduced the trap-assisted recombination as seen in changes in the ideality factor, the intensity dependence of the photocurrent and transient photocurrent (TPC) and photovoltage (TPV) characteristics.

  11. Droplet Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Toru

    When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

  12. Droplet handling.

    PubMed

    Torii, Toru

    2010-01-01

    When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

  13. Solid state synthesis and characterization of bulk FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onar, K.; Yakinci, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    FeTe0.5Se0.5 polycrystalline superconductor samples were synthesized by solid- state reaction method at different heating temperatures. The morphological and structural characterization of FeTe0 5Se0.5 samples were carried out by X-rays Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The electrical, magnetic and thermal transport properties were investigated up to 8 T by using physical property measurement system. The results reveal that the sensitivity of electrical and magnetic properties strongly depends on the heat treatment cycles. The upper critical field, Hc2(0), was determined with the magnetic field parallel to the sample surface. It gives a maximum value of 36.3 T. The lower critical field, Hc1(T), was obtained as 210, 140 and 70 Oe at 5, 8 and 12 K, respectively. The coherence length, ξ, at the zero field, was calculated to be 1.94 nm and suggested a transparent intergrain boundaries peculiarity. The μ0Hc2(0)/kBTc rate shows higher value (3.36 T/K) than the Pauli limit (1.84 T/K) which suggests unconventional nature of superconductivity for the polycrystalline FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconducting samples.

  14. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  15. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  16. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  17. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  18. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  19. Handling Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Sven; Karmilin, Konstantin; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-02-02

    Substrate cleavage by metalloproteinases involves nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule that is polarized by a catalytic metal, usually a zinc ion, and a general base, usually the carboxyl group of a glutamic acid side chain. The zinc ion is most often complexed by imidazole nitrogens of histidine side chains. This arrangement suggests that the physiological pH optimum of most metalloproteinases is in the neutral range. In addition to their catalytic metal ion, many metalloproteinases contain additional transition metal or alkaline earth ions, which are structurally important or modulate the catalytic activity. As a consequence, these enzymes are generally sensitive to metal chelators. Moreover, the catalytic metal can be displaced by adventitious metal ions from buffers or biological fluids, which may fundamentally alter the catalytic function. Therefore, handling, purification, and assaying of metalloproteinases require specific precautions to warrant their stability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Solid / Liquid Partitioning of Iron in (Mg0.9Fe0.1)2SiO4 Bulk Composition under Lower Mantle Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Hirose, K.; Tateno, S.

    2009-12-01

    Melting causes strong chemical differentiation in the Earth’s interior. It is generally believed that ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) observed in the lowermost mantle represents the partially molten zone, but the nature of partial melting is not known yet. Is the partial melt enriched in iron? Is it denser than coexisting solid? Here we investigate the partitioning of iron between partial melt and solid residue in (Mg0.9Fe0.1)2SiO4 bulk composition up to 61 GPa using laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC). We used the olivine from KLB-1 peridotite as starting material and loaded its powder between the argon pressure medium. The sample was heated from double side using the Nd:YLF laser. Melting was confirmed by a sudden increase in the absorption of the laser light by the sample. A recovered sample was processed to a thin film by Ar ion using the Ion Slicer, and subsequently examined under field emission-type microprobe (FE-EPMA). The X-ray mapping of the sample showed the extensive segregation of each phase under the temperature gradient. The center of the laser-heated hot spot had non-stoichiometric composition, indicating a quenched liquid. Liquidus phase was found to be ferropericlase (Fp) up to ~26 GPa and changed into Mg-silicate perovskite (MgPv) at about 31GPa, consistent with the results obtained by previous melting experiments in multi-anvil apparatus (Ohtani et al., 1998 PEPI; Ito et al., 2004 PEPI). MgPv remains the liquidus phase up to 61 GPa, the highest pressure condition examined so far in this study. We determined the iron partitioning between MgPv and melt (D= FeO (in crystal, wt.%) / FeO (in liquid, wt.%)) from the results of chemical analyses. The partition coefficient D increased weakly with increasing pressure from 31 to 61 GPa, though partial melt remains more iron-rich than perovskite up to 61GPa. The results up to the lowermost mantle condition will be discussed in the presentation.

  1. Bulking agents in sludge composting

    SciTech Connect

    De Bertoldi, M.; Citernesi, U.; Griselli, M.

    1980-01-01

    Composting is one of the most effective ways of disposing of sludge in agriculture. Three bulking agents were studied: (1) the organic fraction of solid wastes, (2) solid agricultural and forestry waste (straw, maize cobs, sawdust, cork, pine cones, etc.), and (3) recyclable inert substrates (polystyrene or polyethylene balls, porous clay balls, etc.). The sole purpose of the inert bulking agent is to aid in the aeration and drying of the composting material.

  2. Occupational vitiligo due to unsuspected presence of phenolic antioxidant byproducts in commercial bulk rubber

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.A.; Mathias, C.G.; Priddy, M.; Molina, D.; Grote, A.A.; Halperin, W.E.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of cutaneous depigmentation (vitiligo) among employees of a company that manufactured hydraulic pumps. The interiors of these pumps were injection-molded with rubber. We identified a small but significant cluster of vitiligo cases among a group of employees who frequently handled the rubber used in this injection molding process. Although none of the additives specified in the rubber formulations was a phenolic or catecholic derivative, known to be potential causes of chemically induced vitiligo, gas chromatographic analysis identified a para-substituted phenol (2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, DTBP) in solid samples of the most frequently used rubber. Surface wipe analysis confirmed that workers could be exposed to DTBP from simple handling of the rubber. We subsequently established that the solid bulk rubber used as the base in these stock rubber formulations contained both DTBP and smaller quantities of p-tert-butylphenol. Both had formed as unsuspected byproducts during chemical synthesis of two antioxidants added to the solid bulk rubber by a major rubber supplier. We conclude that the unsuspected presence of potential chemical depigmenting agents in solid bulk rubber, from which industrial rubber products are formulated, may contribute to the occurrence of occupational vitiligo, and that a simple review of ingredients in rubber formulations is inadequate to detect their presence.

  3. Bulk density of wet and dry wheat straw and switchgrass particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Naimi, L.J.; Hoque, M.; Mani, Sudhagar; Narayan, S.

    2008-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Bulk density is a major physical property in designing the logistic system for biomass handling. The size, shape, moisture content, individual particle density, and surface characteristics are few factors affecting the bulk density. This research investigates the effects of true particle lengths ranging from 6 to 50 mm and moisture contents ranging from 8% to 60% wet basis (wb) on the bulk density of wheat straw and switchgrass. Three types of particle densities of straw and switchgrass measured were: a hollow particle density assuming a hollow cylindrical geometry, a solid particle density assuming a solid cylindrical geometry, and a particle density measured using a gas pycnometer at a gas pressure of 40 kPa. The bulk density of both loose fill and packed fill biomass samples was examined. The calculated wet and dry bulk density ranged from 24 to 111 kg m 3 for straw and from 49 to 266 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The corresponding tapped bulk density ranged from 34 to 130 kg m 3 for straw and 68 to 323 kg m 3 for switchgrass. The increase in bulk density due to tapping the container was from 10% for short 6 mm particles to more than 50% for long 50 mm particles. An equation relating the bulk density of stems as a function of moisture content, dry bulk density, and particle size was developed. After the validation of this bulk density equation, the relationship would be highly useful in designing the logistics system for large scale transport of biomass to a biorefinery. The bulk density and particle density data of uniform particles would be important, if straw and switchgrass is used for pulping and paper making.

  4. 19F solid-state NMR spectroscopic investigation of crystalline and amorphous forms of a selective muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist, in both bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form samples.

    PubMed

    Wenslow, Robert M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the following investigation was to display the utility of 19F solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in both distinguishing between solid forms of a selective muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist and characterizing the active pharmaceutical ingredient in low-dose tablets. Ambient- and elevated-temperature solid-state 19F fast (15 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments were employed to obtain desired spectral resolution in this system. Ambient sample temperature combined with rotor frequencies of 15 kHz provided adequate 19F peak resolution to successfully distinguish crystalline and amorphous forms in this system. Additionally, elevated-temperature 19F MAS NMR further characterized solid forms through 19F resonance narrowing brought about by the phenomenon of solvent escape. Similar solvent dynamics at elevated temperatures were utilized in combination with ambient-temperature 19F MAS NMR analysis to provide excipient-free spectra to unambiguously identify the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) conversion from crystalline Form I to the amorphous form in low-dose tablets. It is shown that 19F solid-state NMR is exceptionally powerful in distinguishing amorphous and crystalline forms in both bulk and formulation samples.

  5. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  6. Unravelling Li-Ion Transport from Picoseconds to Seconds: Bulk versus Interfaces in an Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl-Li2S All-Solid-State Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Klerk, Niek J J; Roslon, Irek; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2016-09-07

    One of the main challenges of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is the restricted power density due to the poor Li-ion transport between the electrodes via the electrolyte. However, to establish what diffusional process is the bottleneck for Li-ion transport requires the ability to distinguish the various processes. The present work investigates the Li-ion diffusion in argyrodite Li6PS5Cl, a promising electrolyte based on its high Li-ion conductivity, using a combination of (7)Li NMR experiments and DFT based molecular dynamics simulations. This allows us to distinguish the local Li-ion mobility from the long-range Li-ion motional process, quantifying both and giving a coherent and consistent picture of the bulk diffusion in Li6PS5Cl. NMR exchange experiments are used to unambiguously characterize Li-ion transport over the solid electrolyte-electrode interface for the electrolyte-electrode combination Li6PS5Cl-Li2S, giving unprecedented and direct quantitative insight into the impact of the interface on Li-ion charge transport in all-solid-state batteries. The limited Li-ion transport over the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S interface, orders of magnitude smaller compared with that in the bulk Li6PS5Cl, appears to be the bottleneck for the performance of the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S battery, quantifying one of the major challenges toward improved performance of all-solid-state batteries.

  7. Community Relations Plan, Bulk Fuels Facility Spill, Solid Waste Management Units ST-106 and SS-111, Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    of below-grade line leakage along the offloading rack. At present, jet fuel is stored in two aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) (1.7-million gallons...facility operated until 1999 when it was removed from service as a result of below-grade line leakage along the offloading rack. Bulk storage for Jet...HILL, 2001) In the soil investigations initiated immediately after the 1999 discovery of the fuel line leak, contamination was detected along the JP-8

  8. Achieving high capacity in bulk-type solid-state lithium ion battery based on Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 electrolyte: Interfacial resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Yaoyu; Shen, Yang; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-08-01

    A bulk-type all-solid-state lithium ion battery based on Ta-doped Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZ-Ta) is prepared by a simple solid state process with high capacity of 279.0 μAh cm-2 at 80 °C. However, severe polarization is discovered during charging/discharging cycles at room temperature (RT) for battery with a higher active cathode loading. Large interfacial resistance due to the poor contact at the interfaces between cathode and LLZ-Ta solid electrolyte and at the interfaces within the composite cathode layer is proven to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performance of the battery at RT. The polarization could be suppressed at elevated temperature, which is attributed to the decreased interfacial resistance as indicated by the results of impedance measurements and gives rise to much enhanced performance of the all-solid-state battery.

  9. Electrochemical and structural evaluation for bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using Li4GeS4-Li3PS4 electrolyte coating on LiCoO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yusuke; Otoyama, Misae; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Ohtomo, Takamasa; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    Bulk-type all-solid-state batteries, which use composite electrodes with a powder mixture of active materials and solid electrolytes, are anticipated for large-scale power sources. However, conventional powder mixing protocols are insufficient to maintain ion-conductive pathways within composite electrodes. Herein, sulfide electrolyte coatings have attracted attention as a promising means to overcome this difficulty. We assessed the effects of sulfide electrolyte coatings for active materials on the electrochemical properties and structural changes in all-solid-state cells. A favorable electrode-electrolyte interface was formed by coating significantly small amounts (ca. 3 wt%) of Li4GeS4-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte (SE) onto LiCoO2 particles via vapor phase process. The all-solid-state cell (In/Li2S-P2S5/SE-coated LiCoO2) was charged and discharged with a larger capacity than that using non-SE-coated LiCoO2 particles, indicating that the SE-coating is effective in forming a favorable ion-conductive pathway to LiCoO2 particles. Improvement of the cell performance after heat treatment was considered to derive not only from the enhancement of ionic conductivity in the SE-coating layer, but also from the reduction of voids in the composite electrode. Less ionic resistance and denser environment are beneficial for the Li-ion supply to the deepest part in the composite electrode, which results in more homogeneous electrochemical reaction in all-solid-state cells.

  10. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  11. Fabrication and characterization of oriented Nd2NiO4 bulk and cathode for low-temperature operating solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Atsufumi; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Motohide

    2015-10-01

    Textured Nd2NiO4 (NNO) bulks were fabricated by slip casting in a 5 T magnetic field generated by a superconducting magnet. The easy-magnetization axis of NNO was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements performed on the surfaces parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field direction of the sintered bulk NNO ceramics. The anisotropic electric conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient of the textured NNO were characterized by the conventional DC four-terminal method and dilatometry, respectively. A higher electric conductivity and lower thermal expansion in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis were confirmed. Based on the obtained experimental data, fabrication of the a-b plane perpendicular-oriented NNO cathode layer on a Gd-doped ceria (GDC) electrolyte was finally attempted in a 0.9 T magnetic field generated by neodymium magnets. The effect of the rotation of the magnetic field in the horizontal plane on the orientation condition of the NNO layer was also investigated. The rotation of the magnetic field could produce the random orientation of the c-axis while retaining the a-b plane orientation against the electrolyte. Based on the performance tests of single cells equipped with different oriented NNO cathodes, the ideal situation of the NNO cathode layer leading to good performance is proposed.

  12. Handling sharps and needles

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000444.htm Handling sharps and needles To use the sharing features ... Health Administration. OSHA fact sheet: protecting yourself when handling contaminated sharps. Updated January 2011. Available at: www. ...

  13. Coarse-grained simulations for flow of complex soft matter fluids in the bulk and in the presence of solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, V. R.; van der Gucht, J.; Briels, W. J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a coarse-grained particle-based simulation technique for modeling flow of complex soft matter fluids such as polymer solutions in the presence of solid interfaces. In our coarse-grained description of the system, we track the motion of polymer molecules using their centers-of-mass as our coarse-grain co-ordinates and also keep track of another set of variables that describe the background flow field. The coarse-grain motion is thus influenced not only by the interactions based on appropriate potentials used to model the particular polymer system of interest and the random kicks associated with thermal fluctuations, but also by the motion of the background fluid. In order to couple the motion of the coarse-grain co-ordinates with the background fluid motion, we use a Galilean invariant, first order Brownian dynamics algorithm developed by Padding and Briels [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 244108 (2014)], which on the one hand draws inspiration from smoothed particle hydrodynamics in a way that the motion of the background fluid is efficiently calculated based on a discretization of the Navier-Stokes equation at the positions of the coarse-grain coordinates where it is actually needed, but also differs from it because of the inclusion of thermal fluctuations by having momentum-conserving pairwise stochastic updates. In this paper, we make a few modifications to this algorithm and introduce a new parameter, viz., a friction coefficient associated with the background fluid, and analyze the relationship of the model parameters with the dynamic properties of the system. We also test this algorithm for flow in the presence of solid interfaces to show that appropriate boundary conditions can be imposed at solid-fluid interfaces by using artificial particles embedded in the solid walls which offer friction to the real fluid particles in the vicinity of the wall. We have tested our method using a model system of a star polymer solution at the overlap concentration.

  14. Coarse-grained simulations for flow of complex soft matter fluids in the bulk and in the presence of solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V R; van der Gucht, J; Briels, W J

    2016-11-21

    We present a coarse-grained particle-based simulation technique for modeling flow of complex soft matter fluids such as polymer solutions in the presence of solid interfaces. In our coarse-grained description of the system, we track the motion of polymer molecules using their centers-of-mass as our coarse-grain co-ordinates and also keep track of another set of variables that describe the background flow field. The coarse-grain motion is thus influenced not only by the interactions based on appropriate potentials used to model the particular polymer system of interest and the random kicks associated with thermal fluctuations, but also by the motion of the background fluid. In order to couple the motion of the coarse-grain co-ordinates with the background fluid motion, we use a Galilean invariant, first order Brownian dynamics algorithm developed by Padding and Briels [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 244108 (2014)], which on the one hand draws inspiration from smoothed particle hydrodynamics in a way that the motion of the background fluid is efficiently calculated based on a discretization of the Navier-Stokes equation at the positions of the coarse-grain coordinates where it is actually needed, but also differs from it because of the inclusion of thermal fluctuations by having momentum-conserving pairwise stochastic updates. In this paper, we make a few modifications to this algorithm and introduce a new parameter, viz., a friction coefficient associated with the background fluid, and analyze the relationship of the model parameters with the dynamic properties of the system. We also test this algorithm for flow in the presence of solid interfaces to show that appropriate boundary conditions can be imposed at solid-fluid interfaces by using artificial particles embedded in the solid walls which offer friction to the real fluid particles in the vicinity of the wall. We have tested our method using a model system of a star polymer solution at the overlap concentration.

  15. Mechanically Assisted Solid-State Mixing and Spark Plasma Sintering for Fabrication of Bulk Nanocomposite (WC/7(10Co/4Cr))-Based ZrO2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif; Al-Hazza, Abdulsalam; Al-Hajji, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    Mechanically induced solid-state mixing, using high-energy ball milling technique, was employed for preparing WC/7 wt.% (10Cr/4Cr) solid-solution powders. The solid-solution powders obtained after 50 h of milling were mechanically mixed for 50 h together with small weight fractions (0-7 wt.%) of (ZrO2 + 1.5 wt.% Y2O3) powders. The powders were then consolidated in vacuum under a uniaxial pressure of 30 MPa at 1250 °C, using spark plasma sintering. The consolidated bulk samples were nearly full dense and maintained their nanocrystalline structure after this consolidation step. The results showed that the consolidated samples over the entire range of ZrO2 concentrations (0-7 wt.%) had low values for Young's modulus (297-318 GPa) due to their nanocrystalline structures. Moreover, the WC/7 wt.% (10Cr/4Cr)/7(ZrO2-1.5 mol.% Y2O3) showed excellent wear resistance, indexed by its low-value friction coefficient ( 0.29).

  16. Mechanically Assisted Solid-State Mixing and Spark Plasma Sintering for Fabrication of Bulk Nanocomposite (WC/7(10Co/4Cr))-Based ZrO2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif; Al-Hazza, Abdulsalam; Al-Hajji, L. A.

    2017-04-01

    Mechanically induced solid-state mixing, using high-energy ball milling technique, was employed for preparing WC/7 wt.% (10Cr/4Cr) solid-solution powders. The solid-solution powders obtained after 50 h of milling were mechanically mixed for 50 h together with small weight fractions (0-7 wt.%) of (ZrO2 + 1.5 wt.% Y2O3) powders. The powders were then consolidated in vacuum under a uniaxial pressure of 30 MPa at 1250 °C, using spark plasma sintering. The consolidated bulk samples were nearly full dense and maintained their nanocrystalline structure after this consolidation step. The results showed that the consolidated samples over the entire range of ZrO2 concentrations (0-7 wt.%) had low values for Young's modulus (297-318 GPa) due to their nanocrystalline structures. Moreover, the WC/7 wt.% (10Cr/4Cr)/7(ZrO2-1.5 mol.% Y2O3) showed excellent wear resistance, indexed by its low-value friction coefficient ( 0.29).

  17. Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

  18. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed spaces...

  19. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed spaces...

  20. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed spaces...

  1. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  2. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  3. Bulk-Type All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries: Remarkable Performances of a Carbon Nanofiber-Supported MgH2 Composite Electrode.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kawahito, Koji; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2017-01-25

    Magnesium hydride, MgH2, a recently developed compound for lithium-ion batteries, is considered to be a promising conversion-type negative electrode material due to its high theoretical lithium storage capacity of over 2000 mA h g(-1), suitable working potential, and relatively small volume expansion. Nevertheless, it suffers from unsatisfactory cyclability, poor reversibility, and slow kinetics in conventional nonaqueous electrolyte systems, which greatly limit the practical application of MgH2. In this work, a vapor-grown carbon nanofiber was used to enhance the electrical conductivity of MgH2 using LiBH4 as the solid-state electrolyte. It shows that a reversible capacity of over 1200 mA h g(-1) with an average voltage of 0.5 V (vs Li/Li(+)) can be obtained after 50 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1). In addition, the capacity of MgH2 retains over 1100 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 8000 mA g(-1), which indicates the possibility of using MgH2 as a negative electrode material for high power and high capacity lithium-ion batteries in future practical applications. Moreover, the widely studied sulfide-based solid electrolyte was also used to assemble battery cells with MgH2 electrode in the same system, and the electrochemical performance was as good as that using LiBH4 electrolyte.

  4. How crawler track-mounted conveyors improve bulk handling's economics

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.P.

    1984-11-01

    Crawler track-mounted conveyors can be used in most applications formerly requiring stacking, reclaiming or movement from excavators to bench conveyors. The crawler track-mounted conveyor has been automated for push button operation and allows mobilization of in-pit operations for the movement of overburden, minerals and coal. In-pit mobilization of crushers, the use of mobilized steep angle conveyor for the removal of coal from the pit, and the movement of overburden from excavation to spoil can all be done more economically when a combination of a crawler track mounted conveyor is used in conjunction with a shiftable or fixed conveyor.

  5. Vibratory machines can provide handling flexibility in coal fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbaugh, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    In an electric utility type coal fired power plant, there are many different types of bulk solids that must be handled other than the needed fuel. In addition to the coal, which can be of high or low sulfur content, the firing of the combustor of the boilers may be supplemented with one or more of the various {open_quotes}waste type fuels{close_quotes}. The latter could include coal culm, gob, or silt; wood wastes such as bark, chips, shavings, or sawdust, and other plant type organics like sugar can stalks, rice hulls, or something similar. Whole and shredded rubber tires or shredded municipal solid waste (MSW), which is better known as {open_quotes}refuse derived fuel{close_quotes} (RDF), can also be burned. These {open_quotes}waste type fuels{close_quotes} are attractive because their cost is very nominal as compared to {open_quotes}highly specified{close_quotes} top grade fossil fuels. Quite often, the utility will actually be paid an added revenue to receive them. To accomplish the current {open_quotes}clean air{close_quotes} standards, lime, limestone, and so-called FGD gypsum must be successfully moved. Regardless of the type of fuel, the aftermath of its burning will always take the form of either the dust collected {open_quotes}fly ash{close_quotes} or the residue {open_quotes}bottom ash{close_quotes} that drops down to discharge from the combustor. This presentation will show the {open_quotes}Induced Vertical Flow and Conveying{close_quotes} principles can be selectively applied to achieve more flexibility in the handling of these needed materials. The primary advantage is their ability to successfully contend with continually changing physical properties and, when needed, the quantity of heat content of the bulk solid being handled.

  6. Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: Bulk chemical characterization using solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benner, R.; Hatcher, P.G.; Hedges, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves during decomposition in tropical estuarine waters were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental (CHNO) analysis. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the leaves accounting for about 50 wt% of senescent tissues. Tannins were estimated to account for about 20 wt% of leaf tissues, and lipid components, cutin, and possibly other aliphatic biopolymers in leaf cuticles accounted for about 15 wt%. Carbohydrates were generally less resistant to decomposition than the other constituents and decreased in relative concentration during decomposition. Tannins were of intermediate resistance to decomposition and remained in fairly constant proportion during decomposition. Paraffinic components were very resistant to decomposition and increased in relative concentration as decomposition progressed. Lignin was a minor component of all leaf tissues. Standard methods for the colorimetric determination of tannins (Folin-Dennis reagent) and the gravimetric determination of lignin (Klason lignin) were highly inaccurate when applied to mangrove leaves. The N content of the leaves was particularly dynamic with values ranging from 1.27 wt% in green leaves to 0.65 wt% in senescent yellow leaves attached to trees. During decomposition in the water the N content initially decreased to 0.51 wt% due to leaching, but values steadily increased thereafter to 1.07 wt% in the most degraded leaf samples. The absolute mass of N in the leaves increased during decomposition indicating that N immobilization was occurring as decomposition progressed. ?? 1990.

  7. Handling and restraint.

    PubMed

    Donovan, John; Brown, Patricia

    2004-09-01

    For the safety of the handler and the animal, proper methods for handling and restraining laboratory animals should be followed. Improper handling can result in increased stress and injury to the animal. In addition, the handler risks injury from bite wounds or scratches inflicted when the animal becomes fearful or anxious. By using sure, direct movements with a determined attitude, the animal can be easily handled and restrained. Animals can be restrained either manually or in a plastic restrainer. The protocols in this unit describe handling and manual restraint of mice, rats, hamsters, and rabbits. Alternate protocols describe restraint using the plastic restrainer.

  8. Handling and restraint.

    PubMed

    Donovan, John; Brown, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    For the safety of the handler and the animal, proper methods for handling and restraining laboratory animals should be followed. Improper handling can result in increased stress and injury to the animal. In addition, the handler risks injury from bite wounds or scratches inflicted when the animal becomes fearful or anxious. By using sure, direct movements with a determined attitude, the animal can be easily handled and restrained. Animals can be restrained either manually or in a plastic restrainer. The protocols in this unit describe handling and manual restraint of mice, rats, hamsters, and rabbits. Alternate protocols describe restraint using the plastic restrainer.

  9. Temporal soil bulk density following tillage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is the medium for air, energy, water, and chemical transport between the atmosphere and the solid earth. Soil bulk density is a key variable impacting the rate at which this transport occurs. Typically, soil bulk density is measured by the gravimetric method, where a sample of known volume is t...

  10. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  11. Data Handling and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresidder, Gwen

    2006-01-01

    When marking GCSE data handling coursework, the author was repeatedly reminded just how poor the level of statistical understanding is among students. In response to a feeling that the teaching of handling data topics was limited, the author and her colleague designed a project with Y8 students to try to teach statistics for a deeper…

  12. Donor-acceptor stacking arrangements in bulk and thin-film high-mobility conjugated polymers characterized using molecular modelling and MAS and surface-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Sachin R; Griffin, John M; Broch, Katharina; Lesage, Anne; Lemaur, Vincent; Dudenko, Dmytro; Olivier, Yoann; Sirringhaus, Henning; Emsley, Lyndon; Grey, Clare P

    2017-04-01

    Conjugated polymers show promising properties as cheap, sustainable and solution-processable semiconductors. A key challenge in the development of these materials is to determine the polymer chain structure, conformation and packing in both the bulk polymer and in thin films typically used in devices. However, many characterisation techniques are unable to provide atomic-level structural information owing to the presence of disorder. Here, we use molecular modelling, magic-angle spinning (MAS) and dynamic nuclear polarisation surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy (DNP SENS) to characterise the polymer backbone group conformations and packing arrangement in the high-mobility donor-acceptor copolymer diketopyrrolo-pyrrole-dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DPP-DTT). Using conventional (1)H and (13)C solid-state MAS NMR coupled with density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the bulk polymer adopts a highly planar backbone conformation with a laterally-shifted donor-on-acceptor stacking arrangement. DNP SENS enables acquisition of (13)C NMR data for polymer films, where sensitivity is limiting owing to small sample volumes. The DNP signal enhancement enables a two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C HETCOR spectrum to be recorded for a drop-cast polymer film, and a (13)C CPMAS NMR spectrum to be recorded for a spin-coated thin-film with a thickness of only 400 nm. The results show that the same planar backbone structure and intermolecular stacking arrangement is preserved in the films following solution processing and annealing, thereby rationalizing the favourable device properties of DPP-DTT, and providing a protocol for the study of other thin film materials.

  13. Future of remote handling

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The field of remote handling started in the late 1940's and early 1950's with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators. That field now consists of three major divisions: (1) conventional remote handling in fixed facilities with shielding windows and mechanical manipulators; (2) large area remote handling using portable equipment, electric master-slave manipulators, and television for viewing; and (3) the field of robotics which is beginning to be applied to repetitive operations on toxic and dangerous materials. All three divisions will continue to develop and evolve over the next decade.

  14. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  15. Amorphous LiCoO2sbnd Li2SO4 active materials: Potential positive electrodes for bulk-type all-oxide solid-state lithium batteries with high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Kenji; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Deguchi, Minako; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    Newly amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50 (xLiCoO2·(100-x)Li2SO4 (mol%)) positive electrode active materials are synthesized using mechanochemical techniques. SEM observation indicates that average radii of the Li1.2Co0.8S0.2O2.4 (80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 (mol%)) particles are about 3 μm. HR-TEM images indicate that the particles comprise nano-crystalline and amorphous phases. The crystalline phase is attributable to cubic LiCoO2 phase. These active materials exhibit a high electronic conductivity of around 10-5-10-1 S cm-1 and an ionic conductivity of around 10-7-10-6 S cm-1 at room temperature. Bulk-type all-oxide solid-state cells (Lisbnd In alloy/Li3BO3-based glass-ceramic electrolyte/amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50) are fabricated by pressing at room temperature without high temperature sintering. Although the cell with the milled LiCoO2 shows no capacity, the cell using the Li1.2Co0.8S0.2O2.4 electrode with no conductive components (ca. 150 μm thickness) operates as a secondary battery at 100 °C, with an average discharge potential of 3.3 V (vs. Li+/Li) and discharge capacity of 163 mAh g-1. A positive electrode with large amounts of active materials is suitable for achieving high energy density in all-solid-state batteries. These newly synthesized amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50 electrodes with ionic and electronic conductivities and good processability meet that demand.

  16. Handle-shaped Prominence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-17

    NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope aboard ESA’s SOHO spacecraft took this image of a huge, handle-shaped prominence in 1999. Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun hot, thin corona.

  17. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  18. Helicopter Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Helicopters are used by the military and civilian communities for a variety of tasks and must be capable of operating in poor weather conditions and at night. Accompanying extended helicopter operations is a significant increase in pilot workload and a need for better handling qualities. An overview of the status and problems in the development and specification of helicopter handling-qualities criteria is presented. Topics for future research efforts by government and industry are highlighted.

  19. SPAR data handling utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Haftka, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The SPAR computer software system is a collection of processors that perform particular steps in the finite-element structural analysis procedure. The data generated by each processor are stored on a data base complex residing on an auxiliary storage device, and these data are then used by subsequent processors. The SPAR data handling utilities use routines to transfer data between the processors and the data base complex. A detailed description of the data base complex organization is presented. A discussion of how these SPAR data handling utilities are used in an application program to perform desired user functions is given with the steps necessary to convert an existing program to a SPAR processor by incorporating these utilities. Finally, a sample SPAR processor is included to illustrate the use of the data handling utilities.

  20. Inspection program improves bulk cement system delivery

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bannion, T. ); Guidroz, B.; Morris, G. )

    1993-12-20

    A recently implemented survey of pneumatically operated bulk cement-handling equipment offshore has improved bulk cement deliverability on several Gulf of Mexico rigs. The 30-point survey helps ensure an adequate rate of bulk cement delivery throughout the cement job. The inspection survey was developed because the source of many cement job failures was a lack of adequate, steady delivery of bulk cement to the cementing unit during the job. The job failures caused by flow interruptions, plugging of tools by chunks of set cement, and erratic flow resulted in poor primary cement jobs, many of which required remedial cementing jobs. A better-controlled flow of cement may help prevent these types of failure, thereby reducing the number of remedial cement operations. The paper describes the inspection procedures.

  1. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  2. FUEL HANDLING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Hutter, E.

    1960-02-01

    A remotely operable handling device specifically adapted for the handling of vertically disposed fuel rods in a nuclear reactor was developed. The device consists essentially of an elongated tubular member having a gripping device at the lower end of the pivoted jaw type adapted to grip an enlarged head on the upper end of the workpiece. The device includes a sensing element which engages the enlarged head and is displaced to remotely indicate when the workpiece is in the proper position to be engaged by the jaws.

  3. SLUG HANDLING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, J.R.

    1958-09-16

    A device is described for handling fuel elements of a neutronic reactor. The device consists of two concentric telescoped contalners that may fit about the fuel element. A number of ratchet members, equally spaced about the entrance to the containers, are pivoted on the inner container and spring biased to the outer container so thnt they are forced to hear against and hold the fuel element, the weight of which tends to force the ratchets tighter against the fuel element. The ratchets are released from their hold by raising the inner container relative to the outer memeber. This device reduces the radiation hazard to the personnel handling the fuel elements.

  4. Self-heating study of bulk acoustic wave resonators under high RF power.

    PubMed

    Ivira, Brice; Fillit, René-Yves; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Benech, Philippe; Parat, Guy; Ancey, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The present work first provides an experimental technique to study self-heating of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators under high RF power in the gigahertz range. This study is specially focused on film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators processed onto silicon wafers and designed for wireless systems. Precisely, the reflection coefficient of a one-port device is measured while up to several watts are applied and power leads to electrical drifts of impedances. In the following, we describe how absorbed power can be determined from the incident one in real time. Therefore, an infrared camera held over the radio frequency micro electromechanical system (RF-MEMS) surface with an exceptional spatial resolution reaching up to 2 microm/pixels gives accurate temperature mapping of resonators after emissivity correction. From theoretical point of view, accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structures for finite-element modeling analyses are carried out to know the best materials and architectures to use for enhancing power handling. In both experimental and theoretical investigations, comparison is made between film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators. Thus, the trend in term of material, architecture, and size of device for power application such as in transmission path of a transceiver is clearly identified.

  5. Formation and properties of bulk defects in Li/CaO and Na/CaO catalysts on the basis of solid solutions in the oxidative conversion of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, E.V.; Maksimov, N.G.; Anshits, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The introduction of Li{sup +} or Na{sup +}into the lattice of CaO in the region of concentrations, corresponding to the existence of solid solutions, is found to result in the stabilization of trace Fe{sup 3+} ions in cationic sites of calcium oxide. When both Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} are used as the alkaline component, the activity of the catalyst in methane conversion in the CH{sub 4} + O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + N{sub 2}O reaction mixtures increases with a rise in the concentration of Fe{sup 3+} ions. The lower activity of the catalyst in CO formation from the CH{sub 4} + N{sub 2}O mixture as compared to the CH{sub 4} + O{sub 2} mixture is explained by decreasing the concentration of O{sup 2{minus}}{sub cus} (a coordinatively unsaturated lattice oxygen species). Under the conditions of catalysis, the formation of defects of the O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3}, CO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 2}, and M{sup +}C O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3}(M = Li or Na) types occurs in the bulk of a M/Ca0 catalyst; their concentrations depend on the composition of the gas phase. An increase in the fraction of the M{sup +}CO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} centers in doped CaO is found to result in a rise in the selectivity of the formation of C{sub 2} products in the CH{sub 4} + O{sub 2} reaction mixture.

  6. Fast sodium ionic conduction in Na2B10H10-Na2B12H12 pseudo-binary complex hydride and application to a bulk-type all-solid-state battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Koji; Sato, Toyoto; Unemoto, Atsushi; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Udovic, Terrence J.; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we developed highly sodium-ion conductive Na2B10H10-Na2B12H12 pseudo-binary complex hydride via mechanically ball-milling admixtures of the pure Na2B10H10 and Na2B12H12 components. Both of these components show a monoclinic phase at room temperature, but ball-milled mixtures partially stabilized highly ion-conductive, disordered cubic phases, whose fraction and favored structural symmetry (body-centered cubic or face-centered cubic) depended on the conditions of mechanical ball-milling and molar ratio of the component compounds. First-principles molecular-dynamics simulations demonstrated that the total energy of the closo-borane mixtures and pure materials is quite close, helping to explain the observed stabilization of the mixed compounds. The ionic conductivity of the closo-borane mixtures appeared to be correlated with the fraction of the body-centered-cubic phase, exhibiting a maximum at a molar ratio of Na2B10H10:Na2B12H12 = 1:3. A conductivity as high as log(σ/S cm-1) = -3.5 was observed for the above ratio at 303 K, being approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of either pure material. A bulk-type all-solid-state sodium-ion battery with a closo-borane-mixture electrolyte, sodium-metal negative-electrode, and TiS2 positive-electrode demonstrated a high specific capacity, close to the theoretical value of NaTiS2 formation and a stable discharge/charge cycling for at least eleven cycles, with a high discharge capacity retention ratio above 91% from the second cycle.

  7. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  8. Microforms in Information Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, B. J. S.

    In an attempt to identify some of the factors which influence the utility of microforms as a medium for information handling, this report first traces some of the landmarks in the evolution of microforms since their invention in 1893. It next provides a factual account of current microform media and formats. The last section of the report contains…

  9. Efficient bulk-loading of gridfiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Scott T.; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of bulk-loading large data sets for the gridfile multiattribute indexing technique. We propose a rectilinear partitioning algorithm that heuristically seeks to minimize the size of the gridfile needed to ensure no bucket overflows. Empirical studies on both synthetic data sets and on data sets drawn from computational fluid dynamics applications demonstrate that our algorithm is very efficient, and is able to handle large data sets. In addition, we present an algorithm for bulk-loading data sets too large to fit in main memory. Utilizing a sort of the entire data set it creates a gridfile without incurring any overflows.

  10. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  11. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  12. Development of liquid handling techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of experiments dealing with protein crystal growth and also with growth of crystals from solution require complicated fluid handling procedures including filling of empty containers with liquids, mixing of solutions, and stirring of liquids. Such procedures are accomplished in a straight forward manner when performed under terrestrial conditions in the laboratory. However, in the low gravity environment of space, such as on board the Space Shuttle or an Earth-orbiting space station, these procedures sometimes produced entirely undesirable results. Under terrestrial conditions, liquids usually completely separate from the gas due to the buoyancy effects of Earth's gravity. Consequently, any gas pockets that are entrained into the liquid during a fluid handling procedure will eventually migrate towards the top of the vessel where they can be removed. In a low gravity environment any folded gas bubble will remain within the liquid bulk indefinitely at a location that is not known a priori resulting in a mixture of liquid and vapor.

  13. Space shuttle handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The initial Orbiter handling qualities requirements, their effect on the vehicle design, and how it all turned out through the first six orbital missions are reviewed. Specific areas consisting of hand controller considerations and the wheelie problem are discussed. The requirements for the pitch axis subsonic flight control system are reviewed. Results of recent simulator evaluations to compare the existing system at landing with several other configurations are presented.

  14. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  15. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  17. An Analysis of the Terminal Materials Handling Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascio, Joseph W.; O'Connor, Patrick J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the terminal materials handling occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Five duties are broken down into…

  18. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent

    Treesearch

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang

    2017-01-01

    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...

  19. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  20. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  1. Sectional device handling tool

    DOEpatents

    Candee, Clark B.

    1988-07-12

    Apparatus for remotely handling a device in an irradiated underwater environment includes a plurality of tubular sections interconnected end-to-end to form a handling structure, the bottom section being adapted for connection to the device. A support section is connected to the top tubular section and is adapted to be suspended from an overhead crane. Each section is flanged at its opposite ends. Axially retractable bolts in each bottom flange are threadedly engageable with holes in the top flange of an adjacent section, each bolt being biased to its retracted position and retained in place on the bottom flange. Guide pins on each top flange cooperate with mating holes on adjacent bottom flanges to guide movement of the parts to the proper interconnection orientation. Each section carries two hydraulic line segments provided with quick-connect/disconnect fittings at their opposite ends for connection to the segments of adjacent tubular sections upon interconnection thereof to form control lines which are connectable to the device and to an associated control console.

  2. Handling difficult materials: Household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-05-01

    At last count in 1990, the US EPA reported that 2.8 million tons of household appliances (often called ''white goods'') were discarded -- about 2% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. These figures may not seem particularly epic, but, considering the potentially harmful coolants, lubricants, and insulating materials left behind in these machines, the amount may be cause for concern. Management of these items is, of course, not impossible, just difficult. As more and more landfills turn white goods away, recycling is becoming the hot'' option. According to a study by the Steel Recycling Institute, about 4 million of the 8 million units discarded in the US were recycled in 1992. Recycling figures like these are impressive for any secondary material, demonstrating the strides appliance recycling has made in recent years. Implemented in May 1993, EPA's final rule on household appliance handling mandates that 80%--90% of all CFC or HCFC coolants must be recovered with certified equipment by a certified technician, who must record how the refrigerant is removed and where it is sent for recovery.

  3. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... iron (DRI); lumps, pellets, and cold-molded briquettes. 148.250 Direct reduced iron (DRI); hot-molded..., accommodation space, working space, storeroom, passageway, or tunnel, that shares a common bulkhead or deck with... material is the BCSN. Cold-molded briquettes are briquettes of direct reduced iron (DRI) that have been...

  4. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  5. Platelets: handle with care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    2016-10-01

    Platelets are delicate cells that require careful handling between collection, preparation and transfusion. This review addresses practical questions relating to platelet concentration, resting time after collection, total time and number of periods without agitation and temperature. The bags in which platelets are stored are made from gas-permeable plastic to allow sufficient oxygen for the platelets to maintain aerobic respiration. Manufacturers have assigned limits for platelet content and concentration, and these must not be exceeded. There is no strong evidence for or against the resting of platelets post-collection and pre-agitation, but platelets should not be over-wrapped during this period as this compromises gas exchange; a short rest period of up to 1 h may allow the separation of minor aggregates. It is necessary to transport platelet concentrates (e.g. from manufacturing site to hospital), but these periods without gas exchange must be limited to avoid excessive damage to the platelets. Current data support a total of 24 h of transportation per component but with no individual period lasting more than 8 h. Platelets need to be stored at 20-24 °C based on evidence that colder storage leads to irreversible changes on the platelet membrane, resulting in phagocytosis of the platelets following transfusion. Storage at warmer temperatures may lead to an increase in bacterial risk. On the basis of this review, the UK Guidelines for Blood Transfusion Services have been updated to ensure that platelets are handled in the most appropriate way to ensure that efficacious components are provided for patients.

  6. Cascaded second-harmonic generation, summation of the wave vectors of the bulk defect-deformation waves, and generation of multimode micro- and nanostructures by laser irradiation of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Emel'yanov, Vladimir I

    2011-02-28

    We consider for the first time three-wave interactions of bulk quasi-static defect-deformation (DD) waves (generation of the second DD harmonic and summation of the wave vectors), similar to three-wave interactions in nonlinear optics and acoustics, leading to cascaded broadening of the spectrum of spatial DD harmonics. Based on the theory developed, we interpret the recently observed effect of laser-induced generation of the bulk periodic structure of silver nanoparticles with a discrete spatial spectrum, extending from micro- to nanometres. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  8. Handling difficult materials: Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.

    1994-09-01

    Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from flashlights and radios to toys and other essentials of modern life. Major US battery firms are spending millions of dollars working with European and Japanese companies to seek more efficient technologies to recycle dry-cell batteries. The next step in the recycling evolution may be to reclaim the metals in alkaline batteries as secondary metals.

  9. Radiation and ecological aspects of tritium handling

    SciTech Connect

    Belovodskiy, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    Results of VNIIEF investigations into regularities of radioactive waste production in tritium handling (gaseous, liquid, solid wastes) as well as tritium and its oxide (HTO, DTO, TTO) migration in environmental objects (air, water, soil, vegetation) are presented. The doses of population exposure due to tritium release into the atmosphere have been determined. The dose factor being 2.2 E13 mrem{sup *}L/Ci/year. The constants of tritium oxide sorption by foods and the density of tritium fallout near the term source have been used to develop the conceptual international design of thermonuclear reactor (ITER).

  10. Waste coal: how to avoid flow stoppages during storage and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Hossfeld, R.J.; Barnum, R.A.

    2007-10-15

    Typically, waste coals are reclaimed from uncovered piles or ponds and transported to a power plant either to sit in another exposed pile or in a large storage silo before being conveyed into feed bunkers to feed the power boilers. The article explains how best to avoid problems related to flow stoppages such as spontaneous combustion when handling gob (bituminous and subbituminous) and culm (anthracite). Common problems are no-flow, due to arching (when an arch-shaped obstruction forms and prevents discharge) and rat-holing (when flow occurs in a channel above the outlet). To achieve mass flow, the sloping hopper walls must be steep enough and sufficiently low in friction for a particle to slide along them and the hopper outlet must be large enough to prevent arching. Equipment is best designed to satisfy flow properties of the particular materials being handled but if the plant is already built, problems can be solved by changing the bulk solid (by minimising moisture, increasing particle size etc.), changing the operating procedures or changing/modifying the equipment (hopper, chute or feeder). 1 ref., 4 figs.

  11. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents. PMID:7427382

  12. REMOTE HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Ginns, D.W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  13. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2014-06-01

    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  14. ADIFOR exception handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic differentiation uses recurrence relations based on the rules of calculus. Consequently, the results are guaranteed to be correct only in the relevant mathematical assumptions are satisfied at least in a neighborhood of the current argument. Computer programs may violate these conditions by branching or by calling intrinsic functions such as abs, max, sqrt, and asin at point where their derivative is undefined or infinite. The resulting dependence between the program's input and output variables may still be differentiable, because branch vales fit together smoothly or nondifferentiabilities cancel each other out. We have two objectives. First, we would like to assure the user that the function being evaluated is indeed locally differentiable because all intrinsics are evaluated at smooth arguments and none of the branching tests are critical. Second, the derivative program should run even when the assumptions of the chain rule are not strictly satisfied. In this case, the numerical results represent at least generalized derivations under reasonable (but usually unverifiable) regularity assumptions. To achieve these two goals, we must take into account the effects of finite-precision arithmetic. This paper addresses the detection and handling of exceptions. It is an exception in the ADIFOR-generated code to evaluate a function at a point at which the function may not be mathematically differentiable. When an exception is detected by tests written into the ADIFOR-generated code, an error handler is called. The error handler prints an error message (optionally), halts execution (optionally), and returns a value that allows the user's client program to detect that a requested derivative is not available. Code is included for all of the necessary Fortran intrinsic functions and for the error handler.

  15. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  16. Waste Handling Practices for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    2000-08-04

    Solid waste handling operations refers to all activities associated with the segregation, collection, packaging, assay, storage, and removal of solid radioactive waste from radiological facilities. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) is expected to generate the following types of radiological waste, as defined in WSRC Manual 1S, ''Waste Acceptance Criteria'': Low level waste; Mixed hazardous waste; TRU waste; and Mixed TRU waste. Historically, waste handling activities have been demanding proportionately larger amounts of labor, time, and space to effectively manage waste in accordance with increasing regulatory requirements. Since the PIP will be designed for an annual throughput of five metric tonnes plutonium, the facility waste handling operations can be expected to have at least twice the impact of such operations at existing facilities.

  17. Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranda, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Maria del Prado

    2006-01-01

    The practical scenarios discussed in a chemistry or chemical engineering course that use solid or liquid reactants are presented. Important ideas to be considered when handling pressurized fluids are provided and three typical examples are described to enable students develop secondary skills such as the selective search of data, identification of…

  18. Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranda, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Maria del Prado

    2006-01-01

    The practical scenarios discussed in a chemistry or chemical engineering course that use solid or liquid reactants are presented. Important ideas to be considered when handling pressurized fluids are provided and three typical examples are described to enable students develop secondary skills such as the selective search of data, identification of…

  19. Seesaw in the Bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, A.; Yoshioka, K.

    2011-01-01

    A five-dimensional seesaw framework is analyzed with the lepton-number-violating propagator of bulk right-handed neutrinos. That can bypass summing up the effects of heavy Majorana particles whose masses and wavefunctions are not exactly known. The propagator method makes it easier to evaluate the seesaw-induced neutrino mass for various boundary conditions of bulk neutrinos and in a general background geometry, including the warped extra dimension. It is also found that the higher-dimensional seesaw gives a natural framework for the inverse seesaw suppression of low-energy neutrino masses.

  20. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  1. HAND TRUCK FOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    DOEpatents

    King, D.W.

    1959-02-24

    A truck is described for the handling of large and relatively heavy pieces of equipment and particularly for the handling of ion source units for use in calutrons. The truck includes a chassis and a frame pivoted to the chassis so as to be operable to swing in the manner of a boom. The frame has spaced members so arranged that the device to be handled can be suspended between or passed between these spaced members and also rotated with respect to the frame when the device is secured to the spaced members.

  2. Information Handling is the Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns surrounding the automation of information handling. There are two types of decision support software that supports most Space Station Flight Controllers. one is very simple, and the other is very complex. A middle ground is sought. This is the reason for the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed (HCAAST) Project. The aim is to study flight controllers at work, and in the bigger picture, with particular attention to how they handle information and how coordination of multiple teams is performed. The focus of the project is on intelligent assistants to assist in handling information for the flight controllers.

  3. 49 CFR 176.74 - On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.74 On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials... water damage must be protected so that it will not be exposed to the weather or to sea water. (c) Not...

  4. E. Windsor, Conn. Facility Agrees to EPA Settlement for Toxic Substances Handling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An East Windsor, Conn., facility that handles solid waste has agreed to pay $23,000 and comply with federal law to settle claims by the US Environmental Protection Agency that it violated federal laws regulating toxic substances.

  5. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  6. Ergonomic material-handling device

    DOEpatents

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  7. Dazomet Fumigant Safe Handling Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dazomet is the active ingredient in Basamid G soil fumigant pesticide. Wear personal protective equipment such as respirators when handling Basamid granules or making an application, mitigate exposures, and recognize signs of vapor inhalation.

  8. 7 CFR 916.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 916.11 Section 916.11 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.11 Handle. Handle and ship are synonymous and mean to pack, sell... area: Provided, That the term handle shall not include the sale of nectarines on the tree, the...

  9. 7 CFR 987.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 987.9 Section 987.9 Agriculture Regulations of... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.9 Handle. Handle means to sell... production, shall not be considered handling. The Committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may...

  10. 7 CFR 917.6 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 917.6 Section 917.6 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.6 Handle. Handle and ship are synonymous and mean to sell... for peaches, packing or causing the fruit to be packed also constitutes handling; Provided further...

  11. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  12. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  13. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  14. 33 CFR 154.1325 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. 154.1325...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Other Non-Petroleum..., store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. (a) An owner or operator of a facility that handles...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin, warehouse...

  16. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Light Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk GaN Substrate with IQE > 80% at 150 A/cm2 and 100 0C

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; David, Aurelien; Grundmann, Michael; Tyagi, Anurag; Craven, Michael; Hurni, Christophe; Cich, Michael

    2015-03-31

    GaN is a crucial material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the violet-to-green range. Despite its good performance, it still suffers from significant technical limitations. In particular, the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs decreases at high current (“current droop”) and high temperature (“temperature droop”). This is problematic in some lighting applications, where a high-power operation is required. This program studied the use of particular substrates to improve the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs: bulk semipolar (SP) GaN substrates. These substrates possess a very high material quality, and physical properties which are distinctly different from legacy substrates currently used in the LED industry. The program focused on the development of accurate metrology to quantify the performance of GaN-based LEDs, and on improvement to LED quality and design on SP substrates. Through a thorough optimization process, we demonstrated violet LEDs with very high internal quantum efficiency, exceeding 85% at high temperature and high current. We also investigated longer-wavelength blue emitters, but found that the limited strain budget was a key limitation.

  17. Characterization, extraction, and reuse of coal-gasification solid wastes. Volume 3. Technical and economic feasibility of bulk utilization and metal recovery for ashes from an integrated coal-gasification facility. Final report, April 1983-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Laudal, D.L.; Ellman, R.C.

    1986-06-01

    Coal-gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk utilization or metals extraction. This project was directed towards correction of that deficiency by matching properties of the Great Plains Gasification Plant gasifier ash and the Antelope Valley Power Plant combustion explored: mineral wool; sulfur concrete; high-flexural-strength ceramics; ceramic glazed wall tile and vitrified floor tile; dual concrete replacement; road stabilization; blended cement; and recovery of aluminum. Mineral wool of similar physical character to commercial wool and at lower potential cost was produced using the ashes from the GPGA complex. Sulfur concrete utilizing 80% ash and 20% modified sulfur developed flexural and compressive strengths in excess of 2250 and 6000 psi, respectively. A vitrified ceramic product with flexural strength above 7800 psi was produced from a mixture of 50% AVS scrubber ash 45% sand, and 5% clay. By using a total ash mixture of 26% gasifier ash and 74% combustion ash, a very satisfactory, economical, and durable road-base material was developed. The replacement of up to 50% of the cement in concrete with AVS scrubber ash produces higher strength. A modified lime-soda sinter process for aluminum recovery was developed, but is not economical.

  18. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  19. Safe handling of large animals.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1999-01-01

    The major causes of accidents with cattle, horses, and other grazing animals are: panic due to fear, male dominance aggression, or the maternal aggression of a mother protecting her newborn. Danger is inherent when handling large animals. Understanding their behavior patterns improves safety, but working with animals will never be completely safe. Calm, quiet handling and non-slip flooring are beneficial. Rough handling and excessive use of electric prods increase chances of injury to both people and animals, because fearful animals may jump, kick, or rear. Training animals to voluntarily cooperate with veterinary procedures reduces stress and improves safety. Grazing animals have a herd instinct, and a lone, isolated animal can become agitated. Providing a companion animal helps keep an animal calm.

  20. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  1. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio

    2015-01-21

    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  2. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  3. Foamed Bulk Metallic Glass (Foam) Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This soldering iron has an evacuated copper capsule at the tip that contains a pellet of Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Prior to flight, researchers sealed a pellet of bulk metallic glass mixed with microscopic gas-generating particles into the copper ampoule under vacuum. Once heated in space, such as in this photograph, the particles generated gas and the BMG becomes a viscous liquid. The released gas made the sample foam within the capsule where each microscopic particle formed a gas-filled pore within the foam. The inset image shows the oxidation of the sample after several minutes of applying heat. Although hidden within the brass sleeve, the sample retained the foam shape when cooled, because the viscosity increased during cooling until it was solid.

  4. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  5. A Practice-Based Clinical Evaluation of a Bulk Fill Restorative Material.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell John; Panchal, Ditesh; Redfearn, Philip; Sands, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the handling, by a group of practice-based researchers, of a recently introduced bulk fill resin-based composite restorative material, Filtek Bulk Fill Restorative (3M ESPE). The twelve selected evaluators were sent explanatory letters, a pack of the material under investigation to use for 8 weeks, and a questionnaire. The evaluators rated the ease of use of the bulk fill restorative the same as the previously used posterior composite material. The provision of one shade only for evaluation may have compromised the score for aesthetic quality. No post-operative sensitivity was reported. The bulk fill material was well received as indicated by the high number of evaluators who would both purchase the material and recommend it to colleagues. A recently introduced bulk fill restorative material achieved a rating for handling which was similar to the evaluators' previously used resin composite, although there were some concerns regarding the translucency of the material.

  6. 7 CFR 906.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 906.7 Section 906.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.7 Handle. Handle or ship means...

  7. 7 CFR 959.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 959.7 Section 959.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.7 Handle. Handle or ship means to package, load, sell, transport, or in any...

  8. 7 CFR 946.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 946.7 Section 946.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.7 Handle. Handle is synonymous with ship and means to transport,...

  9. 7 CFR 958.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 958.7 Section 958.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.7 Handle. Handle...

  10. 7 CFR 966.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 966.7 Section 966.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.7 Handle. Handle or ship means to sell, transport, deliver, or in any other way...

  11. 7 CFR 924.13 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 924.13 Section 924.13 Agriculture Regulations... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.13 Handle. Handle or... production area and any point outside thereof: Provided, That the term “handle” shall not include the...

  12. Hardwood Seed Collection and Handling

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1970-01-01

    In a surprisingly few years a major proportion of the South's timber stands will be artificially regenerated with selected or genetically improved stock. Success with southern pines and high stumpage prices for certain species will spur efforts in hardwood stands. Intensive hardwood forestry will require better methods of seed production and handling than those...

  13. Implementing the Manual Handling Regulations.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M

    1993-05-01

    When last year's consultative document for the Manual Handling Regulations arrived on her desk Maureen Duffy, like many other OHNs, realised that she had her work cut out. She describes how her company set about achieving compliance with the new legislation.

  14. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  15. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  16. Non-contact handling device

    DOEpatents

    Reece, Mark; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.

    2007-05-15

    A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

  17. Chemical Advisory - Solid Ammonium Nitrate (AN) Storage, Handling and Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Advisory contains information on recent and past accidents involving AMMONIUM NITRATE (commonly referred to as AN), on the hazards of AN, how to manage these hazards, and appropriate steps for community emergency planning and proper emergency response.

  18. 14 CFR 420.65 - Handling of solid propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity-distance determinations; or, a launch site operator may add the net explosive equivalent weight of the division 1.3 items to the net weight of division 1.1 items to determine the total quantity...

  19. 14 CFR 420.65 - Handling of solid propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantity-distance determinations; or, a launch site operator may add the net explosive equivalent weight of the division 1.3 items to the net weight of division 1.1 items to determine the total quantity of...

  20. 14 CFR 420.65 - Handling of solid propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... quantity-distance determinations; or, a launch site operator may add the net explosive equivalent weight of the division 1.3 items to the net weight of division 1.1 items to determine the total quantity of...

  1. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  2. Bulk amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work was to develop the competency for the synthesis of novel bulk amorphous alloys. The authors researched their synthesis methods and alloy properties, including thermal stability, mechanical, and transport properties. The project also addressed the development of vanadium-spinel alloys for structural applications in hostile environments, the measurement of elastic constants and thermal expansion in single-crystal TiAl from 300 to 750 K, the measurement of elastic constants in gallium nitride, and a study of the shock-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi alloys.

  3. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  4. Bulk Site Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barich, J.J. III; Jones, R.R. Sr.

    1996-12-31

    The selection, manufacture and use of Bulk Site Reference Materials (BSRMs) at hazardous waste sites is discussed. BSRMs are useful in preparing stabilization/solidification (S/S) formulations for soils, ranking competing S/S processes, comparing S/S alternatives to other technologies, and in interpreting data from different test types. BSRMs are large volume samples that are representative of the physical and chemical characteristics of a site soil, and that contain contaminants at reasonably high levels. A successful BSRM is extremely homogeneous and well-characterized. While not representative of any point on the site, they contain the contaminants of the site in the matrices of the site. Design objectives for a BSRM are to produce a material that (1) maintains good fidelity to site matrices and contaminants, and (2) exhibits the lowest possible relative standard deviation.

  5. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  6. Flexible Electrostatic Technologies for Capture and Handling, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to many of NASA's in-space transportation missions is the capture and handling of various objects and vehicles in various orbits for servicing, debris disposal, sample retrieval, and assembly without the benefit of sufficient grapple fixtures and docking ports. To perform similar material handling tasks on Earth, pincher grippers, suction grippers, or magnetic chucks are used, but are unable to reliably grip aluminum and composite spacecraft, insulation, radiators, solar arrays, or extra-terrestrial objects in the vacuum of outer space without dedicated handles in the right places. The electronic Flexible Electrostatic Technologies for space Capture and Handling (FETCH) will enable reliable and compliant gripping (soft dock) of practically any object in various orbits or surfaces without dedicated mechanical features, very low impact capture, and built-in proximity sensing without any conventional actuators. Originally developed to handle semiconductor and glass wafers during vacuum chamber processing without contamination, the normal rigid wafer handling chucks are replaced with thin metal foil segments laminated in flexible insulation driven by commercial off-the-shelf solid state, high-voltage power supplies. Preliminary testing in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Flat Floor Robotics Lab demonstrated compliant alignment and gripping with a full-sized, 150-lb microsat mockup and translation before a clean release with a flip of a switch. The flexible electrostatic gripper pads can be adapted to various space applications with different sizes, shapes, and foil electrode layouts even with openings through the gripper pads for addition of guidance sensors or injection of permanent adhesives. With gripping forces estimated between 0.5 and 2.5 lb/in2 or 70-300 lb/ft2 of surface contact, the FETCH can turn on and off rapidly and repeatedly to enable sample handling, soft docking, in-space assembly, precision relocation, and surface translation

  7. New weight-handling device for commercial oil pressure balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, S. Y.; Choi, I. M.; Kim, B. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a new device to automatically handle a large number of weights for the calibration of a pressure gauge. This newly invented weight-handling device is made for use in conjunction with a commercial oil pressure balance. Although the pressure balance is essential as a calibration tool, its use has been generally tedious and labour intensive for a long time. In particular, the process of loading a different combination of weights on the top of a piston requires repetitious manual handling for every new measurement. This inevitably leaves the operator fatigued, and sometimes causes damage to the weights due to careless handling. The newly invented automatic weight-handling device can eliminate such tedious, error-prone and wear-inducing manual weight manipulation. The device consists of a stepping motor, a drive belt, a solenoid valve, three weight-lifting assemblies and three linear-motion guide assemblies. The weight-lifting assembly is composed of a pneumatic actuator, a solid-state switch and a metal finger. It has many advantages compared with the commercial automatic weight-handling device. Firstly, it is not necessary to lift all the weights off the piston in the weight selection process, as it is in the case of the commercial device. Thus it can prevent a permanent deformation of the weight carrier. Secondly, this new device can handle a larger number of weights than the commercial one. This is because the new device adopts a different method in retaining the remaining weights in place. Another advantage of this new device is that there is no possibility of the fingers touching the surface of the weights due to the oscillation of weights. Moreover it uses the general technology of a stepping motor, and is also made up of components that are easily obtainable in the market, thereby being very economical.

  8. Observing the interplay between surface and bulk optical nonlinearities in thin van der Waals crystals

    PubMed Central

    Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Zhang, Jingjing; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Man, Michael K.L.; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talbayev, Diyar; Madéo, Julien; Dani, Keshav M.

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals materials, existing in a range of thicknesses from monolayer to bulk, allow for interplay between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which otherwise dominate only at atomically-thin or bulk extremes, respectively. Here, we observe an unexpected peak in intensity of the generated second harmonic signal versus the thickness of Indium Selenide crystals, in contrast to the quadratic increase expected from thin crystals. We explain this by interference effects between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which offer a new handle on engineering the nonlinear optical response of 2D materials and their heterostructures. PMID:26936437

  9. Observing the interplay between surface and bulk optical nonlinearities in thin van der Waals crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Zhang, Jingjing; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Man, Michael K. L.; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talbayev, Diyar; Madéo, Julien; Dani, Keshav M.

    2016-03-01

    Van der Waals materials, existing in a range of thicknesses from monolayer to bulk, allow for interplay between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which otherwise dominate only at atomically-thin or bulk extremes, respectively. Here, we observe an unexpected peak in intensity of the generated second harmonic signal versus the thickness of Indium Selenide crystals, in contrast to the quadratic increase expected from thin crystals. We explain this by interference effects between surface and bulk nonlinearities, which offer a new handle on engineering the nonlinear optical response of 2D materials and their heterostructures.

  10. Euclid Data Handling Design Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogiatto, Roberto; Tramutola, Antonio; Maddaleno, Corrado; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril

    2014-08-01

    Euclid is the next medium-class mission of ESA's Science Programme, to be launched by 2020.The objective of Euclid is to investigate dark energy and dark matter, essential but mysterious components of today's standard model of cosmology. The complete survey will comprise hundreds of thousands of images and several tens of Petabytes of data. The significant amount of scientific data to be stored on-board and transmitted to Ground, imposes some challenging spacecraft requirements leading to innovative design solutions for the data handling and on-board communications.After the mission presentation, the paper provides an overview of the Spacecraft avionics architecture and deepens the Euclid data handling design concept.

  11. The CDF data handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry O. Litvintsev

    2003-11-05

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) records proton-antiproton collisions at center of mass energy of 2.0 TeV at the Tevatron collider. A new collider run, Run II, of the Tevatron started in April 2001. Increased luminosity will result in about 1 PB of data recorded on tapes in the next two years. Currently the CDF experiment has about 260 TB of data stored on tapes. This amount includes raw and reconstructed data and their derivatives. The data storage and retrieval are managed by the CDF Data Handling (DH) system. This system has been designed to accommodate the increased demands of the Run II environment and has proven robust and reliable in providing reliable flow of data from the detector to the end user. This paper gives an overview of the CDF Run II Data Handling system which has evolved significantly over the course of this year. An outline of the future direction of the system is given.

  12. Handling Software Faults with Redundancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Gorla, Alessandra; Pezzè, Mauro

    Software engineering methods can increase the dependability of software systems, and yet some faults escape even the most rigorous and methodical development process. Therefore, to guarantee high levels of reliability in the presence of faults, software systems must be designed to reduce the impact of the failures caused by such faults, for example by deploying techniques to detect and compensate for erroneous runtime conditions. In this chapter, we focus on software techniques to handle software faults, and we survey several such techniques developed in the area of fault tolerance and more recently in the area of autonomic computing. Since practically all techniques exploit some form of redundancy, we consider the impact of redundancy on the software architecture, and we propose a taxonomy centered on the nature and use of redundancy in software systems. The primary utility of this taxonomy is to classify and compare techniques to handle software faults.

  13. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  14. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  15. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    DOEpatents

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  16. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  17. Donor–acceptor stacking arrangements in bulk and thin-film high-mobility conjugated polymers characterized using molecular modelling and MAS and surface-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional computational and experimental details, including the DNP sample preparation. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00053g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Sachin R.; Broch, Katharina; Lesage, Anne; Lemaur, Vincent; Dudenko, Dmytro; Olivier, Yoann; Sirringhaus, Henning; Emsley, Lyndon; Grey, Clare P.

    2017-01-01

    Conjugated polymers show promising properties as cheap, sustainable and solution-processable semiconductors. A key challenge in the development of these materials is to determine the polymer chain structure, conformation and packing in both the bulk polymer and in thin films typically used in devices. However, many characterisation techniques are unable to provide atomic-level structural information owing to the presence of disorder. Here, we use molecular modelling, magic-angle spinning (MAS) and dynamic nuclear polarisation surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy (DNP SENS) to characterise the polymer backbone group conformations and packing arrangement in the high-mobility donor–acceptor copolymer diketopyrrolo-pyrrole-dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DPP-DTT). Using conventional 1H and 13C solid-state MAS NMR coupled with density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the bulk polymer adopts a highly planar backbone conformation with a laterally-shifted donor-on-acceptor stacking arrangement. DNP SENS enables acquisition of 13C NMR data for polymer films, where sensitivity is limiting owing to small sample volumes. The DNP signal enhancement enables a two-dimensional 1H–13C HETCOR spectrum to be recorded for a drop-cast polymer film, and a 13C CPMAS NMR spectrum to be recorded for a spin-coated thin-film with a thickness of only 400 nm. The results show that the same planar backbone structure and intermolecular stacking arrangement is preserved in the films following solution processing and annealing, thereby rationalizing the favourable device properties of DPP-DTT, and providing a protocol for the study of other thin film materials. PMID:28507688

  18. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of

  19. Porous silicon bulk acoustic wave resonator with integrated transducer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report that porous silicon acoustic Bragg reflectors and AlN-based transducers can be successfully combined and processed in a commercial solidly mounted resonator production line. The resulting device takes advantage of the unique acoustic properties of porous silicon in order to form a monolithically integrated bulk acoustic wave resonator. PMID:22776697

  20. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  1. Molecular imprinting of bulk, microporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alexander; Davis, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular imprinting aims to create solid materials containing chemical functionalities that are spatially organized by covalent or non-covalent interactions with imprint (or template) molecules during the synthesis process. Subsequent removal of the imprint molecules leaves behind designed sites for the recognition of small molecules, making the material ideally suited for applications such as separations, chemical sensing and catalysis. Until now, the molecular imprinting of bulk polymers and polymer and silica surfaces has been reported, but the extension of these methods to a wider range of materials remains problematic. For example, the formation of substrate-specific cavities within bulk silica, while conceptually straightforward, has been difficult to accomplish experimentally. Here we describe the imprinting of bulk amorphous silicas with single aromatic rings carrying up to three 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane side groups; this generates and occupies microporosity and attaches functional organic groups to the pore walls in a controlled fashion. The triethoxysilane part of the molecules' side groups is incorporated into the silica framework during sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent removal of the aromatic core creates a cavity with spatially organized aminopropyl groups covalently anchored to the pore walls. We find that the imprinted silicas act as shape-selective base catalysts. Our strategy can be extended to imprint other functional groups, which should give access to a wide range of functionalized materials.

  2. Analysis of U.S. Army Solid Waste Management Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    27 3.2.1 Army Solid Waste Generation ............................... 27 3.2.2 Non- Municipal Solid Waste .................................. 28...130 Glossary ...................................................................................... 131 List of Figures 2-1 U. S. Municipal Solid Waste Handling...and Alternatives ................................... 94 9 List of Tables 3-1 Examples of Army Municipal Solid Waste Composition .... 29 3-2 DoD and

  3. Phobos: Observed bulk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Martin; Andert, Tom; Jacobson, Robert; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Dehant, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    This work is a review of the mass determinations of the Mars moon Phobos by spacecraft close flybys, by solving for the Martian gravity field and by the analysis of secular orbit perturbations. The absolute value and accuracy is sensitive on the knowledge and accuracy of the Phobos ephemeris, of the spacecraft orbit, other perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the resolution of the Martian gravity field besides the measurement accuracy of the radio tracking data. The mass value and its error improved from spacecraft mission to mission or from the modern analysis of “old” tracking data but these solutions depend on the accuracy of the ephemeris at the time of observation. The mass value seems to settle within the range of GMPh=(7.11±0.09)×10-4 km3 s-2 which covers almost all mass values from close flybys and “distant” encounters within its 3-σ error (1.5%). Using the volume value determined from MEX HRSC imaging, the bulk density is (1873±31) kg m-3 (3-σ error or 1.7%), a low value which suggests that Phobos is either highly porous, is composed partially of light material or both. The determination of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22 from the Mars Express 2010 close flyby does not allow to draw conclusion on the internal structure. The large errors do not distinguish whether Phobos is homogeneous or not. In view of theories of the Phobos' origin, one possibility is that Phobos is not a captured asteroid but accreted from a debris disk in Mars orbit as a second generation solar system object.

  4. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter

    2003-03-01

    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  5. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin,...

  6. Zero g manual cargo handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Beasley, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted utilizing a water-immersion simulator facility to better define the cargo that can realistically be handled by man. The initial phase of the program was a parametric study to define man's intravehicular (IV) cargo transfer capabilities, and its results are reported. Additional phases of the study, deal with: (1) man's ability to perform extravehicular (EV) cargo transfer, (2) the ability to transfer cargo through a 1.5 m (5-foot) diameter tunnel (IV), and (3) the utilization of electroadhesive/electromagnetic mobility aids for both IV and EV self-locomotion and cargo transfer.

  7. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grade or better: Provided, That round, red-skinned varieties shall grade U.S. No. 1 or better. (4) 1... round, red-skinned varieties shall grade U.S. No. 1 or better. (5) None of the above categories of... Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  8. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grade or better: Provided, That round, red-skinned varieties shall grade U.S. No. 1 or better. (4) 1... round, red-skinned varieties shall grade U.S. No. 1 or better. (5) None of the above categories of... Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  9. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Provided, That round, red-skinned varieties shall grade U.S. No. 1 or better. (4) 1-inch minimum diameter... Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown in Area No. 2 unless such potatoes meet the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this...

  10. 7 CFR 947.7 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 947.7 Section 947.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.7 Handle. Handle is synonymous with ship and means to sell, transport, or in any other...

  11. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each...

  12. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each...

  13. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each...

  14. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each...

  15. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  16. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  17. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  18. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  19. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  20. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another) or...

  1. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another) or...

  2. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another) or...

  3. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another) or...

  4. Hubble Space Telescope communications and data handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesko, John

    1991-01-01

    The communications and data handling system of the HST are described in detail. Consideration is given to observation scheduling, commanding, telemetry, scientific data collection, spacecraft data handling systems, and the use of the TDRSS and NASCOM data network. The science instruments control and data handling subsystem is presented in schematic form.

  5. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  6. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development...

  7. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.16 To handle. To handle means to use almonds commercially of own production or to sell, consign, transport, ship (except as a common carrier of almonds owned by another)...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 1207.307 Section 1207.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process...

  9. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  10. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.8 Handle. Handle means to prepare oil for market, acquire oil from a producer, use oil commercially of own production, or sell, transport, or ship (except as a common or contract carrier of oil owned by another), or otherwise place oil...

  11. A survey of the optimal handle position for boxes with different sizes and manual handling positions.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa-S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2010-01-01

    Handles on objects are very important for enhancing the safety and efficiency of manual handling for people who use them. In this study, four different prototype boxes with auxiliary handles were designed to determine the optimal handle position of a box based on the evaluated user preferences and body part discomfort (BPD). Twenty male students participated in the experiment. Likert-5 point summated rating was applied to evaluate user preferences for the provided boxes with handles in upper, middle, and lower positions, in four different sizes and manual handling positions. Ten additional subjects were asked to indicate their BPD on a body chart after performing a similar experiment. The results show that the subjects preferred the upper part of the handle on a small box regardless of handling position; while the mid to upper parts of the handle on a big box were preferred for handling above the waist height. BPD also indicated that an upper handle was less stressful for a relatively smaller box than a big one; and mid to upper handles were less comfortable for a big box. The optimal handle positions depending on box size and handling position were suggested based on the results of the evaluation. It is thus recommended that a box provides a handle according to its relevant position, depending on size and manual handling condition, to reduce the musculoskeletal stress and in turn to increase user satisfaction.

  12. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air.

  13. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related

  14. Plasticity in the Supercooled Liquid Region of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T G; Wadsworth, J; Liu, C T; Ice, G E

    2000-10-30

    Intensive efforts have been carried out over the past decade to develop means to slow down the phase transformation kinetics during the forming of metallic glasses. As a result of these efforts, some metallic glasses can now be fabricated in bulk forms (BMG) from the liquid state at cooling rates on the order of 1-10 K/s, which is close to that of conventional casting. This enables the production of bulk amorphous alloys with a thickness of {approx}10 mm. While advances in amorphous metallic alloy development have been impressive, they have been made largely through experience [1]. Three main conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) Bulk metallic glasses generally have excellent mechanical formability in the supercooled liquid region. (2) Bulk metallic glasses may not be necessarily behave like a Newtonian fluid (i.e. m=1). The non-Newtonian behavior is associated with glass instability during deformation. (3) Multi-component Bulk metallic glasses can be used as the precursor of a nanocrystalline solid. However, the nanocrystalline solid is not necessarily superplastic. The non-superplastic behavior is caused by the difficult strain accommodation at grain triple junctions.

  15. Growth and Characterization of Bulk GeSi Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we have grown and characterized several GeSi samples in order to investigate the effects that Silicon concentration, applied magnetic field, and liquid encapsulation have on crystalline quality. Characterization techniques include NDIC microscopy and microprobe spectroscopy. Two samples were grown with a Silicon concentration of approximately 3% and are compared to previous growths having a Silicon fraction of approximately 5%. Growth conditions for one of these samples was varied with the presence of an external applied magnetic field to investigate the possibility of magnetic field damping. A comparison between these two ingots, and with previously grown material, revealed no clear improvement in sample crystalline quality. Three additional samples were grown using a CaCl2 liquid encapsulation technique that produced GeSi material with improved structural quality over previous samples. Comparisons to prior non-encapsulation grown material, details of our methodology, and suggestions for further improvements are discussed.

  16. The Role of Bulk Additions in Solid Lubricant Compacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    fastest reaction occurred through openings between chains of Sb 2 0 3 (o). The authors concluded that since the opeaings are not suffitiently, large...proven useful include x-ray, (44,52) infrared,( 4 8 , 5 2) Raman,( 5 2 ) Mossbauer ,( 4 4) XPS,(58s59) and Auger( 5 9 , 6 0 ) spectroscopy. PROTECTIVE...Ray and Mossbauer Study," Can. J. Chew., 50, 690-700, (1972). 45. H. Reny, Treatise on Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 1, Elsevier, New York, NY, 1956. 46

  17. Material Handling in Dry Docks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    TAGGING AND CONTROL 33 3.1 INTRODUCTION 33 3.2 PRESENT METHOD 33 3.3 PROPOSED METHOD 34 3.4 CONCLUSION 39 4.0 MATERIAL MOVEMENT ONBOARD SHIP 40 4.1...CLEANING 47 5.3.3 WATER JET CLEANING 49 5.3.4 CO2 CLEANING 49 5.3.5 LASER CLEANING 50 5.4 HANDLING SYSTEM 51 5.5 CONCLUSIONS /RECOMMENDATIONS 51 6.0 LEAD...SUMMARY 58 7.0 PERSONNEL MOVEMENT 59 7.1 INTRODUCTION 59 7.2 BACKGROUND 59 7.3 CONCLUSIONS 61 8.0 GENERAL SUBJECTS 63 8.1 INTRODUCTION 63 8.2 DRYDOCK

  18. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  19. EXTREME -- Handling extreme data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    This package provides some utilities, background documentation, and associated files for adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and software which uses it, to handle very large data sets. The principal focus of this is to move to use of 64 bits of address space on 64-bit operating systems. This document (SSN/73) is squarely aimed at the problem of adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and consequently focuses on the three operating systems (Solaris, Linux and Tru64) supported by Starlink, the compiled languages Fortran 77 and ANSI C, and Starlink's somewhat idiosyncratic build mechanisms. However, some of the discussion here may be of interest or use to people who are considering the change from 32 to 64 bits for software in other contexts.

  20. Integrated Payload Data Handling Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGeorge, T.; Wishart, A.; Hann, M.; Phan, N.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P.; Oddy, T.; McGregor, A.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (IPDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirement, as opposed to the decentralised architecture where the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processor. This paper describes a joint programme by Astrium Ltd, SCISYS UK Limited, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and a camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the centralised data processing technique by addressing the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Programme SpaceCITI scheme. The demonstration system is set up at the UK Space Agency's International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell and makes use of the ISIC Concurrent Design Facility (CDF).

  1. Compressibility of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Rose, J. H.; Smith, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A universal form is proposed for the equation of state (EOS) of solids. Good agreement is found for a variety of test data. The form of the EOS is used to suggest a method of data analysis, which is applied to materials of geophysical interest. The isothermal bulk modulus is discussed as a function of the volume and of the pressure. The isothermal compression curves for materials of geophysical interest are examined.

  2. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  3. Cask system design guidance for robotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.; Drotning, W.D.; Morimoto, A.K.; Bennett, P.C.

    1990-10-01

    Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  4. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  5. Manual handling injuries in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Bewick, N; Gardner, D

    2000-01-01

    Nursing aides are particularly susceptible to manual handling injuries because they have the primary responsibility for heavy lifting. The aim of this study was to determine why a specific group of nursing aides have the highest manual handling injury rate in their hospital. The study investigated the adequacy of the manual handling training program, knowledge of manual handling, mechanical aid availability, and use of mechanical aids. Results indicated that the nursing aides' manual handling knowledge was adequate but that they rarely used mechanical aids. This lack of use of aids was in part due to an over-reliance on their own strength and abilities. This may have been due to a lack of suitable mechanical aids on the wards or a lack of familiarity with the available aids. This study suggests that neither training alone nor the purchase of equipment alone is likely to resolve manual handling problems.

  6. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  7. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  8. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  9. Application of Handles in the European Data Project EUDAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toussaint, Frank; Stockhause, Martina; Weigel, Tobias; Höck, Heinke; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Increasing quantities of data lead more and more to automation of data handling. This needs to be closely linked to automated metadata handling, as well. In EUDAT (European Data Infrastructure), a European project for interdisciplinary, collaborative data infrastructures, Handles will serve as persistent identifiers (PIDs) to keep track of data and metadata, of predecessors and successors, and of datasets and their subsets. On an international level, the Research Data Alliance (RDA) aims to facilitate data-driven innovation by the development and adoption of, but not limited to, infrastructure, policy, practice, and standards for PIDs and other infrastructure features. Many of a data object's metadata are kept close to the data. They mostly belong to the socalled use metadata like, e.g., descriptions of formats and coordinate systems. However, often there are separate data objects, containing more general metadata. These discovery metadata may comprise general information on content or data producer, references to papers or software, and so on. To keep the connection between data and metadata object, both can be linked by mutual pointers held in Handles. This requires, of course, that PIDs are assigned to both, data object and metadata object. This concept strongly differs from the classical approach in which the data storage location is kept in the metadata as one attribute of many. In the former case, pairs of PIDs for data and metadata can support an infrastructure of services for data handling and processing in the full data lifecycle - an approach which is not only advantageous if the bulk of the data is stored on tapes. In EUDAT processes of creation, movement, and deletion of data objects and their replicas will be tracked and guided by use of PIDs. In the project it was decided that all data objects handled need to be registered, i.e., they must have a PID. Wherever a PID is accompanied by storage information, this will be updated automatically via, e.g., a

  10. ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.; McDonald, J.; Slominski, M.

    1984-06-14

    The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year.

  11. Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Sauer, T J; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2009-09-01

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk densities (1, 1.3, 1.7, 2.5, and 5 times uncompacted bulk density), particle sizes (ground and bulk), and water contents (0, 20, 50, 80% of water holding capacity and saturated condition). For the water content at 80% of water holding capacity, saw dust, soil compost blend, beef manure, and turkey litter showed the highest thermal conductivity (K) and volumetric heat capacity (C) (K: 0.12-0.81 W/m degrees C and C: 1.36-4.08 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Silage showed medium values at the same water content (K: 0.09-0.47 W/m degrees C and C: 0.93-3.09 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Wheat straw, oat straw, soybean straw, cornstalks, alfalfa hay, and wood shavings produced the lowest K and C values (K: 0.03-0.30 W/m degrees C and C: 0.26-3.45 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, while thermal diffusivity showed a nonlinear relationship. Since the water, air, and solid materials have their own specific thermal property values, thermal properties of compost bulking materials vary with the rate of those three components by changing water content, bulk density, and particle size. The degree of saturation was used to represent the interaction between volumes of water, air, and solids under the various combinations of moisture content, bulk density, and particle size. The first order regression models developed in this paper represent the relationship between degree of saturation and volumetric heat capacity (r=0.95-0.99) and thermal conductivity (r=0.84-0.99) well. Improved

  12. Overview of liquid handling instrumentation for high-throughput screening applications.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Stewart; Johnston, Sean

    2009-12-01

    Liquid handling in the laboratory has unique challenges specific to the types of research being performed. The devices employed for purposes of performing liquid handling can be broken down into three general categories: bulk reagent dispensers, transfer devices, and plate washers. An overview of these types of liquid handlers, as well as common features and relevance to high-throughput applications, are discussed in this article. Important topics such as sterility, ease of use, cost, and instrument design advantages and disadvantages are also covered. Curr. Protoc. Chem Biol. 1:43-54. © 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Apparatus for handling well pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Boyadjieff, G.I.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a well pipe handling machine for use in a rig having a string of pipe extending vertically along an axis of a well, comprising: a movable support; pipe holding means carried by the support for movement therewith and adapted to hold a section of pipe in vertical condition; means for moving the support carrying the pipe holding means and a pipe section held thereby between a first position in which the pipe holding means hold the pipe section in vertical condition in alignment with the axis of the well and a second position in which the pipe holding means locate the pipe section in vertical condition at a storage location offset from the axis; a control station for holding an operator and which is carried by the support for movement therewith between the first and second positions of the support; a torque wrench for making or breaking a connection between a vertical pipe section and the pipe string and which is carried by the support at essentially the lower end of the control station and for movement with the support between the first and second positions thereof.

  14. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    DOEpatents

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  15. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  16. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  17. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  18. Looking for a bulk point

    DOE PAGES

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2017-01-03

    Here, we consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We also argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at thesemore » locations. Finally, we prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.« less

  19. Looking for a bulk point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  20. Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations

    DOE PAGES

    Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.

  1. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Khamamkar

    2000-06-23

    The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations

  2. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  3. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Importers must still report 24 hours in advance of loading any containerized or non-qualifying break bulk... this chapter that a cargo declaration be filed with Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 24 hours before... Border Protection (CBP) 24 hours before such cargo is laden aboard the vessel at the foreign port,...

  4. Regulating nanomedicine - can the FDA handle it?

    PubMed

    Bawa, Raj

    2011-05-01

    There is enormous excitement and expectation surrounding the multidisciplinary field of nanomedicine - the application of nanotechnology to healthcare - which is already influencing the pharmaceutical industry. This is especially true in the design, formulation and delivery of therapeutics. Currently, nanomedicine is poised at a critical stage. However, regulatory guidance in this area is generally lacking and critically needed to provide clarity and legal certainty to manufacturers, policymakers, healthcare providers as well as public. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of nanoproducts on the market for human use but little is known of their health risks, safety data and toxicity profiles. Less is known of nanoproducts that are released into the environment and that come in contact with humans. These nanoproducts, whether they are a drug, device, biologic or combination of any of these, are creating challenges for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as regulators struggle to accumulate data and formulate testing criteria to ensure development of safe and efficacious nanoproducts (products incorporating nanoscale technologies). Evidence continues to mount that many nanoproducts inherently posses novel size-based properties and toxicity profiles. Yet, this scientific fact has been generally ignored by the FDA and the agency continues to adopt a precautionary approach to the issue in hopes of countering future potential negative public opinion. As a result, the FDA has simply maintained the status quo with regard to its regulatory policies pertaining to nanomedicine. Therefore, there are no specific laws or mechanisms in place for oversight of nanomedicine and the FDA continues to treat nanoproducts as substantially equivalent ("bioequivalent") to their bulk counterparts. So, for now nanoproducts submitted for FDA review will continue to be subjected to an uncertain regulatory pathway. Such regulatory uncertainty could negatively impact venture funding, stifle

  5. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one has...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one has...

  16. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one has...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (c) Storage. (1) No materials or...

  18. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  19. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  20. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b) Hulling and drying pistachios; (c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling,...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause watermelons to which one...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of cleaned in-shell or shelled peanuts, or other activity causing peanuts to enter the current of... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of cleaned in-shell or shelled peanuts, or other activity causing peanuts to enter the current of... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of cleaned in-shell or shelled peanuts, or other activity causing peanuts to enter the current of... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of cleaned in-shell or shelled peanuts, or other activity causing peanuts to enter the current of... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.12 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of cleaned in-shell or shelled peanuts, or other activity causing peanuts to enter the current of... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.12 Handle. Handle means...

  8. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.4 Handle. Handle means to... imported peanuts and in the shipment (except as a common or contract carrier of peanuts owned by another) or sale of cleaned-inshell or shelled peanuts or other activity causing peanuts to enter into human...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.11 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.11 Handle. Handle means to engage in the receiving or acquiring of sorghum and in the shipment (except as a common...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in the...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in the...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in the...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack, process, sell, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place potatoes or cause potatoes to be placed in the...

  18. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  19. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...2 2 Market Survey

  20. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current...

  1. 48 CFR 22.902 - Handling complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Handling complaints. 22.902 Section 22.902 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... Handling complaints. Agencies shall bring complaints regarding a contractor's compliance with this policy...

  2. 24 CFR 203.558 - Handling prepayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling prepayments. 203.558 Section 203.558 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Handling prepayments. (a) Notwithstanding the terms of the mortgage, the mortgagee may accept a prepayment...

  3. 7 CFR 765.151 - Handling payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling payments. 765.151 Section 765.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrower Payments § 765.151 Handling payments. (a) Borrower...

  4. 38 CFR 1.660 - Expeditious handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expeditious handling. 1.660 Section 1.660 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.660 Expeditious handling. No patent...

  5. Information Handling, Organizational Structure, and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1989-01-01

    Uses examples from military strategic communications to demonstrate that organizational structures and the distribution of power within organizational structures adapt to changes in information handling capability. It is concluded that delegation and decentralization can be viewed as indicative of inadequate information handling and that improved…

  6. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  7. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  8. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current of...

  9. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current of...

  10. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current of...

  11. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle... contract carrier of cranberries owned by another person) fresh or processed cranberries produced within or outside the United States or in any other way to place fresh or processed cranberries into the current of...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  17. Moving and handling: reducing risk through assessment.

    PubMed

    Warren, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Manual handling injuries can occur almost anywhere in a healthcare environment, and most staff perform a variety of moving and handling tasks every day. Heavy lifting, awkward posture, and previous or existing injury can increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. A healthcare professional's involvement in moving and handling is more widespread than it might appear, and their actions and understanding of techniques, legislation and guidelines have a direct effect on patient care. Every situation that involves the handling, or partial handling, of a person presents varying levels of risk to the patient and the carer. Maintaining a good level of patient mobility and independence is an essential part of care delivery and can reduce the risk of long-term physical and psychological effects. Delivery of care should focus on the individual's capacity, not their incapacity, to ensure that they are treated with dignity and respect.

  18. REL - English Bulk Data Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Richard Henry

    A bulk data input processor which is available for the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) English versions is described. In REL English versions, statements that declare names of data items and their interrelationships normally are lines from a terminal or cards in a batch input stream. These statements provide a convenient means of declaring some…

  19. Cell Model Of A Disordered Solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Steven T. J.; Landel, Robert F.; Moacanin, Jovan; Simha, Robert; Papazoglou, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Elastic properties predicted from first principles. Paper discusses generalization of cell theory of disordered (non-crystaline) solid to include anisotropic stresses. Study part of continuing effort to understand macroscopic stress-and-strain properties of solid materials in terms of microscopic physical phenomena. Emphasis on derivation, from first principles, of bulk, shear, and Young's moduli of glassy material at zero absolute temperature.

  20. Cell Model Of A Disordered Solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Steven T. J.; Landel, Robert F.; Moacanin, Jovan; Simha, Robert; Papazoglou, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Elastic properties predicted from first principles. Paper discusses generalization of cell theory of disordered (non-crystaline) solid to include anisotropic stresses. Study part of continuing effort to understand macroscopic stress-and-strain properties of solid materials in terms of microscopic physical phenomena. Emphasis on derivation, from first principles, of bulk, shear, and Young's moduli of glassy material at zero absolute temperature.

  1. Universality in the compressive behavior of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    It was discovered that the isothermal equation of state for solids in compression is a simple, universal form. This single form accurately describes the pressure and bulk modulus as a function of volume for tonic, metallic, covalent, and rare gas solids.

  2. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  3. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  4. Accurate determination of the complex refractive index of solid tissue-equivalent phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    Tissue-equivalent phantom is becoming widespread as a substitute in the biological field to verify optical theories, test measuring systems and study the tissue performances for varying boundary conditions, sample size and shape at a quantitative level. Compared with phantoms made with Intralipid solution, ink and other liquid substances, phantom in solid state is stable over time, reproducible, easy to handle and has been testified to be a suitable optical simulator in the visible and near-infrared region. We present accurate determination of the complex refractive index (RI) of a solid tissueequivalent phantom using extended derivative total reflection method (EDTRM). Scattering phantoms in solid state were measured for p-polarized and s-polarized incident light respectively. The reflectance curves of the sample as a function of incident angle were recorded. The real part of RI is directly determined by derivative of the reflectance curve, and the imaginary part is obtained from nonlinear fitting based on the Fresnel equation and Nelder-Mead simplex method. The EDTRM method is applicable for RI measurement of high scattering media such as biotissue, solid tissue-equivalent phantom and bulk material. The obtained RI information can be used in the study of tissue optics and biomedical field.

  5. Bulk-boundary correspondence from the intercellular Zak phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Behrends, Jan; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-01-01

    The Zak phase γ , the generalization of the Berry phase to Bloch wave functions in solids, is often used to characterize inversion-symmetric one-dimensional (1D) topological insulators. Due to its dependence on the real-space origin and unit cell, however, there is an ambiguity in its use in a bulk-boundary correspondence. Here, we extract an origin-independent part of γ , the so-called intercellular Zak phase γinter, and show that it is a bulk quantity that unambiguously predicts the number of surface modes. Specifically, a neutral finite 1D tight-binding system has ns=γinter/π (mod 2) in-gap surface modes below the Fermi level if there exists a commensurate inversion-symmetric bulk unit cell. We demonstrate this in two steps: First, we verify that ±e γinter/2 π (mod e ) equals the extra charge accumulation in the surface region in a terminated system of a translationally invariant 1D insulator, while the remnant part of γ , the intracellular Zak phase γintra, corresponds to the electronic part of the bulk's unit-cell dipole moment. Second, we show that the extra charge accumulation is related to the number of surface modes when the unit cell is inversion symmetric. We study several tight-binding models to quantitatively check both the relation between the extra charge accumulation and the intercellular Zak phase, and the bulk-boundary correspondence using the intercellular Zak phase.

  6. Unsupervised firearm handling by California adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M; Hemenway, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the behavior of adolescents around firearms. The present investigation was undertaken to estimate the proportion of community-residing adolescents who report that they have ever handled a gun without adult knowledge or supervision. Methods: A random digit dial interview was conducted with 5801 California adolescents as part of the California Health Interview Survey. Respondents were asked whether they have ever held a gun and whether they have ever done so without adult knowledge or supervision. Study design and population weights were applied to these data. In addition, adolescents' reports about the most recent unsupervised handling incident were coded to ascertain what they were doing with the gun as well as with whom and where the incident occurred. Results: One third (33%) of California adolescents report that they have handled a firearm; 5% report that they have done so without adult knowledge or supervision. Half (49%) of all unsupervised handling involved shooting and only 11% occurred in the respondent's home. Several demographic variables (being male, African American, living in a rural area) and risk behaviors (smoking, drinking, being the victim of a gun related threat), as well as having a gun in the home and parents not knowing the adolescent's whereabouts in the afternoon were each associated with unsupervised gun handling. Conclusions: Unsupervised gun handling is associated with other health risk behaviors. Unsupervised gun handling typically involves shooting the gun and usually occurs with friends, away from the home. PMID:15178673

  7. Handling of multiassembly sealed baskets between reactor storage and a remote handling facility: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.V.; Kessler, J.H.; McSherry, A.J.

    1989-06-01

    The storage of multiple fuel assemblies in sealed (welded) dry storage baskets is gaining increasing use to augment at-reactor fuel storage capacity. Since this increasing use will place a significant number of such baskets on reactor sites, some initial downstream planning for their future handling scenarios for retrieving multi-assembly sealed baskets (MSBs) from onsite storage and transferring and shipping the fuel (and/or the baskets) to a federally operated remote handling facility (RHF). Numerous options or at-reactor and away-from-reactor handling were investigated. Materials handling flowsheets were developed along with conceptual designs for the equipment and tools required to handle and open the MSBs. The handling options were evaluated and compared to a reference case, fuel handling sequence (i.e., fuel assemblies are taken from the fuel pool, shipped to a receiving and handling facility and placed into interim storage). The main parameters analyzed are throughout, radiation dose burden and cost. In addition to evaluating the handling of MSBs, this work also evaluated handling consolidated fuel canisters (CFCs). In summary, the handling of MSBs and CFCs in the store, ship and bury fuel cycle was found to be feasible and, under some conditions, to offer significant benefits in terms of throughput, cost and safety. 14 refs., 20 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  9. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  10. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  11. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  12. 33 CFR 154.1325 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. 154.1325...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Other Non-Petroleum..., store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. (a) An owner or operator of a facility that...

  13. 33 CFR 154.1325 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. 154.1325...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Other Non-Petroleum..., store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. (a) An owner or operator of a facility that...

  14. 33 CFR 154.1325 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. 154.1325...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Other Non-Petroleum..., store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. (a) An owner or operator of a facility that...

  15. 33 CFR 154.1325 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. 154.1325...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Other Non-Petroleum..., store, or transport other non-petroleum oils. (a) An owner or operator of a facility that...

  16. Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals.

    PubMed

    Pogatscher, S; Leutenegger, D; Schawe, J E K; Uggowitzer, P J; Löffler, J F

    2016-04-22

    Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a 'real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.

  17. Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogatscher, S.; Leutenegger, D.; Schawe, J. E. K.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a `real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.

  18. Mooring and ground handling rigid airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.

  19. How the NWC handles software as product

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  20. Cost of Information Handling in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jydstrup, Ronald A.; Gross, Malvern J.

    1966-01-01

    Cost of information handling (noncomputerized) in hospitals was studied in detail from an industrial engineering point of view at Rochester General, Highland, and Geneva General hospitals. Activities were observed, personnel questioned, and time studies carried out. It was found that information handling comprises about one fourth of the hospitals' operating cost—a finding strongly recommending revision and streamlining of both forms and inefficient operations. In an Appendix to this study are presented 15 items that would improve information handling in one area of the hospital, nursing units, where this activity is greater than in any other in a hospital. PMID:5971636

  1. Effects of handle orientation and between-handle distance on bi-manual isometric push strength.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-07-01

    Hand-handle interface is seldom considered in contemporary upper limb biomechanical analyses of pushing and pulling strength. A laboratory study was designed to examine if handle rotation in the frontal plane (0°-horizontal, 45°, and 90°-vertical), anterior tilt (0°-parallel to the frontal plane, and 15°), and distance between two handles (31 and 48.6 cm) affect pushing strength and subjective rating of handle preference. A special testing station was constructed to elicit upper limb push exertions that involved minimal contribution of the torso and legs. Within the station, four load cells were used to measure the horizontal (forward pushing) and vertical components of the pushing forces. Thirty-one participants performed seated bi-manual pushing strength tests. Comparing to the reference handle configuration (horizontal, straight, and a 31-cm between-handle distance), the 45°-rotated and tilted handles with a 31-cm between-handle distance allowed 6.7% more pushing output, while the horizontal and tilted handles with a 31-cm between-handle distance resulted in 2.8% less. Subjective preference was correlated with normalized pushing strength (r=0.89). Tilted handles, at 45°-rotated and vertical positions received highest subjective ratings of preference among all handle configurations. Men exerted greater pushing strength with the 48.6-cm handle distance while women's capacity was greatest with the 31-cm distance. The results demonstrated that handle rotation and tilt angles affected pushing strength and should be taken into consideration when evaluating or designing pushing tasks.

  2. Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L

    2013-01-01

    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home cage to improve response to handling. We investigated the influence of prior experience with home tunnels among two common strains of laboratory mice: ICR(CD-1) and C57BL/6. We compared willingness to approach the handler and anxiety in an elevated plus maze test among mice picked up by the tail, by a home cage tunnel or by an external tunnel shared between cages. Willingness to interact with the handler was much greater for mice handled by a tunnel, even when this was unfamiliar, compared to mice picked up by the tail. Once habituated to handling, C57BL/6 mice were most interactive towards a familiar home tunnel, whereas the ICR strain showed strong interaction with all tunnel handling regardless of any experience of a home cage tunnel. Mice handled by a home cage or external tunnel showed less anxiety in an elevated plus maze than those picked up by the tail. This study shows that using a tunnel for routine handling reduces anxiety among mice compared to tail handling regardless of prior familiarity with tunnels. However, as home cage tunnels can further improve response to handling in some mice, we recommend that mice are handled with a tunnel provided in their home cage where possible as a simple practical method to minimise handling stress.

  3. Reducing Mouse Anxiety during Handling: Effect of Experience with Handling Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L.

    2013-01-01

    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home cage to improve response to handling. We investigated the influence of prior experience with home tunnels among two common strains of laboratory mice: ICR(CD-1) and C57BL/6. We compared willingness to approach the handler and anxiety in an elevated plus maze test among mice picked up by the tail, by a home cage tunnel or by an external tunnel shared between cages. Willingness to interact with the handler was much greater for mice handled by a tunnel, even when this was unfamiliar, compared to mice picked up by the tail. Once habituated to handling, C57BL/6 mice were most interactive towards a familiar home tunnel, whereas the ICR strain showed strong interaction with all tunnel handling regardless of any experience of a home cage tunnel. Mice handled by a home cage or external tunnel showed less anxiety in an elevated plus maze than those picked up by the tail. This study shows that using a tunnel for routine handling reduces anxiety among mice compared to tail handling regardless of prior familiarity with tunnels. However, as home cage tunnels can further improve response to handling in some mice, we recommend that mice are handled with a tunnel provided in their home cage where possible as a simple practical method to minimise handling stress. PMID:23840458

  4. Piezoelectric Measurement Of Bulk Modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1992-01-01

    In method of measuring bulk modulus of elasticity of elastomeric material, piezoelectric crystals of various sizes and energized by alternating voltage embedded in material. Concept demonstrated in test cell in which piezoelectric crystal mounted either unconstrained or between two rubber pads and connected as actuator in loud-speaker. The 1-in. diameter crystal excited with 24 Vac at 60 Hz. When crystal was unconstrained, it drew current of 0.8 mA. When crystal was constrained between rubber pads, current fell to 0.65 mA. Low current, minimal heating, and absence of arcing makes technique suitable for measurement of bulk moduli of elasticity of flammable or explosive rubbery materials.

  5. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10-15 g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  6. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  7. TNT Equivalency of Bulk Nitrocellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    9TIN ’IN AD-E400 576 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-81007 TNT EQUIVALENCY OF BULK NITROCELLULOSE F. L. MCINTYRE COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION NSTL...September 1978 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F. L. Mc~ntyre, Computer Sciences Corporation P. Price...PROJECT. TASK Computer Sciences Corporation AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS NSTL Station, MS 39529 MMT-5784285 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12

  8. Hybrid solid state switch replaces motor- driven power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, R. A.; Schloss, A. I.

    1967-01-01

    Hybrid solid state switch replaces existing motor-driven power switches used on spacecraft. It uses a transistor circuit to limit the open circuit voltage and allow small relay contacts to handle high transient currents at reasonable cycle life.

  9. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  10. Sampling and handling of desert soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Report on sampling and handling desert soils includes sections on selection, characterization, and photography of area, site, and soil, sterilization of sampling equipment and containers, and soil sample collection, transport, storage, and dispersal.

  11. Upgrading and refurbishing coal-handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1983-03-01

    Case histories presented at the Coal Technology '82 meetings are singled out in this article as examples of integrated attacks on coal-handling problems. At the Ohio Edison Co. Sammis Plant the conveyor passed over a public highway, and fugitive coal rained on passing vehicles. Four belt cleaners and a modified gas reducer were installed. Belt-cleaning systems were then installed throughout the plant. At the Con Edison Arthur Kill station coal-receiving facilities, coal conveyors, and ash-handling systems were upgraded. The rotary dumper was modified, the coal-thawing equipment modernized. In the breaker house a rotary breaker was replaced by a ring-type coal crusher. The outmoded pneumatic type ash-handling system was replaced by a drag-chain conveyor. Such concerted plantwide efforts are still the exception, where coal-handling equipment is cared for on a day-to-day patchwork basis.

  12. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  13. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  14. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  15. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts...

  16. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactation Consultant Association About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk Recommend ...

  17. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August 15...

  18. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  19. 7 CFR 959.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity exemption. Any handler may handle, other than for resale, up to, but not to exceed 110 pounds of.... Processing means cooking or freezing the onions in such a way, or with such other food components, that...

  20. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify the significance of intertextuality in students' realizations of low- and high-complexity discourses. In the high-complexity event, we show how students take on different roles and use modality and projection as grammatical resources for opening up, for different positions, multiple voices, and various contextual resources. Successful handling of complexity is construed by the interplay between students' roles in the discourse and resources in language for making multiple voices present. In the high-complexity event, the handling of complexity is guided by the students' sense of purpose. Handling complexity is demanding, and explicit scaffolding is necessary to prevent a potentially complex challenge from being treated as a simple one.

  1. Fire protection of coal handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gese, R.A.

    1983-02-01

    Following an explosion and fire at Powerton Power Station in October, 1980, a comprehensive coal handling fire protection system was installed as part of an overall restoration plan. The restoration involved many fire-safety modifications, such as improved baghouse operations, dust prevention, vacuum and conveyor washdown systems, new explosion-isolating conveyor design, fire escapes and a comprehensive fire protection system for the coal handling system.

  2. Approaches to employees grievance handling in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Katharia, S K

    1992-01-01

    A grievance is a discontent or dissatisfaction caused by various reasons in hospitals. The grievances affect the individual performance and poor quality of services inspite of high investment on highly qualified manpower and sophisticated technology. The grievances can be identified by direct observation, grievance procedure, gripe boxes, open door policy and exit interview etc. The grievances need proper and prompt handling at the level of occurrence. A four stage method is suggested for successful handling of grievances.

  3. Gravity flow rate of solids through orifices and pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. F.; Smith, J. E.; Hobday, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Lock-hopper systems are the most common means for feeding solids to and from coal conversion reactor vessels. The rate at which crushed solids flow by gravity through the vertical pipes and valves in lock-hopper systems affects the size of pipes and valves needed to meet the solids-handling requirements of the coal conversion process. Methods used to predict flow rates are described and compared with experimental data. Preliminary indications are that solids-handling systems for coal conversion processes are over-designed by a factor of 2 or 3.

  4. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  5. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  6. Mobility of solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James

    2005-03-01

    Recent torsional oscillator measurements [1,2] on solid ^4He in the pores of Vycor and in bulk demonstrated non-classical rotational inertia and showed a decrease in period below about 200 mK, suggestive of a transition to a supersolid phase. It becomes interesting to see whether solid ^4He exhibits any of the other unusual flow properties of a superfluid. We have performed capacitive measurements on the mobility of solid ^4He in Vycor. By suddenly increasing the pressure in a cell containing a Vycor sample, we were able to monitor the pressure induced flow of solid ^4He in the pores. Near its melting temperature the solid ^4He does flow in/out of the pores, but the flow rate decreases rapidly with temperature, until no flow is observable below 700 mK. We do not see any flow at temperatures down to 25 mK, implying that either supersolid ^4He in Vycor does not flow in response to a large pressure difference or that superflow occurs at a rate far slower than the critical velocities observed by Kim and Chan. We have also begun work on pressure induced flow of bulk solid ^4He. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). 1. E. Kim and M.H.W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004). 2. E. Kim and M.H.W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).

  7. 7 CFR 959.53 - Handling for special purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.53 Handling for special purposes. Regulations in effect pursuant to §§ 959.42, 959.52, or 959.60 may be modified, suspended, or terminated to facilitate handling of onions...

  8. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  9. Preface: Bulk nitride workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Jaime A.; Pasova, Tania; Bockowski, Michal; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The 9th ;International Workshop on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors; (IWBNS-IX) was held in Wonju, South Korea, from November 2-6, 2015, following the eight previous workshops held in November 2000 (Brazil), May 2002 (Brazil), September 2004 (Poland), October 2006 (Japan), September 2007 (Brazil), August 2009 (Poland), March 2011 (Japan), and October 2013 (Germany). The quietude and the beautiful surrounding nature of the Hansol Oak Valley provided the right environment to host the latest edition of this workshop series, the first one held in South Korea.

  10. Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.

  11. Multi-Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-05

    progress in laser bulk micro-machining towards nano-machining. Computationally efficient 3D quantum models of laser-induced photoionization and...multi-pulse fields 7 6 Filamentation and bulk modification by spatio-temporally chirped pulses 8 7 Quantum modeling of photoionization and nonlinear...in the energy space when exposed to strongly chirped pulses. Computationally ecient 3D quantum models of laser-solid interactions were also developed

  12. Measuring Venus' Bulk Elemental Composition with BECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. M.; Grau, J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Miles, J.; Peplowski, P. N.; Perkins, L.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    The Bulk Elemental Composition Analyzer (BECA) instrument uses high energy neutrons and gamma rays to measure the bulk elemental composition of Venus beneath a landed probe. We will present the results of a BECA prototype tested at NASA/GSFC.

  13. 7 CFR 201.40 - Bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.40 Bulk. Bulk seeds or screenings shall be sampled by... taken as the minimum which would be required for the same quantity of seed or screenings in bags of a...

  14. Bulk Etch Rate and Swell Rate of CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, David; Ume, Rubab; Sheets, Rebecca; Regan, Sean; Sangster, Craig; Padalino, Stephen; McLean, James

    2016-10-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is an effective technique for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched in NaOH at 80°C, producing micron-scale signal pits at the nuclear track sites. The development of these pits depends on both the bulk etch rate and the faster etch rate along the track, and is complicated by swelling as water is absorbed. Contrary to common etching models, we find the bulk etch rate to be depth dependent within 15 μ m of the surface, as revealed by swelling TASTRACK CR-39 pieces to their maximum capacity prior to etching. The bulk etch rate was measured using the standard mass method as well as the fission fragment track diameter method. Combining models of swelling and etching rates predicts the progress of bulk etching during a standard etch, without pre-swelling. This result has implications for the understanding the chemistry of the etch process, as well as the outcome of CR-39 surface preparation methods. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  15. Sample Acquisition and Handling System from a Remote Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    A system has been developed to acquire and handle samples from a suspended remote platform. The system includes a penetrator, a penetrator deployment mechanism, and a sample handler. A gravity-driven harpoon sampler was used for the system, but other solutions can be used to supply the penetration energy, such as pyrotechnic, pressurized gas, or springs. The deployment mechanism includes a line that is attached to the penetrator, a spool for reeling in the line, and a line engagement control mechanism. The penetrator has removable tips that can collect liquid, ice, or solid samples. The handling mechanism consists of a carousel that can store a series of identical or different tips, assist in penetrator reconfiguration for multiple sample acquisition, and deliver the sample to a series of instruments for analysis. The carousel sample handling system was combined with a brassboard reeling mechanism and a penetrator with removable tips. It can attach the removable tip to the penetrator, release and retrieve the penetrator, remove the tip, and present it to multiple instrument stations. The penetrator can be remotely deployed from an aerobot, penetrate and collect the sample, and be retrieved with the sample to the aerobot. The penetrator with removable tips includes sample interrogation windows and a sample retainment spring for unconsolidated samples. The line engagement motor can be used to control the penetrator release and reeling engagement, and to evenly distribute the line on the spool by rocking between left and right ends of the spool. When the arm with the guiding ring is aligned with the spool axis, the line is free to unwind from the spool without rotating the spool. When the arm is perpendicular to the spool axis, the line can move only if the spool rotates.

  16. 49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each person who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous...

  17. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  18. Livestock handling--minimizing worker injuries.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Morrow, W E Morgan

    2010-07-01

    Numerous hazards may occur on farms raising livestock. Animal contact is often ranked as the first or second leading cause of injuries on the farm. In addition to direct trauma from the animal, other injuries may occur from injection of medications, chemical splashes from cleaning the facility, and repetitive motion injuries. Exposures to toxic gases from decomposition of animal waste such as in manure pits and exposure to animal allergens may cause adverse health effects in humans. One additional consideration is the risk of developing various zoonotic infections. Human injuries happen more often when people are handling animals than during any other activity performed in pork production. The National Pork Board of the United States, in response to a request from pork producers, has developed a program designed to improve worker safety, pig welfare, and pork quality when pigs are moved for whatever reason. The objective of the Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) program is to help all those who transport, produce, or handle swine to do so in a way that is optimal for the pigs' well-being, the health of the handler, and to improve the quality of the pork produced. Understanding basic pig behavior, proper handling practices, and using proper handling equipment will help animal handling be a safe activity. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  19. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  20. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1992-06-30

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification.

  1. Investigating the Existence of Bulk Nanobubbles with Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Valentin; Norisuye, Tomohisa

    2016-09-19

    Nanobubbles are expected to dissolve in milliseconds. Experimental evidence of nanobubbles that were stable for days had thus been first received with circumspection. If the large number of experimental confirmations has now made clear that surface nanobubbles could exist, bulk nanobubbles are still subject to debate. When observations are reported, the main problem is to make sure the observed particles are really made of gas. We show that ultrasound is an ideal tool for investigating the existence of bulk nanobubbles: 1) it is sensitive to minute quantities of gas, 2) it allows one to determine the bubble size distribution, 3) it discriminates unambiguously between gaseous and solid/liquid inclusions. To illustrate the efficiency of ultrasonic detection, we performed size measurements of bubbles produced by a commercial nano-/microbubble generator. No nanobubble was detected with this device. It would be insightful to use ultrasonic detection in experimental situations for which stable nanobubbles were reported.

  2. Detection of Berry's phase in a Bulk Rashba semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Murakawa, H; Bahramy, M S; Tokunaga, M; Kohama, Y; Bell, C; Kaneko, Y; Nagaosa, N; Hwang, H Y; Tokura, Y

    2013-12-20

    The motion of electrons in a solid has a profound effect on its topological properties and may result in a nonzero Berry's phase, a geometric quantum phase encoded in the system's electronic wave function. Despite its ubiquity, there are few experimental observations of Berry's phase of bulk states. Here, we report detection of a nontrivial π Berry's phase in the bulk Rashba semiconductor BiTeI via analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect. The extremely large Rashba splitting in this material enables the separation of SdH oscillations, stemming from the spin-split inner and outer Fermi surfaces. For both Fermi surfaces, we observe a systematic π-phase shift in SdH oscillations, consistent with the theoretically predicted nontrivial π Berry's phase in Rashba systems.

  3. Dynamic measurement of bulk modulus of dielectric materials using a microwave phase shift technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, B. J.; Strand, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    A microwave Doppler shift technique was developed for measuring the dynamic bulk modulus of dielectric materials such as solid propellants. The system has a demonstrated time resolution on the order of milliseconds and a theoretical spatial resolution of a few microns. Accuracy of the technique is dependent on an accurate knowledge of the wavelength of the microwave in the sample being tested. Such measurement techniques are discussed. Preliminary tests with two solid propellants, one non-aluminized and one containing 16% aluminum, yielded reasonable, reproducible results. It was concluded that with refinements the technique holds promise as a practical means for obtaining accurate dynamic bulk modulus data over a variety of transient conditions.

  4. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  5. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  6. Standardizing the Handling of Surgical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Cheryl; Perrego, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    To standardize the handling of surgical specimens, the OR clinical educators in a community hospital setting devised a series of departmental changes as a quality improvement project. A newly created skill validation was reviewed in an hour-long educational meeting with all OR staff members. In addition to creating a new annual skill validation, discussions about specimens were included in the hand over, the time out, and a newly instituted debriefing tool to be used toward the end of a procedure. This interdisciplinary group devised interventions to improve the process of handling specimens such as standardizing the labeling process and changing the transparency of the specimen container. The goal was to assure standardization of specimen handling, specifically to assist novice staff members, and to harmonize inconsistencies between specialties within the practice of existing staff members. These combined methods helped to ensure accurate communication and procurement of specimens for all procedures.

  7. Fire-hazard control during coal handling

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    The potential for serious power plant fires and explosions is growing along with the increased use of volatile, low-sulfur coal use and environmental regulations requiring closed conveyor systems for handling coal. The volume of coal handled and the range of physical characteristics in different coals intensifies the problem. Western coal produces more dust because it is more friable than eastern coal and is more prone to sponaneous combustion. Closed storage and handling systems increase the hazards of methane and carbon monoxide. The article described prevention, detection, and firefighting techniques, and notes that a variety of systems is needed to cover all the hazards. Human behavior and coordination are also essential ingredients. ll figures.

  8. Local bulk physics from intersecting modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2017-06-01

    We show that bulk quantities localized on a minimal surface homologous to a boundary region correspond in the CFT to operators that commute with the modular Hamiltonian associated with the boundary region. If two such minimal surfaces intersect at a point in the bulk then CFT operators which commute with both extended modular Hamiltonians must be localized at the intersection point. We use this to construct local bulk operators purely from CFT considerations, without knowing the bulk metric, using intersecting modular Hamiltonians. For conformal field theories at zero and finite temperature the appropriate modular Hamiltonians are known explicitly and we recover known expressions for local bulk observables.

  9. Prediction of the Viscoelastic Bulk Modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiaxi; Simon, Sindee

    2010-03-01

    The bulk and shear viscoelastic responses for several materials appear to arise from the same molecular mechanisms at short times, i.e., Andrade creep where the KWW beta parameter is approximately 0.3. If this is indeed the case, prediction and placement of the bulk viscoelastic response can be made simply by knowing the limiting elastic and rubbery bulk moduli and the viscoelastic shear response. The proposed methodology, which uses only easily measured functions, is considerably less time- and labor-intensive than direct measurement of the viscoelastic bulk modulus. Here we investigate this hypothesis and compare the calculated viscoelastic bulk responses for several materials to existing data in the literature.

  10. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  11. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  12. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is

  13. Planetary sample rapid recovery and handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for recovering and cost effectively handling planetary samples following return to the vicinity of Earth were designed for planetary mission planners. Three topics are addressed: (1) a rough cost estimate was produced for each of a series of options for the handling of planetary samples following their return to the vicinity of Earth; (2) the difficulty of quickly retrieving planetary samples from low circular and high elliptical Earth orbit is assessed; and (3) a conceptual design for a biological isolation and thermal control system for the returned sample and spacecraft is developed.

  14. Options in Extraterrestrial Sample Handling and Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation mentions important service functions such as: sample preservation, hazard assessment, and handling. It also discuss how preliminary examination of samples is necessary for sample hazard assessment and for sample allocations. Clean facilities and clean sample handling are required. Conflicts, cross contamination issues will be present and need to be resolved. Extensive experience is available for extraterrestrial samples and must be sought and applied. Extensive experience is available in studies of pathogenicity and must be sought and applied as necessary. Advisory and oversight structures must also be in place

  15. Structural interaction with transportation and handling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Problems involved in the handling and transportation of finished space vehicles from the factory to the launch site are presented, in addition to recommendations for properly accounting for in space vehicle structural design, adverse interactions during transportation. Emphasis is given to the protection of vehicle structures against those environments and loads encountered during transportation (including temporary storage) which would exceed the levels that the vehicle can safely withstand. Current practices for verifying vehicle safety are appraised, and some of the capabilities and limitations of transportation and handling systems are summarized.

  16. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  17. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  18. [Ergonomic analysis of the handle of manual instruments for dental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Migliario, Mario; Franchignoni, Marco; Soldati, Libero; Melle, Andrea; Carcieri, Paola; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of upper limbs are very common among dental hygienists. To minimize the risk of their occurrence, it is essential that attention be paid to proper ergonomics in the workplace, including the selection of instrumentation. At present there are no specific guidelines but only some indications for the selection of the different hand tools. The main purpose of this study was to make a comparative analysis of different types of handles of hand tools used for root planing (Gracey curettes). Nine dental hygienists were interviewed with a questionnaire aimed to assess three different types of curette handle. The results showed that lightness, being of solid steel, having a cylindrical non-uniform shape with full enlarged cross-section, and being silicon coated with non-slip ends are the preferred characteristics for a curette handle. These considerations may assist both manufacturers in designing new hand instruments and clinicians in selecting the most ergonomic ones to buy.

  19. Processing of bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Jan

    2010-04-12

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) formers are multicomponent alloys that vitrify with remarkable ease during solidification. Technological interest in these materials has been generated by their unique properties, which often surpass those of conventional structural materials. The metastable nature of BMGs, however, has imposed a barrier to broad commercial adoption, particularly where the processing requirements of these alloys conflict with conventional metal processing methods. Research on the crystallization of BMG formers has uncovered novel thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based processing opportunities. Unique among metal processing methods, TPF utilizes the dramatic softening exhibited by a BMG as it approaches its glass-transition temperature and decouples the rapid cooling required to form a glass from the forming step. This article reviews crystallization processes in BMG former and summarizes and compares TPF-based processing methods. Finally, an assessment of scientific and technological advancements required for broader commercial utilization of BMGs will be made.

  20. Pluto's atmospheric bulk near perihelion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of CH4 frost on Pluto's surface implies a significant atmosphere for Pluto. Although Pluto's mass is small, about 7% of Triton's mass, the rapid escape ('blowoff') of gaseous CH4 can be prevented by the presence of a heavy gas mixed with the CH4. The resulting slow escape ('Jeans escape') of CH4 can be accommodated by sublimation of the surface CH4 frost so that an atmosphere exists in the steady state. A heavier gas must exist, otherwise the CH4 frost would have sublimated away long ago because of solar heat and rapid blowoff of gaseous CH4. Pluto is currently near perihelion where the CH4 component of the atmosphere may be 500 times denser than at apehelion. Significant seasonal changes in the atmospheric bulk are therefore possible.