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Sample records for bulk vitrification technology

  1. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-02-08

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program.

  3. Waste Form Qualification Compliance Strategy for Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-01-03

    The Bulk Vitrification System is being pursued to assist in immobilizing the low-activity tank waste from the 53 million gallons of radioactive waste in the 177 underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process, a research and development facility known as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is being built to demonstrate the technology. Specific performance requirements for the final packaged bulk vitrification waste form have been identified. In addition to the specific product-performance requirements, performance targets/goals have been identified that are necessary to qualify the waste form but do not lend themselves to specifications that are easily verified through short-term testing. Collectively, these form the product requirements for the DBVS. This waste-form qualification (WFQ) strategy document outlines the general strategies for achieving and demonstrating compliance with the BVS product requirements. The specific objectives of the WFQ activities are discussed, the bulk vitrification process and product control strategy is outlined, and the test strategy to meet the WFQ objectives is described. The DBVS product performance targets/goals and strategies to address those targets/goals are described. The DBVS product-performance requirements are compared to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste product specifications. The strategies for demonstrating compliance with the bulk vitrification product requirements are presented.

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  5. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  6. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  7. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  8. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-10

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess)).

  9. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  10. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GEOSAFE CORPORATION IN SITU VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geosafe In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Technology is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tallings contaminated with organic, inorganic, and radioactive compounds. The organic compounds are pyrolyzed and reduced to simple gases which are collected under a treatm...

  11. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  12. GEOSAFE CORPORATION IN SITU VITRIFICATION: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration of the Geosafe Corporation (Geosafe) In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Process. The Geosafe ISV Technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program in conjuction with remedi...

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: WASTE VITRIFICATION THROUGH ELECTRIC MELTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of vitrification technology is to convert contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments into an oxide glass, rendering them suitable for landfilling as a nonhazardous material. The technology uses joule heating to melt the waste matrix, destroying organic compounds in ...

  14. STATUS & DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-12

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION TREATMENT PROCESS FOR THE LOW ACTIVITY FRACTION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Lowery, P.S.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Snyder, T.; McElroy, J.L.

    2003-02-27

    AMEC Earth & Environmental, Inc. and RWE NUKEM Corporation have teamed to develop and apply a waste pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process for low activity waste (LAW) from Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The pretreatment and bulk vitrification process utilizes technologies that have been successfully deployed to remediate both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes at nuclear power plants, DOE sites, and commercial waste sites in the US and abroad. The process represents an integrated systems approach. The proposed AMEC/NUKEM process follow the extraction and initial segregation activities applied to the tank wastes carried out by others. The first stage of the process will utilize NUKEM's concentrate dryer (CD) system to concentrate the liquid waste stream. The concentrate will then be mixed with soil or glass formers and loaded into refractory-lined steel containers for bulk vitrification treatment using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process. Following the vitrification step, a lid will be placed on the container of cooled, solidified vitrified waste, and the container transported to the disposal site. The container serves as the melter vessel, the transport container and the disposal container. AMEC and NUKEM participated in the Mission Acceleration Initiative Workshop held in Richland, Washington in April 2000 [1]. An objective of the workshop was to identify selected technologies that could be combined into viable treatment options for treatment of the LAW fraction from selected Hanford waste tanks. AMEC's ICV process combined with NUKEM's CD system and other remote operating capabilities were presented as an integrated solution. The Team's proposed process received some of the highest ratings from the Workshop's review panel. The proposed approach compliments the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) by reducing the amount of waste that the WTP would have to process. When combined with the capabilities of the WTP, the proposed approach

  16. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  17. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the fourth quarter of FY 1985 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  18. Site technology capsule: Geosafe Corporation in situ vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The Geosafe In Situ Vitrification Technology is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tailings contaminated with organic, inorganic, and radioactive compounds. The organic compounds are pyrolyzed and reduced to simple gases which are collected under a treatment hood and processed prior to their emission to the atmosphere. Inorganic and radioactive contaminants are encapsulated in the molten soil which hardens to a vitrified mass similar to volcanic obsidian. This mobile technology was evaluated under the SITE Program on approximately 330 yd of contaminated soil at the Parsons Chemical site.

  19. LFCM vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.; Bates, S.O.; Bray, L.A.; Budden, M.J.; Dierks, R.D.; Elliott, M.L.; Elmore, M.R.; Faletti, D.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Kuhn, W.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Piepel, G.F.; Powell, J.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Surma, J.E.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the fourth quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling and control.

  20. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  1. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  2. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  3. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  4. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  5. GEOTECH, INC., COLD TOP EX-SITU VITRIFICATION SYSTEM; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) technology demonstration was conducted in February and March 1997 to evaluate the Geotech Development Corporation (Geotech) Cold Top ex-situ vitrification technology in chromium-contaminated soils. The demonstration was conduct...

  6. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY. BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY (EPA/540/SR-92/017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration of the Babcock & Wilcox Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology was conducted in November 1991. This Demonstration occurred at the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Alliance Research Center (ARC) in Alliance, OH. The B&W cyc...

  7. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GEOTECH DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION COLD TOP EX-SITU VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SITE technology demonstration was conducted in 1997 to evaluate the potential applicability and effectiveness of the Geotech Cold Top ex-situ vitrification technology on chromium-contaminated soils. The primary objective was to develop test data to evaluate whether the waste a...

  8. Investigation of Tc Migration Mechanism During Bulk Vitrification Process Using Re Surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Fluegel, Alex; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Martinez, Baudelio; Matyas, Josef; Meyer, Perry A.; Paulsen, Dan; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Stewart, Charles W.; Swoboda, Robert G.; Yeager, John D.

    2006-12-04

    As a part of Bulk vitrification (BV) performance enhancement tasks, Laboratory scoping tests were performed in FY 2004-2005 to explore possible ways to reduce the amount of soluble Tc in the BV waste package. Theses scoping tests helped identify which mechanisms play an important role in the migration of Tc in the BV process (Hrma et al. 2005 and Kim et al. 2005). Based on the results from these scoping tests, additional tests were identified that will improve the understanding of Tc migration and to clearly identify the dominant mechanisms. The additional activities identified from previous studies were evaluated and prioritized for planning for Tasks 29 and 30 conducted in FY2006. Task 29 focused on the improved understanding of Tc migration mechanisms, and Task 30 focused on identifying the potential process changes that might reduce Tc/Re migration into the castable refractory block (CRB). This report summarizes the results from the laboratory- and crucible-scale tests in the lab for improved Tc migration mechanism understanding utilizing Re as a surrogate performed in Task 29.

  9. PNL vitrification technology development project glass formulation strategy for LLW vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This Glass Formulation Strategy describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions for Hanford`s low-level waste vitrification between now and the projected low-level waste facility start-up in 2005. The objectives of the glass formulation task are to develop optimized glass compositions with satisfactory long-term durability, acceptable processing characteristics, adequate flexibility to handle waste variations, maximize waste loading to practical limits, and to develop methodology to respond to further waste variations.

  10. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-02-14

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification{trademark} (ICV{trademark}) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  11. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Fabrication of cesium-137 brachytherapy sources using vitrification technology.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Varma, R N; Ram, Ramu; Saxena, S K; Mathakar, A R; Avhad, B G; Sastry, K V S; Sangurdekar, P R; Venkatesh, Meera

    2009-08-01

    137Cs source in solid matrix encapsulated in stainless-steel at MBq (mCi) levels are widely used as brachytherapy sources for the treatment of carcinoma of cervix uteri. This article describes the large-scale preparation of such sources. The process of fabrication includes vitrification of 137Cs-sodium borosilicate glass, its transformation into spheres of 5-6 mm diameter, casting of glass spheres into a cylinder of 1.5 mm (varphi) x 80 mm (l) in a platinum mould, cutting of the moulds into 5-mm-long pieces, silver coating on the sources, and finally, encapsulation in stainless steel capsules. Development of safety precautions used to trap 137Cs escaping during borosilicate glass preparation is also described. The leach rates of the radioactive sources prepared by the above technology were within permissible limits, and the sources could be used for encapsulation in stainless steel capsules and supplied for brachytherapy applications. This development was aimed at promoting the potential utility of 137Cs-brachytherapy sources in the country and reducing the user's reliance on imported sources. Since its development, more than 1000 such sources have been made by using 4.66 TBq(126 Ci) of 137Cs.

  13. Transport of Technetium and Rhenium into Refractory Materials during Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.R.; Kim, D.S.; Matyas, J.; Pierce, E.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Schweiger, M.J.; Beck, A.E.; Campbell, B.E.

    2006-07-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected as a potential supplemental waste treatment process to support the commitment for cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) stored in large waste storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. In the BV process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed within a castable refractory block (CRB) and sand, all within a metal box. Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed and produces a durable glass waste form. During engineering-scale tests of By, a small fraction of radioactive technetium-99 (Tc) and rhenium (Re) (a nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the CRB. Tc is a primary risk driver for long-term performance of immobilized LAW; therefore, even small fractions of Tc present in a readily leachable form rather than immobilized in a glass matrix can impact long-term performance of the immobilized waste. Laboratory and engineering-scale studies were undertaken to reduce or eliminate the readily leachable Tc in the CRB. These studies focused on 1) understanding the mechanisms of the transport of Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification, and 2) evaluating various means of protecting the CRB against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used either Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc, or Re and Tc together. A conceptual Tc/Re transport model was developed based on observed laboratory experiments to attempt to explain the transport behavior seen in engineering-scale tests. At temperatures below 650 deg. C, molten ionic salt (MIS) containing Tc and Re penetrates by capillarity from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 650 to 750 deg. C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NO{sub x}, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na{sub 2}O formed during decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the

  14. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tankwaste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-05-03

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission.

  15. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, October-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying, and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1987 is discussed. Topics include melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling.

  16. Technology status report: In situ vitrification applied to buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E. ); Bates, S.O. ); Hansen, J.E. )

    1992-09-01

    This document is a technical status report on In Situ Vitrification (ISV) as applied to buried waste; the report takes both technical and institutional concerns into perspective. The ISV process involves electrically melting such contaminated solid media as soil, sediment, sludge, and mill tailings. The resultant product is a high-quality glass-and-crystalline waste form that possesses high resistance to corrosion and leaching and is capable of long-term environmental exposure without significant degradation. The process also significantly reduces the volume of the treated solid media due to the removal of pore spaces in the soil.

  17. Development of Plasma Vitrification Technology for Contaminated Soil at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.; Marra, J.C.; Rogers, V.; Schumacher, R.F.; Etheridge, J.; Kirkland, R.

    1995-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the United States Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development is developing treatment technologies for a wide variety of materials containing mixed low-level waste, i.e., having low levels of radioactivity along with hazardous constituents. Vitrification is a promising treatment technology for many of these wastes, including contaminated soil such as that found at the Savannah River Site. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of both ex-situ and in-situ vitrification of contaminated soil by means of a plasma torch. A mixture of 89 percent as-excavated Savannah River Site sandy clay loam with 11 percent lime addition was tested. Vitrification of a mixture of this feed, in a 10 in. diameter crucible with a non-transferred arc plasma torch at a nominal 160 kW, was successful. The process produced homogeneous glass (albeit with local compositional variations), surrounded by a skull of incompletely reacted feed. Characterization of the resultant product durability using the Product Consistency Test showed elemental leaching well below the Environmental Assessment glass (which is often used as a minimum standard of glass acceptability in high-level waste glass assessment) for both the glass and the skull regions. Future tests should include doping the soil with hazardous constituents to enable further verification of the wasteform integrity via the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure. In-situ operation was mimicked in the test crucible by segregating the lime additive from the soil within the crucible. Making full use of the available torch maneuvering capabilities (which would likely exceed those of a torch used in-situ) failed to produce a homogeneous melt. Therefore, intimate mechanical mixture of the additive with the soil appears crucial to the success of SRS soil vitrification, and must be included in design considerations for in-situ operation.

  18. Development of the vitrification compositional envelope to support complex-wide application of MAWS technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Muller, I.S.; Gan, H.; Buechele, A.C.; Lai, S.T.; Pegg, I.L. |

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results from a study of the application of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) approach using vitrification as a treatment technology to a variety of waste streams across the DOE complex. This work has involved both experimental vitrification work using actual mixed wastes and surrogate waste streams from several DOE sites (Hanford, Idaho, and Oak Ridge) as well as the development of a computer-based, integrated glass property-composition database. The long-term objective is that this data base will assist glass formulation studies with single waste streams or combinations of waste streams subject to a variety of user-imposed constraints including waste stream usage priorities, process related constraints (e.g., melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.), and waste form performance related constraints (e.g., TCLP and PCT leaching results). 79 refs., 143 figs., 65 tabs.

  19. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

    1989-11-01

    This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. BABCOCK & WILCOX CYCLONE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Babcock & Wilcox 6 million Btu/hr pilot cyclone furnace was successfully used in a 2-yr Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology project to melt and vitrify an EPA Synthetic Soil Matrix (SSM) spiked with 7,000 ppm lead, 1,000 ppm cadmium, and 1,5...

  1. Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

    1996-12-31

    Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. The effect of vitrification technology on waste loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, P.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site are going to be permanently disposed of by incorporation into a durable glass. These wastes will be separated into low and high-level portions, and then vitrified. The low-level waste (LLW) is water soluble. Its vitrifiable part (other than off-gas) contains approximately 80 wt% Na{sub 2}O, the rest being Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O, and minor components. The challenge is to formulate durable LLW glasses with as high Na{sub 2}O content as possible by optimizing the additions of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and ZrO{sub 2}. This task will not be simple, considering the non-linear and interactive nature of glass properties as a function of composition. Once developed, the LLW glass, being similar in composition to commercial glasses, is unlikely to cause major processing problems, such as crystallization or molten salt segregation. For example, inexpensive LLW glass can be produced in a high-capacity Joule-heated melter with a cold cap to minimize volatilization. The high-level waste (HLW) consists of water-insoluble sludge (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, and others) and a substantial water-soluble residue (Na{sub 2}O). Most of the water-insoluble components are refractory; i.e., their melting points are above the glass melting temperature. With regard to product acceptability, the maximum loading of Hanford HLW in the glass is limited by product durability, not by radiolytic heat generation. However, this maximum may not be achievable because of technological constraints imposed by melter feed rheology, frit properties, and glass melter limits. These restrictions are discussed in this paper. 38 refs.

  4. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  5. New technology for vitrification and field (microscope-free) warming and transfer of small ruminant embryos.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Alabart, Jose Luis; Dattena, Maria; Nawroth, Frank; Cappai, Pietro; Isachenko, Eugenia; Cocero, Maria Jesus; Olivera, Julio; Roche, Alberto; Accardo, Carla; Krivokharchenko, Alexander; Folch, Jose

    2003-03-01

    This study was designed to test the efficiency of recently developed vitrification technology followed by microscope-free thawing and transfer of sheep embryos. In a first set of experiments, in vivo derived embryos at the morula to blastocyst stage were frozen in an automated freezer in ethylene glycol, and after thawing and removal of cryoprotectants, were transferred to recipient ewes according to a standard protocol (control group). A second group of embryos were loaded into open-pulled straws (OPS) and plunged into liquid nitrogen after exposure at room temperature to the media: 10% glycerol (G) for 5 min, 10% G+20% ethylene glycol (EG) for 5 min, 25% G+25% EG for 30s; or 10% EG+10% DMSO for 3 min, 20% EG+20% DMSO+0.3M trehalose for 30s. The OPS were thawed by plunging into tubes containing 0.5M trehalose. After this rapid thawing, the embryos were directly transferred using OPS as the catheter for the transplantation process. In a second set of experiments, in vivo derived and in vitro produced expanded blastocysts were vitrified in OPS and then transferred as described above. The lambing rates recorded (59% for the conventionally cryopreserved in vivo derived embryos, 56% for the vitrified in vivo derived embryos, and 20% for the vitrified in vitro produced embryos), suggest the suitability of the vitrification technique for the transfer of embryos obtained both in vivo and in vitro. This simple technology gives rise to a high embryo survival rate and will no doubt have applications in rearing sheep or other small ruminants.

  6. Non-Traditional In Situ Vitrification - A Technology Demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Coel-Roback, B.; Springer, M.; Lowery, P.; Thompson, L.; Huddleston, G.

    2003-02-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) sponsored a technology demonstration of non-traditional in situ vitrification (NTISV) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project team for this demonstration included MSE Technology Applications, Inc., Geosafe Corporation, and LANL. The technology demonstration involved the performance of two large-scale test melts. The first, referred to as the ''cold'' test, was performed on a simulated absorption bed that contained surrogate contaminants. The cold test was conducted in April 1999. The second demonstration, referred to as the ''hot'' test, took place at LANL's Material Disposal Area (MDA) V in April 2000. The hot test was conducted on a portion of an absorption bed that received radionuclide and metal-contaminated wastewater from a laundry facility and a research laboratory from the mid-1940s to the early 1960s. This paper presents the results of drilling and sampling following the hot test at LANL's MDA V. The objectives of the sample collection were to characterize the vitrified mass and the effects of the hot test on the surrounding bedrock. Glass samples were analyzed for total radionuclide and metal content by standard EPA methods, and leachable radionuclide and metal content using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Product Consistency Test (PCT) methods.

  7. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  8. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  9. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  10. The role of Tetronics plasma vitrification technology in the management and conditioning of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deegan, David; Scales, Charlie

    2007-07-01

    Plasma Arc Technology is finding wider application in the treatment of hazardous waste materials an area which has a lot of synergy with radioactive waste management. It is being stimulated by the increasing demands of regulatory and economic drivers; currently, within the Integrated Waste Management (IWM) sector, there is a climate of rising costs, limited numbers of technological solutions, restricted access to traditional disposal based solutions and a significant levels of market consolidation. Traditionally, the IWM sector has operated with basic mixing technology solutions: e.g. physiochemical consolidation, physiochemical separation, neutralisation and basic material bulking, with ultimate reliance on landfill, cement based encapsulation and high temperature incineration (HTI). The impact of national statutes, the value of national liabilities and infra-structural deficiencies is demanding constant technological advancement for continued regulatory compliance. This paper presents information on Tetronics' plasma based solution, for the treatment of Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM) and Plutonium Containing Material (PCM). (authors)

  11. A Method for Determining Bulk Density, Material Density, and Porosity of Melter Feed During Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, Zachary; Hrma, Pavel; Vance, E.

    2015-09-24

    Abstract Glass making efficiency largely depends on heat transfer to reacting glass batch (melter feed), which in turn is influenced by the bulk density (ρb) and porosity (Φ) as functions of temperature (T). Neither b(T) nor Φ(T) functions are readily accessible to direct measurement, but they can be determined based on monitoring the profile area of heated glass batch pellets and material density of batches quenched at various stages of conversion via pycnometry. For the determination of Φb, the bulk volume must be calculated as a function of temperature. This is done via a program constructed in MATLAB which takes an image of a pellet profile at a given temperature and calculates the volume of said pellet. The quenched density measured by pycnometry must be converted to the density at heat treatment temperature. This is done by taking into account the volume change due to thermal expansion/contraction.

  12. The potential for modification in cloning and vitrification technology to enhance genetic progress in beef cattle in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W; Walton, Simon; Swain, David L; Walsh, Kerry B; Vajta, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in embryology and related research offer considerable possibilities to accelerate genetic improvement in cattle breeding. Such progress includes optimization and standardization of laboratory embryo production (in vitro fertilization - IVF), introduction of a highly efficient method for cryopreservation (vitrification), and dramatic improvement in the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) in terms of required effort, cost, and overall outcome. Handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified version of somatic cell nuclear transfer, offers the potential for relatively easy and low-cost production of clones. A potentially modified method of vitrification used at a centrally located laboratory facility could result in cloned offspring that are economically competitive with elite animals produced by more traditional means. Apart from routine legal and intellectual property issues, the main obstacle that hampers rapid uptake of these technologies by the beef cattle industry is a lack of confidence from scientific and commercial sources. Once stakeholder support is increased, the combined application of these methods makes a rapid advance toward desirable traits (rapid growth, high-quality beef, optimized reproductive performance) a realistic goal. The potential impact of these technologies on genetic advancement in beef cattle herds in which improvement of stock is sought, such as in northern Australia, is hard to overestimate.

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  14. Vitrification as a low-level radioactive mixed waste treatment technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; No, Hyo J.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is developing plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated onsite. The ultimate objective of this project is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the annual generation and historic stockpiles of selected LLMW streams. This project is currently in the process of identifying a range of processible glass compositions that can be produced from actual mixed wastes and additives, such as boric acid or borax. During the formulation of these glasses, there has been an emphasis on maximizing the waste content in the glass (70 to 90 wt %), reducing the overall final waste volume, and producing a stabilized low-level radioactive waste glass. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced alkali borosilicate glasses that pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals well above the expected levels in actual wastes, also pass the TCLP test. These results provide compelling evidence that the vitrification system and the glass waste form will be robust enough to accommodate expected variations in the LLMW streams from ANL-E. Approximately 40 crucible melts will be studied to establish a compositional envelope for vitrifying ANL-E mixed wastes. Also being determined is the identity of volatilized metals or off-gases that will be generated.

  15. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  16. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  17. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

  18. Georgia Tech Final Report Demonstration In Situ Plasma Vitrification Technology for Savannah River Site Contaminated Soils (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1996-12-01

    Previous experience with in-situ (Joule-heated) vitrification (ISV) of Savannah River site (SRS) highly weathered soil, has shown that the SRS soil is very refractory and a poor electrical conductor. These findings bring into question the likelihood of utilizing the Joule-heat type of vitrification treatment for waste sites and basins at SRS. An alternative approach may be in-situ plasma vitrification (ISPV). The ISPV approach provides a similar vitrified product and also has a safety advantage in that the melting is initiated at the bottom of a borehole compared to top-down melting for Joule heated ISV.

  19. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  20. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N.

    1994-10-20

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

  1. Environmental Management vitrification activities

    SciTech Connect

    Krumrine, P.H.

    1996-05-01

    Both the Mixed Waste and Landfill Stabilization Focus Areas as part of the Office of Technology Development efforts within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Division have been developing various vitrification technologies as a treatment approach for the large quantities of transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed and Mixed Low Level Wastes that are stored in either landfills or above ground storage facilities. The technologies being developed include joule heated, plasma torch, plasma arc, induction, microwave, combustion, molten metal, and in situ methods. There are related efforts going into development glass, ceramic, and slag waste form windows of opportunity for the diverse quantities of heterogeneous wastes needing treatment. These studies look at both processing parameters, and long term performance parameters as a function of composition to assure that developed technologies have the right chemistry for success.

  2. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  3. Digital microfluidic processing of mammalian embryos for vitrification.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Derek G; Liu, Jun; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Sun, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a key technology in biology and clinical practice. This paper presents a digital microfluidic device that automates sample preparation for mammalian embryo vitrification. Individual micro droplets manipulated on the microfluidic device were used as micro-vessels to transport a single mouse embryo through a complete vitrification procedure. Advantages of this approach, compared to manual operation and channel-based microfluidic vitrification, include automated operation, cryoprotectant concentration gradient generation, and feasibility of loading and retrieval of embryos.

  4. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  5. Vitrification and waste glass compositional limits

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    The most important issue when evaluating the suitability of a waste stream for vitrification is the composition of the waste. Appropriate analytical data are required to ensure that adequate information is available for evaluating and implementing the technology. Although vitrification can be used to immobilize almost any waste stream through dilution of the waste with glass formers, it may be too costly for certain limiting conditions. This report provides guidelines of these limit sand the consequent analytical requirements that are necessary for appropriate qualitative cost estimates.

  6. In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, B.L.; Landon, J.L.

    1989-03-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Vitrification of asbestos wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Blary, F.; Rollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1990, EDF decided to test the use of the plasma torch in waste destruction processes. These tests facilitated the creation of a mobile industrial plant for the vitrification of asbestos waste. Asbestos is valued for its insulating properties and its resistance to fire, but has the formidable drawback that its inhalation causes serious respiratory diseases (cancer) in man. Nowadays therefore this waste, most often originating from the renovation or demolition of contaminated buildings, has to be disposed of. The process developed by INERTAM is vitrification by plasma torch: i.e. high temperature thermal treatment (T > 1,600 C) which fuses and homogenizes materials. INERTAM thus carries out the total destruction of the asbestos fibers by fusion and achieves a significant reduction in specific volume (80%) of the waste and an inert, stable material (the ``vitrificate`` or fusion residue) able to be re-used in road techniques.

  8. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  9. Vitrification Demonstration with Argentine Ion Exchange Material in the Stir-Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-06-28

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is investigating the viability of vitrification treatment of Argentine ion exchange material as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Science and Technology Development Task Plan. Bench-scale studies were performed by the SRTC to define the necessary vitrification process for this material. However, the process had to be demonstrated in a melter system before vitrification could be considered a viable treatment option.

  10. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  11. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  12. Treatment of Spent Argentine Ion Exchange Resin Using Vitrification - Results of FY01 Testing at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-08-14

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions. In 1996, as part of the JCCRM, DOE established a collaborative research agreement with Argentina's Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA). A primary mission of the CNEA is to direct waste management activities for Argentina's nuclear industry.

  13. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-15

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes.

  14. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  15. Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan K.

    2002-01-02

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  16. Worst-Case" Simulant for INTEC Soduim-Bearing Waste Vitrification Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jerry Dale; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    species of concern that will be present in current and future wastes from different tanks. Because most of the species of concern are at small concentrations relative to the bulk components that are fairly constant, maximizing them individually into a single waste composition does not substantially affect the general vitrification chemistry. The evaluation and results are reported here. This simulant is suitable for performing laboratory and pilot-scale tests in order to develop the vitrification technology.

  17. Waste Vitrification Projects Throughout the US Initiated by SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Smith, M.E.; Pickett, J.B.; Peeler, D.K.

    1998-05-01

    Technologies are being developed by the U. S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert high-level, low-level, and mixed wastes to a solid stabilized waste form for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the most important and environmentally safest technologies being developed. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared vitrification the best demonstrated available technology for high-level radioactive waste and produced a Handbook of Vitrification Technologies for Treatment of Hazardous and Radioactive Waste. The Defense Waste Processing Facility being tested at will soon start vitrifying the high-level waste at. The DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible to ensure that the resulting waste forms will meet both current and future regulatory specifications. Vitrification produces durable waste forms at volume reductions up to 97%. Large reductions in volume minimize long-term storage costs making vitrification cost effective on a life cycle basis.

  18. Vitrification of waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  19. Vitrification of waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-04-06

    A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  20. Vitrification publication bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  1. Vitrification of copper flotation waste.

    PubMed

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30wt% W were melted for 30min at 1400 degrees C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  2. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  3. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  4. Genetically engineered peptides for inorganics: study of an unconstrained bacterial display technology and bulk aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bryn L; Finch, Amethist S; Hurley, Margaret M; Sarkes, Deborah A; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N

    2013-09-06

    The first-ever peptide biomaterial discovery using an unconstrained engineered bacterial display technology is reported. Using this approach, we have developed genetically engineered peptide binders for a bulk aluminum alloy and use molecular dynamics simulation of peptide conformational fluctuations to demonstrate sequence-dependent, structure-function relationships for metal and metal oxide interactions.

  5. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  6. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  7. Functional description of the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.; McMahon, C.L.

    1990-07-01

    The primary objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560,000 gallons) of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) which resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Since the original plant was not built to accommodate the processing of waste beyond storage in underground tanks, HLW solidification by vitrification presented numerous engineering challenges. Existing facilities required redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose. Vitrification technology and systems needed to be created and then tested. Equipment modifications, identified from cold test results, were incorporated into the final equipment configuration to be used for radioactive (hot) operations. Cold operations have defined the correct sequence and optimal functioning of the equipment to be used for vitrification and have verified the process by which waste will be solidified into borosilicate glass.

  8. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  9. PNL vitrification technology development project high-waste loaded high-level waste glasses for high-temperature melter: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-02-01

    For vitrification of high-level wastes (HLW) at the Hanford Site, a Joule-heated overflow type melter with bottom draining capability and capable of operating at temperatures up to 1500{degrees}C is being developed. The original proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter used a 1150{degrees}C processing temperature and was tested using glasses with up to 28 wt% waste oxide loading for NCAW (Neutralized Current Acid Waste). The goal of the high-temperature melter (HTM) is the volume reduction of the final product and increase of the waste processing rate by processing high-waste loaded glasses at higher temperatures. This would dramatically decrease waste disposal and processing costs. The aim of glass development for the HTM is to determine compositions and melting temperatures for processible and acceptable glasses with a high waste loading. Glass property/composition models for viscosity and liquidus temperature developed in the Glass Envelope Definition (GED) study were used. The results of glass formulation and experimental testing are presented for NCAW and DST/SST (Double-Shell Tank/Single-Shell Tank) Blend waste. Although the purpose of this report was to summarize the glass development study with Blend waste only, the results with NCAW were needed because glass development with Blend waste was based on the results from the glass development study with NCAW.

  10. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  11. Recent advances in in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Luey, Ja-Kael.

    1992-05-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is an innovative mobile remediation technology for soils and other underground contamination: Developed by the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), ISV has advanced during the past decade from a laboratory concept to a remediation technology commercially available for contaminated soils. ISV technology is currently being developed for remediation of DOE waste sites at Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), and other sites. The incentives for application of ISV can convert contaminated sites to a solid, highly durable block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. The ISV product has been shown capable of passing US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tests such as the Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). Retrieval, handling and transport of untreated hazardous material would normally not be required after application of ISV. Therefore, costs, exposure to personnel, risk of releases to the environment, and generation of secondary wastes are greatly reduced compared with remove-and-treat technologies.

  12. Recent advances in in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Luey, Ja-Kael

    1992-05-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is an innovative mobile remediation technology for soils and other underground contamination: Developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), ISV has advanced during the past decade from a laboratory concept to a remediation technology commercially available for contaminated soils. ISV technology is currently being developed for remediation of DOE waste sites at Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), and other sites. The incentives for application of ISV can convert contaminated sites to a solid, highly durable block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. The ISV product has been shown capable of passing US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tests such as the Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). Retrieval, handling and transport of untreated hazardous material would normally not be required after application of ISV. Therefore, costs, exposure to personnel, risk of releases to the environment, and generation of secondary wastes are greatly reduced compared with remove-and-treat technologies.

  13. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

  14. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  15. Vitrification: a simple and successful method for cryostorage of human blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is one of the keystones in clinical infertility treatment. Especially vitrification has become a well-established and widely used routine procedure that allows important expansion of therapeutic strategies when in vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to treat infertility. Vitrification of human blastocysts allows us to maximize the potential for conception from any one in vitro fertilization cycle and prevents wastage of embryos. This goes even further toward to best utilize a patient's supernumerary oocytes after retrieval, maximizing the use of embryos from a single stimulation cycle. The technology may even be used to eliminate fresh embryo transfers for reasons of convenience, uterine receptivity, fertility preservation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, or emergency management. In this chapter, the application of vitrification technology for cryopreserving human blastocyst will be revealed through step-by-step protocols. The results that are presented using the described protocols underscore the robustness of the vitrification technology for embryo cryopreservation.

  16. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  17. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-03-18

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment.

  18. Development of a remote bushing for actinide vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.; Johnson, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are combining their existing experience in handling highly radioactive, special nuclear materials with commercial glass fiberization technology in order to assemble a small vitrification system for radioactive actinide solutions. The vitrification system or {open_quotes}brushing{close_quotes}, is fabricated from platinum-rhodium alloy and is based on early marble remelt fiberization technology. Advantages of this unique system include its relatively small size, reliable operation, geometrical safety (nuclear criticality), and high temperature capability. The bushing design should be capable of vitrifying a number of the actinide nuclear materials, including solutions of americium/curium, neptunium, and possibly plutonium. State of the art, mathematical and oil model studies are being combined with basic engineering evaluations to verify and improve the thermal and mechanical design concepts.

  19. Bio-inspired cryo-ink preserves red blood cell phenotype and function during nanoliter vitrification.

    PubMed

    El Assal, Rami; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyler, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M W; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-09-03

    Current red-blood-cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red-blood-cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bioprinting approach.

  20. Bio-inspired Cryo-ink Preserves Red Blood Cell Phenotype and Function during Nanoliter Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Assal, Rami El; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyber, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M.W.; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Current red blood cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red blood cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bio-printing approach. PMID:25047246

  1. Plasma vitrification of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Beudin, V.; Guihard, B.; Pineau, D.; Labrot, M.; Soler, G.; Favier, J.M.; Boudeau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the plasma vitrification of fly-ash produced by a Municipal Waste Incinerator, as programmed by Europlasma Company in France. It describes the main assumptions, technical and economical data and regulations taken into account to build and operate the first industrial pilot plant from 1995, near Bordeaux (France), using a non transferred plasma torch of 500 kW operated with air.

  2. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  3. Manufacturing Solid Dosage Forms from Bulk Liquids Using the Fluid-bed Drying Technology.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianping; Lu, Y I; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Solid dosage forms are better than liquid dosage forms in many ways, such as improved physical and chemical stability, ease of storage and transportation, improved handling properties, and patient compliance. Therefore, it is required to transform dosage forms of liquid origins into solid dosage forms. The functional approaches are to absorb the liquids by solid excipients or through drying. The conventional drying technologies for this purpose include drying by heating, vacuum-, freeze- and spray-drying, etc. Among these drying technologies, fluidbed drying emerges as a new technology that possesses unique advantages. Fluid-bed drying or coating is highly efficient in solvent removal, can be performed at relatively low temperatures, and is a one-step process to manufacture formulations in pellet forms. In this article, the status of the art of manufacturing solid dosage forms from bulk liquids by fluid-bed drying technology was reviewed emphasizing on its application in solid dispersion, inclusion complexes, self-microemulsifying systems, and various nanoscale drug delivery systems.

  4. High temperature vitrification of surrogate Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Schumacher, R.F.; Spatz, T.L.; Newsom, R.A.; Circeo, L.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-11-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been funded through the DOE Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to investigate high-temperature vitrification technologies for the treatment of diverse low-level and mixed wastes. High temperature vitrification is a likely candidate for processing heterogeneous solid wastes containing low levels of activity. Many SRS wastes fit into this category. Plasma torch technology is one high temperature vitrification method. A trial demonstration of plasma torch processing is being performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology on surrogate SRS wastes. This effort is in cooperation with the Engineering Research and Development Association of Georgia Universities (ERDA) program. The results of phase 1 of these plasma torch trials will be presented.

  5. Vitrification of actinide solutions in SRS separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.L.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1995-09-01

    The actinide vitrification system being developed at SRS provides the capability to convert specialized or unique forms of nuclear material into a stable solid glass product that can be safely shipped, stored or reprocessed according to the DOE complex mission. This project is an application of technology developed through funds from the Office of Technology Development (OTD). This technology is ideally suited for vitrifying relatively small quantities of fissile or special nuclear material since it is designed to be critically safe. Successful demonstration of this system to safely vitrify radioactive material could open up numerous opportunities for transferring this technology to applications throughout the DOE complex.

  6. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  7. Improved low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes using quartz microcapillary.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation by low-cryoprotectant (CPA) vitrification has the potential to combine all the advantages of the conventional high-CPA vitrification and slow-freezing approaches while avoiding their drawbacks. However, current low-CPA vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of oocytes requires a lengthy and multi-step procedure for unloading CPAs. In this study, we report a much-simplified procedure of using quartz microcapillary (QMC) for low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes with only one step for unloading CPAs. The immediate viability of oocytes after the improved low-CPA vitrification was determined to be more than 90%. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in terms of embryonic development from the two-cell to blastocyst stages between the fresh and vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This improved low-CPA vitrification technology has the potential for efficient cryopreservation of oocytes to preserve the fertility of mammals including humans for assisted reproductive medicine, maintenance of animal resource and endangered species, and livestock management.

  8. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

  9. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  11. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie; Fioravanti, Richard; Gordon, Paul; Markel, Larry; Agrawal, Poonum; Nourai, Ali

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  12. Total ionizing dose radiation effects on NMOS parasitic transistors in advanced bulk CMOS technology devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoping, He; Zujun, Wang; Jiangkun, Sheng; Shaoyan, Huang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, total ionizing dose effect of NMOS transistors in advanced CMOS technology are examined. The radiation tests are performed at 60Co sources at the dose rate of 50 rad (Si)/s. The investigation's results show that the radiation-induced charge buildup in the gate oxide can be ignored, and the field oxide isolation structure is the main total dose problem. The total ionizing dose (TID) radiation effects of field oxide parasitic transistors are studied in detail. An analytical model of radiation defect charge induced by TID damage in field oxide is established. The I - V characteristics of the NMOS parasitic transistors at different doses are modeled by using a surface potential method. The modeling method is verified by the experimental I - V characteristics of 180 nm commercial NMOS device induced by TID radiation at different doses. The model results are in good agreement with the radiation experimental results, which shows the analytical model can accurately predict the radiation response characteristics of advanced bulk CMOS technology device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11305126).

  13. Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Five Core Technologies for Their Commercialization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Junghwan; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-09-01

    The past two decades of vigorous interdisciplinary approaches has seen tremendous breakthroughs in both scientific and technological developments of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on nanocomposites of π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Because of their unique functionalities, the OSC field is expected to enable innovative photovoltaic applications that can be difficult to achieve using traditional inorganic solar cells: OSCs are printable, portable, wearable, disposable, biocompatible, and attachable to curved surfaces. The ultimate objective of this field is to develop cost-effective, stable, and high-performance photovoltaic modules fabricated on large-area flexible plastic substrates via high-volume/throughput roll-to-roll printing processing and thus achieve the practical implementation of OSCs. Recently, intensive research efforts into the development of organic materials, processing techniques, interface engineering, and device architectures have led to a remarkable improvement in power conversion efficiencies, exceeding 11%, which has finally brought OSCs close to commercialization. Current research interests are expanding from academic to industrial viewpoints to improve device stability and compatibility with large-scale printing processes, which must be addressed to realize viable applications. Here, both academic and industrial issues are reviewed by highlighting historically monumental research results and recent state-of-the-art progress in OSCs. Moreover, perspectives on five core technologies that affect the realization of the practical use of OSCs are presented, including device efficiency, device stability, flexible and transparent electrodes, module designs, and printing techniques.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLD TOP EX-SITU VITRIFICATION PROCESS - GEOTECH DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cold Top Vitrification process, developed by Geotech Development Corporation, is an ex-situ, submerged-electrode, resistance-melting technology. The technology is designed to transform heavy metal contaminated soil into a glassy, amorphous, non-leachable mass composed of inte...

  15. An update on the quality assurance for the waste vitrification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Caplinger, W.H.; Shugars, D.L.; Carlson, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Immobilization of high-level defense production wastes is an important step in environmental restoration. The best available technology for immobilization of this waste currently is by incorporation into borosilicate glass, i.e., vitrification. Three US sites are active in the design, construction, or operation of vitrification facilities. The status, facility description and Quality Assurance (QA) development for each facility was presented at the 1989 Energy Division Conference. This paper presents the developments since that time. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) in northwestern New York State has demonstrated the technology. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has completed design, construction is essentially complete, and preparation for operation is underway. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) in Washington State is in initial Detailed Design. 4 refs.

  16. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages. Erratum

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gary L.

    2016-09-06

    This report refers to or contains Kg values for glasses LAWA44, LAWB45 and LAWC22 affected by calculations errors as identified by Papathanassiu et al. (2011). The corrected Kg values are reported in an erratum included in the revised version of the original report. The revised report can be referenced as follows: Pierce E. M. et al. (2004) Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-14805 Rev. 0 Erratum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

  17. Hanford waste vitrification systems risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.C.; Hamilton, D.W.; Holton, L.K.; Bailey, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    A systematic Risk Assessment was performed to identify the technical, regulatory, and programmatic uncertainties and to quantify the risks to the Hanford Site double-shell tank waste vitrification program baseline (as defined in December 1990). Mitigating strategies to reduce the overall program risk were proposed. All major program elements were evaluated, including double-shell tank waste characterization, Tank Farms, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and grouting. Computer-based techniques were used to quantify risks to proceeding with construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant on the present baseline schedule. Risks to the potential vitrification of single-shell tank wastes and cesium and strontium capsules were also assessed. 62 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Vitrification of heart valve tissues.

    PubMed

    Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Chen, Zhenzhen; Greene, Elizabeth D; Campbell, Lia H

    2015-01-01

    Application of the original vitrification protocol used for pieces of heart valves to intact heart valves has evolved over time. Ice-free cryopreservation by Protocol 1 using VS55 is limited to small samples where relatively rapid cooling and warming rates are possible. VS55 cryopreservation typically provides extracellular matrix preservation with approximately 80 % cell viability and tissue function compared with fresh untreated tissues. In contrast, ice-free cryopreservation using VS83, Protocols 2 and 3, has several advantages over conventional cryopreservation methods and VS55 preservation, including long-term preservation capability at -80 °C; better matrix preservation than freezing with retention of material properties; very low cell viability, reducing the risks of an immune reaction in vivo; reduced risks of microbial contamination associated with use of liquid nitrogen; improved in vivo functions; no significant recipient allogeneic immune response; simplified manufacturing process; increased operator safety because liquid nitrogen is not used; and reduced manufacturing costs.

  19. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) instrumentation used for in-situ plasma vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, J.

    1997-09-08

    An application of TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) was developed and demonstrated for use with the in-situ plasma vitrification (ISPV) environmental restoration project. The technique was simple, using an inexpensive sacrificial TDR probe made out of ordinary coaxial cable. This technique proved its viability for field operation in support of the vitrification process. This presentation will detail the design, construction, operation and field results of the TDR instrumentation that was developed and used in this project. Other practical applications of this technology will be suggested.

  1. Extending Fuzzy System Concepts for Control of a Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Sorgel, W.; Garrison, A.; Schalkoff, R.J.

    1995-08-16

    Fuzzy systems provide a mathematical framework to capture uncertainty. The complete description of real, complex systems or situations often requires far more detail and information than could ever be obtained (or understood). Fuzzy approaches are an alternative technology for both system control and information processing and management. In this paper, we present the design of a fuzzy control system for a melter used in the vitrification of hazardous waste. Design issues, especially those related to melter shutdown and obtaining smooth control surfaces, are addressed. Several extensions to commonly-applied fuzzy techniques, notably adaptive defuzzification and modified rule structures are developed.

  2. The role of frit in nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Smith, P.A.; Dorn, D.A.; Hrma, P.

    1994-12-31

    Melter feed yield stress, viscosity and durability of frits and corresponding waste glasses as well as the kinetics of elementary melting processes have been measured. The results illustrate the competing requirements on frit. Four frits (FY91, FY93, HW39-4, and SR202) and simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) were used in this study. The experimental evidence shows that optimization of frit for one processing related property often results in poorer performance for the remaining properties. The difficulties associated with maximum waste loading and durability are elucidated for glasses which could be processed using technology available for the previously proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan.

  3. Am/Cm Vitrification Process: Vitrification Material Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    2000-08-15

    This report documents material balance calculations for the Americium/Curium vitrification process and describes the basis used to make the calculations. The material balance calculations reported here start with the solution produced by the Am/Cm pretreatment process as described in ``Material Balance Calculations for Am/Cm Pretreatment Process (U)'', SRT-AMC-99-0178 [1]. Following pretreatment, small batches of the product will be further treated with an additional oxalic acid precipitation and washing. The precipitate from each batch will then be charged to the Am/Cm melter with glass cullet and vitrified to produce the final product. The material balance calculations in this report are designed to provide projected compositions of the melter glass and off-gas streams. Except for decanted supernate collected from precipitation and precipitate washing, the flowsheet neglects side streams such as acid washes of empty tanks that would go directly to waste. Complete listings of the results of the material balance calculations are provided in the Appendices to this report.

  4. Subsidence above in situ vitrification: Evaluation for Hanford applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dershowitz, W.S.; Plum, R.L.; Luey, J.

    1995-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is evaluating methods to extend the applicability of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. One method being evaluated is the initiation of the ISV process in the soil subsurface rather than the traditional start from the surface. The subsurface initiation approach will permit extension of the ISV treatment depth beyond that currently demonstrated and allow selective treatment of contamination in a geologic formation. A potential issue associated with the initiation of the ISV process in the soil subsurface is the degree of subsidence and its effect on the ISV process. The reduction in soil porosity caused by the vitrification process will result in a volume decrease for the vitrified soils. Typical volume reduction observed for ISV melts initiated at the surface are on the order of 20% to 30% of the melt thickness. Movement of in-situ materials into the void space created during an ISV application in the soil subsurface could result in surface settlements that affect the ISV process and the processing equipment. Golder Associates, Inc., of Redmond, Washington investigated the potential for subsidence events during application of ISV in the soil subsurface. Prediction of soil subsidence above an ISV melt required the following analyses: the effect of porosity reduction during ISV, failure of fused materials surrounding the ISV melt, bulking of disturbed materials above the melt, and propagation of strains to the surface.

  5. Bulk CMOS VLSI Technology Studies. Part 5. The Design and Implementation of a High Speed Integrated Circuit Functional Tester.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    A,D-A1l-B 371 BULK CMOS VLSI TECHNOLOGY STUDIES PART 5 THE DESIGN AND J/2 IPLEMENTATION OF..(U) MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV MISSISSIPPI STATE DEPT OF...SPEED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FUNCTIONAL TESTER It Principal Investi-s tar J. Donald Trotter Associate Investigator Boyle Dwayne Robbins Mississippi State ...University Department of Electrical Engineering Mississippi State , Mississippi 39762 for Defense Advance Research Projects Agency 1400 Wilson Ave. Ci

  6. Vitrification darkening of rock powders - Implications for optical properties of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, D. B.; Conel, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that albedoes as low as those on the moon can be produced by vacuum vitrification and associated chemical fractionation of ordinary terrestrial basaltic material. Vitrification is established as an unequivocal process that can account for the low albedo and apparent local darkening with age of the lunar surface. The spectral reflectance curves of glass powders are significantly different than those of the parent rock mineralogy; thus, the presence of ubiquitous glass in lunar surface material complicates compositional determinations by interpretation of spectral reflectance curves. Vitrification of rocks on the moon may highly modify the chemical composition of the resulting glass; thus, glass fragments found in lunar fines cannot be assumed to represent bulk parent rock material. Progressive impact vitrification of lunar surface material throughout the moon's history may have led to a fine-grain, opaque, refractory-rich material we call 'ultimate glass.' This unidentified and, at this point, hypothetical component may exist in dark regolith material; if found, it may be a useful indicator of regolith maturity.

  7. La Hague Continuous Improvement Program: Enhancement of the Vitrification Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Petitjean, V.; De Vera, R.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Tronche, E.; Flament, T.; Pereira Mendes, F.; Prod'homme, A.

    2006-07-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for over 25 years by AREVA/COGEMA, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. At the 'La Hague' plant, in the 'R7' and 'T7' facilities, vitrified waste is obtained by first evaporating and calcining the nitric acid feed solution-containing fission products in calciners. The product-named calcinate- is then fed together with glass frit into induction-heated metallic melters to produce the so-called R7/T7 glass, well known for its excellent containment properties. Both facilities are equipped with three processing lines. In the near future the increase of the fuel burn-up will influence the amount of fission product solutions to be processed at R7/T7. As a consequence, in order to prepare these changes, it is necessary to feed the calciner at higher flow-rates. Consistent and medium-term R and D programs led by CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission, the AREVA/COGEMA's R and D and R and T provider), AREVA/COGEMA (Industrial Operator) and AREVA/SGN (AREVA/COGEMA's Engineering), and associated to the industrial feed back of AREVA/COGEMA operations, have allowed continuous improvement of the process since 1998: - The efficiency and limitation of the equipment have been studied and solutions for technological improvements have been proposed whenever necessary, - The increase of the feeding flow-rate has been implemented on the improved CEA test rig (so called PEV, Evolutional Prototype of Vitrification) and adapted by AREVA/SGN for the La Hague plant using their modeling studies; the results obtained during this test confirmed the technological and industrial feasibility of the improvements achieved, - After all necessary improved equipments have been implemented in R7/T7 facilities, and a specific campaign has been performed on the R7 facility by AREVA/COGEMA. The flow-rate to the

  8. [Testicular tissue vitrification: evolution or revolution?].

    PubMed

    Wyns, C; Abu-Ghannam, G; Poels, J

    2013-09-01

    Preservation of reproductive health is a major concern for patient long-term quality of life. While sperm freezing has proven to be effective to preserve fertility after puberty, cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT) is emerging as a promising approach for fertility preservation in young boys. Slow-freezing (SF) is the conventional method used to preserve ITT and has resulted in the birth of mice offspring. In humans, methods to preserve ITT are still at the research stage. Controlled SF using dimethyl sulfoxide showed preservation of proliferative spermatogonia after thawing in a xenotransplantation model used to evaluate the efficiency of freezing and thawing procedures. However, spermatogonial recovery was low and normal differentiation could not be achieved. Both freezing/thawing and the environment of the xenotransplantation model may be implicated. Indeed, with SF, ice crystal formation could damage tissue and cells. For this reason, vitrification, leading to solidification of a liquid without crystallization, may be a promising alternative. ITT vitrification has been investigated in different species and shown spermatogonial survival and differentiation to the round or elongated spermatids stage. Offspring were also recently obtained after vitrification and allotransplantation in avians, confirming the potential of vitrification for fertility preservation. In humans, vitrification appears to be as efficient as SF in terms of spermatogonial survival and initiation of differentiation after xenotransplantation. However, before validation of such fertility preservation methods, completion of normal spermatogenesis and the fertilization capacity of sperm retrieved from cryopreserved and transplanted tissue should be fully investigated.

  9. Vitrification development and experiences at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, R.F.; Paine, D.; Roberts, J.L.; Akgunduz, N.

    1998-09-01

    Vitrification of radioactive wastes products have proven to produce an extremely stable waste form. Vitrification involves the melting of wastes with a mixture of glass-forming additives at high temperatures; when cooled, the wastes are incorporated into a glass that is analogous to obsidian. Obsidian is a volcanic glass-like rock, commonly found in nature. A one-metric ton/day Vitrification Pilot Plant (VITPP) at Fernald, Ohio, simulated the vitrification of radium and radon bearing silo residues using representative non-radioactive surrogates. These non-radioactive surrogates contained high concentrations of lead, sulfates, and phosphates. The vitrification process was carried out at temperatures of 1150 to 1350 C. Laboratory and bench-scale treatability studies were conducted before initiation of the VITPP. Development of the glass formulas, containing up to 90% waste, will be discussed in the paper. The VITPP processed glass for seven months, until a breach of the melter containment vessel suspended operations. More than 70,000 pounds of good surrogate glass were produced by the VITPP. Experiences, lessons learned, and the planned path forward will be presented.

  10. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-09-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m{sup 2} of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000{degree}C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component.

  11. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R. ); Barnes-Smith, P. )

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m{sup 2} of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000{degree}C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component.

  12. Implementation of in situ vitrification for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Roberts, J.S.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1993-08-01

    Geosafe Corporation will be implementing the in situ vitrification (ISV) technology commercially at a Superfund site in Michigan. In preparation for the Michigan site, Geosafe Corporation performed two operational acceptance tests (OATs) at the Geosafe Test Site in Richland, Washington. The objectives were to test the performance of the equipment and to train operating personnel. In addition, Geosafe cooperated with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development in a full-scale field data collection effort to obtain data characterizing the dynamic conditions in the soil created by the advancing ISV melt. This full-scale information provides empirical data to support the current understanding of the ISV technology for contaminated soil applications and provides verification of the accuracy of computational modeling tools being used to evaluate the applicability of the ISV technology to different soil sites.

  13. Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

  14. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  15. In-situ vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1997-10-14

    A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  16. In-situ vitrification of waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris; Barletta, Robert

    1997-11-14

    A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed.

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L.

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  18. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-11-21

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation`s (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste.

  19. Vitrification of radioactive contaminated soil by means of microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xun; Qing, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Xirui

    2017-03-01

    Simulated radioactive contaminated soil was successfully vitrified by microwave sintering technology and the solidified body were systematically studied by Raman, XRD and SEM-EDX. The Raman results show that the solidified body transformed to amorphous structure better at higher temperature (1200 °C). The XRD results show that the metamictization has been significantly enhanced by the prolonged holding time at 1200 °C by microwave sintering, while by conventional sintering technology other crystal diffraction peaks, besides of silica at 2θ = 27.830°, still exist after being treated at 1200 °C for much longer time. The SEM-EDX discloses the micro-morphology of the sample and the uniform distribution of Nd element. All the results show that microwave technology performs vitrification better than the conventional sintering method in solidifying radioactive contaminated soil.

  20. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.; Davis, D.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program.

  1. Improvement of vitrification of in vitro produced buffalo embryos with special reference to sex ratio following vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, K. Gh. M; Scholkamy, T. H; Darwish, S. F

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation and sexing of embryos are integrated into commercial embryo transfer technologies. To improve the effectiveness of vitrification of in vitro produced buffalo embryos, two experiments were conducted. The first evaluated the effect of exposure time (2 and 3 min) and developmental stage (morula and blastocysts) on the viability and development of vitrified buffalo embryos. Morphologically normal embryos and survival rates (re-expansion) significantly increased when vitrified morulae were exposed for 2 min compared to 3 min (P<0.001). On the other hand, morphologically normal and survival rates of blastocysts significantly increased when exposed for 3 min compared to 2 min (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the two developmental stages (morulae and blastocystes) in the percentages of morphologically normal embryos and re-expansion rates after a 24 h culture. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of viability on the sex ratio of buffalo embryos after vitrification and whether male and female embryos survived vitrification differently. A total number of 61 blastocysts were vitrified for 3 min with the same cryoprotectant as experiment 1. Higher percentages of males were recorded for live as compared to dead embryos; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, the post-thaw survival and development of in vitro produced morulae and blastocysts were found to be affected by exposure time rather than developmental stage. Survivability had no significant effect on the sex ratio of vitrified blastocysts; nevertheless, the number of surviving males was higher than dead male embryos. PMID:27175197

  2. High-temperature vitrification of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A.; Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Spatz, T.L.; Marra, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex has numerous radioactive waste streams which cannot be easily treated with joule-heated vitrification systems. However, it appears these streams could be treated With certain robust, high-temperature, melter technologies. These technologies are based on the use of plasma torch, graphite arc, and induction heating sources. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with financial support from the Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (OTD) and in conjunction with the sites within the DOE weapons complex, has been investigating high-temperature vitrification technologies for several years. This program has been a cooperative effort between a number of nearby Universities, specific sites within the DOE complex, commercial equipment suppliers and the All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology. These robust vitrification systems appear to have advantages for the waste streams containing inorganic materials in combination with significant quantities of metals, organics, salts, or high temperature materials. Several high-temperature technologies were selected and will be evaluated and employed to develop supporting technology. A general overview of the SRTC ``High-Temperature Program`` will be provided.

  3. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION - GEOSAFE CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    in Situ Vitrification (ISV) is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tailings contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds. The process uses electrical current to heat (mett) and vitrify the soil in place. Organic contaminants are decomposed by the extreme h...

  5. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

  6. In Situ Vitrification software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Grush, W.H.; Marwil, E.S.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the Software Requirements Specification for the Electrical Resistance Heating and Thermal Energy Transport models of the In-Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. It contains the Data Flow Diagrams, Process Specifications, Data Structure Diagrams, and the Data Dictionary. 5 refs.

  7. Porcine sperm vitrification I: cryoloops method.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Miragaya, M H; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M C; Péndola, C H; Neild, D M

    2016-09-29

    The aims of this study were to evaluate porcine sperm vitrification in cryoloops, with and without two different cryoprotectants and assess two warming procedures. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) semen was diluted in media without and with cryoprotectants (4% dimethylformamide and 4% glycerol) to a final concentration of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa ml(-1) and vitrified using the cryoloops method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultra-rapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C). Total motility (phase contrast), sperm viability (6-carboxifluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide stain), membrane function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome integrity (phase contrast), chromatin condensation (toluidine blue stain) and chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation (acridine orange stain) were evaluated before and after vitrification and analysed using Friedman's test. In all media, the only seminal parameters that were maintained after vitrification were chromatin condensation and integrity. Vitrification of porcine spermatozoon using cryoloops, both in the presence or absence of cryoprotectants and independent of the warming procedure used, permits conservation of sperm chromatin condensation and integrity. It would be interesting to further verify this by producing porcine embryos using vitrified spermatozoon with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  8. The role of frit in nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Smith, P.A.; Dorn, D.A.; Hrma, P.

    1994-04-01

    Vitrification of nuclear waste requires additives which are often vitrified independently to form a frit. Frit composition is formulated to meet the needs of glass composition and processing. The effects of frit on melter feed and melt processing, glass acceptance, and waste loading is of practical interest in understanding the trade-offs associated with the competing demands placed on frit composition. Melter feed yield stress, viscosity and durability of frits and corresponding waste glasses as well as the kinetics of elementary melting processes have been measured. The results illustrate the competing requirements on frit. Four frits (FY91, FY93, HW39-4, and SR202) and simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) were used in this study. The experimental evidence shows that optimization of frit for one processing related property often results in poorer performance for the remaining properties. The difficulties associated with maximum waste loading and durability are elucidated for glasses which could be processed using technology available for the previously proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant.

  9. Radiological characterization of a vitrification facility for decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Asou, M.

    2007-07-01

    Cleanup operations in the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) will start in 2007. This plant includes 20 highly irradiating storage tanks for high-level liquid waste before vitrification. The objective of the cleanup phase is to significantly decrease the amount of highly radioactive waste resulting from dismantling. A comprehensive radiological survey of the plant was initiated in 2000. Most of the tanks were characterized using advanced technologies: gamma imaging, CdZnTe gamma spectroscopy, dose rate measurements and 3D calculations codes. At the same time, inspections were conducted to develop 3D geometrical models of the tanks. The techniques used and the main results obtained are described as well as lessons learned from these operations. The rinsing program was defined in 2006. Decontamination operations are expected to begin in 2007, and radiological surveys will be followed up to monitor the efficiency of the decontamination process. Specific rinsing of all tanks and equipment will be carried out from 2007 to 2009. Concentrated liquid solutions will be vitrified between 2008 and 2010; the decommissioning of AVM will be delayed until the end of 2010. This strategy aims at producing less than 5% 'B' type (long-lived intermediate-level) waste from the decommissioning operations, as well as reducing the dose rate and risks by simplified remote dismantling. The paper reviews the main options selected for decontamination, as well as the radiological characterization strategy. Some cost-related aspects will also be analyzed. (authors)

  10. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials.

  11. Underground tank vitrification: Engineering-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    Contamination associated with underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites and other sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes such as underground tanks into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian with crystalline phases. A radioactive engineering-scale test performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of using ISV for this application. A 30-cm-diameter (12-in.-diameter) buried steel and concrete tank containing simulated tank sludge was vitrified, producing a solid block. The tank sludge used in the test simulated materials in tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system. The steel tank was converted to ingots near the bottom of the block and the concrete walls were dissolved into the resulting glass and crystalline block. Although one of the four moving electrodes froze'' in place about halfway into the test, operations were able to continue. The test was successfully completed and all the tank sludge was vitrified. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. In situ vitrification of soil from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.E.; Buelt, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    Contamination associated with seepage basins and other underground structures at US Department of Energy sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. Two bench-scale tests performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of applying ISV to seepage basin soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The two tests were performed on soils spiked with heavy metal and organic contaminants as well as stable radioactive simulants. These soils contain extremely low concentrations of alkali fluxes such as sodium and potassium oxides, which are necessary charge carriers for the ISV process. Tests performed on the low flux-containing soil indicate the soil can be vitrified with special application of the ISV process. Tests showed the hazardous and radioactive simulants were successfully bound in the vitrified product and the organics were mostly destroyed. Additional larger scale testing and evaluation are recommended to further study the feasibility of treating contaminated SRS soil by the ISV process. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-04-04

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

  14. Vitrification of zebrafish embryo blastomeres in microvolumes.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Costa, J; García-Ximénez, F

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish embryos may play an important role in biodiversity preservation and in aquaculture, but it is very difficult. In addition, the cryopreservation of fish embryo blastomeres makes conservation strategies feasible when they are used in germ-line chimaerism, including interspecific chimaerism. Fish embryo blastomere cryopreservation has been achieved by equilibrium procedures, but to our knowledge, no data on vitrification procedures are available. In the present work, zebrafish embryo blastomeres were successfully vitrified in microvolumes: a number of 0.25 microl drops, sufficient to contain all the blastomeres of an embryo at blastula stage (from 1000-cell stage to oblong stage), were placed over a 2.5 cm loop of nylon filament. In this procedure, where intracellular cryoprotectant permeation is not required, blastomeres were exposed to cryoprotectants for a maximum of 25 sec prior vitrification. The assayed cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dimethyl sulphoxide, glycerol and methanol) are all frequently used in fish embryo and blastomere cryopreservation. Methanol was finally rejected because of the excessive concentration required for the vitrification (15M). All other cryoprotectants were prepared (individually) at 5 M in Hanks' buffered salt solution (sigma) plus 20% FBS (vitrification solutions: vs). After direct thawing in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20% FBS, acceptable survival rates were obtained with ethylene glycol: 82.8%, propylene glycol: 87.7%, dimethyl sulphoxide: 93.4%, and glycerol: 73.9% (p < 0.05). Dimethyl sulphoxide showed the highest blastomere survival rate and allowed the rescue of as much as 20% of the total blastomeres from each zebrafish blastula embryo.

  15. Crystallization and Vitrification in Cryoprotected Aqueous Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Kadiyala, D. R. MacFarlane, and C. A. Angell, Microemulsions : vitrification of simple liquids and electron microscope probing of droplet-packing modes." J...crystallization of a liquid or its binary solutions will occur at moderate cooling rates are discussed, with emphasis on the case of aqueous solutions. ThE...Lafayette, Indiana 47907 SUMMARY Some key ideas, and experimental findings concerning the probability that cry- stallization of a liquid or its binary

  16. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber.

  17. Porcine sperm vitrification II: Spheres method.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Miragaya, M H; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

    2016-11-10

    Owing to current problems in boar sperm cryopreservation, this study proposes to evaluate vitrification in spheres as an alternative cryopreservation procedure, comparing the use or not of permeable cryoprotectants and two warming methods. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) porcine spermatozoa were diluted in media, in the absence or presence of either 4% dimethylformamide or 4% glycerol, to a final concentration of 5 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml and vitrified using the spheres method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: a rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultrarapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C). Percentages of total motility (phase contrast), membrane function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome integrity (phase contrast), sperm viability (6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide stain), chromatin condensation (toluidine blue stain) and chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation (acridine orange stain) were evaluated in the samples before and after vitrification. Results, analysed using Friedman's test, suggest that rapid warming of raw porcine spermatozoa vitrified without permeable cryoprotectants may preserve DNA condensation and integrity better than the other processing methods studied in this work. Hence, porcine sperm vitrification using spheres could be used to produce embryos with ICSI to further validate this method.

  18. Technical baseline description for in situ vitrification laboratory test equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, K.V.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Watson, L.R.

    1991-09-01

    IN situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as possible waste treatment technology. ISV was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, Washington, as a thermal treatment process to treat contaminated soils in place. The process, which electrically melts and dissolves soils and associated inorganic materials, simultaneously destroys and/or removes organic contaminants while incorporating inorganic contaminants into a stable, glass-like residual product. This Technical Baseline Description has been prepared to provide high level descriptions of the design of the Laboratory Test model, including all design modifications and safety improvements made to data. Furthermore, the Technical Baseline Description provides a basic overview of the interface documents for configuration management, program management interfaces, safety, quality, and security requirements. 8 figs.

  19. Vitrification of ion-exchange (IEX) resins: Advantages and technical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the commercial sector to convert low-level radioactive ion exchange (IEX) resin wastes from the nuclear utilities to solid stabilized waste forms for permanent disposal. One of the alternative waste stabilization technologies is vitrification of the resin into glass. Wastes can be vitrified at elevated temperatures by thermal treatment. One alternative thermal treatment is conventional Joule heated melting. Vitrification of wastes into glass is an attractive option because it atomistically bonds both hazardous and radioactive species in the glass structure, and volume reduces the wastes by 70-80%. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs.

  20. Sensing with Advanced Computing Technology: Fin Field-Effect Transistors with High-k Gate Stack on Bulk Silicon.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Sara; Scarbolo, Paolo; Wipf, Mathias; Stoop, Ralph L; Bedner, Kristine; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Bazigos, Antonios; Bouvet, Didier; Calame, Michel; Schönenberger, Christian; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-05-26

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) form an established technology for sensing applications. However, recent advancements and use of high-performance multigate metal-oxide semiconductor FETs (double-gate, FinFET, trigate, gate-all-around) in computing technology, instead of bulk MOSFETs, raise new opportunities and questions about the most suitable device architectures for sensing integrated circuits. In this work, we propose pH and ion sensors exploiting FinFETs fabricated on bulk silicon by a fully CMOS compatible approach, as an alternative to the widely investigated silicon nanowires on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We also provide an analytical insight of the concept of sensitivity for the electronic integration of sensors. N-channel fully depleted FinFETs with critical dimensions on the order of 20 nm and HfO2 as a high-k gate insulator have been developed and characterized, showing excellent electrical properties, subthreshold swing, SS ∼ 70 mV/dec, and on-to-off current ratio, Ion/Ioff ∼ 10(6), at room temperature. The same FinFET architecture is validated as a highly sensitive, stable, and reproducible pH sensor. An intrinsic sensitivity close to the Nernst limit, S = 57 mV/pH, is achieved. The pH response in terms of output current reaches Sout = 60%. Long-term measurements have been performed over 4.5 days with a resulting drift in time δVth/δt = 0.10 mV/h. Finally, we show the capability to reproduce experimental data with an extended three-dimensional commercial finite element analysis simulator, in both dry and wet environments, which is useful for future advanced sensor design and optimization.

  1. Development of Vitrification Process and Glass Formulation for Nuclear Waste Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Petitjean, V.; Fillet, C.; Boen, R.; Veyer, C.; Flament, T.

    2002-02-26

    The vitrification of high-level waste is the internationally recognized standard to minimize the impact to the environment resulting from waste disposal as well as to minimize the volume of conditioned waste to be disposed of. COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level waste industrially for over 20 years and is currently operating three commercial vitrification facilities based on a hot metal crucible technology, with outstanding records of safety, reliability and product quality. To further increase the performance of vitrification facilities, CEA and COGEMA have been developing the cold crucible melter technology since the beginning of the 1980s. This type of melter is characterized by a virtually unlimited equipment service life and a great flexibility in dealing with various types of waste and allowing development of high temperature matrices. In complement of and in parallel with the vitrification process, a glass formulation methodology has been developed by the CEA in order to tailor matrices for the wastes to be conditioned while providing the best adaptation to the processing technology. The development of a glass formulation is a trade-off between material properties and qualities, technical feasibility, and disposal safety criteria. It involves non-radioactive and radioactive laboratories in order to achieve a comprehensive matrix qualification. Several glasses and glass ceramics have thus been studied by the CEA to be compliant with industrial needs and waste characteristics: glasses or other matrices for a large spectrum of fission products, or for high contents of specifics elements such as sodium, phosphate, iron, molybdenum, or actinides. New glasses or glass-ceramics designed to minimize the final wasteform volume for solutions produced during the reprocessing of high burnup fuels or to treat legacy wastes are now under development and take benefit from the latest CEA hot-laboratories and technology development. The paper presents the CEA state

  2. Aqueous dissolution of laboratory and field samples from the in-situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P. ); Bates, S.O. )

    1991-08-01

    In-situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated in several countries as a remediation technology for immobilizing both hazardous and radioactive buried wastes. A combination of laboratory data and modeling results are presented that establishes the scientific basis for predicting the long-term stability of an ISV glass in the environment. Laboratory experiments included tests with ISV samples obtained from pilot- and intermediate-scale field tests, a nuclear waste glass, and a natural obsidian. 8 refs.

  3. Programmatic challenges and the value of testing on the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560 thousand gallons) of high-level waste (HLW) which has resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Existing facilities` requirement of redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose are addressed. Vitrification technology and systems creation are presented.

  4. SRS vitrification studies in support of the U.S. program for disposition of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1995-09-01

    Many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the U.S. and Russian as a result of nuclear disarmament activities. These efforts are expected to produce a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition to this inventory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russian is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the U.S. and Russian present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a safe, durable, accountable and proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades to experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include mobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. An overall strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a consistent and common borosilicate glass composition for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.

  5. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr.

  6. Label-free characterization of vitrification-induced morphology changes in single-cell embryos with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnescu, Livia; Leung, Michael C.; Abeyta, Michael; Sudkamp, Helge; Baer, Thomas; Behr, Barry; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2015-09-01

    Vitrification is an increasingly popular method of embryo cryopreservation that is used in assisted reproductive technology. Although vitrification has high post-thaw survival rates compared to other freezing techniques, its long-term effects on embryo development are still poorly understood. We demonstrate an application of full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) to visualize the effects of vitrification on live single-cell (2 pronuclear) mouse embryos without harmful labels. Using FF-OCT, we observed that vitrification causes a significant increase in the aggregation of structures within the embryo cytoplasm, consistent with reports in literature based on fluorescence techniques. We quantify the degree of aggregation with an objective metric, the cytoplasmic aggregation (CA) score, and observe a high degree of correlation between the CA scores of FF-OCT images of embryos and of fluorescence images of their mitochondria. Our results indicate that FF-OCT shows promise as a label-free assessment of the effects of vitrification on embryo mitochondria distribution. The CA score provides a quantitative metric to describe the degree to which embryos have been affected by vitrification and could aid clinicians in selecting embryos for transfer.

  7. Cryopreservation: Vitrification and Controlled Rate Cooling.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the application of low temperatures to preserve the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. Conventional cooling protocols allow ice to form and solute concentrations to rise during the cryopreservation process. The damage caused by the rise in solute concentration can be mitigated by the use of compounds known as cryoprotectants. Such compounds protect cells from the consequences of slow cooling injury, allowing them to be cooled at cooling rates which avoid the lethal effects of intracellular ice. An alternative to conventional cooling is vitrification. Vitrification methods incorporate cryoprotectants at sufficiently high concentrations to prevent ice crystallization so that the system forms an amorphous glass thus avoiding the damaging effects caused by conventional slow cooling. However, vitrification too can impose damaging consequences on cells as the cryoprotectant concentrations required to vitrify cells at lower cooling rates are potentially, and often, harmful. While these concentrations can be lowered to nontoxic levels, if the cells are ultra-rapidly cooled, the resulting metastable system can lead to damage through devitrification and growth of ice during subsequent storage and rewarming if not appropriately handled.The commercial and clinical application of stem cells requires robust and reproducible cryopreservation protocols and appropriate long-term, low-temperature storage conditions to provide reliable master and working cell banks. Though current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) compliant methods for the derivation and banking of clinical grade pluripotent stem cells exist and stem cell lines suitable for clinical applications are available, current cryopreservation protocols, whether for vitrification or conventional slow freezing, remain suboptimal. Apart from the resultant loss of valuable product that suboptimal cryopreservation engenders, there is a danger that such processes will impose a selective

  8. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R.; Nunez, L.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Ritter, J.A.; Landsberger, S.

    1997-01-01

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeCrO{sub 4}, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  9. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, Dennis F.

    1997-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  10. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  11. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-09-02

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig.

  12. Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.

    PubMed

    Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

    2002-01-01

    Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery.

  13. Vitrification of human blastocysts: an update.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Transfer of blastocyst-stage embryos has been shown to increase pregnancy rates while allowing for improved selection of potentially viable embryos. At this late stage of development, lower numbers of embryos can be transferred, resulting in less high-order multiple pregnancies and increased implantation rates. Between January 2004 and February 2009, 8449 blastocysts from 2453 patients were vitrified. After 1398 vitrified embryo transfers (VET) of both day-5 and day-6 blastocysts with a mean patient age of 34.6 +/- 5.0 years, the study centre has seen a survival rate of 96.3% (2730/2835), an implantation rate of 29.4% and a clinical pregnancy rate per VET of 42.8% (599 pregnancies/1398 warmed embryo transfers). After more than 5 years of vitrifying blastocysts, the perinatal outcome was, from 348 deliveries with vitrified blastocysts, the births of 431 babies (202 boys and 229 girls). One of the benefits of blastocyst vitrification is that it can be undertaken on a more flexible basis by laboratory staff. Also, vitrification may allow individual blastocysts to be cryopreserved at their optimal stage of development and expansion.

  14. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed

  15. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  16. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mixed Waste Treatment Cost Analysis for a Range of GeoMelt Vitrification Process Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L. E.

    2002-02-27

    GeoMelt is a batch vitrification process used for contaminated site remediation and waste treatment. GeoMelt can be applied in several different configurations ranging from deep subsurface in situ treatment to aboveground batch plants. The process has been successfully used to treat a wide range of contaminated wastes and debris including: mixed low-level radioactive wastes; mixed transuranic wastes; polychlorinated biphenyls; pesticides; dioxins; and a range of heavy metals. Hypothetical cost estimates for the treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste were prepared for the GeoMelt subsurface planar and in-container vitrification methods. The subsurface planar method involves in situ treatment and the in-container vitrification method involves treatment in an aboveground batch plant. The projected costs for the subsurface planar method range from $355-$461 per ton. These costs equate to 18-20 cents per pound. The projected cost for the in-container method is $1585 per ton. This cost equates to 80 cents per pound. These treatment costs are ten or more times lower than the treatment costs for alternative mixed waste treatment technologies according to a 1996 study by the US Department of Energy.

  18. [Oocyte vitrification and its impact on the clinical practice of assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    Boyer, P; Tourame, P; Gervoise-Boyer, M

    2012-11-01

    Oocyte vitrification is a new technique in cryobiology that will lead to a number of improvements in assisted reproduction practices, oocyte donation and the preservation of female fertility. Professionals already versed in the techniques of micromanipulation will be able to master the new procedures, which should not be delegated to unqualified staff. When adopted by clinical units, oocyte vitrification will require changes in laboratory and administrative organization. The technique will also modify the ethical outlines of reproductive biology. France today is running behind in the application of this major development in cryobiology. The reasons are many and have to do with a long waiting period for authorization from national health authorities, a lack of material and human resources and a foreseeable shake-up in the nationally established egg donation program. However, recently a new law of bioethics has recognized the breakthrough that this new technique represents by allowing couples covered by the French national health care program for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to choose oocyte vitrification as an option.

  19. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  20. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  1. Transportable vitrification system pilot demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge WETF sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation West End Treatment Facility (WETF) sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVitCo melter at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department (ESED) Vitrification Facility. Although much smaller than the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) melter, this melter is similar in design to the one in the TVS. The TVS was built by EnVitCo for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the treatment of low level and mixed wastes. A total of three tests were done by ESED personnel with guidance from SRTC TVS personnel. The purpose of these tests was to determine what problems might occur during the vitrification of WETF sludge feed in the TVS. The demonstration was successfully completed and the glasses produced passed the TCLP tests for all the hazardous waste components (Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni). An overview of these tests and experimental results on glass container testing, glass pouring, glass product characterization, electrode and refractory wear, and offgas composition and particulate measurements will be given.

  2. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  3. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.; Bostick, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915-MHz, 75-kW microwave vitrification system or ``microwave melter`` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  4. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaick, C.R.; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of DOE radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915 MHz, 75 kW microwave vitrification system or `microwave melter` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  5. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  6. Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.

  7. Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Buelt, James L.; Oma, Kenton H.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for decontaminating ground areas where toxic chemicals are buried includes a plurality of spaced electrodes located in the ground and to which a voltage is applied for bringing about current flow. Power delivered to the ground volatilizes the chemicals that are then collected and directed to a gas treatment system. A preferred form of the invention employs high voltage arc discharge between the electrodes for heating a ground region to relatively high temperatures at relatively low power levels. Electrodes according to the present invention are provided with preferentially active lower portions between which current flows for the purpose of soil heating or for soil melting and vitrification. Promoting current flow below ground level avoids predominantly superficial treatment and increases electrode life.

  8. Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.; Eschbach, E.A.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus for decontaminating ground areas where toxic chemicals are buried includes a plurality of spaced electrodes located in the ground and to which a voltage is applied for bringing about current flow. Power delivered to the ground volatilizes the chemicals that are then collected and directed to a gas treatment system. A preferred form of the invention employs high voltage arc discharge between the electrodes for heating a ground region to relatively high temperatures at relatively low power levels. Electrodes according to the present invention are provided with preferentially active lower portions between which current flows for the purpose of soil heating or for soil melting and vitrification. Promoting current flow below ground level avoids predominantly superficial treatment and increases electrode life. 15 figs.

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

  10. Metal mesh vitrification (MMV) method for cryopreservation of porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Y; Kojima, T; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kikuchi, K; Funahashi, H

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to develop a simpler, more reliable vitrification method for porcine embryos. Prepubertal donor gilts were induced to ovulate with eCG and hCG, and then inseminated artificially. Morulae and expanding blastocysts approximately 200 microm in diameter were collected 6 or 7d after hCG treatment. Embryos collected from donor gilts were maintained, so as to be individually recognizable, and handled in batches of four or five. The embryos together with a minimum volume (<2 microL) of vitrification solution were placed onto stainless steel metal meshes or plastic plates, and then plunged into liquid nitrogen-metal mesh vitrification (MMV) and plastic plate vitrification (PPV), respectively. The meshes or plates were stored in 1.8-mL cryotubes submerged in liquid nitrogen. Stored embryos were subsequently removed, cultured in medium for 24 h, and then assessed for viability. The survival rate (84.4%) of expanding blastocysts cooled by MMV was higher than that (53.1%) of embryos cooled by PPV (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in total cell number between MMV and PPV. The survival rate of morulae cooled by MMV was 55.0%. Transfer of 200 expanding blastocysts cooled by MMV to 10 synchronized recipient gilts resulted in 37 live piglets from 7 recipients. In conclusion, the MMV method was an effective vitrification procedure for cryopreservation of expanding porcine blastocysts. However, there was a batch effect on embryo survival after vitrification.

  11. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  12. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  13. [Contribution of embryo vitrification procedure to ART efficiency].

    PubMed

    Sifer, C

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to show, from data available in the literature and our own experience, how embryos' vitrification change and/or improve the management of infertile couples. In all, 652 cycles of frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FET) following vitrification were prospectively included and compared with 1126 FETs from slow freezing (SF) method. Primary end points were the (i) survival rate (SR) (% of embryos with>50% post-thaw intact blastomeres) and (ii) intact survival rate (ISR) (% of embryos with 100% post-thaw intact blastomeres). Secondary end point was the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) defined as the presence of an intra uterine gestational sac with positive foetal heart beat. In all, 1097 and 2408 embryos have been thawed following vitrification and SF, respectively. We observed a highly significant increase of SR and ISR respectively when thawing concerned vitrified embryos rather than those from SF method (97.0% vs. 72.7%, P<10(-4); 91.5% vs. 49.8%, P<10(-4)). Furthermore, CPR were of 26.5% (73/652) and of 18.1% (204/1126) following FETs performed after vitrification or SF and thawing (P=0.0002), respectively. At the blastocyst stage, ISR was significantly improved following vitrification compared to SF (94.5% vs. 21.4%, P<10(-4)). In the study period, vitrification (i) reduced the mean number of fresh transferred embryos (1.5 vs. 1.6; P=0.08) and (ii) increased the rate of FETs at the blastocyst stage when compared with the control period (18.1% vs 2.5%., P<10(-4)). Embryo vitrification preserves all embryos from an ART cycle because of its excellent results regarding ISR at all stages of embryo development. This procedure allows a significant increase of pregnancy rates after thawing. In addition, there is a trend for increasing ART cycles performed using extended culture embryo and vitrification. The expected improvement of the cumulative birth rate at the blastocyst stage following vitrification remains to be demonstrated in a prospective randomized study.

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-26

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility`s (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid.

  15. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  16. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  17. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  18. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.; Lucerna, J.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development.

  19. Development of a combined soil-wash/in-furnace vitrification system for soil remediation at DOE sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, I.L.; Guo, Y.; Lahoda, E.J.; Lai, Shan-Tao; Muller, I.S.; Ruller, J.; Grant, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report addresses research and development of technologies for treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. Weldon Spring raffinate sludges were used in a direct vitrification study to investigate their use as fluxing agents in glass formulations when blended with site soil. Storm sewer sediments from the Oak Ridge, TN, Y-12 facility were used for soil washing followed by vitrification of the concentrates. Both waste streams were extensively characterized. Testing showed that both mercury and uranium could be removed from the Y-12 soil by chemical extraction resulting in an 80% volume reduction. Thermal desorption was used on the contaminant-enriched minority fraction to separate the mercury from the uranium. Vitrification tests demonstrated that high waste loading glasses could be produced from the radioactive stream and from the Weldon Spring wastes which showed very good leach resistance, and viscosities and electrical conductivities in the range suitable for joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) processing. The conceptual process described combines soil washing, thermal desorption, and vitrification to produce clean soil (about 90% of the input waste stream), non-radioactive mercury, and a glass wasteform; the estimated processing costs for that system are about $260--$400/yd{sup 3}. Results from continuous melter tests performed using Duratek`s advanced JHCM (Duramelter) system are also presented. Since life cycle cost estimates are driven largely by volume reduction considerations, the large volume reductions possible with these multi-technology, blended waste stream approaches can produce a more leach resistant wasteform at a lower overall cost than alternative technologies such as cementation.

  20. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  1. Gas evolution during vitrification of sodium sulfate and silica

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J.; Rosine, S.D. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the operation of an apparatus designed to identify species evolved during vitrification of hazardous waste materials and to measure the temperatures at which they are evolved. To demonstrate the utility of the apparatus for designing off-gas systems, the authors present the results of heating various sulfates alone and in the presence of silica. During vitrification, the decomposition behavior of some waste components will be affected by the chemical composition of the melt. For example, they found that when silica is present during heating, SO{sub x} gases are evolved at lower temperatures than when pure sodium sulfate is heated. Such analyses will be important in the design of off-gas units for waste vitrification systems.

  2. The West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification system operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    A full-sized, integrated vitrification system is being tested at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to establish its operational characteristics that will allow a quality, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass product to be consistently produced. Recently, this nonradioactive verification testing has emphasized (a) ensuring flow sheet and feed makeup chemistry that enables well-balanced melter performance, (b) achieving design basis melter throughput rates at steady-state operating conditions, and (c) demonstrating that the release limit of NO{sub x} is met by the vitrification off-gas system. The West Valley vitrification process testing is rapidly converging to demonstrate that the acceptance specification in the glass product and the environmental requirements on the off-gas will indeed be met, thereby providing the basis for approval to begin radioactive operations in 1992.

  3. Analysis of results from the operation of a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification unit for optimizing its performance.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Xydis, G; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K-J; Loizidou, M

    2008-03-01

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is an innovative and environmentally friendly method of waste treatment. A demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification unit was developed and installed in Viotia region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in dealing with hazardous waste. The preliminary results from the trial runs of the plasma unit, as well as the study of the influence of certain parameters in the system performance are presented and analyzed in this paper, contributing to the improvement of the operation performance. Finally, data on the final air emissions and the vitrified ash toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results are provided in order to assess the environmental performance of the system. The produced slag was found to be characterized by extremely low leaching properties and can be utilized as construction material, while the values of the polluting parameters of the air emissions were satisfactory.

  4. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  5. Recovery of valuable metals from electroplating sludge with reducing additives via vitrification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruth; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Zih-Yi; Wang, Jian-Wen; Lin, Chitsan; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-11-15

    In this study, vitrification was applied to treat Ni-Cu electroplating sludge. The sludge was mixed with additives (limestone:cullet = 4:6) and then heated to 1450 °C. The cooled product could be separated into slag and ingot. An atomic absorption spectrometer was used to determine the metal levels of specimens and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests, whereas the crystalline and surface characteristics were examined using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. With a glassy structure, the slag was mainly composed of Ca, Si, and Mg. The TCLP results of slags met the Taiwan regulated standards, suggesting that slag can be used for recycling purposes. With the aid of additives, the crystalline phase of slag was transformed form CaMgSiO4 into CsSiO3. The ingots were mainly composed of Ni (563,000-693,800 mg/kg), Cu (79,900-87,400 mg/kg), and Fe (35,000-43,600 mg/kg) (target metals) due the gravity separation during vitrification. At appropriate additives/sludge ratios (>0.2), >95% of target metals gathered in the ingot as a recoverable form (Ni-Fe alloy). The high Ni level of slag suggests that the ingot can be used as the raw materials for smelters or the additives for steel making. Therefore, the vitrification approach of this study is a promising technology to recover valuable metals from Ni-Cu electroplating sludge.

  6. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  7. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, Jr., Thomas N.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  8. Rocky Flats Plant precipitate sludge surrogate vitrification demonstration. Technical Task Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-06-17

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. The preferred disposal method would be one that is capable of consistently producing a durable leach resistant wasteform, while simultaneously minimizing disposal volumes. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment.

  9. Effect of geometric curvature on vitrification behavior for polymer nanotubes confined in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiao; Li, Linling; Zhou, Dongshan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Gi

    2015-09-01

    The glass transition behavior of polystyrene (PS) nanotubes confined in cylindrical alumina nanopores was studied as a function of pore diameter (d ) and polymer tube thickness (δ). Both the calorimetric glass transition temperature and the microstructure measured by a nonradiative energy transfer method indicated that the polymer nanotube, or concave polymer thin film, exhibited significant differences in vitrification behavior compared to the planar one. A closer interchain proximity and an increased Tg were observed for polymer nanotubes with respect to the bulk polymer. Tg for polymer nanotubes was primarily dependent on the curvature radius d of the template, while it was less dependent on the thickness δ of the PS tube wall in the range of 11-23 nm. For small nanotubes (d =55 nm ) , the Tg increased as high as 18 °C above the bulk value. This vitrified property reverted back to the bulk value when the substrate was chemically removed, which indicated the crucial importance of the interfacial effect imposed by the hard wall with a concave geometry.

  10. Vitrification of caudal fin explants from zebrafish adult specimens.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Costa, J; Roig, J; Perez-Camps, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2006-01-01

    No data on vitrification of tissue samples are available in fishes. Three vitrification solutions were compared: V1: 20% ethylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide; V2: 25% propylene glycol and 20% dimethyl sulphoxide, and; V3: 20% propylene glycol and 13% methanol, all three prepared in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20 percent FBS, following the same one step vitrification procedure developed in mammals. Caudal fin tissue pieces were vitrified into 0.25 ml plastic straws in 30s and stored in liquid nitrogen for 3 days minimum, warmed (10s in nitrogen vapour and 5s in a 25 degree C water bath) and cultured (L-15 plus 20% FBS at 28.5 degree C). At the third day of culture, both attachment and outgrowing rates were recorded. V3 led to the worst results (8% of attachment rate). V1 and V2 allow higher attachment rates (V1: 63% vs V2: 50%. P < 0.05) but not significantly different outgrowing rates (83% to 94%). Vitrification of caudal fin pieces is advantageous in fish biodiversity conservation, particularly in the wild, due to the simplicity of procedure and equipment.

  11. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  12. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  13. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    . The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  14. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  15. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  16. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  17. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  18. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  19. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  20. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1998-07-07

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings, designated as K-65 wastes, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The glass formula developed in this study for the FEMP wastes is a lithia substituted soda-lime-lithia-silica (SLLS) composition which melts at 1050 degrees Celsius. Low melting formulations minimize volatilization of hazardous species such as arsenic, selenium, chromium, and lead during vitrification. Formulation in the SLLS system avoids problematic phase separation known to occur in the MO-B2O3-SiO2 glass forming system (where MO = CaO, MgO, BaO, and PbO which are all constituents of the FEMP wastes). The SLLS glass passed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) for all the hazardous constituents of concern under the current regulations. The SLLS glass is as durable as the high melting soda-lime-silica glasses and is more durable than the borosilicate glasses previously developed for the K-65 wastes. Optimization of glass formulations in the SLLS glass forming system should provide glasses which will pass the newly promulgated Universal Treatment Standards which take effect of August 28, 1998.

  1. Melter Technologies Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M. Jr.; Schumacher, R.F.; Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    The problem of controlling and disposing of surplus fissile material, in particular plutonium, is being addressed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Immobilization of plutonium by vitrification has been identified as a promising solution. The Melter Evaluation Activity of DOE`s Plutonium Immobilization Task is responsible for evaluating and selecting the preferred melter technologies for vitrification for each of three immobilization options: Greenfield Facility, Adjunct Melter Facility, and Can-In-Canister. A significant number of melter technologies are available for evaluation as a result of vitrification research and development throughout the international communities for over 20 years. This paper describes an evaluation process which will establish the specific requirements of performance against which candidate melter technologies can be carefully evaluated. Melter technologies that have been identified are also described.

  2. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  3. Vitrification demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation K-25 B and C pond sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Overcamp, T.J.; Erich, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 B&C Pond sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVit Co melter operated by Clemson University at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research Center. This demonstration was performed for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in support of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan. The intent of the demonstration was to determine the feasibility of vitrifying actual K-25 B&C Pond sludge in an EnVitCo type melter. B&C Pond sludge is a mixed waste consisting primarily of various amounts of Ca, Fe, and Si, with Ni and U as the principal hazardous and radioactive components. The demonstration was successfully completed and homogeneous, durable glass was produced. Characterization of the glass product, as well as details of the demonstration, will be discussed.

  4. Process Control for Simultaneous Vitrification of Two Mixed Waste Streams in the Transportable Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Brown, K.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.

    1998-05-01

    Two highly variable mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste sludges were simultaneously vitrified in an EnVitCo Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) deployed at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The TVS was the result of a cooperative effort between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and EnVitCo to design and build a transportable melter capable of vitrifying a variety of mixed low level wastes.The two waste streams for the demonstration were the dried B and C Pond sludges at the K-25 site and waste water sludge produced in the Central Neutralization Facility from treatment of incinerator blowdown. Large variations occurred in the sodium, calcium, silicon, phosphorus, fluorine and iron content of the co- blended waste sludges: these elements have a significant effect on the process ability and performance of the final glass product. The waste sludges were highly reduced due to organics added during processing, coal-pile runoff (coal and sulfides), and other organics, including wood chips. A batch-by-batch process control model was developed to control glass viscosity, liquidus, and reduction/oxidation, assuming that the melter behaved as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor.

  5. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  6. Americium/Curium Vitrification Pilot Tests - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Baich, M.A.; Fellinger, A.P.; Hardy, B.J.; Herman, D.T.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T. K.; Stone, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. A previous paper described operation results from the Am-Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non-radioactive pilot facility. This paper presents the results from continued testing in the Pilot Facility and also describes efforts taken to look at alternative vitrification process operations and flowsheets designed to address the problems observed during melter 2A pilot testing.

  7. A PIXE study of vitrification of carnation in vitro culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. Y.; Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Chang, C. H.; Yang, Y. C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1996-04-01

    PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) is a well-known method for elemental analyses of specimens in applied studies. In this paper, we report results of an application of PIXE in trace-element analysis of normal and vitrified carnations in vitro culture. Experiments were performed to study the vitrification in connection with the trace elements in carnation tissues. About two hundred PIXE spectra were obtained from seventy samples with an irradiation of 3 MeV protons from the NEC 9SDH-2 Pelletron tandem accelerator. From the PIXE analysis we determined the trace element composition of normal and vitrified carnations. Our results indicate that there is a significant change of K, Ca, Fe and Zn contents in the vitrification process.

  8. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  9. The role of troublesome components in plutonium vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong; Vienna, J.D.; Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    One option for immobilizing surplus plutonium is vitrification in a borosilicate glass. Two advantages of the glass form are (1) high tolerance to feed variability and, (2) high solubility of some impurity components. The types of plutonium-containing materials in the United States inventory include: pits, metals, oxides, residues, scrap, compounds, and fuel. Many of them also contain high concentrations of carbon, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide. To vitrify plutonium-containing scrap and residues, it is critical to understand the impact of each component on glass processing and chemical durability of the final product. This paper addresses glass processing issues associated with these troublesome components. It covers solubility limits of chlorine, fluorine, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide in several borosilicate based glasses, and the effect of each component on vitrification (volatility, phase segregation, crystallization, and melt viscosity). Techniques (formulation, pretreatment, removal, and/or dilution) to mitigate the effect of these troublesome components are suggested.

  10. Comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing for cryopreservation of caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Lemos, Paula F B; Freitas Neto, Leopoldo M; Moura, Marcelo T; Melo, Janaína V; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-08-01

    The experiment aimed to compare conventional freezing and different vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of caprine embryos at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. Caprine embryos produced in vivo were allocated randomly to three groups: (1) conventional freezing with ethylene glycol (EG); (2) dimethyl sulfoxide + EG (DMSO/EG) vitrification; and (3) dimethylformamide + EG (DMF/EG) vitrification. All groups were scored for cell viability (propidium iodide staining and ultrastructural levels) and re-expansion rate after thawing or warming. Embryos subjected to DMSO/EG vitrification showed higher cell viability (73.33%), compared with DMF/EG vitrification and conventional freezing group embryos (40.00 and 66.66%, respectively). The ultrastructural study revealed that vitrified embryos had greater preservation of cellular structure than embryos from conventional freezing with EG. DMSO/EG vitrification resulted in higher rates of re-expansion in vitro (47.36%) than DMF/EG vitrification (31.58%), and conventional freezing (25.00%). In conclusion, caprine embryos produced in vivo are better cryopreserved after vitrification than conventional freezing, therefore we conclude that DMSO/EG vitrification is the most effective protocol for cryopreservation.

  11. Scaling considerations for modeling the in situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Langerman, M.A.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1990-09-01

    Scaling relationships for modeling the in situ vitrification waste remediation process are documented based upon similarity considerations derived from fundamental principles. Requirements for maintaining temperature and electric potential field similarity between the model and the prototype are determined as well as requirements for maintaining similarity in off-gas generation rates. A scaling rationale for designing reduced-scale experiments is presented and the results are assessed numerically. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Design, operation, and evaluation of the transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Hansen, E.K.; Whitehouse, J.C.

    1997-02-20

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a transportable melter system designed to demonstrate the treatment of low-level and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes such as wastewater treatment sludges, contaminated soils and incinerator ash. The TVS is a large-scale, fully integrated vitrification system consisting of melter feed preparation, melter, offgas, service, and control modules. The TVS was tested with surrogate waste at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department`s (ESED) DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research prior to being shipped to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 site for treatment of mixed waste. This testing, along with additional testing at ORR, proved that the TVS would be able to successfully treat mixed waste. These surrogate tests consistently produced glass that met the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Performance of the system resulted in acceptable emissions of regulated metals from the offgas system. The TVS is scheduled to begin mixed waste operations at ORR in June 1997.

  13. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

  14. Integration of pneumatic fracturing and in situ vitrification in the soil subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Seiler, D.K.; Schuring, J.R.

    1995-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is evaluating ways to increase the applicability of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process at hazardous and radioactive waste sites. One innovation is the placement of a conductive material that will facilitate initiating the ISV process at a target depth. A series of laboratory tests performed at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) assessed the feasibility of pneumatic fracturing (PF) in the highly permeable soils of the Hanford Site. The NJIT tests included an analysis of Hanford soils, a series of PF injection tests, and a parametric analysis to determine how soil properties affect the PF process. Results suggest that the PF process can be applied to Hanford soils and that dry medium (e.g., conductive material such as graphite flake) can be injected into the fracture. This paper describes the laboratory testing performed at NJIT, its results, and the application of those results to plans for a field demonstration at Hanford.

  15. Test plan for BWID Phase 2 electric arc melter vitrification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Turner, P.C.; Oden, L.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), Phase 2, electric arc melter, waste treatment evaluation tests to be performed at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Albany Research Center. The BWID Arc Melter Vitrification Project is being conducted to evaluate and demonstrate existing industrial arc melter technology for thermally treating mixed transuranic-contaminated wastes and soils. Phase 1 baseline tests, performed during fiscal year 1993 at the USBM, were conducted on waste feeds representing incinerated buried mixed wastes and soils. In Phase 2, surrogate feeds will be processed that represent actual as-retrieved buried wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  16. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the In Situ Vitrification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focuses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results.

  18. The Efforts to Utilize High-Temperature Melting Technologies for ILLW and the Development of Guidelines for their Technical Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Seo, Y. C.; Jeong, C. W.; Park, W. J.

    2003-02-25

    A couple of domestic institutions have been investigating the application of vitrification technology to treat low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Korea. In the case that such investigations prove to be successful, it is expected that commercial vitrification plants will be constructed. The safety insuring on vitrification plants could not be compatible with criterion on radioactive waste management because the facilities are at high temperature and contain a variety of accommodations for the exhaust gases and residual products. Therefore, it is necessary to suggest a new strategy or modifications of criterion of radioactive waste management on considerations related with the vitrification technology. In order to ensure the safety of vitrification plants, a technical guideline or standard for design and operation of vitrification plants must be established too. A study on the safety assessment of vitrification plants in consideration with general items as an industrial facility, safety and technical requirements as a nuclear facility is needed to be ready before using and permitting them. Also, the stability of vitrified waste forms produced by vitrification plants must be analyzed to ensure their acceptance in final repositories, which includes chemical durability as one of the main considerable items. This paper introduces the status on the utilization of vitrification technology for treating LILW and efforts to develop technical guides with basic study results on chemical durability of forms.

  19. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Techology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Kirkham, Robert John; Losinski, Sylvester John

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  20. Behavior of mercury and iodine during vitrification of simulated alkaline Purex waste

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    Current plans indicate that the high-level wastes stored at the Savannah River Plant will be solidified by vitrification. The behavior of mercury and iodine during the vitrification process is of concern because: mercury is present in the waste in high concentrations (0.1 to 2.8 wt%); mercury will react with iodine and the other halogens present in the waste during vitrification and; the mercury compounds formed will be volatilized from the vitrification process placing a high particulate load in the vitrification system off-gas. Twelve experiments were completed to study the behavior of mercury during vitrification of simulated SRP Purex waste. The mercury was completely volatized from the vitrification system in all experiments. The mercury reacted with iodine, chlorine and oxygen to form a fine particulate solid. Quantitative recovery of mercury compounds formed in the vitrification system off-gas was not possible due to high (37 to 90%) deposition of solids in the off-gas piping. The behavior of mercury and iodine was most strongly influenced by the vitrification system atmosphere. During experiments performed in which the oxygen content of the vitrification system atmosphere was low (< 1 vol%); iodine retention in the glass product was 27 to 55%, the mercury composition of the solids recovered from the off-gas scrub solutions was 75 to 85 wt%, and a small quantity of metallic mercury was recovered from the off-gas scrub solution. During experiments performed in which the oxygen content of the vitrification system atmosphere was high (20 vol%), iodide retention in the glass product was 3 to 15%, the mercury composition of the solids recovered from the off-gas scrub solutions was 60 to 80 wt%, and very little metallic mercury was recovered from the off-gas scrub solution.

  1. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    PubMed

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared.

  2. Some emerging principles underlying the physical properties, biological actions, and utility of vitrification solutions.

    PubMed

    Fahy, G M; Levy, D I; Ali, S E

    1987-06-01

    Vitrification solutions are aqueous cryoprotectant solutions which do not freeze when cooled at moderate rates to very low temperatures. Vitrification solutions have been used with great success for the cryopreservation of some biological systems but have been less successful or unsuccessful with other systems, and more fundamental knowledge about vitrification solutions is required. The purpose of the present survey is to show that a general understanding of the physical behavior and biological effects of vitrification solutions, as well as an understanding of the conditions under which vitrification solutions are required, is gradually emerging. Detailed nonequilibrium phase diagram information in combination with specific information on the tolerance of biological systems to ice and to cryoprotectant at subzero temperatures provides a quantitative theoretical basis for choosing between vitrification and freezing. The vitrification behavior of mixtures of cryoprotective agents during cooling is predictable from the behavior of the individual agents, and the behavior of individual agents is gradually becoming predictable from the details of their molecular structures. Progress is continuing concerning the elucidation of mechanisms and cellular sites of toxicity and mechanisms for the reduction of toxicity. Finally, important new information is rapidly emerging concerning the crystallization of previously vitrified cryoprotectant solutions during warming. It appears that vitrification tendency, toxicity, and devitrification all depend on subtle variations in the organization of water around dissolved substances.

  3. Method for initiating in-situ vitrification using an impregnated cord

    DOEpatents

    Carter, John G.

    1991-01-01

    In-situ vitrification of soil is initiated by placing a cord of dielectric material impregnated with conductive material in thermally-conductive contact with the soil, and energizing the cord with an electric current for heating the cord and starting the vitrification process.

  4. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  5. Method for initiating in-situ vitrification using an impregnated cord

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.G.

    1991-04-02

    In-situ vitrification of soil is initiated by placing a cord of dielectric material impregnated with conductive material in thermally-conductive contact with the soil, and energizing the cord with an electric current for heating the cord and starting the vitrification process. 1 figure.

  6. Property evolution during vitrification of dimethacrylate photopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Elenain, Dalia; Lewis, Steven H.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study seeks to correlate the interrelated properties of conversion, shrinkage, modulus and stress as dimethacrylate networks transition from rubbery to glassy states during photopolymerization. Methods An unfilled BisGMA/TEGDMA resin was photocured for various irradiation intervals (7–600 s) to provide controlled levels of immediate conversion, which was monitored continuously for 10 min. Fiber optic near-infrared spectroscopy permitted coupling of real-time conversion measurement with dynamic polymerization shrinkage (linometer), modulus (dynamic mechanical analyzer) and stress (tensometer) development profiles. Results The varied irradiation conditions produced final conversion ranging from 6 % to more than 60 %. Post-irradiation conversion (dark cure) was quite limited when photopolymerization was interrupted either at very low or very high levels of conversion while significant dark cure contributions were possible for photocuring reactions suspended within the post-gel, rubbery regime. Analysis of conversion-based property evolution during and subsequent to photocuring demonstrated that the shrinkage rate increased significantly at about 40 % conversion followed by late-stage suppression in the conversion-dependent shrinkage rate that begins at about 45–50 % conversion. The gradual vitrification process over this conversion range is evident based on the broad but well-defined inflection in the modulus versus conversion data. As limiting conversion is approached, modulus and, to a somewhat lesser extent, stress rise precipitously as a result of vitrification with the stress profile showing little if any late-stage suppression as seen with shrinkage. Significance Near the limiting conversion for this model resin, the volumetric polymerization shrinkage rate slows while an exponential rise in modulus promotes the vitrification process that appears to largely dictate stress development. PMID:24080378

  7. Successful vitrification of bovine blastocysts on paper container.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y M; Uhm, S J; Gupta, M K; Yang, J S; Lim, J-G; Das, Z C; Heo, Y T; Chung, H-J; Kong, I-K; Kim, N-H; Lee, H T; Ko, D H

    2012-09-15

    Cryopreservation of bovine embryos can be performed by a variety of methods with variable degree of success. Here, we report a new, easy to perform, simple, inexpensive, and successful method for vitrification of bovine blastocysts. In vitro produced bovine blastocysts were exposed to vitrification solution (5.5 m ethylene glycol, 10% serum and 1% sucrose) in one single step for 20 s, loaded on a paper container prepared from commonly available non-slippery, absorbent writing paper, and then were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen for storage. Vitrified blastocysts were warmed by serial rinsing in 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 m sucrose solution for 1 min each. Results showed that one step exposure of bovine blastocysts to cryoprotective agents was sufficient to achieve successful cryopreservation. Under these conditions, more than 95% of blastocysts survived the vitrification-warming on paper containers which was significantly higher than those obtained from other containers, such as electron microscope (EM) grid (78.1%), open pulled straw (OPS; 80.2%), cryoloop (76.2%) or plastic straw (73.9%). Embryo transfer of blastocysts vitrified-warmed on paper container resulted in successful conception (19.3%) and full-term live birth of offspring (12.3%) which were lower (P < 0.05) than those obtained from non-vitrified blastocysts (38.0 and 32.7%) but were comparable (P > 0.05) to those obtained from blastocysts vitrified-warmed on EM grid (23.3 and 14.2%). Our results, therefore, suggest that paper may be an inexpensive and useful container for the cryopreservation of animal embryos.

  8. Biophysical Characteristics of Successful Oilseed Embryo Cryoprotection and Cryopreservation Using Vacuum Infiltration Vitrification: An Innovation in Plant Cell Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajan, Jayanthi; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in morphology, physiology and cellular chemistry of plant tissues can compromise successful cryoprotection and cryopreservation. Cryoprotection is a function of exposure time × temperature × permeability for the chosen protectant and diffusion pathway length, as determined by specimen geometry, to provide sufficient dehydration whilst avoiding excessive chemical toxicity. We have developed an innovative method of vacuum infiltration vitrification (VIV) at 381 mm (15 in) Hg (50 kPa) that ensures the rapid (5 min), uniform permeation of Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) cryoprotectant into plant embryos and their successful cryopreservation, as judged by regrowth in vitro. This method was validated on zygotic embryos/embryonic axes of three species (Carica papaya, Passiflora edulis and Laurus nobilis) up to 1.6 mg dry mass and 5.6 mm in length, with varying physiology (desiccation tolerances) and 80°C variation in lipid thermal profiles, i.e., visco-elasticity properties, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Comparisons between the melting features of cryoprotected embryos and embryo regrowth indicated an optimal internal PVS2 concentration of about 60% of full strength. The physiological vigour of surviving embryos was directly related to the proportion of survivors. Compared with conventional vitrification, VIV-cryopreservation offered a ∼ 10-fold reduction in PVS2 exposure times, higher embryo viability and regrowth and greater effectiveness at two pre-treatment temperatures (0°C and 25°C). VIV-cryopreservation may form the basis of a generic, high throughput technology for the ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources, aiding food security and protection of species from diverse habitats and at risk of extinction. PMID:24788797

  9. Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-10-05

    This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

  10. Fully front-side bulk-micromachined single-chip micro flow sensors for bare-chip SMT (surface mounting technology) packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiedan; Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports novel single-wafer-based piezoresistive micro flow sensors, which are bulk micromachined only from the front side of the silicon wafer to facilitate the sensor-bare chips directly packaged into micro-fluidic systems with low-cost surface mounting technology (SMT). With neither double-sided micromachining nor multiwafer bonding needed, two structural types of the piezoresistive flow sensors are designed and fabricated in (1 1 1) wafers, where ‘type A’ sensor has a smaller channel cross section area compared to ‘type B’ sensor. After the bare sensor chip directly attached on a printed circuit board (PCB), wire bonded between the pads and the PCB for electric interconnection and the inlet/outlet front side connected, deionized water is flowed into the both types of flow sensors to characterize piezoresistive output of the differential pressure sensing elements in terms of the flow rate. For ‘type A’ and ‘type B’ sensors that are both power supplied with DC 5 V, the sensitivities are sequentially measured as 766.80 mV (µL s-1)-1 and 19.12 mV (µL s-1)-1, with the nonlinearities as 0.4% FS and 0.9% FS, respectively. Compared with traditionally fabricated micro flow sensors, the single-chip fabricated differential-pressure flow sensors can be low-cost volume manufactured. Moreover, the bare sensor chips can be simply SMT packaged for low-cost micro-system applications.

  11. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  12. Stabilization of biothreat diagnostic samples through vitrification matrices.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy Devin; Kalina, Warren Vincent; Coyne, Susan Rajnik

    2014-06-01

    Diagnostics for biothreat agents require sample shipment to reference labs for diagnosis of disease; however high/fluctuating temperatures during sample transport negatively affect sample quality and results. Vitrification additives preserve sample integrity for molecular-based assay diagnostics in the absence of refrigeration by imparting whole molecule stability to a plethora of environmental insults. Therefore, we have evaluated commercially available vitrification matrices' (Biomatrica's CloneStable® and RNAStable®) ability to stabilize samples of Yersinia pestis and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. When heated to 95°C in RNAStable®, Y. pestis had a 13-fold improvement in detection via real-time PCR compared to heated samples in buffer. VEEV, in RNAStable® at 55°C, had a ~10-fold improved detection versus heated samples in buffer. CloneStable® also preserved Y. pestis antigens for 7days after exposure to cycling temperatures. Overall, RNAStable® and CloneStable® respectively offered superior stabilization to nucleic acids and proteins in response to temperature fluctuations.

  13. Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

    2001-01-01

    The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl.

  14. Comparison of vitrification and slow cooling for umbilical tissues.

    PubMed

    Da-Croce, Lilian; Gambarini-Paiva, Greicy Helen Ribeiro; Angelo, Patrícia Caroline; Bambirra, Eduardo Alves; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Godard, Ana Lúcia Brunialti

    2013-03-01

    The tissue cryopreservation maintains the cellular metabolism in a quiescence state and makes the conservation possible for an indefinite period of time. The choice of an appropriate cryopreservation protocol is essential for maintenance of cryopreserved tissue banks. This study evaluated 10 samples of umbilical cord, from which small fragments of tissue (Wharton's jelly and cord lining membrane) were subjected to two protocols of cryopreservation: slow cooling and vitrification. The samples were frozen for a period of time ranging from 5 to 78 days. The efficiency of cryopreservation was evaluated by testing cell viability, histological analysis, cell culture, cytogenetic analysis and comparison with the results of the fresh samples. The results showed that the slow cooling protocol was more efficient than the vitrification for cryopreservation of umbilical cord tissue, because it has caused fewer changes in the structure of tissue (edema and degeneration of the epithelium) and, despite the significant decrease cell viability compared to fresh samples, the ability of cell proliferation in vitro was preserved in most samples. In conclusion, this study showed that it is possible to cryopreserve small fragments of tissue from the umbilical cord and, to obtain viable cells capable of proliferation in vitro after thawing, contributing to the creation of a frozen tissue bank.

  15. Ash from a pulp mill boiler--characterisation and vitrification.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana S M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Davim, Erika J R; Fernandes, M Helena V

    2010-07-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the ash resulting from a pulp mill boiler was performed in order to investigate the valorisation of this waste material through the production of added-value glassy materials. The ash had a particle size distribution in the range 0.06-53 microm, and a high amount of SiO(2) (approximately 82 wt%), which was present as quartz. To favour the vitrification of the ash and to obtain a melt with an adequate viscosity to cast into a mould, different amounts of Na(2)O were added to act as fluxing agent. A batch with 80 wt% waste load melted at 1350 degrees C resulting in a homogeneous transparent green-coloured glass with good workability. The characterisation of the produced glass by differential thermal analysis and dilatometry showed that this glass presents a stable thermal behaviour. Standard leaching tests revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leaching solution was lower than those allowed by the Normative. As a conclusion, by vitrification of batch compositions with adequate waste load and additive content it is possible to produce an ash-based glass that may be used in similar applications as a conventional silicate glass inclusively as a building ecomaterial.

  16. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY-1981. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1982-09-01

    Both simulated alkaline defense wastes and simulated acidic defense wastes (formed by treating alkaline waste with formic acid) were successfully vitrified in direct liquid-fed melter experiments. The vitrification process was improved while using the formate-treated waste. Leach resistance was essentially the same. Off-gas entrainment was the primary mechanism for material exiting the melter. When formate waste was vitrified, the flow behavior of the off gas from the melter changed dramatically from an erratic surging behavior to a more quiet, even flow. Hydrogen and CO were detectable while processing formate feed; however, levels exceeding the flamability limits in air were never approached. Two types of melter operation were tested during the year, one involving boost power. Several boosting methods located within the melter plenum were tested. When lid heating was being used, water spray cooling in the off gas was required. Countercurrent spray cooling was more effective than cocurrent spray cooling. Materials of construction for the off-gas system were examined. Inconel-690 is preferred in the plenum area. Inspection of the pilot-scale melter found that corrosion of the K-3 refractory and Inconel-690 electrodes was minimal. An overheating incident occurred with the LFCM in which glass temperatures up to 1480/sup 0/C were experienced. Lab-scale vitrification tests to study mercury behavior were also completed this year. 53 figures, 63 tables.

  17. Modeling of the in-situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Kindle, C.H.

    1990-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a durable, leach-resistant product similar to obsidian or basalt. The process, which was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for remediation of contaminated soil, is now in the field demonstration and implementation stage. Demonstration tests using the US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned large-scale system are underweight or planned for applications at Hanford and other DOE sites, including the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Site. In addition, a private company, Geosafe Corporation, is beginning remediation of commercial contaminated soil sites. A mathematical and computer model has been developed at PNL as a predictive tool to assist engineers and researchers in the application of ISV to different sites. The model, currently configured on a Macintosh personal computer, predicts vitrification time, depth, width, and electrical consumption based on user inputs of electrode configuration, soil parameters, and molten glass characteristics. The model time and depth predications are useful for operations planning, cost estimates, and site selection. Additionally, the depth and width predictions will be used to direct ISV operations to ensure that the contaminated area is completely vitrified and to help mitigate the effect of ISV on adjacent structures. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  18. "Universal" vitrification of cells by ultra-fast cooling.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun Seok; Nagrath, Sunitha; Moore, Alessandra L; Zeinali, Mahnaz; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L; Toth, Thomas L; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    Long-term preservation of live cells is critical for a broad range of clinical and research applications. With the increasing diversity of cells that need to be preserved (e.g. oocytes, stem and other primary cells, genetically modified cells), careful optimization of preservation protocols becomes tedious and poses significant limitations for all but the most expert users. To address the challenge of long-term storage of critical, heterogeneous cell types, we propose a universal protocol for cell vitrification that is independent of cell phenotype and uses only low concentrations of cryoprotectant (1.5 M PROH and 0.5 M trehalose). We employed industrial grade microcapillaries made of highly conductive fused silica, which are commonly used for analytical chemistry applications. The minimal mass and thermal inertia of the microcapillaries enabled us to achieve ultrafast cooling rates up to 4,000 K/s. Using the same low, non-toxic concentration of cryoprotectant, we demonstrate high recovery and viability rates after vitrification for human mammary epithelial cells, rat hepatocytes, tumor cells from pleural effusions, and multiple cancer cell lines.

  19. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  20. Effects of oocyte vitrification on epigenetic status in early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanhuan; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Tengfei; Zou, Pengda; Wang, Yongsheng; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation has a great impact on subsequent embryonic development. Currently, several studies have primarily focused on the consequences of vitrification and the development potential of cellular structures. This study determined whether oocyte vitrification caused epigenetic instabilities of bovine embryos. The effects of oocyte vitrification on DNA methylation, histone modifications, and putative imprinted genes' expression in early embryos derived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection were examined. Results showed that oocyte vitrification did not affect zygote cleavage rates (67.0% vs. 73.8% control, P > 0.05) but reduced the blastocyst rate (9.6% vs. 23.0%, P < 0.05). The levels of DNA methylation and H3K9me3 in oocytes and early cleavage embryos were lower (P < 0.05) than those in control group, but the level of acH3K9 increased (P < 0.05) in the vitrification group during the early cleavage phases. No differences were observed for DNA methylation, H3K9me3, and acH3K9 in the inner cell mass of blastocysts, whereas decreased levels of DNA methylation and acH3K9 (P < 0.05) existed in TE cells after vitrification. The expression of putative-imprinted genes PEG10, XIST, and KCNQ1O1T was upregulated in blastocysts. These epigenetic abnormalities may be partially explained by altered expression of genes associated with epigenetic regulations. DNA methylation and H3K9 modification suggest that oocyte vitrification may excessively relax the chromosomes of oocytes and early cleavage embryos. In conclusion, these epigenetic indexes could be used as damage markers of oocyte vitrification during early embryonic development, which offers a new insight to assess oocyte vitrification.

  1. L-proline: a highly effective cryoprotectant for mouse oocyte vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Xue, Xu; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Jin, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that L-proline is a natural osmoprotectant and an antioxidant to protect cells from injuries such as that caused by freezing and thawing in many species including plant, ram sperm and human endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this nontoxic cryoprotectant has not yet been applied to mammalian oocyte vitrification. In this study we evaluated the efficiency and safety of the new cryoprotectant in oocyte vitrification. The results indicated that L-proline improves the survival rate of vitrified oocytes, protects mitochondrial functions and could be applied as a new cryoprotectant in mouse oocyte vitrification. PMID:27412080

  2. L-carnitine supplementation during vitrification of mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage improves preimplantation development following maturation and fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Adel R; Tan, Seang Lin; Xu, Baozeng; Chen, Hai Ying; Taketo, Teruko

    2013-04-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is important for assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Although cryopreservation of metaphase II (MII) oocytes has been successfully used, MII oocytes are vulnerable to the damage inflicted by the freezing procedure. Cryopreservation of germinal vesicle stage oocytes (GV-oocytes) is an alternative choice; however, blastocyst development from GV-oocytes is limited largely due to the need for in vitro maturation (IVM). Herein, we evaluated the effects of l-carnitine (LC) supplementation during vitrification and thawing of mouse GV-oocytes, IVM, and embryo culture on preimplantation development after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We first compared the rate of embryonic development from the oocytes that had been collected at the GV stage from three mouse strains, (B6.DBA)F1, (B6.C3H)F1, and B6, and processed for IVM and IVF, as well as that from the oocytes matured in vivo, i.e. ovulated (IVO). Our results demonstrated that the rate of blastocyst development was the highest in the (B6.DBA)F1 strain and the lowest in the B6 strain. We then supplemented the IVM medium with 0.6 mg/ml LC. The rate of blastocyst development improved in the B6 but not in the (B6.DBA)F1 strain. Vitrification of GV-oocytes in the basic medium alone reduced the rate of blastocyst development in both of those mouse strains. LC supplementation to the IVM medium alone did not change the percentage of blastocyst development. However, LC supplementation to both vitrification and IVM media significantly improved blastocyst development to the levels comparable with those obtained from vitrified/thawed IVO oocytes in both of the (B6.DBA)F1 and B6 strains. We conclude that LC supplementation during vitrification is particularly efficient in improving the preimplantation development from the GV-oocytes that otherwise have lower developmental competence in culture.

  3. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE STATUS AND DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY WG; GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; EDGE JA; GARRETT BG

    2011-01-13

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  4. Glass optimization for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) at the Hanford Site will be separated into low-level and high-level fractions. One technology activity underway at PNNL is the development of glass formulations for the immobilization of the low-level tank wastes. A glass formulation strategy has been developed that describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions prior to the projected LLW vitrification facility start-up in 2005. Implementation of this strategy requires testing of glass formulations spanning a number of waste loadings, compositions, and additives over the range of expected waste compositions. The resulting glasses will then be characterized and compared to processing and performance specifications yet to be developed. This report documents the glass formulation work conducted at PNL in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 including glass formulation optimization, minor component impacts evaluation, Phase 1 and Phase 2 melter vendor glass development, liquidus temperature and crystallization kinetics determination. This report also summarizes relevant work at PNNL on high-iron glasses for Hanford tank wastes conducted through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program and work at Savannah River Technology Center to optimize glass formulations using a Plackett-Burnam experimental design.

  5. In situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: An updated systems evaluation and applications assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Carter, J.G.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place into a durable glass and crystalline waste form. Numerous technological advances made during the past three years in the design, fabrication, and testing of the ISV process are discussed. Performance analysis of ISV focuses on process equipment, element retention (in the vitrified soil during processing), melt geometry, depth monitors, and electrodes. The types of soil and waste processed by ISV are evaluated as process parameters. Economic data provide the production costs of the large-scale unit for radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes (wet and dry). The processing of transuranic-contaminated soils are discussed with respect to occupational and public safety. Alternative applications and operating sequences for various waste sites are identified. The technological data base warrants conducting a large-scale radioactive test at a contaminated soil site at Hanford to provide a representative waste form that can be evaluated to determine its suitability for in-place stabilization of transuranic-contaminated soils.

  6. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively.

  7. A new method for measurement of the vitrification rate of earthenware texture by scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun Jung; Kim, Su Kyeong; Han, Min Su; Lee, Eun Woo; Heo, Jun Su; Lee, Han Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    A new method for determining the vitrification rate of pottery depending on the firing temperature was devised using secondary electron images (SEI) of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several tests were performed to establish the appropriate operating conditions of SEM and reproducibility as well as to examine the applicability of the method. The grayscale values converted from each pixel of SEI were used to determine the vitrification rate of pottery, which in our study were artificially fired specimens composed of three types of clay. A comparison between the vitrification rate value and appearance temperature of minerals shows that mullite formation starts at 1,100°C, during which the vitrification rate rapidly increases by over 10%. In consequence, the result presented here demonstrates that the new method can be applied to estimate the firing temperature of pottery.

  8. Zeolite vitrification demonstration program: characterization of radioactive vitrified zeolite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, J O; Daniel, J L; Marshall, R K

    1984-01-01

    The leach behavior of radioactive vitrified zeolite material was studied as part of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Zeolite Vitrification Program conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experimental procedures, test results, and discussions of the results are presented. The leach behavior of material from three canisters of vitrified zeolite is discussed in terms of the normalized weight loss of the glass-formers and the normalized activity loss of the fission products cesium and strontium. The leach behavior of the radioactive vitrified zeolite material is also compared to the leach behavior of MCC 76-68 reference glass. The effects of changes in the surface microstructure of the vitrified zeolite that occurred during leaching are also presented. 3 references, 23 figures, 10 tables.

  9. In situ vitrification model development and implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Slater, C.E.; Marwil, E.S.

    1990-08-01

    This document describes the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Analysis Package being developed at the INEL to provide analytical support for (ISV) safety analysis and treatment performance predictions. Mathematical models and features which comprise this analysis package are presented and the proposed approach to model development and implementation is outlined. The objective of this document is two fold: to define preliminary design information and modeling objectives so that ISV modeling personnel can effectively modify existing models and formulate new models which are consistent with the objectives of the ISV treatability study and to provide sufficient technical information for internal and external reviewers to detect any shortcomings in model development and implementation plans. 27 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Initial tests on in situ vitrification using electrode feeding techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Bigelow, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test conducted to demonstrate the potential for electrode feeding in soils with a high concentration of metals. The engineering-scale test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in conducting treatability studies of the potential for applying ISV to the mixed transuranic waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area. The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of both gravity fed and operator-controlled electrode feeding in reducing or eliminating many of the potential problems associated with fixed-electrode processing of soils with high concentrations of metal. Actual site soils from INEL were mixed with representative concentrations of carbon steel and stainless steel for this engineering-scale test. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  12. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  13. First use of in situ vitrification on radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlds, L.

    1992-03-01

    A high-temperature method for containing hazardous wastes, which was first developed in the 1980s, is being adapted for the in situ treatment of buried radioactive wastes by the US DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), following its recent report on successful preliminary tests. The method, called in situ vitrification (ISV), is an electrically induced thermal process that melts and fuses soil and wastes into a glass-like material at least as strong as natural obsidian or granite. Gases released during the process are captured and treated by an off-gas treatment system. After the wastes are vitrified, they could be left in place, or the mass could be broken up and transported to a disposal site. The glass-like substance would be chemically and physically similar to obsidian and from 4 to 10 times more durable than typical borosilicate glasses used to immobolize high-level nuclear wastes.

  14. Behavior of technetium in nuclear waste vitrification processes.

    PubMed

    Pegg, Ian L

    Nearly 100 tests were performed with prototypical melters and off-gas system components to investigate the extents to which technetium is incorporated into the glass melt, partitioned to the off-gas stream, and captured by the off-gas treatment system components during waste vitrification. The tests employed several simulants, spiked with (99m)Tc and Re (a potential surrogate), of the low activity waste separated from nuclear wastes in storage in the Hanford tanks, which is planned for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Single-pass technetium retention averaged about 35 % and increased significantly with recycle of the off-gas treatment fluids. The fraction escaping the recycle loop was very small.

  15. Developmental competence and gene expression of immature oocytes following liquid helium vitrification in bovine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Yi; Li, Xiao-Xia; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Yu, Xue-Li

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an effective ultra-rapid vitrification method and evaluate its effect on maturation, developmental competence and development-related gene expression in bovine immature oocytes. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) controls, (2) liquid nitrogen vitrification, and (3) liquid helium vitrification. Oocytes were vitrified and then warmed, the percentage of morphologically normal oocytes in liquid helium group (89.0%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the liquid nitrogen group (81.1%). When the vitrified-thawed oocytes were matured in vitro for 24h, the maturation rate in liquid helium group (50.6%) was higher (P<0.05) than liquid nitrogen group (42.6%). Oocytes of liquid helium vitrification had higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (41.1% and 10.0%) than that of liquid nitrogen vitrification (33.0% and 4.5%; P<0.05) after in vitro fertilization. Moreover, the expression of GDF9 (growth/differentiation factor-9), BAX (apoptosis factor) and ZAR1 (zygote arrest 1) was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) when the vitrified-thawed oocytes were matured 24h. The expression of these genes was altered after vitrification. Expression of GDF9 and BAX in the liquid helium vitrification group was not significantly different from that of the control, however there were significant differences between the liquid nitrogen vitrification group and control. In conclusion, it was feasible to use liquid helium for vitrifying bovine immature oocytes. There existed an association between the compromised developmental competence and the altered expression levels of these genes for the vitrified oocytes.

  16. Competition between crystallization and vitrification of the rigid amorphous fraction in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Gazzano, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Semicrystalline polymers have a metastable nanophase structure, where the various nanophases can be crystal, liquid, glass, or mesophase. This multi-level structure is determined by a competition among self-organization, crystallization, and vitrification of the amorphous segments and is established during material processing. The kinetics of such competition is here determined for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), as vitrification/devitrification of the rigid amorphous fraction strongly affects crystallization kinetics of PHB.

  17. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

  18. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

  19. In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Carter, J.G.

    1986-05-01

    A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack.

  20. Cold cap subsidence for in situ vitrification and electrodes therefor

    DOEpatents

    Buelt, James L.; Carter, John G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; FitzPatrick, Vincent F.; Koehmstedt, Paul L.; Morgan, William C.; Oma, Kenton H.; Timmerman, Craig L.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for use in in situ vitrification of soil comprises a molybdenum rod received within a conductive sleeve or collar formed of graphite. Electrodes of this type are placed on either side of a region containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil between the electrodes. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the electrode, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing the formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is filled with a conductive ceramic powder of a type that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as the graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquifies at operating temperatures. The molybdenum rod in the former case may be coated with an oxidation protectant, e.g. of molybdenum disilicide. As insulative blanket is suitably placed on the surface of the soil during processing to promote subsidence by allowing off-gassing and reducing surface heat loss. In other embodiments, connection to vitrification electrodes is provided below ground level to avoid loss of connection due to electrodes deterioration, or a sacrificial electrode may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes can be utilized to square up the vitrified area. Further, the center of the molybdenum rod can be made hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquifies at operating temperatures. In one embodiment, the molybdenum rod and the graphite collar are physically joined at the bottom.

  1. Glycine increases preimplantation development of mouse oocytes following vitrification at the germinal vesicle stage

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xin-Yan; Rose, Jack; Wang, Shi-Yong; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Ming-Jie; Chang, Tong; Xu, Baozeng

    2016-01-01

    Ice-free cryopreservation, referred to as vitrification, is receiving increased attention in the human and animal assisted reproduction. However, it introduces the detrimental osmotic stress by adding and removing high contents of cryoprotectants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of normalizing cell volume regulation by adding glycine, an organic osmolyte, during vitrification of mouse germinal vesicle stage oocyte and/or subsequent maturation on its development. The data showed that glycine supplementation in either vitrification/thawing or maturation medium significantly improved the cytoplasmic maturation of MII oocytes manifested by spindle assembly, chromosomal alignment, mitochondrial distribution, euploidy rate, and blastocyst development following fertilization in vitro, compared to the control without glycine treatment. Furthermore, glycine addition during both vitrification/thawing and maturation further enhanced the oocyte quality demonstrated by various markers, including ATP contents and embryo development. Lastly, the effect of anti-apoptosis was also observed when glycine was added during vitrification. Our result suggests that reducing osmotic stress induced by vitrification could improve the development of vitrified mouse oocyte. PMID:27845423

  2. High-Throughput Non-Contact Vitrification of Cell-Laden Droplets Based on Cell Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Meng; Ling, Kai; Yong, Kar Wey; Li, Yuhui; Feng, Shangsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems.

  3. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Yen, Wish; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals.

  4. High-Throughput Non-Contact Vitrification of Cell-Laden Droplets Based on Cell Printing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Ling, Kai; Yong, Kar Wey; Li, Yuhui; Feng, Shangsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems. PMID:26655688

  5. Vitrification as a method for genome resource banking oocytes from the endangered Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Czarny, N A; Rodger, J C

    2010-06-01

    Populations of Australia's largest terrestrial marsupial carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), are rapidly declining in the wild due to Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (TDFTD). One tool which can reduce the loss of genetic diversity is genome resource banking. This study examines the application of an oocyte vitrification protocol, initially developed in a model marsupial carnivore, to the endangered Tasmanian devil. Ovarian tissue was transported to the laboratory on ice from Tasmania which took up to 48 h. Individual granulosa oocyte complexes (GOC) were isolated enzymatically and the viability of oocytes from primary GOC was assessed immediately following isolation or after exposure to cold shock, vitrification and thawing media without exposure to liquid nitrogen or the full vitrification and thawing process. There was no decline in oocyte viability following cold shock or exposure to the vitrification and thawing media. Following the full vitrification and thawing process there was a decline in oocyte viability (chi(2)=20.0, P<0.001) but approximately 70% of oocytes remained viable. This study provides further evidence that oocyte vitrification is a promising strategy for genome resource banking in carnivorous marsupials and suggests that it should be considered in conservation plans for the survival of the iconic Tasmanian devil.

  6. Bulk Site Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barich, J.J. III; Jones, R.R. Sr.

    1996-12-31

    The selection, manufacture and use of Bulk Site Reference Materials (BSRMs) at hazardous waste sites is discussed. BSRMs are useful in preparing stabilization/solidification (S/S) formulations for soils, ranking competing S/S processes, comparing S/S alternatives to other technologies, and in interpreting data from different test types. BSRMs are large volume samples that are representative of the physical and chemical characteristics of a site soil, and that contain contaminants at reasonably high levels. A successful BSRM is extremely homogeneous and well-characterized. While not representative of any point on the site, they contain the contaminants of the site in the matrices of the site. Design objectives for a BSRM are to produce a material that (1) maintains good fidelity to site matrices and contaminants, and (2) exhibits the lowest possible relative standard deviation.

  7. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  8. Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2010-09-01

    Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas.

  9. The in-situ vitrification of subsurface containment barriers: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1990-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an environmental engineering process in which soil or soil/waste mixtures are melted through the direct application of electrical current and subsequently cooled to a glassy solid. The technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the 1980s and has been tested on transuranic, mixed-hazardous, and PCB/organic waste similar to that found at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other facilities nationwide. PNL is conducting a wide range of field tests, expanding the scientific basis of ISV, and assessing its extension into new applications. One such project is ISV--Selective Barriers, an investigation into the construction and performance of ISV--generated, vertical and/or horizontal subsurface barriers to ground-water flow and biogenic intrusion. In some situations, it may be impractical or unnecessary to either excavate or vitrify an entire waste site. Vitrified barriers could minimize the diffusive or fluid transport of hazardous components with either a ground-water diversion wall or an in situ, box-like'' structure. During the first year of this project, engineering-scale tests are being conducted between graphite electrodes within a 1.8-m-diameter, 2.4-m-high test cell. Several methods are being tested, including passive metal electrodes, electrode feeding systems, fluxed soil, and fluxed boreholes. In addition, basic data have been collected on the thermal and material properties of ISV melt and solidified glass. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Pilot-scale in situ vitrification at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFB, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Lominac, J.K.; Edwards, R.C. ); Timmerman, C.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Defense has the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to identify and permanently remediate hazardous material disposal sites at its military bases across the United States. Pursuant to this guidance, Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) selected In Situ Vitrification (ISV) to remediate an old fire training area, Fire Protection Training Area (FPTA) No. 2. The ISV technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA, for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and will allow for the destruction and encapsulation of the petroleum-oil-lubricants (POL) and heavy metal-constituents found at the FPTA and adjacent overflow pond. ISV operates by passing a measured current of electricity into the ground through a set of electrodes. The resulting heat causes the soil to melt and form a solid vitreous (glass) mass similar to naturally occurring obsidian or basalt. In the process, organic constituents will be pyrolyzed (changed by heat) by the ensuing heat whereas the non-organic material will be incorporated into the glass matrix. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Obstetric outcome after oocyte vitrification and warming for fertility preservation in women with cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria; Rabadan, Susana; Domingo, Javier; Cobo, Ana; Pellicer, Antonio; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-12-01

    Obstetric outcome of first pregnancies achieved after vitrification and warming oocytes from women being treated for cancer was evaluated. Of a total of 493 women who consulted for fertility preservation, 357 had their oocytes cryopreserved after being diagnosed with cancer, and 11 returned after being cured for assisted reproduction treatments (eight had breast cancer, one Hodgkin lymphoma, one endometrial adenocarcinoma, and one thyroid cancer). The oocyte survival rate was 92.3%, the fertilization rate was 76.6%, and the mean number of embryos transferred was 1.8 ± 0.7. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin was detected in seven out of the 11 embryo transfers carried out. Four ongoing pregnancies were achieved and delivered at term with normal fetal weight and no major or minor malformations. Women diagnosed with cancer who have their eggs cryopreserved before anti-cancer treatment have good assisted reproductive technology performance and good perinatal outcomes. Cryopreservation of oocytes seems to be a good alternative for fertility preservation in these women.

  13. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the In Situ Vitrification Program. Volume 1, Literature review: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focuses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results.

  14. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Switching of a pulsed ionic diode through the bulk of an ion source with laser plasma initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshakova, R. P.; Shikanov, A. E.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis was made of the results of an investigation of switching of a pulsed ionic diode through the bulk of an ion source with a laser plasma and a vacuum arc. The dependences of the neutron yield on the electrical energy of the diode were recorded and analyzed. The results indicated a possible way of simple construction of an acceleration tube with switching via a laser-plasma source.

  15. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  16. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  17. Effect of cold cap chemistry on waste melter vitrification kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, G.L.; Tracey, E.M.; Peeler, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    Cold-cap chemistry affects the vitrification rates of simulated waste glass melter feeds that produce the same final glass composition. Laboratory- and engineering-scale melter experiments were conducted to evaluate the melting performance of melter feeds produced from pretreated simulated waste using glycolic acid in one instance and two nitric acid based feeds. The two nitric based melter feeds were pretreated with nitric acid in one case and nitric plus boric acid in the other. These melter feeds melt at significantly different rates (glycolic faster than nitric plus boric which is faster than nitric). Closer examination of cold cap samples indicated that silica was being digested faster in the glycolic-treated feed than in the nitric-treated feeds. Laboratory off gas testing results of the two nitric based melter feeds indicated that a lower temperature eutectic melt was produced in the nitric plus boric acid melter feed. Other reactions, such as salt melt accumulations at the base of the cold cap, occurred with all three melter feeds. It is also possible that exothermic reactions in the cold cap may play a roll in increasing the melting rate. Oxidation of glycolate (an exothermic reaction) occurred in the melter feed treated with glycolic acid.

  18. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Derek R; Schweiger, Michael J; Riley, Brian J; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric glass melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of the molten glass. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Because direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed in which the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a simulated high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was established by correlating microstructures of cold-cap regions with heat-treated feed samples of nearly identical structures at known temperatures. This temperature profile was compared with a mathematically simulated profile generated by a cold-cap model that has been developed to assess the rate of glass production in a melter.

  19. Cryopreservation of Thymus cariensis and T. vulgaris shoot tips: comparison of three vitrification-based methods.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, E A; Kaya, E

    2012-01-01

    Thymus is an important genus of the Lamiaceae family, comprising more than 400 perennial aromatic thyme species, which are used extensively for medicinal and culinary purposes. The present study focused on the development of cryopreservation procedures for Thymus vulgaris and T. cariensis, the latter being an endemic and endangered species of Turkey. For cryopreservation of T. vulgaris shoot tips, PVS2-based one-step freezing methods, i.e., PVS2 vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification, were compared. Cold hardening and sucrose preculture were also optimized before the cryopreservation trials. For T. cariensis, a droplet-vitrification method was applied to cold-hardened shoot tips, and after sucrose preculture. In all the methods tested, PVS2 was applied for up to 120 min. The best T. vulgaris cryopreservation was achieved with a droplet-vitrification method, that involved 2-weeks cold hardening of shoot cultures, 48 h preculture of shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets. After direct immersion in LN, thawing and plating, 80% of shoot-tips recovered. Post-thaw recovery was significantly lower when the same procedure was applied to T. cariensis shoot tips; however also here 90 min PVS2 treatment produced the highest survival (25 percent) and recovery (25 percent) levels.

  20. Alginate Hydrogel Microencapsulation Inhibits Devitrification and Enables Large-Volume Low-CPA Cell Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haishui; Choi, Jung Kyu; Rao, Wei; Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Gang; He, Xiaoming

    2015-11-25

    Cryopreservation of stem cells is important to meet their ever-increasing demand by the burgeoning cell-based medicine. The conventional slow freezing for stem cell cryopreservation suffers from inevitable cell injury associated with ice formation and the vitrification (i.e., no visible ice formation) approach is emerging as a new strategy for cell cryopreservation. A major challenge to cell vitrification is intracellular ice formation (IIF, a lethal event to cells) induced by devitrification (i.e., formation of visible ice in previously vitrified solution) during warming the vitrified cells at cryogenic temperature back to super-zero temperatures. Consequently, high and toxic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotectants (i.e., high CPAs, up to ~8 M) and/or limited sample volumes (up to ~2.5 μl) have been used to minimize IIF during vitrification. We reveal that alginate hydrogel microencapsulation can effectively inhibit devitrification during warming. Our data show that if ice formation were minimized during cooling, IIF is negligible in alginate hydrogel-microencapsulated cells during the entire cooling and warming procedure of vitrification. This enables vitrification of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with up to ~4 times lower concentration of penetrating CPAs (up to 2 M, low CPA) in up to ~100 times larger sample volume (up to ~250 μl, large volume).

  1. Cryopreservation of human failed maturation oocytes shows that vitrification gives superior outcomes to slow cooling.

    PubMed

    Fasano, G; Vannin, A S; Biramane, J; Delbaere, A; Englert, Y

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated whether failed maturation oocytes could be used to evaluate different cryopreservation procedures. A total of 289 failed maturation oocytes (GV and MI stages), obtained from 169 patients undergoing IVF treatment (mean age 33.84±5.0) were divided into two different slow-cooling groups (1.5 mol/l 1,2-propanediol+0.2 mol/l sucrose in either NaCl (group A) or choline chloride (ChCl) (group B) based cryopreservation solutions) and one vitrification group (15% ethylene glycol+15% dimethyl sulphoxide). Survival rate, in vitro maturation (IVM) rate, fertilization and developmental rate of cryopreserved oocytes were assessed. Regardless of the stage at which cryopreservation was performed (GV+MI), the slow cooling with ChCl based medium always gave significantly lower survival rate than the slow cooling in NaCl based medium (p=0.01) and vitrification (p<0.001). An extended study also showed statistically reduced survival rate between slow-cooling NaCl based medium and vitrification (p<0.05). Global results of in vitro maturation and fertilization showed worse results between both slow-cooling NaCl and ChCl based media versus vitrification. In conclusion, for oocytes that had failed to mature, vitrification gave better survival, maturation, fertilization and also cleavage rates than the slow-cooling protocols. Four cells embryos were obtained only from vitrified in vitro matured MI oocytes.

  2. The Increased Expression of Connexin and VEGF in Mouse Ovarian Tissue Vitrification by Follicle Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Chen, Jie; Wu, Hao; Pei, Xiuying; Chang, Qing; Ma, Wenzhi; Ma, Huiming; Hei, Changchun; Zheng, Xiaomin; Cai, Yufang; Zhao, Chengjun; Yu, Jia; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian follicular damages were caused by cryoinjury during the process of ovarian vitrification and ischemia/reperfusion during the process of ovarian transplantation. And appropriate FSH plays an important role in antiapoptosis during ovarian follicle development. Therefore, in this study, 0.3 IU/mL FSH was administered into medium during mouse ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification to ascertain the function of FSH on ovarian vitrification and avascular transplantation. The results suggested that the expressions of Cx37, Cx43, apoptotic molecular caspase-3, and angiogenesis molecular VEGF were confirmed using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time PCR, and the results suggested that the treatment with FSH remarkably increased the number of morphologically normal follicles in vitrified/warmed ovaries by upregulating the expression of Cx37, Cx43, VEGF, and VEGF receptor 2, but downregulating the expression of caspase-3. In addition, the vitrified/warmed ovaries were transplanted, and the related fertility was analyzed, and the results suggested that the fertility, neoangiogenesis, and follicle reserve were remarkably increased in the FSH administrated group. Taken together, administration of 0.3 IU/mL FSH during ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification can maintain ovarian survival during ovarian vitrification and increases the blood supply with avascular transplantation via upregulation of Cx43, Cx37, and VEGF/VEGFR2, as well as through its antiapoptotic effects.

  3. Cryopreservation of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in vitro buds using vitrification-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, E A; Kirdok, E; Kaya, E; Capuana, M; Benelli, C; Engelmann, E

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of three vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques, i.e. vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification were compared for cryopreserving Sequoia sempervirens apical and basal buds sampled from in vitro shoot cultures. The effect of cold-hardening of mother-plants and of bud culture medium and sucrose preculture was also investigated. Culture of apical and basal buds sampled from cold-hardened mother-plants on Quoirin and Lepoivre medium with activated charcoal had a positive effect on regrowth. Only droplet-vitrification ensured survival and regrowth after cryopreservation. After cryopreservation, regeneration of apical buds was possible for PVS2 exposure durations between 90 and 180 min but it remained low, with a maximum of 18 percent after 135 min treatment. With basal buds, regeneration after cryopreservation was possible over a larger range of PVS2 treatment durations, between 30 and 180 min. The highest regeneration percentage was slightly higher (22 percent) than that measured with apical buds, and was also achieved after 135 min PVS2 exposure.

  4. The crucial role of zona pellucida in cryopreservation of oocytes by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Yue, Tao; Huang, Haishui; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Mingjun; He, Xiaoming

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian oocytes have a proteinaceous hydrogel-like outer shell known as the zona pellucida (ZP) that semi-encloses their plasma membrane and cytoplasm. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse oocytes either with or without ZP by vitrification. Our results show that the presence of an intact ZP could significantly improve the post-vitrification survival of oocytes to 92.1% from 13.3% for oocytes without ZP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryonic development between fresh and cryopreserved oocytes with ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Further atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the intact oocytes with ZP have an elastic modulus that is more than 85 times higher than that of oocytes without ZP. This may partially explain the important role of ZP in protecting the oocytes by resisting the mechanical stress due to possible ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification. Collectively, this study reveals a new biophysical role of ZP during vitrification of oocytes and suggests microencapsulation of the many mammalian cells without a ZP in ZP-like hydrogel is an effective strategy to improve their survival post cryopreservation by vitrification.

  5. Alginate Hydrogel Microencapsulation Inhibits Devitrification and Enables Large-Volume Low-CPA Cell Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishui; Choi, Jung Kyu; Rao, Wei; Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of stem cells is important to meet their ever-increasing demand by the burgeoning cell-based medicine. The conventional slow freezing for stem cell cryopreservation suffers from inevitable cell injury associated with ice formation and the vitrification (i.e., no visible ice formation) approach is emerging as a new strategy for cell cryopreservation. A major challenge to cell vitrification is intracellular ice formation (IIF, a lethal event to cells) induced by devitrification (i.e., formation of visible ice in previously vitrified solution) during warming the vitrified cells at cryogenic temperature back to super-zero temperatures. Consequently, high and toxic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotectants (i.e., high CPAs, up to ~8 M) and/or limited sample volumes (up to ~2.5 μl) have been used to minimize IIF during vitrification. We reveal that alginate hydrogel microencapsulation can effectively inhibit devitrification during warming. Our data show that if ice formation were minimized during cooling, IIF is negligible in alginate hydrogel-microencapsulated cells during the entire cooling and warming procedure of vitrification. This enables vitrification of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with up to ~4 times lower concentration of penetrating CPAs (up to 2 M, low CPA) in up to ~100 times larger sample volume (up to ~250 μl, large volume). PMID:26640426

  6. Ewe Ovarian Tissue Vitrification: A Model for the Study of Fertility Preservation in Women.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Bass, Casie Shantel; Bernuci, Marcelo Picinin; Chaves, Roberta Nogueira; Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Silva, Renato Félix da; Figueiredo, José Ricardo de; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Emergency in vitro fertilization followed by embryo vitrification is one feasible fertility preservation option for cancer patients. However, its clinical application has several limitations. Hormonal stimulation delays the initiation of oncotherapy and it is contraindicated in hormone-sensitive cancers or for use in pre-pubertal females. Vitrification of ovarian cortical tissue prior to the start of cancer treatment could be utilized for autotransplantation or for in vitro maturation of follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. Nevertheless, the main concern associated with autotransplantation is the risk of malignant cell re-introduction to the patient, which is non-existent with the use of follicular in vitro culture. Since obtaining ovarian tissues from women for research is challenging and experimental studies are difficult to complete due to ethical issues, exploring the alternative usage of animal models for fertility preservation may provide beneficial insight into the prospects of follicular culture as an alternative for fertility restoration following ovarian tissue vitrification. Similarities between ewe and human ovary structures, as well as in ovarian follicular development dynamics, make the ewe a possible animal model for the study of female fertility preservation. As vitrification of ovarian tissue has the potential to cryopreserve preantral ovarian follicles, the present review will describe the progress of ovarian tissue vitrification studies completed in ewes.

  7. The Crucial Role of Zona Pellucida in Cryopreservation of Oocytes by Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Yue, Tao; Huang, Haishui; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Mingjun; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes have a proteinaceous hydrogel-like outer shell known as the zona pellucida (ZP) that semi-encloses their plasma membrane and cytoplasm. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse oocytes either with or without ZP by vitrification. Our results show that the presence of an intact ZP could significantly improve the post-vitrification survival of oocytes to 92.1% from 13.3% for oocytes without ZP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryonic development between fresh and cryopreserved oocytes with ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Further atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the intact oocytes with ZP have an elastic modulus that is more than 85 times higher than that of oocytes without ZP. This may partially explain the important role of ZP in protecting the oocytes by resisting the mechanical stress due to possible ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification. Collectively, this study reveals a new biophysical role of ZP during vitrification of oocytes and suggests microencapsulation of the many mammalian cells without a ZP in ZP-like hydrogel is an effective strategy to improve their survival post cryopreservation by vitrification. PMID:26297946

  8. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the in situ vitrification program

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focusses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results. The literature review shows that all the ISV objectives are theoretically achievable because they involve physical properties (such as electrical conductivity, density, or magnetization) that can be sensed by geophysical instruments. However, most of the ISV objectives require substantially higher resolution than is achieved in typical waste site investigations, or than has been demonstrated by researches using state-of-the-art techniques. The survey at the INEL simulated waste pit yielded useful, qualitative information on subsurface materials and boundaries; but quantitative information, such as depth, size, or composition of buried materials, was subject to significant uncertainty. For ISV, the usefulness of geophysical characterization depends both on the capabilities of geophysical methods and on an assessment of the amount of uncertainty that is acceptable. Based on a preliminary assessment of these factors, the location of trench boundaries and detection of massive metallic objects are the important achievable objectives using current technology.

  9. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the in situ vitrification program. Volume 3, Discussion and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focusses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results. The literature review shows that all the ISV objectives are theoretically achievable because they involve physical properties (such as electrical conductivity, density, or magnetization) that can be sensed by geophysical instruments. However, most of the ISV objectives require substantially higher resolution than is achieved in typical waste site investigations, or than has been demonstrated by researches using state-of-the-art techniques. The survey at the INEL simulated waste pit yielded useful, qualitative information on subsurface materials and boundaries; but quantitative information, such as depth, size, or composition of buried materials, was subject to significant uncertainty. For ISV, the usefulness of geophysical characterization depends both on the capabilities of geophysical methods and on an assessment of the amount of uncertainty that is acceptable. Based on a preliminary assessment of these factors, the location of trench boundaries and detection of massive metallic objects are the important achievable objectives using current technology.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  11. Recovery patterns, histological observations and genetic integrity in Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using droplet vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A droplet-vitrification procedure is described for cryopreservation of Malus shoot tips. Survival patterns, recovery types, histological observations, and genetic integrity were compared for Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using this droplet-vitrification procedure and an encapsulation-dehydration pr...

  12. Cryopreservation of Fraser photinia (Photinia x fraseri Dress.) via vitrification-based one-step freezing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tokatli, Y O; Akdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    An efficient vitrification-based cryopreservation procedure was developed for Fraser photinia shoot apices by assessing the influences of various vitrification solutions (PVS1, PVS2, PVS3 and VSL) and different vitrification methods (cryovial vitrification, droplet vitrification and droplet freezing) on shoot regrowth. Moreover, influences of cold-hardening period (0 to 8 weeks), preculture medium (with sucrose and proline) and regrowth medium (QL plus 4.4, 8.8 and 17.6 micromolar BA) were also evaluated. Among the different procedures tested, best shoot regrowth (40.3 percent) was achieved by using a droplet vitrification technique in which cold-hardened and precultured shoot apices were vitrified for 120 min at 0 degree C in droplets, rapidly cooled, thawed and then cultured on 17.6 micromolar BA-containing QL medium. Overall results indicated the importance of not only the composition of vitrification solution, and preculture and regrowth media, but also the application of an appropriate vitrification technique to achieve optimum recovery post-cryopreservation.

  13. Vitrification with glutamine improves maturation rate of vitrified / warmed immature bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, C; Feitosa, W B; Simões, R; Nicacio, A C; Mendes, C M; Assumpção, M E O A; Visintin, J A

    2011-02-01

    The current study examined the protective effects of l-glutamine and cytochalasin B during vitrification of immature bovine oocytes. Oocyte vitrification solution (PBS supplemented with 10% FCS, 25% EG, 25% DMSO and 0.5 m trehalose) was the vitrification control. Treatments were the addition of 7 μg/ml cytochalasin B, 80 mm glutamine or both cytochalasin and glutaminine for 30 s. After warming, oocytes were matured in vitro for 24 h, fixed and stained with Hoechst (33342) for nuclear maturation evaluation. L-glutamine improved the vitrified/warmed immature bovine oocytes viability (32.8%), increasing the nuclear maturation rates compared to other treatments and the no treatment vitrified control (17.4%). There was, however, no effect of cytochalasin B on in vitro maturation (14.4%).

  14. System for enhanced destruction of hazardous wastes by in situ vitrification of soil

    DOEpatents

    Timmerman, Craig L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention comprises a system for promoting the destruction of volatile and/or hazardous contaminants present in waste materials during in situ vitrification processes. In accordance with the present invention, a cold cap (46) comprising a cohesive layer of resolidified material is formed over the mass of liquefied soil and waste (40) present between and adjacent to the electrodes (10, 12, 14, 16) during the vitrification process. This layer acts as a barrier to the upward migration of any volatile type materials thereby increasing their residence time in proximity to the heated material. The degree of destruction of volatile and/or hazardous contaminants by pyrolysis is thereby improved during the course of the vitrification procedure.

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  17. Slow cryopreservation is not superior to vitrification in human spermatozoa; an experimental controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ali Mohamed, Mohamed Shehata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spermatozoa cryopreservation is used for the management of infertility and some other medical conditions. The routinely applied cryopreservation technique depends on permeating cryoprotectants, whose toxic effects have raised the attention towards permeating cryoprotectants-free vitrification technique. Objective: To compare between the application of slow cryopreservation and vitrification on human spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental controlled study involving 33 human semen samples, where each sample was divided into three equal parts; fresh control, conventional slow freezing, and permeating cryoprotectants-free vitrification. Viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of control and post-thawing spermatozoa were assessed with the sperm viability kit and the JC-1 kit, respectively, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Results: Significant reduction of the progressive motility, viability and MMP was observed by the procedure of freezing and thawing, while there was not any significant difference between both cryopreservation techniques. Cryopreservation resulted in 48% reduction of the percentage of viable spermatozoa and 54.5% rise in the percentage of dead spermatozoa. In addition, high MMP was reduced by 24% and low MMP was increased by 34.75% in response to freezing and thawing. Progressive motility of spermatozoa was correlated significantly positive with high MMP and significantly negative with low MMP in control as well as post-thawing specimens (r=0.8881/ -0.8412, 0.7461/ -0.7510 and 0.7603/ -0.7839 for control, slow and vitrification respectively, p=0.0001). Conclusion: Although both cryopreservation techniques have similar results, vitrification is faster, easier and associated with less toxicity and costs. Thus, vitrification is recommended for the clinical application. PMID:26644792

  18. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  19. Evaluation of new concepts for in situ vitrification: Power system, melt insulation, and off-gas containment

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Powell, T.D.; Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a highly leach-resistant material resembling natural obsidian. The ISV process was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to treat soils contaminated with transuranics. Since 1980, ISV has grown from a concept to an innovative technology through bench-, engineering-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests. Efforts by PNL have developed ISV into a technology considered available for limited deployment to remediate contaminated soil. The technology has been transferred to a licensee for commercial application. In September 1991, PNL conducted an operational acceptance test (OAT) of the modified engineering-scale unit. The OAT provided an opportunity to conduct proof-of-principle testing of new concepts for ISV technology. This additional testing was permitted since it was determined that testing of these new concepts would have no impact on the OAT objective. In discussing the proof-of-principle portion of the engineering-scale test, this report presents conclusions from this work and also describes the conceptual bases of the tested concepts, the engineering-scale test equipment and setup, and test results.

  20. Evaluation Pilot-Scale Melter Systems for the Direct Vitrification Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cray, Casey William; Thomson, Troy David

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation conducted to identify a joule-heated melter system that could be installed in the Idaho Falls area in support of the Direct Vitrification Development Program. The relocation was to be completed by January 1, 2002, within a total budget of one million dollars. Coordination with the Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area identified five melters or melter systems that could potentially support the Direct Vitrification Development Program. Each unit was inspected and evaluated based on qualitative criteria such as availability, completeness of the system, contamination, scalability, materials of construction, facility requirements, and any unique features.

  1. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  2. [Experimental and clinical study of skin stored by vitrification].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z M

    1991-11-01

    To improve the quality of stored skin, vitrification storage method (rapid cooling) was introduced. G group cryoprotective solution (20% DMSO and 6% propylene glycol in kreb's Ringer phosphate solution) was selected from 7 different kinds of solution with low toxicity and high cryoprotective activity. G group solution was proved very effective in cryopreservation of small and large pieces of guinea pig skin. Fresh cadaveric skin, 0.3-0.4 mm in thickness, with an area of 500-1,000 sq.cm was soaked in G group solution for 30 min. After being sealed in plastic bags, the skin was put directly into liquid nitrogen. The skin was thawed in 40 degrees C water bath before use. The cooling rate was about 2160 degrees C/min (by fine transient thermometer). The viabilities of stored skin measured by oxygen consumption (microelectrolyte method) and succinic dehydrogenase (by modified Hershey's method) were about 70% as prestored value, and were 20% higher than those stored by slow cooling method. 250000 sq.cm of vitrified skin stored for one to two years were used in 135 operations for major full thickness burns after tangential excision or excision of eschar. The taken-rate was over 94%. The color of skin turned to red within 3-4 days after grafting. There was no blister formation on the surface of grafted skin. If autologous micro-skin were put underneath the stored skin or small pieces of autologous skin were inserted into the small holes of the stored skin, the wounds healed smoothly within six weeks after operation and no further grafting was needed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Bulk CMOS VLSI Technology Studies. Part 1. Scalable CMOS Design Rules. Part 2. CMOS Approaches to PLA (Programmable Logic Array) Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    microns %H*SIC dimensions. Part 2: Various Programmable Logic Array (PLA) implementations with clocked CMOS technology are explored inthis project...Previous research at MSU has dealt with clocked CMOS circuit styles with some application to gate array and microprocessor applications. Work under this...in this report deals with structured logic schemes based on Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs). Three different PLA design methods are reported with a

  4. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  5. Pretreatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with docetaxel before vitrification: Effects on cytoskeleton integrity and developmental ability after warming.

    PubMed

    Chasombat, Jakkhaphan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2015-10-01

    The stabilization of spindle fibersis important for successful vitrification of bovine oocytes because microtubules and other cytoskeleton fibers (CSF) can be damaged during vitrification, resulting in failure of fertilization after thawing. Docetaxel, a stabilizing agent, could potentially reduce CSF damage of bovine oocytes induced during vitrification. However, there have been no reports on the effects of docetaxel on their vitrification. Experiment 1 was conducted to investigate the effects of various doses of docetaxel (0.0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM) in preincubation medium of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes on their developmental ability after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The results show that 0.05 μM docetaxel had no adverse effect on embryo development, while docetaxel at a concentration of ⩾0.5 μM inhibited development. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted to investigate the effects of preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min prior to vitrification-warming on CSF integrity (Experiment 2), and on oocyte survival and viability after IVF (Experiment 3). When preincubated with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification, post-thawed oocytes had less CSF damage and higher survival rates compared with those untreated with docetaxel before vitrification. Surviving oocytes also had higher rates of cleavage and development to the blastocyst stage after IVF. In conclusion, preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification was effective at preventing CSF damage during vitrification, and improving oocyte viability after warming and subsequent cleavage and blastocyst formation after IVF.

  6. Slow Freezing, but Not Vitrification Supports Complete Spermatogenesis in Cryopreserved, Neonatal Sheep Testicular Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J.; Costa, Guilherme M.; Escobar, Enrique N.; França, Luiz R.; Wildt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  7. Effect of NaOH on the vitrification process of waste Ni-Cr sludge.

    PubMed

    Chou, I-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Fen; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Wang, Chih-Ta; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-30

    This study investigated the effect of NaOH on the vitrification of electroplating sludge. Ni, the major metal in the electroplating sludge, is the target for recovery in the vitrification. Sludge and encapsulation materials (dolomite, limestone, and cullet) were mixed and various amounts of NaOH were added to serve as a glass modifier and a flux. A vitrification process at 1450 °C separated the molten specimens into slag and ingot. The composition, crystalline characteristics, and leaching characteristics of samples were measured. The results indicate that the recovery of Ni is optimal with a 10% NaOH mass ratio; the recoveries of Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Mn all exhibited similar trends. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) show that leaching characteristics of the slag meet the requirements of regulation in Taiwan. In addition, a semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase of slag changed from Ca(3)(Si(3)O(9)) to Na(4)Ca(4)(Si(6)O(18)) with a NaOH mass ratio of over 15%, because the Ca(2+) ions were replaced with Na(+) ions during the vitrification process. Na(4)Ca(4)(Si(6)O(18)), a complex mineral which hinders the mobility of metals, accounts for the decrease of metal recovery.

  8. Calorimetric Studies on Thermal Properties of Nano-Cryoprotectant Solutions during Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Xu, H F; Hao, B T; Liu, L J; Tang, L L; Liu, B L

      BACKGROUND: Vitrification, the ice-free cryopreservation, develops rapidly and can become an ideal method for long-term preservation of cells and tissues. But up to now it is not practical for samples with large size because of the ultra-rapid cooling rate required. It has been reported that nanoparticles improve heat conductivity of solutions.

  9. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  10. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  11. Vitrification of a small number of spermatozoa in normozoospermic and severely oligozoospermic samples.

    PubMed

    Kuznyetsov, Valeriy; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Crowe, Michael; Lulat, Ayub G-M; Librach, Clifford L

    2015-01-01

    Despite broad utilization of sperm cryopreservation, little progress has been made to modify freezing protocols or to improve rates of sperm survival. Vitrification is an alternative method for freezing human spermatozoa without toxic permeable cryoprotectants (CPAs). The purpose of our study was to optimize the vitrification and post thaw recovery of a small number of spermatozoa using only nonpermeating CPAs in a closed straw system in normozoospermic and severely oligozoospermic samples. Individual motile spermatozoa (n = 295) were selected from semen samples of 15 normozoospermic and 10 severe oligozoospermia patients. Overall sperm recovery after vitrification was 80% (n = 236) with 80% (n = 189) viability and 41.5% (n = 98) retained post-warming motility. Two different loading techniques were compared to transfer selected spermatozoa into straws in preparation for vitrification: by spontaneous capillary action (CA) and with the aid of a polar body biopsy (PBB) pipette. There was evidence that the PBB loading technique increases the odds of spermatozoa recovery in both subsets (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04) in the normal and abnormal subsamples, respectively.

  12. Effective vitrification and warming of porcine embryos using a pH-stable, chemically defined medium

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Cristina; Martinez, Cristina A.; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A.; Martinez, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of pH-stable media would simplify embryo vitrification and the warming of porcine embryos and might facilitate the application of embryo transfer in practice. In this work, we investigated whether a pH-stable basal medium constituted of Tyrode’s lactate medium, polyvinyl alcohol, and HEPES for buffering was suitable for porcine embryo vitrification warming in place of the conventional gas-equilibrated media. A high percentage (>90%) of embryos survived vitrification and warming in this medium, achieving in vitro survival rates similar to embryos vitrified-warmed using the conventional protocol and their fresh counterparts. The pH-stable medium did not affect the in vivo developmental competence of the vitrified-warmed embryos. A farrowing rate of 71.4% (5/7) with 10.4 ± 3.1 piglets born was obtained for the embryos vitrified and warmed in this medium and transferred to selected recipients. This medium will enable the use of simple, safe and standardized protocols for the vitrification and warming of porcine embryos for optimal embryo survival and quality when applied under field conditions. This study opens new possibilities for the widespread use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:27666294

  13. Vitrification of low-level radioactive mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Rosine, S.D.; No, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is proceeding with plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated on-site. The objective is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the entire annual generation of selected LLMW streams. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced sodium borosilicate glasses under conditions achievable in commercially available melters. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals above the expected levels in actual wastes, pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Earlier evaluations of the likely off-gases that will result from vitrification indicated that the primary off-gases will include compounds of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}. These evaluations are being experimentally confirmed with a mass spectrometer analysis of the gases evolved from samples of the ANL-E wastes. The composition of the melter feed can be adjusted to minimize volatilization of some components, if necessary. The full-scale melter will be designed to handle the annual generation of at least three LLMW waste streams: evaporator concentrator bottoms sludge (ECB), storage tank sludge (STS), and HEPA filter media. Each waste stream is mixed waste by virtue of its failure to pass the TCLP test with respect to toxic metal leaching. Additional LLMW streams under consideration for vitrification include historical mixed waste glass from past operations and spent abrasive from a planned decontamination facility.

  14. Recent developments in human oocyte, embryo and blastocyst vitrification: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Juergen; Dietl, Johannes; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Tucker, Michael J

    2003-12-01

    The target of any cryopreservation procedure should be to ensure high survival rates of living cells after thawing. Two important parameters determine the success of any cryopreservation protocol: the manner in which cells regain equilibrium in response to cooling, and the speed of freezing (cooling rate). Slow-rate freezing protocols result in the formation of ice crystals during cooling and warming. Vitrification, in which high cooling rates in combination with a high concentration of cryoprotectant are used, does not produce any ice crystals during cooling and warming. However, there is a practical limit to the attainable cooling speed, and also a biological limit to the concentration of cryoprotectant tolerated by the cells during vitrification. Although post-warming survival depends on the species, the developmental stage and the quality of the embryos being vitrified, it seems clear that vitrification methods are increasingly successful and might be a better method than slow cooling procedures in the field of cryobiology. Many of the potential problems and benefits underlying vitrification as a method of choice for embryo cryopreservation in clinical embryology will be discussed in this review.

  15. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams.

  16. 76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Web site listed above. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The vitrification melter is a box structure, approximately 10 feet on each side, with a stainless steel outer structure and an interior lined with refractory..., pursuant to DOE's authority under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and in accordance with...

  17. Freezing-in and production of entropy in vitrification.

    PubMed

    Möller, Jörg; Gutzow, Ivan; Schmelzer, Jürn W P

    2006-09-07

    Following the classical concepts developed by Simon [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 203, 219 (1931)], vitrification in the cooling of glass-forming melts is commonly interpreted as the transformation of a thermodynamically (meta)stable equilibrium system into a frozen-in, thermodynamically nonequilibrium system, the glass. Hereby it is assumed that the transformation takes place at some well-defined sharp temperature, the glass transition temperature Tg. However, a more detailed experimental and theoretical analysis shows that the transition to a glass proceeds in a broader temperature range, where the characteristic times of change of temperature, tauT=-(TT), and relaxation times, tau, of the system to the respective equilibrium states are of similar order of magnitude. In this transition interval, the interplay of relaxation and change of external control parameters determines the value of the structural order parameters. In addition, irreversible processes take place in the transition interval, resulting both in an entropy freezing-in as well as in an irreversible increase of entropy and, as a result, in significant changes of all other thermodynamic parameters of the vitrifying systems. The effect of entropy production on glass transition and on the properties of glasses is analyzed here for the first time. In this analysis, the structural order-parameter concept as developed by de Donder and van Rysselberghe [Thermodynamic Theory of Affinity (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1936)] and Prigogine and Defay [Chemical Thermodynamics (Longmans, London, 1954)] is employed. In the framework of this approach we obtain general expressions for the thermodynamic properties of vitrifying systems such as heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy, and for the entropy production. As one of the general conclusions we show that entropy production has a single maximum upon cooling and two maxima upon heating in the glass transition interval. The theoretical concepts

  18. Successful vitrification of bovine immature oocyte using liquid helium instead of liquid nitrogen as cryogenic liquid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue-Li; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xian-Fei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Han, Wen-Xia; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of liquid helium (LHe) and liquid nitrogen (LN2) as cryogenic liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes with open-pulled straw (OPS) system and determine the optimal cryoprotectant concentration of LHe vitrification. Cumulus oocyte complexes were divided into three groups, namely, untreated group (control), LN2 vitrified with OPS group, and LHe vitrified with OPS group. Oocyte survival was assessed by morphology, nuclear maturation, and developmental capability. Results indicated that the rates of normal morphology, maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst (89.3%, 52.8%, 42.7%, and 10.1%, respectively) in the LHe-vitrified group were all higher than those (79.3%, 43.4%, 34.1%, and 4.7%) in the LN2-vitrified group (P < 0.05) although the corresponding rates in both treated groups decreased compared with the control group (100%, 75.0%, 64.9%, and 40.8%; P < 0.05). Normal calves were obtained after the transfer of blastocysts derived from LHe- and LN2-vitrified oocytes. The effects of the different vitrification solutions (EDS30, EDS35, EDS40, EDS45, and EDS50) in LHe vitrification for bovine immature oocytes vitrification were examined. No difference was found in the rates of morphologically normal oocytes among the EDS30 (87.9%), EDS35 (90.1%), EDS40 (89.4%), and EDS45 (87.2%) groups (P > 0.05). The maturation rate of the EDS35 group (65.0%) was higher than those of the EDS30 (51.3%), EDS40 (50.1%), EDS45 (52.1%), and EDS50 groups (36.9%; P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the cleavage and blastocyst rates between the EDS35 (49.0% and 12.1%) and EDS40 (41.7% and 10.2%) groups. However, the cleavage and blastocyst rates in the EDS35 group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the EDS30 (36.2% and 6.8%), EDS45 (35.9% and 5.8%), and EDS50 (16.6% and 2.2%) groups. In conclusion, LHe can be used as a cryogenic liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes, and it is more

  19. HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) VITRIFICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE US: APPLICATION OF GLASS PRODUCT/PROCESS CONTROL TO OTHERHLW AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; James Marra, J

    2007-09-17

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) actual HLW tank waste has successfully been processed to stringent product and process constraints without any rework into a stable borosilicate glass waste since 1996. A unique 'feed forward' statistical process control (SPC) has been used rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product is sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property models form the basis for the 'feed forward' SPC. The property models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition. The property models are mechanistic and depend on glass bonding/structure, thermodynamics, quasicrystalline melt species, and/or electron transfers. The mechanistic models have been validated over composition regions well outside of the regions for which they were developed because they are mechanistic. Mechanistic models allow accurate extension to radioactive and hazardous waste melts well outside the composition boundaries for which they were developed.

  20. Thermomechanical Stress in Cryopreservation Via Vitrification With Nanoparticle Heating as a Stress-Moderating Effect.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David P; Bischof, John C; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on thermomechanical effects in cryopreservation associated with a novel approach of volumetric heating by means on nanoparticles in an alternating electromagnetic field. This approach is studied for the application of cryopreservation by vitrification, where the crystalline phase is completely avoided-the cornerstone of cryoinjury. Vitrification can be achieved by quickly cooling the material to cryogenic storage, where ice cannot form. Vitrification can be maintained at the end of the cryogenic protocol by quickly rewarming the material back to room temperature. The magnitude of the rewarming rates necessary to maintain vitrification is much higher than the magnitude of the cooling rates that are required to achieve it in the first place. The most common approach to achieve the required cooling and rewarming rates is by exposing the specimen's surface to a temperature-controlled environment. Due to the underlying principles of heat transfer, there is a size limit in the case of surface heating beyond which crystallization cannot be prevented at the center of the specimen. Furthermore, due to the underlying principles of solid mechanics, there is a size limit beyond which thermal expansion in the specimen can lead to structural damage and fractures. Volumetric heating during the rewarming phase of the cryogenic protocol can alleviate these size limitations. This study suggests that volumetric heating can reduce thermomechanical stress, when combined with an appropriate design of the thermal protocol. Without such design, this study suggests that the level of stress may still lead to structural damage even when volumetric heating is applied. This study proposes strategies to harness nanoparticles heating in order to reduce thermomechanical stress in cryopreservation by vitrification.

  1. Hollow fiber vitrification: a novel method for vitrifying multiple embryos in a single device.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Hitomi; Maehara, Miki; Nakano, Kazuaki; Ikezawa, Yuka; Hagiwara, Yui; Sasayama, Norihisa; Shirasu, Akio; Ohta, Hisayoshi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Current embryo vitrification methods with proven efficacy are based on the minimum volume cooling (MVC) concept by which embryos are vitrified and rewarmed ultrarapidly in a very small amount of cryopreserving solution to ensure the high viability of the embryos. However, these methods are not suitable for simultaneously vitrifying a large number of embryos. Here, we describe a novel vitrification method based on use of a hollow fiber device, which can easily hold as many as 40 mouse or 20 porcine embryos in less than 0.1 μl of solution. Survival rates of up to 100% were obtained for mouse embryos vitrified in the presence of 15% DMSO, 15% ethylene glycol and 0.5 M sucrose using the hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method, regardless of the developmental stage of the embryos (1-cell, 2-cell, morula or blastocyst; n = 50/group). The HFV method was also proven to be effective for vitrifying porcine in vitro- and in vivo-derived embryos that are known to be highly cryosensitive. For porcine embryos, the blastocyst formation rate of in vitro maturation (IVM)-derived parthenogenetic morulae after vitrification (48/65, 73.8%) did not decrease significantly compared with non-vitrified embryos (59/65, 90.8%). Transfer of 72 in vivo-derived embryos vitrified at the morula/early blastocyst stages to 3 recipients gave rise to 29 (40.3%) piglets. These data demonstrate that the HFV method enables simultaneous vitrification of multiple embryos while still adhering to the MVC concept, and this new method is very effective for cryopreserving embryos of mice and pigs.

  2. Effective cryopreservation of golden Syrian hamster embryos by open pulled straw vitrification.

    PubMed

    Fan, Z; Meng, Q; Bunch, T D; White, K L; Wang, Z

    2016-02-01

    Golden Syrian hamster embryos are difficult to cryopreserve due to their high sensitivity to cryoprotectants and in vitro handling. The objective of this study is to develop a robust open pulled straw (OPS) vitrification technique for cryopreserving hamster embryos at various developmental stages. We first systematically tested the concentrations of cryoprotectants and the exposure times of two-cell embryos to various vitrification solutions. We identified pretreatment of two-cell embryos with 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) + 10% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for 30 s followed by exposure in the vitrification solution, EDFS30 (containing 15% EG + 15% DMSO), for 30 s before plunging into liquid nitrogen (two-step exposure method) as the optimal OPS vitrification protocol. We then investigated the resourcefulness of this protocol for vitrifying hamster embryos at different developmental stages. The results showed that high blastocyst rates from embryos vitrified at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, or morula stage (62%, 78%, 80%, or 72%, respectively), but not those verified at pronuclear (0%) or blastocyst stage (24%; P < 0.05), were achieved by this protocol. When embryos vitrified at the two-cell stage were recovered and then directly transferred to recipient females, 29% of them developed to term, a development rate not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the 40% birth rate of the unvitrified controls. In conclusion, we have developed an effective two-step OPS vitrification protocol for hamster embryos.

  3. Savannah River Site waste vitrification projects initiated throughout the United States: Disposal and recycle options

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-10

    A vitrification process was developed and successfully implemented by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to convert high-level liquid nuclear wastes (HLLW) to a solid borosilicate glass for safe long term geologic disposal. Over the last decade, SRS has successfully completed two additional vitrification projects to safely dispose of mixed low level wastes (MLLW) (radioactive and hazardous) at the SRS and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The SRS, in conjunction with other laboratories, has also demonstrated that vitrification can be used to dispose of a wide variety of MLLW and low-level wastes (LLW) at the SRS, at ORR, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), at Rocky Flats (RF), at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP). The SRS, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA), have demonstrated that vitrification can also be used to safely dispose of ion-exchange (IEX) resins and sludges from commercial nuclear reactors. In addition, the SRS has successfully demonstrated that numerous wastes declared hazardous by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can be vitrified, e.g. mining industry wastes, contaminated harbor sludges, asbestos containing material (ACM), Pb-paint on army tanks and bridges. Once these EPA hazardous wastes are vitrified, the waste glass is rendered non-hazardous allowing these materials to be recycled as glassphalt (glass impregnated asphalt for roads and runways), roofing shingles, glasscrete (glass used as aggregate in concrete), or other uses. Glass is also being used as a medium to transport SRS americium (Am) and curium (Cm) to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for recycle in the ORR medical source program and use in smoke detectors at an estimated value of $1.5 billion to the general public.

  4. Inhibition of nucleation and growth of ice by poly(vinyl alcohol) in vitrification solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Inada, Takaaki; Funakoshi, Kunio; Lu, Shu-Shen

    2009-08-01

    Control of ice formation is crucial in cryopreservation of biological substances. Successful vitrification using several additives that inhibit ice nucleation in vitrification solutions has previously been reported. Among these additives, here we focused on a synthetic polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and investigated the effects of PVA on nucleation and growth of ice in 35% (w/w) aqueous 1,2-propanediol solution by using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system equipped with a cryomicroscope. First, the freezing temperature of the solution was measured using the DSC system, and then the change in ice fraction in the solution during cooling was evaluated based on images obtained using the cryomicroscope, at different concentrations of PVA between 0% and 3% (w/w). Based on the ice fraction, the change in residual solution concentration during cooling was also evaluated and then plotted on the state diagram of aqueous 1,2-propanediol solution. Results indicated that, when the partially glassy and partially frozen state was intentionally allowed, the addition of PVA effectively inhibited not only ice nucleation but also ice growth in the vitrification solution. The effect of PVA on ice growth in the vitrification solution was explained based on kinetic limitations mainly due to mass transport. The interfacial kinetics also might limit ice growth in the vitrification solution only when the ice growth rate decreased below a critical value. This coincides with the fact that PVA exhibits a unique antifreeze activity in the same manner as antifreeze proteins when ice growth rate is lower than a critical value.

  5. Improved cryopreservation by diluted vitrification solution with supercooling-facilitating flavonol glycoside.

    PubMed

    Kami, Daisuke; Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2008-12-01

    The effect of kaempferol-7-O-glucoside (KF7G), one of the supercooling-facilitating flavonol glycosides which was originally found in deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells of the katsura tree and was found to exhibit the highest level of supercooling-facilitating activity among reported substances, was examined for successful cryopreservation by vitrification procedures, with the aim of determining the possibility of using diluted vitrification solution (VS) to reduce cryoprotectant toxicity and also to inhibit nucleation at practical cooling and rewarming by the effect of supplemental KF7G. Examination was performed using shoot apices of cranberry and plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) with dilution. Vitrification procedures using the original concentration (100%) of PVS2 caused serious injury during treatment with PVS2 and resulted in no regrowth after cooling and rewarming (cryopreservation). Dilution of the concentration of PVS2 to 75% or 50% (with the same proportions of constituents) significantly reduced injury by PVS2 treatment, but regrowth was poor after cryopreservation. It is thought that dilution of PVS2 reduced injury by cryoprotectant toxicity, but such dilution caused nucleation during cooling and/or rewarming, resulting in poor survival. On the other hand, addition of 0.5mg/ml (0.05% w/v) KF7G to the diluted PVS2 resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher regrowth rates after cryopreservation. It is thought that addition of supercooling-facilitating KF7G induced vitrification even in diluted PVS2 probably due to inhibition of ice nucleation during cooling and rewarming and consequently resulted in higher regrowth. The results of the present study indicate the possibility that concentrations of routinely used VSs can be reduced by adding supercooling-facilitating KF7G, by which more successful cryopreservation might be achieved for a wide variety of biological materials.

  6. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-09-29

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant.

  7. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Tixier, J.S.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  8. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-03-30

    A vendor was selected for the diamond wire technology demonstration scheduled for this summer at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). A team consisting of personnel from FIU-HCET, PPPL, and AEA Technology reviewed the submitted bids. FIU-HCET will contract this vendor. At the SRS Ninth ICT teleconference, the ICT team discussed the status of the following demonstrations: LRAD; x-ray, K-edge; Strippable Coatings; Thermal Spray Vitrification; Cutting/Shearing/Dismantlement/Size Reduction; and Electrets. The LRAD demo is complete, and the x-ray/K-edge, Strippable Coatings, and Electrets demos are ongoing. The Asbestos and Thermal Spray Vitrification demos require more laboratory testing. The Cutting/Shearing/Dismantlement/Size Reduction demo is undergoing procurement. Five FIU-HCET staff members took the 1S0 14000 environmental auditor training course February 22-26, 1999, given by ASC. The test plan for the Facility Dismantlement Technology Assessment is finished and ready for internal review.

  9. Processing of bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Jan

    2010-04-12

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) formers are multicomponent alloys that vitrify with remarkable ease during solidification. Technological interest in these materials has been generated by their unique properties, which often surpass those of conventional structural materials. The metastable nature of BMGs, however, has imposed a barrier to broad commercial adoption, particularly where the processing requirements of these alloys conflict with conventional metal processing methods. Research on the crystallization of BMG formers has uncovered novel thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based processing opportunities. Unique among metal processing methods, TPF utilizes the dramatic softening exhibited by a BMG as it approaches its glass-transition temperature and decouples the rapid cooling required to form a glass from the forming step. This article reviews crystallization processes in BMG former and summarizes and compares TPF-based processing methods. Finally, an assessment of scientific and technological advancements required for broader commercial utilization of BMGs will be made.

  10. Glass Property Models, Constraints, and Formulation Approaches for Vitrification of High-Level Nuclear Wastes at the US Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang

    2015-03-02

    The legacy nuclear wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy’s Hanford site is planned to be separated into high-level waste and low-activity waste fractions and vitrified separately. Formulating optimized glass compositions that maximize the waste loading in glass is critical for successful and economical treatment and immobilization of nuclear wastes. Glass property-composition models have been developed and applied to formulate glass compositions for various objectives for the past several decades. The property models with associated uncertainties and combined with composition and property constraints have been used to develop preliminary glass formulation algorithms designed for vitrification process control and waste form qualification at the planned waste vitrification plant. This paper provides an overview of current status of glass property-composition models, constraints applicable to Hanford waste vitrification, and glass formulation approaches that have been developed for vitrification of hazardous and highly radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford site.

  11. Vitrification is not superior to rapid freezing of normozoospermic spermatozoa: effects on sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and hyaluronan binding.

    PubMed

    Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nabi, Ali; Ashourzadeh, Sareh

    2014-03-01

    Human sperm vitrification is a new cryopreservation method. This study compared the effects of rapid freezing and vitrification on various sperm parameters, hyaluronan-binding assay and DNA fragmentation and assessed the impact of cryoprotectant agents (CPA) with vitrification. A total of 30 normo-ejaculates were prepared by swim up and the motile sperm fraction was divided into four: fresh (control), rapid freezing, and two vitrification groups (a, lacking CPA; b, with CPA). For rapid freezing, a cryovial of sperm suspension was held just above the liquid nitrogen surface, and for vitrification, 30μl suspension was dropped directly into liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters, including motility, viability and morphology, declined after cryopreservation in both groups. DNA fragmentation was not significantly higher in the vitrification (15.7±4.4%) or rapid freezing (16.6±5.6%) groups when compared with controls (11.6±4.5%). The rates of hyaluronan binding were similar between the control and cryopreserved groups. Moreover, addition of CPA for vitrification had a neutral effect on rates of sperm recovery. In conclusion, vitrification has great potential for human sperm cryopreservation and does not require CPA, with its possible toxicity. However, it is not superior to rapid cryopreservation regarding sperm recovery rate in normozoospermia. Human sperm vitrification is a new cryopreservation method that has been introduced recently. This study compared the effects of rapid freezing with vitrification on rates of sperm parameters, hyaluronan-binding assay and DNA fragmentation after thawing/warming and assessed the impact of cryoprotectant agent (CPA) on vitrification. The study was performed on 30 ejaculates prepared using the swim-up technique. Each motile sperm suspension was divided into four: control (fresh); rapid freezing; and two vitrification groups (a, lacking CPA; b, with CPA). For rapid freezing, a cryovial of sperm suspension was held above the surface of

  12. Bulk GaN Ion Cleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutanabbir, O.; Gösele, U.

    2010-05-01

    Bulk or freestanding GaN is a key material in various devices other than the blue laser diodes. However, the high cost of bulk GaN wafers severely limits the large scale exploitation of these potential technologies. In this paper, we discuss some engineering issues involved in the application of the ion-cut process to split a thin layer from 2-inch freestanding GaN. This process combines the implantation of light ions and wafer bonding and can possibly be used to reduce the cost of the fabrication of GaN-based devices by allowing the transfer of several bulk quality thin layers from the same donor wafer. To achieve this multi-layer transfer several conditions must be fulfilled. Here issues related to bulk GaN surface irregularities and wafer bowing are discussed. We also describe a method to circumvent most of these problems and achieve high quality bonding.

  13. Numerical investigations of transient heat transfer characteristics and vitrification tendencies in ultra-fast cell cooling processes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Anjun; Han, Xu; Critser, John K; Ma, Hongbin

    2006-06-01

    During freezing, cells are often damaged directly or indirectly by ice formation. Vitrification is an alternative approach to cryopreservation that avoids ice formation. The common method to achieve vitrification is to use relatively high concentrations of cryoprotectant agents (CPA) in combination with a relatively slow cooling rate. However, high concentrations of CPAs have potentially damaging toxic and/or osmotic effects on cells. Therefore, establishing methods to achieve vitrification with lower concentrations of CPAs through ultra-fast cooling rates would be advantageous in these aspects. These ultra-fast cooling rates can be realized by a cooling system with an ultra-high heat transfer coefficient (h) between the sample and coolant. The oscillating motion heat pipe (OHP), a novel cooling device utilizing the pressure change to excite the oscillation motion of the liquid plugs and vapor bubbles, can significantly increase h and may fulfill this aim. The current investigation was designed to numerically study the effects of different values of h on the transient heat transfer characteristics and vitrification tendencies of the cell suspension during the cooling processes in an ultra-thin straw (100 microm in diameter). The transient temperature distribution, the cooling rate and the volume ratio (x) of the ice quantity to the maximum crystallizable ice of the suspension were calculated. From these numerical results, it is concluded that the ultra-high h (>10(4) W/m2 K) obtained by OHPs could facilitate vitrification by efficiently decreasing x as well as the time to pass through the dangerous temperature region where the maximum ice formation happens. For comparison, OHPs can decrease both of the parameters to less than 20% of those from the widely used open pulled straw methods. Therefore, the OHP method will be a promising approach to improving vitrification tendencies of CPA solutions and could also decrease the required concentration of CPAs for

  14. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  16. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  17. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  18. High temperature materials for radioactive waste incineration and vitrification. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Ondrejcin, R S; Salley, L

    1986-01-01

    Incineration or vitrification of radioactive waste subjects equipment to alkaline or acidic fluxing, oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and thermal shock. It is necessary to select appropriate materials of construction and control operating conditions to avoid rapid equipment failure. Nickel- and cobalt-based alloys with high chromium or aluminum content and aluminum oxide/chromium oxide refractories with high chromium oxide content have provided the best service in pilot-scale melter tests. Inconel 690 and Monofrax K-3 are being used for waste vitrification. Haynes 188 and high alumina refractory are undergoing pilot scale tests for incineration equipment. Laboratory tests indicate that alloys and refractories containing still higher concentrations of chromium or chromium oxide, such as Inconel 671 and Monofrax E, may provide superior resistance to attack in glass melter environments.

  19. The nature of the volatile technetium species formed during vitrification of borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Bradley C.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    2015-05-26

    Vitrification of sodium pertechnetate into borosilicate glass was performed in air at 1100 C. A glass with a composition similar to the one developed for vitrification of the low activity waste at the Hanford site was used. A red volatile species was observed above 600° C. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure results indicate the environment of the absorbing Tc atom consists of 2.9(6) O atoms at 1.73(2) A° , 2.2(4) O atoms at 2.02(2) A° , and 0.8(2) O atoms at 2.18(2) A° . The results are consistent with the presence of a mononuclear species with a structure closely related to TcO3(OH)(H2O)2.

  20. Vitrification of mosses: a useful method for the cryopreservation of Splachnum ampullaceum Hedw.

    PubMed

    Mallon, R; Rodriguez-Oubina, J; Luz Gonzalez, M

    2010-01-01

    The source of germplasm as well as the technique used for storage of mosses can enhance survival after cryopreservation. Samples of gametophores, protonemata and protonemal brood cells from in vitro cultures of Splachnum ampullaceum were cryopreserved following exposure to a plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for two different times (5 and 10 min) at 0 degree C. Half of the samples were pretreated with a loading solution containing 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose before exposure to PVS2. After one week storage in liquid nitrogen, S. ampullaceum samples were regenerated on Gamborg's B5 mineral medium with B5 vitamins. Exposure to a loading solution was a prerequisite for high survival in all samples. Four weeks after cryopreservation, 92.3 percent brood cells, 60.0 percent gametophores and 46.0 percent protonemata pretreated with a loading solution had regenerated, displaying normal growth and development, thus demonstrating that vitrification is a useful method for moss cryopreservation.

  1. In-drum vitrification of transuranic waste sludge using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave vitrification of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is being tested using actual TRU waste in a bench-scale system and simulated waste in a pilot system. In 1987, bench-scale testing was completed to determine the effectiveness of in-drum microwave vitrification of simulated precipitation sludge. The equipment used in the bench tests included a 6-kW, 2.45-GHz microwave generator, aluminum cavity, turntable, infrared (IR) thermometer, and screw feeder. Results similar to those achieved in bench-scale testing are reproducible using a 915-MHz microwave system in solidifying simulated TRU sludge. Nine samples have been processed to date. Also, preliminary results using actual TRU waste indicate that the actual waste will behave in a similar way to the surrogate waste used in the 2.45-GHz system. Work is ongoing to complete the TRU waste tests.

  2. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  3. Vitrification of F006 plating waste sludge by Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    Solidification into glass of nickel-on-uranium plating wastewater treatment plant sludge (F006 Mixed Waste) has been demonstrated at the Savannah River She (SRS). Vitrification using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), greatly enhanced the solubility and retention of heavy metals In glass. The bench-scale tests using RASP achieved 76 wt% waste loading In both soda-lime-silica and borosilicate glasses. The RASP has been Independently verified by a commercial waste management company, and a contract awarded to vitrify the approximately 500,000 gallons of stored waste sludge. The waste volume reduction of 89% will greatly reduce the disposal costs, and delisting of the glass waste is anticipated. This will be the world`s first commercial-scale vitrification system used for environmental cleanup of Mixed Waste. Its stabilization and volume reduction abilities are expected to set standards for the future of the waste management Industry.

  4. Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, G A; Kim, H Y; Kim, J W; Lee, G; Lee, E; Ahn, J Y; Park, J H; Lim, J M

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between cryo-damage and ART outcome after cryopreservation of mouse ovarian tissues with different methods. Either a vitrification or a slow freezing was employed for the cryopreservation of B6CBAF1 mouse ovaries and follicle growth and the preimplantation development of intrafollicular oocytes following parthenogenesis or IVF were monitored. Both cryopreservation protocols caused significant damage to follicle components, including vacuole formation and mitochondrial deformities. Regardless of the cryopreservation protocols employed, a sharp (P < 0.0001) decrease in follicle viability and post-thaw growth was detected. When IVF program was employed, significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cleavage and blastocyst formation was notable in both modes of cryopreservation. However, such retardation was not found when oocytes were parthenogenetically activated. In the IVF oocytes, slow freezing led to better development than vitrification. In conclusion, a close relationship between cryopreservation and ART methods should be considered for the selection of cryopreservation program.

  5. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  6. The impact of safety analyses on the design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, T.J.; Yee, A.K.; Reisdorf, J.B.; Hall, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    Accident analyses are being performed to evaluate and document the safety of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The safety of the HWVP is assessed by evaluating worst-case accident scenarios and determining the dose to offsite and onsite receptors. Air dispersion modeling is done with the GENII computer code. Three accidents are summarized in this paper, and their effects on the safety and the design of the HWVP are demonstrated.

  7. Post-Vitrification Cure Kinetics of High Temperature Composite Resins: Implications for Characterization and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-09

    Viewgraph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2013- May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE POST-VITRIFICATION CURE KINETICS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPOSITE RESINS...transition temperature of the composite resin on the extent of cure leads to unusual cure effects such as 1) significant cure below the glass transition...that cure at high temperature can lead to design strategies for high-temperature composite resins that provide optimal performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  8. Comparison of conventional freezing and vitrification with dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Varago, F C; Moutacas, V S; Carvalho, B C; Serapião, R V; Vieira, F; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Brandão, F Z; Camargo, L S; Henry, M; Lagares, M A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re-expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re-expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p < 0.05). The number of dead cells in vitrified embryos of Gr. 2 and Gr. 3 was higher (42.6 ± 26.2 and 63.2 ± 34.65, respectively) in comparison with Gr. 1 (conventional freezing, 10.1 ± 8.5, p < 0.05). Embryos vitrified with dimethylformamide included the same quality of apoptotic cells that Gr. 1 (conventional freezing) and fresh embryos. In conclusion, the dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol used as cryoprotectant to vitrify ovine embryos, in the concentrations and exposition time tested in this work, were not as efficient as the conventional freezing for cryopreservation of ovine embryos Thus, the conventional freezing with ethylene glycol was the most efficient method to cryopreserve ovine embryos in comparison with vitrification.

  9. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-05-13

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

  10. Comparison of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol for the vitrification of immature porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Nakai, Michiko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Egerszegi, István; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to optimize a cryoprotectant treatment for vitrification of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG. After warming, the COCs were in vitro matured (IVM), and surviving oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cultured. The mean survival rate of vitrified oocytes in 35% PG (73.9%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in 35% EG (27.8%). Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among vitrified and non-vitrified control groups. Blastocyst formation in the vitrified EG group (10.8%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in the vitrified PG group (2.0%) but was lower than that in the control group (25.0%). Treatment of oocytes with 35% of each cryoprotectant without vitrification revealed a higher toxicity of PG on subsequent blastocyst development compared with EG. The combination of EG and PG resulted in 42.6% survival after vitrification. The maturation and fertilization rates of the surviving oocytes were similar in the vitrified, control and toxicity control (TC; treated with EG+PG combination without cooling) groups. Blastocyst development in the vitrified group was lower (P<0.05) than that in the control and TC groups, which in turn had similar development rates (10.7%, 18.1% and 23.3%, respectively). In conclusion, 35% PG enabled a higher oocyte survival rate after vitrification compared with 35% EG. However, PG was greatly toxic to oocytes. The combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG yielded reasonable survival rates without toxic effects on embryo development.

  11. Vitrification of Sperm from Marine Fishes: Effect on Motility and Membrane Integrity.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Chesney, Edward J; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2015-06-01

    Our goal was to develop a standardized approach for sperm vitrification of marine fishes that can be applied generally in aquatic species. The objectives were to: 1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants over a range of concentrations; 2) evaluate the properties of vitrification solutions (VS); 3) evaluate different thawing solutions, and 4) evaluate sperm quality after thawing by examination of motility and membrane integrity. Sperm were collected from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). A total of 29 combinations of cryoprotectants were evaluated for toxicity and glass formation. Samples were loaded onto 10-µL polystyrene loops and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-thaw motility among VS and among species when using the same VS. The sperm in VS of 15% DMSO + 15% ethylene glycol + 10% glycerol + 1% X-1000™ + 1% Z-1000™ had an average post-thaw motility of 58% and membrane integrity of 19% for spotted seatrout, 38% and 9% for red snapper, and 30% and 19% for red drum. Adaptations by marine fish to high osmotic pressures could explain the survival in the high cryoprotectant concentrations. Vitrification offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation.

  12. Remotely-Controlled Shear for Dismantling Highly Radioactive Tools In Rokkasho Vitrification Facility - 12204

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Takashi; Sawa, Shusuke; Sadaki, Akira; Awano, Toshihiko; Cole, Matt; Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru

    2012-07-01

    A high-level liquid waste vitrification facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is right in the middle of hot commissioning tests toward starting operation in fall of 2012. In these tests, various tools were applied to address issues occurring in the vitrification cell. Because of these tools' unplanned placement in the cell it has been necessary to dismantle and dispose of them promptly. One of the tools requiring removal is a rod used in the glass melter to improve glass pouring. It is composed of a long rod made of Inconel 601 or 625 and has been highly contaminated. In order to dismantle these tools and to remotely put them in a designated waste basket, a custom electric shear machine was developed. It was installed in a dismantling area of the vitrification cell by remote cranes and manipulators and has been successfully operated. It can be remotely dismantled and placed in a waste basket for interim storage. This is a very good example of a successful deployment of a specialty remote tool in a hot cell environment. This paper also highlights how commissioning and operations are done in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (authors)

  13. Determination of Intracellular Vitrification Temperatures for Unicellular Micro Organisms under Conditions Relevant for Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Meneghel, Julie; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie; Morris, G. John

    2016-01-01

    During cryopreservation ice nucleation and crystal growth may occur within cells or the intracellular compartment may vitrify. Whilst previous literature describes intracellular vitrification in a qualitative manner, here we measure the intracellular vitrification temperature of bacteria and yeasts under conditions relevant to cryopreservation, including the addition of high levels of permeating and nonpermeating additives and the application of rapid rates of cooling. The effects of growth conditions that are known to modify cellular freezing resistance on the intracellular vitrification temperature are also examined. For bacteria a plot of the activity on thawing against intracellular glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrated matrix (Tg’) shows that cells with the lowest value of intracellular Tg’ survive the freezing process better than cells with a higher intracellular Tg’. This paper demonstrates the role of the physical state of the intracellular environment in determining the response of microbial cells to preservation and could be a powerful tool to be manipulated to allow the optimization of methods for the preservation of microorganisms. PMID:27055246

  14. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Light Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk GaN Substrate with IQE > 80% at 150 A/cm2 and 100 0C

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; David, Aurelien; Grundmann, Michael; Tyagi, Anurag; Craven, Michael; Hurni, Christophe; Cich, Michael

    2015-03-31

    GaN is a crucial material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the violet-to-green range. Despite its good performance, it still suffers from significant technical limitations. In particular, the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs decreases at high current (“current droop”) and high temperature (“temperature droop”). This is problematic in some lighting applications, where a high-power operation is required. This program studied the use of particular substrates to improve the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs: bulk semipolar (SP) GaN substrates. These substrates possess a very high material quality, and physical properties which are distinctly different from legacy substrates currently used in the LED industry. The program focused on the development of accurate metrology to quantify the performance of GaN-based LEDs, and on improvement to LED quality and design on SP substrates. Through a thorough optimization process, we demonstrated violet LEDs with very high internal quantum efficiency, exceeding 85% at high temperature and high current. We also investigated longer-wavelength blue emitters, but found that the limited strain budget was a key limitation.

  16. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration during vitrification of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Asada, Masatsugu; Ishibashi, Satomi; Ikumi, Sachiko; Fukui, Yutaka

    2002-10-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as a substitute for serum in a vitrification solution for in vitro matured bovine oocytes. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were cryopreserved in various vitrification solutions (VS) supplemented with different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1%) of PVA, 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) or without macromolecule supplementation in a gel-loading tip (GL-tip). After warming, vitrified oocytes were examined for effects on survivability, fertilizability, and embryonic development in vitro. At 18 h in vitro fertilization after vitrifying and warming, the number of surviving mature oocytes vitrified in VS without macromolecule supplementation was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those with macromolecule supplementation. For fertilizability after vitrification, there was no significant difference in the penetration rate of oocytes among fresh oocytes (98.7%); oocytes vitrified in VS supplemented with 0.1 (76.8%), 0.5 (70.2%), or 1% (80.3%) PVA; 20% (84.1%) FCS; or without supplementation (61.7%). Also, the normal fertilization rate was not significantly different in oocytes vitrified with 0.1 (56.5%), 0.5 (43.5%), or 1% (49.7%) PVA and 20% (60.6%) FCS, compared with fresh oocytes (84.0%). Subsequently, vitrified oocytes were examined for embryonic development effects in vitro. The highest proportion of cleaved oocytes after vitrification was obtained in VS supplemented with 0.1% (18.8%) PVA. Additionally, the proportion of development to morula stage (7.7%) in the oocytes vitrified in a VS supplemented with 0.1% PVA was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to that of the 0, 0.5, and 1% PVA-vitrified groups. However, the beneficial effect of PVA addition was not found in blastocyst development. Embryonic development of vitrified oocytes was significantly lower than that of fresh oocytes. In conclusion, the present results indicate that 0.1% PVA supplementation in VS results in a significantly higher rate of morula stage embryos than 0, 0.5, and

  17. Effective Oocyte Vitrification and Survival Techniques for Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Jee; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2015-06-01

    Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using vitrified-thawed (VT) oocytes has been studied; however, the cloning efficiency of these oocytes is not comparable with that of nonvitrified (non-V) fresh oocytes. This study sought to optimize the survival and cryopreservation of VT oocytes for SCNT. Co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 15 h significantly improved the survival of VT oocytes and their in vitro developmental potential following SCNT in comparison to co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 2, 5, or 24 h (p<0.05). Spindle assessment via the Oosight Microscopy Imaging System and microtubule staining revealed that vitrified metaphase II oocytes (VT group) were not suitable for SCNT. However, enucleating and/or activating oocytes prior to freezing enhanced their developmental potential and suitability for SCNT. The cloning efficiency of the enucleated-activated-vitrified-thawed (EAVT) group (21.6%) was better than that of the other vitrification groups [enucleated-vitrified-thawed (EVT) group, 13.7%; VT group, 15.0%; p<0.05] and was comparable with that of the non-V group (25.9%). The reactive oxygen species level was significantly lower in the EAVT group than in the other vitrification groups (p<0.05). mRNA levels of maternal genes (ZAR1, BMP15, and NLRP5) and a stress gene (HSF1) were lower in the vitrification groups than in the non-V group (p<0.05), whereas the level of phospho-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not differ among the groups. Among the vitrification groups, blastocysts in the EAVT group had the best developmental potential, as judged by their high mRNA expression of developmental potential-related genes (POU5f1, Interferon-tau, and SLC2A5) and their low expression of proapoptotic (CASP3) and stress (Hsp70) genes. This study demonstrates that SCNT using bovine frozen-thawed oocytes can be successfully achieved using optimized vitrification and co-culture techniques.

  18. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David; Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report

  19. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cell suspensions by encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhenfang; Chen, Long; Zhao, Bing; Zhu, Yongxing; Wang, Qiaochun

    2012-01-01

    Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are two newly developed techniques for cryopreservation of embryogenic cell suspensions. Here, we describe the two protocols using grapevine (Vitis) as a model plant. Cell suspensions at the exponential growth stage cultured in a cell suspension maintenance medium are encapsulated to form beads, each being about 4 mm in diameter and containing 25% cells. In the encapsulation-vitrification procedure, the beads are stepwise precultured in increasing concentrations of sucrose medium up to 0.75 M, with 1 day for each concentration. The precultured beads are treated with a loading solution for 60 min and then dehydrated with plant vitrification solution 2 at 0°C for 270 min before a direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Following cryostorage, the beads are rapidly rewarmed at 40°C for 3 min and then unloaded with 1 M sucrose solution for 30 min. In the encapsulation-dehydration procedure, the beads are precultured in increasing concentrations of sucrose medium up to 1 M, with 1 day for each concentration, and then maintained on 1 M sucrose medium for 3 days. The precultured beads are dehydrated for 6 h under a sterile air flow, prior to rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen. The freezing and rewarming procedures are the same as used in the encapsulation-vitrification technique. The unloaded beads from encapsulation-vitrification and rewarmed beads from encapsulation-dehydration are postcultured on a recovery medium for 3 days at 25°C in the dark for survival. Surviving cells are transferred to a regrowth medium to induce cell proliferation. Embryogenic cell suspensions are reestablished by suspending the cells in a cell suspension maintenance medium maintained on a gyratory shaker at 25°C in the dark. For plant regeneration, surviving cells are transferred from the recovery medium to an embryo maturation medium and maintained at 25°C under light conditions. Embryos at the torpedo stage are cultured on a rooting

  20. Ultra rapid freezing and vitrification of human embryos derived from abnormally fertilised zygotes.

    PubMed

    Molina, I; Duque, C C; Alfonso, J; Cervera, R P; Romeu, A

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the developmental capacity of human embryos derived from abnormally fertilised zygotes (1 PN, > 3 PN; 16-18 hours after ICSI) cryopreserved using two techniques: ultra rapid freezing and vitrification. At 2-4 cell stage, (48 hours after ICSI), these abnormally fertilised embryos were then distributed in three groups: a) embryos that were cryopreserved by ultra rapid freezing (URF Group), b) embryos cryopreserved by vitrification (V Group) and c) embryos that were not cryopreserved (Control group). Survival rates and embryo development after 24 hours of in vitro culture (72 hours after ICSI) were compared. 42 embryos were cryopreserved by ultra rapid freezing in 0.5 mL straws, using a mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide (3M) and sucrose (0.25M) in a base solution consisting of IVF medium plus 20 percent (v/v) of Human Serum Albumin (HSA), and 24 embryos were vitrified in 0.25 ml straws, using a two step protocol with an equilibration solution consisting of 10 percent ethylene glycol (1.79 M) and 10 percent dimethyl sulphoxide (1.41 M) in a base solution of modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with 20 percent of HSA and a vitrification solution consisting of 20 percent ethylene glycol (3.58 M), 20 percent dimethyl sulphoxide (2.82 M) and 0.5 M sucrose in base solution. The recovery rate after thawing/warming was lower for the vitrification group (75 percent V; 83 percent URF). The number of embryos with less than 50 percent of intact blastomeres after cryopreservation was significantly higher for the URF group (0 percent V; 34 percent URF). After in vitro culture, the rate of embryos not cryopreserved (Control group) that developed in vitro (72 hours after ICSI) was the highest (86 percent), followed by group V (50 percent), while group URF was the lowest (13 percent). These differences were statistically significant. This straw method of vitrification is successful and safe.

  1. Cryotolerance of Day 2 or Day 6 in vitro produced ovine embryos after vitrification by Cryotop or Spatula methods.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Barrera, N; Cuadro, F; Crispo, M; Menchaca, A

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cryotolerance of in vitro produced ovine embryos submitted to vitrification at different developmental stages using two methods of minimum volume and rapid cooling rate. Embryos were vitrified at early stage (2 to 8-cells) on Day 2 or at advanced stage (morulae and blastocysts) on Day 6 after in vitro fertilization. Vitrification procedure consisted of the Cryotop (Day 2, n=165; Day 6, n=174) or the Spatula method (Day 2, n=165; Day 6, n=175). Non vitrified embryos were maintained in in vitro culture as a control group (n=408). Embryo survival was determined at 3h and 24h after warming, development and hatching rates were evaluated on Day 6 and Day 8 after fertilization, and total cell number was determined on expanded blastocysts. Embryo survival at 24h after warming increased as the developmental stage progressed (P<0.05) and was not affected by the vitrification method. The ability for hatching of survived embryos was not affected by the stage of the embryos at vitrification or by the vitrification method. Thus, the proportion of hatching from vitrified embryos was determined by the survival rate and was lower for Day 2 than Day 6 vitrified embryos. The percentage of blastocysts on Day 8 was lower for the embryos vitrified on Day 2 than Day 6 (P<0.05), and was lower for both days of vitrification than for non-vitrified embryos (P<0.05). No interaction of embryo stage by vitrification method was found (P=NS) and no significant difference was found in the blastocyst cell number among vitrified and non-vitrified embryos. In conclusion, both methods using minimum volume and ultra-rapid cooling rate allow acceptable survival and development rates in Day 2 and Day 6 in vitro produced embryos in sheep. Even though early stage embryos showed lower cryotolerance, those embryos that survive the vitrification-warming process show high development and hatching rates, similar to vitrification of morulae or blastocysts.

  2. Strategies for improved efficiency when implementing plant vitrification techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation technologies allow vegetatively propagated genetic resources to be preserved for extended lengths of time. Once successful methods have been established, there is a significant time investment to cryopreserve gene bank collections. Our research seeks to identify methods that could i...

  3. Negative Pressure Vitrification of the Isochorically Confined Liquid in Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrjanowicz, K.; Kaminski, K.; Koperwas, K.; Paluch, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation studies for model glass-forming liquids confined to nanoporous alumina matrices were examined together with high-pressure results. For confined liquids which show the deviation from bulk dynamics upon approaching the glass transition (the change from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann to the Arrhenius law), we have observed a striking agreement between the temperature dependence of the α -relaxation time in the Arrhenius-like region and the isochoric relaxation times extrapolated from the positive range of pressure to the negative pressure domain. Our finding provides strong evidence that glass-forming liquid confined to native nanopores enters the isochoric conditions once the mobility of the interfacial layer becomes frozen in. This results in the negative pressure effects on cooling. We also demonstrate that differences in the sensitivity of various glass-forming liquids to the "confinement effects" can be rationalized by considering the relative importance of thermal energy and density contributions in controlling the α -relaxation dynamics (the Ev/Ep ratio).

  4. Cryopreservation of zona-free cloned buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) embryos: slow freezing vs open-pulled straw vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sirisha, K; Selokar, N L; Saini, M; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Chauhan, M S; Singla, S K

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to compare the post-thaw cryosurvival rate and the level of apoptosis in vitro produced zona-free cloned buffalo blastocysts subjected to slow freezing or vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS). Zona-free cloned embryos produced by handmade cloning were divided into two groups and were cryopreserved either by slow freezing or by vitrification in OPS. Cryosurvival of blastocysts was determined by their re-expansion rate following post-thaw culture for 22-24 h. The post-thaw re-expansion rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher following vitrification in OPS (71.2 ± 2.3%) compared with that after slow freezing (41.6 ± 4.8%). For examining embryo quality, the level of apoptosis in day 8 frozen-thawed blastocysts was determined by TUNEL staining. The total cell number was not significantly different among the control non-cryopreserved cloned embryos (422.6 ± 67.8) and those cryopreserved by slow freezing (376.4 ± 29.3) or vitrification in OPS (422.8 ± 36.2). However, the apoptotic index, which was similar for embryos subjected to slow freezing (14.8 ± 2.0) or OPS vitrification (13.3 ± 1.8), was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that for the control non-cryopreserved cloned embryos (3.4 ± 0.6). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that vitrification in OPS is better than slow freezing for the cryopreservation of zona-free cloned buffalo blastocysts because it offers a much higher cryosurvival rate.

  5. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  6. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  7. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  8. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  9. Bulk amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work was to develop the competency for the synthesis of novel bulk amorphous alloys. The authors researched their synthesis methods and alloy properties, including thermal stability, mechanical, and transport properties. The project also addressed the development of vanadium-spinel alloys for structural applications in hostile environments, the measurement of elastic constants and thermal expansion in single-crystal TiAl from 300 to 750 K, the measurement of elastic constants in gallium nitride, and a study of the shock-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi alloys.

  10. Treatment of Asbestos Wastes Using the GeoMelt Vitrification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, K.G.; Thompson, L.E.; Abuku, T.; Nakauchi, H.

    2008-07-01

    The disposal of waste asbestos from decommissioning activities is becoming problematic in countries which have limited disposal space. A particular challenge is the disposal of asbestos wastes from the decommissioning of nuclear sites because some of it is radioactively contaminated or activated and disposal space for such wastes is limited. GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification is being developed as a treatment method for volume and toxicity minimization and radionuclide immobilization for UK radioactive asbestos mixed waste. The common practice to date for asbestos wastes is disposal in licensed landfills. In some cases, compaction techniques are used to minimize the disposal space requirements. However, such practices are becoming less practical. Social pressures have resulted in changes to disposal regulations which, in turn, have resulted in the closure of some landfills and increased disposal costs. In the UK, tens of thousands of tonnes of asbestos waste will result from the decommissioning of nuclear sites over the next 20 years. In Japan, it is estimated that over 40 million tonnes of asbestos materials used in construction will require disposal. Methods for the safe and cost effective volume reduction of asbestos wastes are being evaluated for many sites. The GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification process is being demonstrated at full-scale in Japan for the Japan Ministry of Environment and plans are being developed for the GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site decommissioning-related asbestos wastes. The full-scale treatment operations in Japan have also included contaminated soils and debris. The GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification process result in the maximum possible volume reduction, destroys the asbestos fibers, treats problematic debris associated with asbestos wastes, and immobilizes radiological contaminants within the resulting glass matrix. Results from recent full-scale treatment operations in Japan are discussed and plans for GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site

  11. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z.

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  12. Analysis of the Phospholipid Profile of Metaphase II Mouse Oocytes Undergoing Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Soyoung; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2014-01-01

    Oocyte freezing confers thermal and chemical stress upon the oolemma and various other intracellular structures due to the formation of ice crystals. The lipid profiles of oocytes and embryos are closely associated with both, the degrees of their membrane fluidity, as well as the degree of chilling and freezing injuries that may occur during cryopreservation. In spite of the importance of lipids in the process of cryopreservation, the phospholipid status in oocytes and embryos before and after freezing has not been investigated. In this study, we employed mass spectrometric analysis to examine if vitrification has an effect on the phospholipid profiles of mouse oocytes. Freshly prepared metaphase II mouse oocytes were vitrified using copper grids and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Fresh and vitrified-warmed oocytes were subjected to phospholipid extraction procedure. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that multiple species of phospholipids are reduced in vitrified-warmed oocytes. LIFT analyses identified 31 underexpressed and 5 overexpressed phospholipids in vitrified mouse oocytes. The intensities of phosphatidylinositol (PI) {18∶2/16∶0} [M−H]− and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) {14∶0/18∶2} [M−H]− were decreased the most with fold changes of 30.5 and 19.1 in negative ion mode, respectively. Several sphingomyelins (SM) including SM {d38∶3} [M+H]+ and SM {d34∶0} [M+K]+ were decreased significantly in positive ion mode. Overall, the declining trend of multiple phospholipids demonstrates that vitrification has a marked effect on phospholipid profiles of oocytes. These results show that the identified phospholipids can be used as potential biomarkers of oocyte undergoing vitrification and will allow for the development of strategies to preserve phospholipids during oocyte cryopreservation. PMID:25033391

  13. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  15. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  16. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  17. Cryopreservation of Day 8 equine embryos after blastocyst micromanipulation and vitrification.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fabian; Bondiolli, Kenneth; Paccamonti, Dale; Gentry, Glen T

    2016-03-15

    Pregnancy rates after cryopreservation of large equine blastocyst stage embryos have remained lower than other domesticated livestock species. It is generally accepted that the embryonic capsule is the primary barrier to cryoprotectant entry into the embryo proper and techniques need to be developed to circumvent this obstacle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop an efficient Day 8 equine embryo cryopreservation protocol through blastocyst micromanipulation and vitrification. Grade 1 and 2 embryos recovered from mares (n = 15) 8 days after ovulation were used in these experiments. In experiment 1, the effect of either one- or two-puncture treatments before aspiration of blastocoel fluid and exposure to vitrification solutions was evaluated. No difference was detected in mean embryo volume across treatment groups after exposure to vitrification solutions or after 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours of culture. Percent of embryos re-expanding at 24 hours and percent of embryos showing diameter increase at 48 and 72 hours during in vitro culture were 100%, 83%, and 75% compared with 93%, 67%, and 50% for one- and two-puncture treatment groups, respectively. Capsule loss was 25% for one-puncture and 50% for two-puncture treatment groups. In experiment 2, no difference was detected in mean embryo volume for indirect introduction (aspiration of blastocoel fluid + equilibration) and direct introduction (injection of cryoprotectant into blastocoel cavity) treatment groups, after exposure to dilution solution or to culture medium. There was no difference in mean embryo volume for the indirect and direct introduction treatment groups after 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours of culture. Percent of embryos re-expanding at 24 hours and percent of embryos showing diameter increases at 48 and 72 hours during in vitro culture were 100%, 76.9%, and 69.2%, respectively, for both treatment groups. Those embryos subjected to the direct introduction treatment had a higher (P = 0.05) percent

  18. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

  19. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. "Flame seedless" stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed.

  20. Role of molecular architecture on the vitrification of polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Glynos, Emmanouil; Frieberg, Bradley; Oh, Hyunjoon; Liu, Ming; Gidley, David W; Green, Peter F

    2011-03-25

    We show that thin film star-shaped macromolecules exhibit significant differences in their average vitrification behavior, in both magnitude and thickness dependence, from their linear analogs. This behavior is dictated by a combination of their functionality and arm length. Additionally, the glass transition temperature at the free surface of a star-shaped molecule film may be higher than that of the interior, in contrast to their linear analogs where the opposite is true. These findings have implications for other properties, due largely to the origins, entropic, of this behavior.

  1. Crystallization of High Bulk Density Nitroguanidine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AD AD-E403 332 Technical Report ARMET-TR-10045 CRYSTALLIZATION OF HIGH BULK DENSITY NITROGUANIDINE Ruslan Mudryy Reddy Damavarapu Victor ...NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Ruslan Mudryy, Reddy Damavarapu, and Victor Stepanov, ARDEC Raghunath Haider, Stevens Institute of Technology 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...automated apparatus manufactured by Mettler Toledo , model RC-1. The apparatus consists of a 1-L jacketed glass vessel with automatic controls for stirring

  2. Lessons Learned In Technology Development for Supplemental Treatment of Low-Activity Waste at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Biyani, R.K.

    2008-07-01

    Hanford needs supplemental technology treatment of low-activity waste (LAW) in addition to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The Washington State Department of Ecology requires that supplemental technology provide the same protection to human health and the environment as WTP LAW glass. In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) evaluated supplemental treatment technologies for LAW treatment and looked more closely at three: bulk vitrification (BV), steam reforming, and tailored cementitious stabilization. US DOE with Ecology's support chose to design and test BV because it believed BV would offer rapid deployment, low cost, and waste stream versatility. This paper will describe the path taken in choosing and developing technologies for additional LAW treatment capacity and, more importantly, the lessons learned along the way. In conclusion: Contractors' off-the-shelf vitrification technology that worked elsewhere may not apply easily to Hanford's waste challenges. The BV development process could have been improved by first identifying and then focusing on primary areas of concern. Continuing integrated tests at the Horn Rapids facility offers a convenient option to test both the dryer and the SMF. But the plan for development of the SMF must be short term with well defined success criteria. US DOE has the responsibility to carefully evaluate each proposal and make critical decisions that will make optimum use of limited funds. The ERP provided valuable technical guidance on improving BV's design. This must be complemented by a similar study of cost effectiveness of a process. We must have a better understanding of life cycle costs before a path for supplemental treatment is chosen. US DOE has now gained five years of experience in developing BV. It is time for US DOE to make defensible economic evaluations before further funding towards developing supplemental treatment. It must reevaluate if the projected advantages of rapid deployment, low cost, and waste

  3. Sodalite as a vehicle to increase Re retention in waste glass simulant during vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksic, Steven A.; Riley, Brian J.; Parker, Kent E.; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Technetium (Tc) retention during Hanford waste vitrification can be increased if the volatility can be controlled. Incorporating Tc into a thermally stable mineral phase, such as sodalite, is one way to achieve increased retention. Here, rhenium (Re)-bearing sodalite was tested as a vehicle to transport perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4-), into high-level (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass simulants. After melting HLW and LAW simulant feeds, the retention of Re in the glass was measured and compared with the Re retention in glass prepared from a feed containing Re2O7. Phase analysis of sodalite in both these glasses across a profile of temperatures describes the durability of Re-sodalite during the feed-to-glass transition. The use of Re sodalite improved the Re retention by 21% for HLW glass and 85% for LAW glass, demonstrating the potential improvement in Tc-retention if TcO4- were to be encapsulated in a Tc-sodalite prior to vitrification.

  4. Development of a vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for the storage of saltcedar (Tamarix boveana Bunge).

    PubMed

    Cano-Castillo, M; Casas, J L

    2012-01-01

    We cryopreserved in vitro shoot tips of saltcedar (Tamarix boveana Bunge) using the vitrification technique. The success of the cryopreservation protocol was strongly affected by preculture, loading duration, dehydration duration in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2), and medium composition during post-warming regrowth. The highest explant regrowth (50 percent) occurred when the following conditions were employed: preculture in 0.4 M glycerol; treatment with a loading solution (LS) consisting of 2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose in culture medium for 40 min at room temperature; and dehydration in PVS2 at 0 degree C for 45 min before rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN). Rewarming was performed in a water-bath at 40 degree C for 2 min. Explants were then immersed in unloading solution for 10 min before plating on recovery medium supplemented with 0.01 mg per liter thidiazuron (TDZ). TDZ was progressively eliminated from the medium over a period of 6 weeks. Plantlets were transferred to a double-layer medium to enhance rooting. This protocol was successfully applied to three individuals of T. boveana harvested from the wild.

  5. Description and capabilities of the large-scale in situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Carter, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An emerging thermal treatment process known as in situ vitrification is being developed to immobilize selected portions of radioactively contaminated soils. The process is a permanent remedial action that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides and heavy metals into a glass and crystalline form. The process's flexibility in design and broad capabilities make it potentially adaptable to mixed and chemical wastes, as well. The process consists of an electrical power system for vitrifying contaminated soil, a hood to contain gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. The process is mounted in three transportable trailers that can be easily moved from site to site. The process is capable of treating contaminated soils at least 13 m deep. The system components are designed to accommodate waste inclusions in the soil such as metals, combustibles, and large voids. Selectively applied to the more troublesome radioactively contaminated soils, in situ vitrification provides a potentially useful and permanent tool for remedial action.

  6. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures from mature Quercus suber trees using vitrification.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Silvia; Toribio, Mariano; Celestino, Cristina; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in somatic embryogenesis from selected mature trees of Quercus suber, has led to a demand for maintenance of a large number of selected embryogenic lines. To facilitate the management of this material a protocol for the long-term storage of this germplasm should be defined. This study reports on the use of a simple vitrification procedure for the successful cryopreservation of three cork oak embryogenic lines. High embryo recovery levels (88-93 percent) were obtained by first preculturing 2-4 mg clumps of two or three globular embryos on semisolid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose for three days, followed by incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution at 0 degree C for 60 min before direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. The mean number of embryos produced per explant was significantly greater for cryostored embryos than for untreated stock cultures, but the productivity of the latter was recovered in subsequent subcultures of the material produced by cryostored embryos. The germination and plant regeneration rates achieved by cultures derived from cryostored embryos, around 60 percent, were similar to those of non-cryopreserved stock cultures.

  7. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  8. Effect of electric arc vitrification of bottom ash on the mobility and fate of metals.

    PubMed

    Ecke, H; Sakanakura, H; Matsuto, T; Tanaka, N; Lagerkvist, A

    2001-04-01

    Increasing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are treated prior to landfilling or reuse. In Japan, electric arc melting is used for bottom ash vitrification that generates a glasslike slag. The objective of this paper was to assess this pretreatment technique with respect to its effect on metal mobility and metal content. Both bottom ash and slag were sampled and analyzed on total solids (TS), fixed solids (FS), particle density (pp), specific BET surface area, particle size distribution, and total element content. A six-step wet sequential extraction procedure was used for assessing metal mobility. The results were qualitatively verified by scanning electron microscopy. The major conclusion was that the availability of various metals was affected differently by electric arc vitrification. Metals were solidified, stabilized, and/or separated from the slag. The mobility of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ca was reduced. In slag, majorfractions of these elements were found in moderately reducible phases or in the residual slag lattice. The approximately three-fourths of Pb [174 +/- 7 mg (kg of FS)-1] and half of Zn content [676 +/- 352 mg (kg of FS)-1] were most likely removed from bottom ash through evaporation. The total content increases of Al, Cr, Ni, and Cd (51 +/- 3, 621 +/- 27, 138 +/- 19, and 99 +/- 32%, respectively) were probably caused by the wear of furnace refractories.

  9. Noble-metal testing results for the West Valley vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Bowan, B.W.; Jain, V.

    1989-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the slurry-fed ceramic melter (SFCM) has been in test operation since December 1984 to vitrify simulated waste slurries. Over 4 yr, a moderate range of glass formulations, some containing RuO{sub 2}, have been processed. Since these noble-metal oxides not only have a limited solubility in the melt, and are also electrically conductive, their accumulation in large amounts on the floor of the SFCM poses a potential electrical hazard to the joule-heated SFCM. The design of the WVDP melter cavity and electrode configuration is specifically intended to allow modest noble-metal accumulation without compromise to melter life or performance. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the amount of RuO{sub 2} that has accumulated on the floor of the SFCM since initiation of the WVDP vitrification test program. The total amount of RuO{sub 2} that has been processed in the SFCM to date is shown. This preliminary study indicates that the West Valley SFCM displays a good capability for sweeping insoluble noble metals through and for tolerating the remaining fraction on the floor without compromising melter life or performance over the course of the WVDP radioactive vitrification campaign.

  10. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  11. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 3, Application of technical issues to the TRU-contaminated pits and trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  12. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-05-03

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  13. Reversible and athermal photo-vitrification of As50Se50 thin films deposited onto silicon wafer and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Alcón, R.; Márquez, E.; González-Leal, J. M.; Jiménez-Garay, R.; Kolobov, A. V.; Frumar, M.

    Photo-vitrification of As50Se50 thin films deposited onto silicon wafer and glass substrates has been studied using X-ray diffraction, far-infrared, and differential infrared spectroscopies. The optical study of this photo-amorphization effect has been carried out by two different methods enabling the determination of the average thickness and refractive index of a wedge-shaped thin film. The refractive-index behaviour of the as-evaporated, crystallized, and photo-vitrified As50Se50 films is analyzed within the single-oscillator approach. The optical-absorption edge is described using the non-direct transition model, and the optical energy gap is calculated. In the course of the vitrification of an As50Se50 thin film deposited on a silicon substrate the photo-oxidation of the film has been additionally detected and arsenic trioxide micro-crystals were formed on the surface of the film. Such oxidation has not been observed with As50Se50 films deposited on glass substrates, which demonstrates that the photo-vitrification phenomenon depends also on the type of substrate. Finally, it is concluded from the optical study that a reversible photo-darkening effect accompanies the photo-induced vitrification phenomenon.

  14. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    V. Jain; S. M. Barnes; B. G. Bindi; R. A. Palmer

    2000-04-30

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed.

  15. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  16. New treatment technologies for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, G.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes new treatment technologies for mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. Several processes are described including mercury removal techniques, steam reforming from aqueous organic wastes, development of plasma treatment systems, waste vitrification and control and recovery of vapor phase mercury in combustion flue gas. Continuous monitoring of mercury, ammonia, acid gases, and volatile organic compounds and a brief description of final waste form development is presented.

  17. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  18. Three dimensional in vitro culture of preantral follicles following slow-freezing and vitrification of mouse ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Fatemeh; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fatehi, Roya

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects slow-freezing and vitrification on three dimensional in vitro culture of preantral follicles, ovaries of 12-14 days old female NMRI mice were isolated and randomly assigned to fresh control, slow-freezing and vitrification groups. Slow-freezing was performed using programmable freezer. Vitrification was carried out in a medium consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) by needle immersion method. middle sized preantral follicles were mechanically isolated and cultured for 12 days in 0.7% sodium alginate gel. The follicles development and quantitative expression of oocyte specific genes (Bmp15, Gdf9, Fgf8) and the growth related genes (Igf1, Kit, Kit-l) were assessed after 1, 8 and 12 days of culture. Both cryopreserved groups showed reduction of follicular survival rates compared to the control group on days 8 and 12 of culture (P < 0.05). Antrum formation rates reduced in slow-freezing after 12 days of culture (P < 0.05). Evaluation of gene expression showed reduction of Bmp15, Gdf9, Fgf8, Kit and Kit-l during 12 days of culture (P < 0.05). Kit and Kit-l expression in slow-freezing group significantly reduced on day 8 of culture (p < 0.05). Igf1 expression was lower in slow-freezing group on 1st day of culture than vitrification and control groups (P < 0.05). Finally, intergroup comparison showed same expression pattern of genes after 12 days of culture. Thus, cryopreservation of mouse ovaries by both methods can preserve most developmental parameters and expression of maturation genes. However, vitrification is a better method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries due to greater antrum formation and expression of growth related markers.

  19. Effect of MEM vitamins and forskolin on embryo development and vitrification tolerance of in vitro-produced pig embryos.

    PubMed

    Cuello, C; Gomis, J; Almiñana, C; Maside, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Sánchez, A; Parrilla, I; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2013-01-30

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the effect of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplementation with MEM vitamins on in vitro embryo development and sensitivity to vitrification of Day 6 blastocysts and (2) to evaluate whether the addition of forskolin to in vitro culture (IVC) medium enhances blastocyst survival following Super Open Pulled Straw (SOPS) vitrification. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; n=4000) were matured with 0.0% or 0.05% (v/v) MEM vitamins. After 44h of IVM, the oocytes were in vitro fertilized, and presumptive zygotes were cultured. At Day 5 of IVC, embryos from both experimental groups were cultured for 24h with 0 or 10μM forskolin, achieving a 2×2 factorial design. The blastocyst formation rate was assessed on Day 6, and subsets of samples from the four experimental groups were vitrified (n=469) or kept fresh (n=546). Fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocysts were cultured for 24h prior to embryo survival and total blastocyst cell number assessment. The MEM vitamins increased (P<0.001) the blastocyst formation rate at Day 6, but they did not affect embryo survival after vitrification. In contrast, the addition of forskolin to the culture medium enhanced (P<0.05) the blastocyst vitrification tolerance. The total blastocyst cell number was similar among the groups. In conclusion, supplementation with 0.05% MEM vitamins improved the blastocyst formation rate, and the addition of 10μM forskolin to the culture medium increased survival in Day 6 in vitro-produced blastocysts after SOPS vitrification.

  20. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  1. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  2. Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin

    2003-01-01

    This article begins by drawing on literature to examine the various definitions of "technology" and "technique." Following a discussion of the origin of technology in education, the remaining sections of the article focus on the relationships and interaction between: (1) machines and technique; (2) science and technique; (3)…

  3. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  4. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  5. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 2, Application of technical issues to the Acid Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively.

  6. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  7. GLASS FEASIBILITY STUDY: VITRIFICATION OF OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY GUNITE WASTE USING IRON PHOSPHATE GLASS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a glass feasibility study on vitrification of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite waste into an Iron Phosphate glass. This glass feasibility study is part of a larger ORNL Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability program (TTPSR1-6-WT-31). The treatability program explores different immobilization techniques of placing Gunite waste into a glass or grout form for long term storage. ORNL Gunite tanks contain waste that originated from years of various ORNL Research and Development programs. The available analyses of the Gunite Waste Tanks indicate, uranium and/or thorium as the dominant chemical constituent (50% +) and Cs{sup 137} the primary radionuclide. This information was utilized in determining a preliminary iron phosphate glass formulation. Chemical and physical properties: processing temperature, waste loading capability, chemical durability, density and redox were determined.

  8. Sodalite as a vehicle to increase Re retention in waste glass simulant during vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Steven A.; Riley, Brian J.; Parker, Kent E.; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Technetium retention during Hanford waste vitrification can be increased by inhibiting technetium volatility from the waste glass melter. Incorporating technetium into a mineral phase, such as sodalite, is one way to achieve this. Rhenium-bearing sodalite was tested as a vehicle to transport perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4-), into high-level (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. After melting feeds of these two glasses, the retention of rhenium was measured and compared with the rhenium retention in glass prepared from a feed containing Re2O7 as a standard. The rhenium retention was 21% higher for HLW glass and 85% higher for LAW glass when added to samples in the form of sodalite as opposed to when it was added as Re2O7, demonstrating the efficacy of this type of an approach.

  9. XRF in waste glass analysis and vitrification process control, Part 1: Sample preparation and measurement precision

    SciTech Connect

    Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J.; Jurgensen, A.; Cicero, C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The analysis of several waste glasses has been carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in an attempt to develop a simple, rapid, and consistent procedure for specimen preparation. Glass disk specimens, suitable for XRF analysis, can be prepared by casting the melt directly into a preheated graphite mold followed by annealing for 30 minutes at 500{degrees}C. With this technique specimens could be available for analysis within 45 minutes. Element x-ray intensities, measured from replicate specimens, were found to be highly reproducible, with relative standard deviations typically less than one percent. This XRF analysis is much more rapid and may afford greater accuracy than conventional wet chemical techniques in waste glass analysis. Furthermore, this XRF analysis may be used in vitrification process control by permitting on-site monitoring of glass composition. A product control strategy is discussed.

  10. Demonstration of vitrification of surrogate F006 waste-water treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cicero, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    A demonstration program with the focus on vitrification of surrogate formulations of Savannah River Site M-Area wastewater treatment sludges has been completed. The program utilized commercially available melting equipment, supplied by EnVitCo, Inc., and Stir Melter, Inc., located at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratories. Over 2000 kg of glass was manufactured in a series of five separate tests with four formulations. Glasses were characterized by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT), with all glasses showing leach characteristics better than Land Disposal Requirements (LDR) for corresponding F006 waste (TCLP) and benchmark environmental assessment glasses (PCT). Offgas sampling by EPA Method 5 was conducted, including chemical analysis of filter residue and impinger solution. Data is presented on glass leaching, offgas sampling, phase separation, and melter performance.

  11. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Corbett, R A; Morrison, W S

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications.

  12. Thermal vitrification in suspensions of soft colloids: molecular dynamics simulations and comparison with experiments.

    PubMed

    Rissanou, A N; Vlassopoulos, D; Bitsanis, I A

    2005-01-01

    Dense suspensions of multiarm star polymers are known to develop liquidlike microstructure, which has been attributed to the similarities between high functionality stars and colloidal particles interacting via soft, long ranged potentials. Recent experimental studies reported a counterintuitive solidification of suspensions with f=128 , upon increase of the temperature in marginal solvents. We present our results from molecular dynamics simulations of dense suspensions of multiarm star polymers. Star polymers are modeled as "soft spheres" interacting via a theoretically developed potential of mean field. Our results show a transition towards a "glassy" state at a temperature very close to the one reported experimentally. The features of the transition are consistent with those of ideal glass transitions, as described by ideal mode coupling theory. Furthermore, our findings illustrate the road to vitrification for these soft-colloidal suspensions. Higher temperatures result in arm expansion that causes jamming and more than compensates for faster short time, temperature induced kinetics.

  13. First Commercial US Mixed Waste Vitrification Facility: Permits, Readiness Reviews, and Delisting of Final Wasteform

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Norford, S.W.; Diener, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Co. (WSRC) contracted GTS Duratek (Duratek) to construct and operate the first commercial vitrification facility to treat an F-006 mixed (radioactive/hazardous) waste in the United States. The permits were prepared and submitted to the South Carolina state regulators by WSRC - based on a detailed design by Duratek. Readiness Assessments were conducted by WSRC and Duratek at each major phase of the operation (sludge transfer, construction, cold and radioactive operations, and a major restart) and approved by the Savannah River Department of Energy prior to proceeding. WSRC prepared the first `Upfront Delisting` petition for a vitrified mixed waste. Lessons learned with respect to the permit strategy, operational assessments, and delisting from this `privatization` project will be discussed.

  14. Supercooling and vitrification of aqueous glycerol solutions at normal and high pressures.

    PubMed

    Miyata, K; Hayakawa, S; Kajiwara, K; Kanno, H

    2012-10-01

    The supercooling and vitrification of aqueous glycerol solutions was studied at high pressures. Homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures (T(H)) were obtained for aqueous glycerol solutions of R=50, 30, 20, 12, and 10 (R: moles of water/moles of glycerol) up to 300MPa. The R=20 glycerol solution formed a glass above 200MPa at a cooling rate of 200°C/min, indicating that pressure enhances glass-formation of aqueous glycerol solutions. The (dT(g)/dP) values were obtained for vitrified aqueous glycerol solutions of R=3, 5, 10, and 20. These data can be used for the development of cryo-preservation liquids for living cells at high pressures.

  15. In Situ Vitrification: Recent test results for a contaminated soil melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy and other clients for the stabilization of soils and sludges contaminated with radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. ISV is a process that immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline product that is similar to obsidian. In June 1987, a large-scale test of the process was completed at a transuranic- contaminated soil site. This constituted the first full-scale demonstration of the ISV process at an actual site. This paper summarizes the preliminary results of this test and describes the processes' potential adaptation to radioactive and hazardous chemical waste contaminated soils. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  16. In situ vitrification: Test results for a contaminated soil-melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy to stabilize soils and sludges that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. ISV is a process that immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline product similar to obsidian and basalt. In June 1987, a large-scale test of the process was completed at a transuranic-contaminated soil site. The test constituted the first full-scale demonstration of ISV at an actual site. This paper summarizes the results of that test and describes the potential adaptation of the process to radioactive and hazardous chemical waste-contaminated soils. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Environmental Compliance at the West Valley Demonstration Project: The Vitrification Permitting Program

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Salvatori; C. B. Banzer; W. T. Watters

    1996-05-28

    The major environmental laws that apply to the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are the: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Clean Air Act (CAA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA). Regulations developed in accordance with these laws are administered by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through state and federal programs, and regulatory requirements such as permitting. The Environmental Permits & Reports (EP&R) Group of the Environmental Affairs (EA) Department has the primary responsibility for developing a site-wide permitting program for the WVDP and obtaining the necessary permits. This report discusses the permits and the permitting process associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF).

  18. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  19. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  20. Vitrification, in vitro fertilization, and development of Atg7 deficient mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Soyoung; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Suh, Chang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Objective Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. Methods Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. Results The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7f/f;Zp3-Cre (Atg7d/d) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7f/f) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7d/d oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7f/f oocytes, comparable to the Atg5d/d oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7d/d MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7d/d oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. Conclusion We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7d/d oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses. PMID:27104152

  1. Vitrification of oocytes from endangered Mexican gray wolves (Canis lupus baileyi).

    PubMed

    Boutelle, S; Lenahan, K; Krisher, R; Bauman, K L; Asa, C S; Silber, S

    2011-03-01

    Careful genetic management, including cryopreservation of genetic material, is central to conservation of the endangered Mexican gray wolf. We tested a technique, previously used to vitrify human and domestic animal oocytes, on oocytes from domestic dogs as a model and from the endangered Mexican wolf. This method provided a way to conserve oocytes from genetically valuable older female Mexican wolves as an alternative to embryos for preserving female genes. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of 36 female dogs in December and March (0 to 65 oocytes per female) and from six female wolves (4 to 73 per female) during their physiologic breeding season, or following stimulation with the GnRH agonist deslorelin. Oocytes from dogs were pooled; half were immediately tested for viability and the remainder vitrified, then warmed and tested for viability. All oocytes were vitrified by being moved through media of increasing cryoprotectant concentration, placed on Cryotops, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was no difference in viability (propidium iodide staining) between fresh and vitrified, warmed dog oocytes (65.7 and 61.0%, respectively, P = 0.27). Oocyte viability after warming was similarly assessed in a subset of wolves (4 to 15 oocytes from each of three females; total 29 oocytes). Of these, 57.1% of the post-thaw intact oocytes were viable, which was 41.4% of all oocytes warmed. These were the first oocytes from a canid or an endangered species demonstrated to have maintained viability after vitrification and warming. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that vitrification of oocytes with the Cryotop technique was an option for preserving female gametes from Mexican wolves for future use in captive breeding programs, although in vitro embryo production techniques must first be developed in canids for this technique to be used.

  2. Birth of a domestic cat kitten produced by vitrification of lipid polarized in vitro matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Galiguis, Jason; Gómez, Martha C; Leibo, S P; Pope, C Earle

    2014-06-01

    The ability to cryopreserve oocytes is an effective method to retain valuable genetic material of mammals, including that of endangered animals. Embryos of domestic cats are amenable to cryopreservation, whereas their oocytes are much less cryo-tolerant. The capability of oocytes to survive cryopreservation is affected by several factors, one of which has been hypothesized to be the high concentration of intracellular lipids. To test this hypothesis, in this study we polarized lipids of cat oocytes and tested their cooling and freezing sensitivity. We found that the sensitivity of oocytes to cooling and cryopreservation does appear to be related to their high intracellular lipid content, as indicated by higher cryosurvival and development into blastocysts when intracellular lipids of in vitro matured oocytes were polarized before vitrification. However, polarization of all intracellular lipids was detrimental to development of embryos. Cell numbers in blastocysts derived from fully polarized/vitrified oocytes were significantly lower than those of partially polarized/vitrified or non-vitrified/fresh oocytes. Although embryos derived from fully polarized/vitrified oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage at higher rates than those of partially polarized/vitrified or non-centrifuged/vitrified oocytes, their in vivo developmental competence was compromised. When embryos derived from fully polarized/vitrified oocytes were transferred, although two recipients became pregnant, all implanted embryos were reabsorbed. In contrast, when embryos derived from oocytes that were only partially lipid polarized before vitrification and then were transferred, one recipient did become pregnant and produced a live healthy kitten. The present results suggest that other approaches to altering intra-cellular lipid levels in cat oocytes should be evaluated to improve their functional survival after cryopreservation.

  3. Strong isotope effects on melting dynamics and ice crystallisation processes in cryo vitrification solutions.

    PubMed

    Kirichek, Oleg; Soper, Alan; Dzyuba, Boris; Callear, Sam; Fuller, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of crystalline ice during cooling, and further crystallization processes during re-warming are considered to be key processes determining the success of low temperature storage of biological objects, as used in medical, agricultural and nature conservation applications. To avoid these problems a method, termed vitrification, is being developed to inhibit ice formation by use of high concentration of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling, but this is only successful across a limited number of biological objects and in small volume applications. This study explores physical processes of ice crystal formation in a model cryoprotective solution used previously in trials on vitrification of complex biological systems, to improve our understanding of the process and identify limiting biophysical factors. Here we present results of neutron scattering experiments which show that even if ice crystal formation has been suppressed during quench cooling, the water molecules, mobilised during warming, can crystallise as detectable ice. The crystallisation happens right after melting of the glass phase formed during quench cooling, whilst the sample is still transiting deep cryogenic temperatures. We also observe strong water isotope effects on ice crystallisation processes in the cryoprotectant mixture. In the neutron scattering experiment with a fully protiated water component, we observe ready crystallisation occurring just after the glass melting transition. On the contrary with a fully deuteriated water component, the process of crystallisation is either completely or substantially supressed. This behaviour might be explained by nuclear quantum effects in water. The strong isotope effect, observed here, may play an important role in development of new cryopreservation strategies.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  5. Methods for estimation of covariance matrices and covariance components for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate class. Each batch of plant feed material must meet certain requirements related to plant performance, and the resulting class must meet requirements imposed by the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. Properties of a process batch and the resultlng glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values from data on feed composition. Methods for checking and documenting compliance with feed and glass requirements must account for various types of uncertainties. This document focuses on the estimation. manipulation, and consequences of composition uncertainty, i.e., the uncertainty inherent in estimates of feed or glass composition. Three components of composition uncertainty will play a role in estimating and checking feed and glass properties: batch-to-batch variability, within-batch uncertainty, and analytical uncertainty. In this document, composition uncertainty and its components are treated in terms of variances and variance components or univariate situations, covariance matrices and covariance components for multivariate situations. The importance of variance and covariance components stems from their crucial role in properly estimating uncertainty In values calculated from a set of observations on a process batch. Two general types of methods for estimating uncertainty are discussed: (1) methods based on data, and (2) methods based on knowledge, assumptions, and opinions about the vitrification process. Data-based methods for estimating variances and covariance matrices are well known. Several types of data-based methods exist for estimation of variance components; those based on the statistical method analysis of variance are discussed, as are the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.

  6. Holographic vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.

  7. Review of Removal, Containment and Treatment Technologies for Remediation of Contaminated Sediment in the Great Lakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    this report under the thermal technology type are incineration processes, pyrolytic processes, vitrification processes, supercritical and wet air...more expensive. 103. A number of alternative incineration processes are available: fluidized bed, circulating bed combustor, high-temperature slagging...program for hazardous wastes. Incinerators have not been applied to contaminated dredged material to date, but they have been selected for remediation of

  8. Thermal and clinical performance of a closed device designed for human oocyte vitrification based on the optimization of the warming rate.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Miguel; Hebles, María; Migueles, Beatriz; Dorado, Mónica; Aguilera, Laura; González, Mercedes; Piqueras, Paloma; Montero, Lorena; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual; Sánchez-Martín, Fernando; Risco, Ramón

    2016-08-01

    Although it was qualitatively pointed out by Fahy et al. (1984), the key role of the warming rates in non-equillibrium vitrification has only recently been quantitatively established for murine oocytes by Mazur and Seki (2011). In this work we study the performance of a closed vitrification device designed under the new paradigm, for the vitrification of human oocytes. The vitrification carrier consists of a main straw in which a specifically designed capillary is mounted and where the oocytes are loaded by aspiration. It can be hermetically sealed before immersion in liquid nitrogen for vitrification, and it is warmed in a sterile water bath at 37 °C. Measured warming rates achieved with this design were of 600.000 ºC/min for a standard DMEM solution and 200.000 ºC/min with the vitrification solution for human oocytes. A cohort of 143 donor MII sibling human oocytes was split into two groups: control (fresh) and vitrified with SafeSpeed device. Similar results were found in both groups: survival (97.1%), fertilization after ICSI (74.7% in control vs. 77.3% in vitrified) and good quality embryos at day three (54.3% in control vs. 58.1% in vitrified) were settled as performance indicators. The pregnancy rate was 3/6 (50%) for the control, 2/3 (66%) for vitrified and 4/5 (80%) for mixed transfers.

  9. OFFGAS GENERATION FROM THE DISPOSITION OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM BY VITRIFICATION SIMULANT TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Patricia Toole, P; David Best, D; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D; Whitney Thomas, W; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-03-05

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is supporting R&D for the conceptual design of the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC to reduce the attractiveness of plutonium scrap by fabricating a durable plutonium oxide glass form and immobilizing this form within the high-level waste glass prepared in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. A glass formulation was developed that is capable of incorporating large amounts of actinides as well as accommodating many impurities that may be associated with impure Pu feed streams. The basis for the glass formulation was derived from commercial glasses that had high lanthanide loadings. A development effort led to a Lanthanide BoroSilicate (LaBS) glass that accommodated significant quantities of actinides, tolerated impurities associated with the actinide feed streams and could be processed using established melter technologies. A Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) was used for vitrification of the Pu LaBS glass. Induction melting for the immobilization of americium and curium (Am/Cm) in a glass matrix was first demonstrated in 1997. The induction melting system was developed to vitrify a non-radioactive Am/Cm simulant combined with a glass frit. Most of the development of the melter itself was completed as part of that work. This same melter system used for Am/Cm was used for the current work. The CIM system used consisted of a 5 inch (12.7 cm) diameter inductively heated platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) containment vessel with a control system and offgas characterization. Scrap plutonium can contain numerous impurities including significant amounts of chlorides, fluorides, sodium, potassium, lead, gallium, chromium, and nickel. Smaller amounts of additional elements can also be present. The amount of chlorides present is unusually high for a melter feed. In commercial applications there is no reason to have chloride at such high concentrations. Because the melter operates at 1400

  10. Glass transition of polymers in bulk, confined geometries, and near interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, Simone; Glynos, Emmanouil; Tito, Nicholas B.

    2017-03-01

    When cooled or pressurized, polymer melts exhibit a tremendous reduction in molecular mobility. If the process is performed at a constant rate, the structural relaxation time of the liquid eventually exceeds the time allowed for equilibration. This brings the system out of equilibrium, and the liquid is operationally defined as a glass—a solid lacking long-range order. Despite almost 100 years of research on the (liquid/)glass transition, it is not yet clear which molecular mechanisms are responsible for the unique slow-down in molecular dynamics. In this review, we first introduce the reader to experimental methodologies, theories, and simulations of glassy polymer dynamics and vitrification. We then analyse the impact of connectivity, structure, and chain environment on molecular motion at the length scale of a few monomers, as well as how macromolecular architecture affects the glass transition of non-linear polymers. We then discuss a revised picture of nanoconfinement, going beyond a simple picture based on interfacial interactions and surface/volume ratio. Analysis of a large body of experimental evidence, results from molecular simulations, and predictions from theory supports, instead, a more complex framework where other parameters are relevant. We focus discussion specifically on local order, free volume, irreversible chain adsorption, the Debye–Waller factor of confined and confining media, chain rigidity, and the absolute value of the vitrification temperature. We end by highlighting the molecular origin of distributions in relaxation times and glass transition temperatures which exceed, by far, the size of a chain. Fast relaxation modes, almost universally present at the free surface between polymer and air, are also remarked upon. These modes relax at rates far larger than those characteristic of glassy dynamics in bulk. We speculate on how these may be a signature of unique relaxation processes occurring in confined or heterogeneous polymeric

  11. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  12. Physical and chemical properties of the products of in situ vitrification engineering tests 5, 6, and 7

    SciTech Connect

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.

    1991-12-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an in situ thermal treatment process that is being investigated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for application to buried waste sites. ISV is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. The INEL is evaluating whether the treatment process is a viable one for remediating a buried mixed transuranic waste site at the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. As part of the INEL investigation, a series of tests have been performed that address issues associated with vitrification of buried waste. Two pilot ISV tests and four tests at laboratory scale, formerly called engineering scale, were performed in 1990 to support the INEL investigation. The chemical composition and leaching of the produce glass is described.

  13. Development of an iodine immobilization technique by low temperature vitrification with BiPbO{sub 2}I

    SciTech Connect

    Mukunoki, Atsushi; Chiba, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Seiichiro; Asano, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Tsutomu

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes low temperature vitrification process with BiPbO{sub 2}I (BPI) as a promising immobilization technique in which Iodine-129 reacts with BiPbO{sub 2}NO{sub 3} (BPN) to form BPI, which is then solidified into a lead-boron-zinc glass matrix (PbO-B{sub 2}0{sub 3}-ZnO) using a low temperature vitrification process. Studies with EPMA, STEM-EDS and XRD found that iodine, lead and zinc were homogeneously dispersed in the waste form, and that there were no residual crystalline minerals in the amorphous glass matrix. Leaching tests conducted under typical geological disposal conditions show that iodine dissolves congruently with the BPI glass matrix in simulated seawater, whereas it dissolves incongruently in alkaline Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions. This is due to retention within an altered surface layer. (authors)

  14. Effects of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation Based on Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Rahmah, Safrina; Ahmad Mubbarakh, Safiah; Soo Ping, Khor

    2015-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages. PMID:25861687

  15. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford. CERCLA treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J; Koegler, S S; Kuhn, W L; Lowery, P S; Winkelman, R G

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test`s successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  16. Laboratory-scale vitrification and leaching of Hanford high-level waste for the purpose of simulant and glass property models validation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Elliott, M.L.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being built to process the high-level and TRU waste into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Testing programs have been established within the Project to verify process technology using simulated waste. A parallel testing program with actual radioactive waste is being performed to confirm the validity of using simulates and glass property models for waste form qualification and process testing. The first feed type to be processed by and the first to be tested on a laboratory-scale is pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The NCAW is a neutralized high-level waste stream generated from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant at Hanford. As part of the fuel reprocessing, the high-level waste generated in PUREX was denitrated with sugar to form current acid waste (CAW). Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite were added to the CAW to minimize corrosion in the tanks, thus yielding neutralized CAW. The NCAW contains small amounts of plutonium, fission products from the irradiated fuel, stainless steel corrosion products, and iron and sulfate from the ferrous sulfamate reductant used in the PUREX process. This paper will discuss the results and status of the laboratory-scale radioactive testing.

  17. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sant, Rajnesh; Taylor, Mary; Tyagi, Anand

    2006-01-01

    In vitro shoot-tips of three cultivars of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Different conditioning treatments were required for each of the cultivars, while the vitrification protocol was constant for all. For the cultivars E399 and CPUK, shoot-tips from three-month-old in vitro plants grown on solidified MS were preconditioned on MS with 0.3 M sucrose in the dark for 16 h at 25 degree C. For the cultivar TNS, donor plants were preconditioned on solid MS with 90 g per liter sucrose for seven weeks before cryopreservation. For vitrification, the shoot-tips were loaded with a solution of 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degree C, dehydrated with PVS2 for 12 min at 25 degree C and plunged in liquid nitrogen. Vials were warmed by rapid shaking in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min 30. Shoot-tips were rehydrated in liquid MS with 1.2 M sucrose for 15 min at 25 degree C then plated on recovery medium. Shoot-tips resumed growth within a week and developed into plantlets six to eight weeks later without any callus formation. The best mean recoveries for the three cultivars were 21, 29 and 30 percent for E399, CPUK and TNS, respectively. This protocol was evaluated with five other taro cultivars with no success. However, this study has shown that vitrification has potential for cryopreserving tropical taro.

  18. Conservation of somatic tissue derived from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758) using direct or solid-surface vitrification techniques.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alana Azevedo; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; de Queiroz Neta, Luiza Bento; Santos, Maria Valéria de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Pereira, Alexsandra Fernandes

    2017-03-04

    Cryopreservation of somatic tissue can be applied in biodiversity conservation, especially for wild species as collared peccary. We aimed to evaluate the effect of vitrification techniques of ear tissue of collared peccary [direct vitrification in cryovials (DVC) or solid-surface vitrification (SSV)] on the layers of epidermis and dermis by conventional histology and cell ability during the in vitro culture. Thus, both the vitrification methods were able to maintain normal patterns of the epidermis as the cornea and granular layers, furthermore the intercellular space and dermal-epidermal junction of the spinous layer when compared to fresh control. Nevertheless, DVC and SSV percentage of normality decreased in the morphological integrity of cytoplasm (37.5 and 25.0%) of spinous layer, respectively, as compared to the fresh fragments (100%, p < 0.05). Moreover, other differences between the fresh control (100%) and DVC tissues were verified in the intra-epidermal cleavage of the spinous (37.5%) and basal (37.5%) layers. In general, DVC and SSV techniques were efficient for the recovery of the somatic cells according to most of the evaluated parameters for the in vitro culture (p > 0.05). In addition, only at time of 72 h (D3), in the growth curve, DVC fragments showed a reduced cell concentration than fresh control. In conclusion, SSV was found to be a more efficient method for vitrifying collared peccary skin tissue when compared to DVC. These results are relevant for the tissue cryopreservation from collared peccary and could also be useful for mammals with phylogenetic relationships.

  19. Ultra-Structural Alterations in In Vitro Produced Four-Cell Bovine Embryos Following Controlled Slow Freezing or Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, T; Popken, J; Guengoer, T; Yilmaz, O; Uyanikgil, Y; Ates, U; Baka, M; Oztas, E; Zakhartchenko, V

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of freezing and preserving cells and tissues at low temperatures. Controlled slow freezing and vitrification have successfully been used for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos. We investigated the effect of these two cryopreservation methods on in vitro produced four-cell stage bovine embryos which were classified according to their quality and separated into three groups. The first group was maintained as untreated controls (n = 350). Embryos of the second (n = 385) and the third (n = 385) groups were cryopreserved either by controlled slow freezing or by vitrification. Embryos in groups 2 and 3 were thawed after 1 day. Hundred embryos were randomly selected from the control group, and 100 morphologically intact embryos from the second and third group were thawed after 1 day and cultured to observe the development up to the blastocyst stage. The blastocyst development rate was 22% in the control group, 1% in the slow-freezing group and 3% in the vitrification group. Remaining embryos of all three groups were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy with subsequent histological staining procedures. Cryopreservation caused degenerative changes at the ultra-structural level. Compared with vitrification, slow freezing caused an increased mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the nuclear and plasma membrane integrity, organelle disintegration, cytoskeletal damage, a reduced thickness of the zona pellucida and a formation of fractures in the zona pellucida. Further studies are required to understand and decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation.

  20. Direct comparison of Cryotop(®) vitrification and Bicell(®) freezing on recovery of functional rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takahiro; Tashima, Kazuya; Takahashi, Rio; Takashima, Seiji; Goto, Teppei; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

    2016-12-01

    Two protocols, Bicell(®) freeze-thawing and Cryotop(®) vitrification-warming, were compared for suitability in cryopreserving rat pancreatic islets (101-150 μm in mean diameter). Immediate survival rates of post-thaw and post-warm islets (50 and 57%, respectively), assessed by FDA/PI double staining, were lower than that of fresh control islets (90%). Most of the PI-positive dead cells were detected in peripheral area of post-warm islets, and were removed after subsequent 24 h culture (survival rate; 85% vs 59% in post-thaw islets). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that Bicell(®) freeze-thawing compromised expression of genes relating to β-cell function (Pdx1 and Glut2), but not to one of apoptotic pathways (Bax/Bcl2 ratio). Expression of these genes was maintained in islets before and after the Cryotop(®) vitrification-warming. Values of stimulus index (SI) for 20 mM/3 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were 6.7, 1.9 and 3.9 in fresh control, post-thaw and post-warm islets, respectively. The SI values after 24 h culture were 4.1, 1.9 and 3.1, respectively. Larger islets (>150 μm in diameter) had comparable survival rates, but lower SI values after Cryotop(®) vitrification-warming when compared to smaller counterparts. These results suggest that rat pancreatic islets can be cryopreserved by Cryotop(®) vitrification-warming rather than Bicell(®) freeze-thawing, without considerable loss of in vitro β-cell function.

  1. Test plan for In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test No. 6, EG G Idaho, Inc. , Job Number 318230

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The objectives of the test included the effects of in situ vitrification on containerized sludge contained in a simulated randomly-disposed array. From this arrangement, the test results obtained the following data applicable to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Large Field Testing: canister burst pressure and temperature, canister depressurization rate, melt encapsulation rate of the canister and the hood area plenum temperatures, pressures, compositional analyses, and flows as affected by gas releases. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  3. Cryoconservation of Chicken Blastodermal Cells: Effects of Slow Freezing, Vitrification, Cryoprotectant Type and Thawing Method during In Vitro Processing.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Dorota; Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Brzezinska, Jadwiga; Lakota, Pawel; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Cryoconservation of blastodermal cells (BCs) can preserve genetic material for the future reconstruction of poultry breeds. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of three slow freezing programs and vitrification, different cryoprotectants (5% DMSO, 10% DMSO, or multi-component cryoprotectant (MC) and two thawing methods on the viability of chicken BCs. Significant differences in the survival of slowly frozen BCs using program 3 (2°C/min. to 0.4°C/min.) compared with programs 1 (1°C/min. to 0.3°C/min.) and 2 (4°C/min. to 0.3°C/min.) were observed. The percentage of live BCs was significantly higher after slow freezing in the presence of the MC compared with DMSO. The thawing method did not have a significant effect on the percentage of live BCs. We also observed significant differences in the survival rate of BCs after vitrification (81%) and slow freezing in the presence of 10% DMSO using program 3 (60%). The highest percentage of viable BCs was achieved by slow freezing with the MC using program 2 and thawing with method 1 (94%). The most unfavorable combination for BCs survival was slow freezing in 5% DMSO using program 3 and thawing with method 2 (58.3%). This is the first study to apply MC to the slow freezing of BCs. We also showed successful BCs vitrification.

  4. Development of sperm vitrification protocols for freshwater fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) and marine fish (European eel, Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Kása, Eszter; Bernáth, Gergely; Kollár, Tímea; Żarski, Daniel; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Bokor, Zoltán; Hegyi, Árpád; Urbányi, Béla; Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-05-09

    Vitrification was successfully applied to the sperm of two fish species, the freshwater Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and marine European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Sperm was collected, diluted in species-specific non-activating media and cryoprotectants and vitrified by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen without pre-cooling in its vapor. Progressive motility of fresh and vitrified-thawed sperm was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Additional sperm quality parameters such as sperm head morphometry parameters (in case of European eel) and fertilizing capacity (in case of Eurasian perch) were carried out to test the effectiveness of vitrification. The vitrification method for Eurasian perch sperm resulting the highest post-thaw motility (14±1.6%) was as follows: 1:5 dilution ratio, Tanaka extender, 30% cryoprotectant (15% methanol+15% propylene-glycol), cooling device: Cryotop, 2μl droplets, and for European eel sperm: dilution ratio 1:1, with 40% cryoprotectant (20% MeOH and 20% PG), and 10% FBS, cooling device: Cryotop, with 2μl of sperm suspension. Viable embryos were produced by fertilization with vitrified Eurasian perch sperm (neurulation: 2.54±1.67%). According to the ASMA analysis, no significant decrease in head area and perimeter of vitrified European eel spermatozoa were found when compared to fresh spermatozoa.

  5. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP.

  6. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Scharber, M C; Sariciftci, N S

    2013-12-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10-15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley-Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices.

  7. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10–15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley–Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices. PMID:24302787

  8. Looking for a bulk point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  9. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Importers must still report 24 hours in advance of loading any containerized or non-qualifying break bulk... this chapter that a cargo declaration be filed with Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 24 hours before... Border Protection (CBP) 24 hours before such cargo is laden aboard the vessel at the foreign port,...

  10. Reaction of Inconel 690 and 693 in Iron Phosphate Melts: Alternative Glasses for Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E. Kim, Cheol-Woon

    2005-09-13

    The corrosion resistance of candidate materials used for the electrodes (Inconel 690 & 693) and the melt contact refractory (Monofrax K-3) in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) has been investigated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) during the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (DE-FG02-04ER63831). The unusual properties and characteristics of iron phosphate glasses, as viewed from the standpoint of alternative glasses for vitrifying nuclear and hazardous wastes which contain components that make them poorly suited for vitrification in borosilicate glass, were recently discovered at UMR. The expanding national and international interest in iron phosphate glasses for waste vitrification stems from their rapid melting and chemical homogenization which results in higher furnace output, their high waste loading that varies from 32 wt% up to 75 wt% for the Hanford LAW and HLW, respectively, and the outstanding chemical durability of the iron phosphate wasteforms which meets all present DOE requirements (PCT and VHT). The higher waste loading in iron phosphate glasses, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass, can reduce the time and cost of vitrification considerably since a much smaller mass of glass will be produced, for example, about 43% less glass when the LAW at Hanford is vitrified in an iron phosphate glass according to PNNL estimates. In view of the promising performance of iron phosphate glasses, information is needed for how to best melt these glasses on the scale needed for practical use. Melting iron phosphate glasses in a JHM is considered the preferred method at this time because its design could be nearly identical to the JHM now used to melt borosilicate glasses at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Therefore, it is important to have information for the corrosion of candidate electrode

  11. Optimization of a vitrification protocol for hatched blastocysts from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Herrid, M; Billah, M; Malo, C; Skidmore, J A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to modify and optimize a vitrification protocol (open pulled straw) that was originally designed for human oocytes and embryos, to make it suitable for the cryopreservation of camel hatched blastocysts. The original open pulled straw protocol was a complex process with 15-minute exposure of oocytes/embryos in 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) for equilibration, and cooling in 16% EG + 16% Me2SO + 1 M sucrose. Recognizing a need to better control the cryoprotectant (CPA) concentrations, while avoiding toxicity to the embryos, the effects on the survival rate and developmental potential of camel embryos in vitro were investigated using two different methods of loading the CPAs into the embryos (stepwise and semicontinuous increase in concentration), two different loading temperature/time (room temperature ∼24 °C/15 min and body 37 °C/3 min), and the replacement of Me2SO with EG alone or in combination with glycerol (Gly). A total of 145 in vivo-derived embryos were subjected to these processes, and after warming their morphological quality and integrity, and re-expansion was assessed after 0, 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of culture. Exposure of embryos in a stepwise method was more beneficial to the survival of embryos than was the semicontinuous process, and loading of CPAs at 37 °C with a short exposure time (3 minutes) resulted in an outcome comparable to the original processing at room temperature with a longer exposure time (15 minutes). The replacement of the Me2SO + EG mixture with EG only or a combination of EG + Gly in the vitrification medium significantly improved the outcome of all these evaluation criteria (P < 0.05). The modified protocol of loading EG at 37 °C for 3 minutes has increased the embryo survival of the original protocol from 67% to 91% and the developmental rate from 57% to 83% at 5-day culture. These results were comparable to or better than those reported in human or other

  12. Successful Vitrification of In vivo Embryos Collected from Superovulated Japanese Black Cattle (Wagyu).

    PubMed

    An, L; Ling, P P; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Zhang, F; Ma, X; Xu, B; Wang, Y; Du, Z; Yang, L; Xue, F; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Du, F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether vitrification is an effective method when used for Japanese Black Cattle (Wagyu) in vivo-derived embryos, collected following a superovulation treatment and embryo transfer (MOET) programme. In vivo-derived morula and blastocysts collected on day 7 after artificial insemination, were vitrified using a modified droplet vitrification (MDV) procedure and subsequently warmed for transfer (ET) into synchronized recipients. Fresh embryos, and embryos cryopreserved using a standardized slow freezing procedure (direct thaw/direct transfer, DT) served as ET controls. Two different follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) sources, Folltropin(®) Canada (FSH BAH, 24 donors) and a brand prepared by the Chinese Academy of Science (FSH CAS, 16 donors), were compared in a series of superovulation outcomes following well-established FSH administration protocols. Following data analysis, the total number of ovulations recorded at the time of embryo flushing (10.5 vs 8.5; p = 0.28) and the total number of transferable embryos (6.2 vs 5.1; p = 0.52) were similar between the two FSH sources. ET for MDV (39.7%, n = 78), DT (35.2%, n = 71) and fresh controls (47.1%, n = 34) resulted in similar pregnancy rates (p > 0.05). When MDV was used, a higher pregnancy rate (42.6%) resulted from the transfer of vitrified morulae, when compared to the DT counterparts (24.3%), (p = 0.05). Transfer of vitrified morulae resulted also in higher pregnancy rate, when compared to the transfer of vitrified blastocysts (42.6% vs. 29.4%; p < 0.05). Transfer of DT blastocysts resulted in higher pregnancy rate than morulae, similarly cryopreserved (47.1% vs. 24.3%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, MDV is an effective alternative methodology for cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos. This study gives also indication that, compared to vitrified blastocysts, MDV of morula stage embryos results in higher pregnancy rates following warming and transfer into synchronized

  13. Heat Transfer in Waste Glass Melts - Measurement and Implications for Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan

    Thermal properties of waste glass melts, such as high temperature density and thermal conductivity, are relevant to heat transfer processes in nuclear waste vitrification. Experimental measurement techniques were developed and applied to four nuclear waste glasses representative of those currently projected for treatment of Hanford HLW and LAW streams to study heat flow mechanisms in nuclear waste vitrification. Density measurement results by Archimedes' method indicated that densities of the melts investigated varied considerably with composition and temperature. Thermal diffusivities of waste melts were determined at nominal melter operating temperatures using a temperature-wave technique. Thermal conductivities were obtained by combining diffusivity data with the experimentally-acquired densities of the melts and their known heat capacities. The experimental results display quite large positive dependences of conductivities on temperature for some samples and much weaker positive temperature dependences for others. More importantly, there is observed a big change in the slopes of the conductivities versus temperature as temperature is increased for two of the melts, but not for the other two. This behavior was interpreted in terms of the changing contributions of radiation and conduction with temperature and composition dependence of the absorption coefficient. Based on the obtained thermal conductivities, a simple model for a waste glass melter was set up, which was used to analyze the relative contributions of conduction and radiation individually and collectively to the overall heat flow and to investigate factors and conditions that influence the radiation contribution to heat flow. The modeling results showed that unlike the case at lower temperatures, the radiant energy flow through waste melts could be predominant compared with conduction at temperature of about 900 °C or higher. However, heat flow due to radiation was roughly equal to that from

  14. Meiotic maturation and developmental capability of ovine oocytes at germinal vesicle stage following vitrification using different cryodevices.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Wu, Guo Quan; Wang, Ya Jing; Ma, Yuan; Lv, Chun Rong; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to assess effects of vitrification on ovine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, the conventional plastic straw (CS), the open-pulled straw (OPS), and Cryoloop were used to vitrify ovine oocytes. Oocytes were randomly divided into five groups: (1) Control; (2) Oocytes exposed to vitrification and dilution solutions without any cryopreservation (toxicity); (3) Oocytes vitrified using CS (CS); (4) Oocytes vitrified using OPS (OPS), and (5) Oocytes vitrified using Cryoloop (Cryoloop). The viability, cumulus cell expansion, nuclear maturation after in vitro maturation (IVM), and developmental capability of vitrified oocytes following parthenogenetic activation (PA) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) were assessed. The pretreatment in the vitrification and dilution solutions without any freezing or thawing did not adversely influence oocytes. The viability of vitrified oocytes were significantly declined compared to unfrozen oocytes (P < 0.05). The viability of oocytes vitrified using open-pulled straws or Cryoloop was significantly higher than that in the CS group (P < 0.05). After IVM, the percentage of oocytes reaching to the metaphase II (MII) stage was significantly higher with Cryoloop and OPS following by CS. However, the in vitro maturing percentage of vitrified oocytes was significantly less than that of unfrozen oocytes (P < 0.05). After PA, the developmental capability of vitrified oocytes was significantly decreased compared to unfrozen oocytes. The cleavage rate of oocytes vitrified using conventional plastic straws was significantly less than those of the other freezing groups (P < 0.05). The cleaving capability of oocytes vitrified using Cryoloop was significantly increased compared to the OPS group. However, there was no significant difference existing amongst the freezing groups as concerning the blastocyst rate. Following IVF, the developmental capability of vitrified oocytes was severely damaged compared to that of unfrozen

  15. REL - English Bulk Data Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Richard Henry

    A bulk data input processor which is available for the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) English versions is described. In REL English versions, statements that declare names of data items and their interrelationships normally are lines from a terminal or cards in a batch input stream. These statements provide a convenient means of declaring some…

  16. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  17. Steady-state analysis of the fate of volatile contaminants during In situ Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, W.L.

    1992-05-01

    A mathematical simulation has been developed to describe the transport of water, steam, and trace concentrations of volatile contaminants in soil during the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process creates a mass of molten soil that grows during processing. Testing has shown that the vast majority of water encountered and vaporized by the growing melt is expelled from the soil and directed to an off-gas treatment system. The simulation addresses the question: under what conditions will other volatile species also be expelled from the soil and be directed to the off-gas system (or oxidized or pyrolyzed in transit)? The simulation is based on an assumed spherical symmetry of temperature, liquid saturation, and contaminant concentration profiles adjacent to an assumed expanding hemispherical melt. A set of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically to predict the transport of water and steam in two regions: a boiling region (essentially a heat pipe) assumed to be devoid of air, and a diffusion region assumed to be at constant pressure. The results of the simulation are presented in terms of the degree of sorption in soil required to predict that the contaminant is captured by the growing ISV melt. Results are presented for carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and acetone. The results are very favorable for acetone; success in capturing immiscible species such as carbon tetrachloride depend on the organic content of the soil, which affects sorption of organic species.

  18. Steady-state analysis of the fate of volatile contaminants during In situ Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, W.L.

    1992-05-01

    A mathematical simulation has been developed to describe the transport of water, steam, and trace concentrations of volatile contaminants in soil during the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process creates a mass of molten soil that grows during processing. Testing has shown that the vast majority of water encountered and vaporized by the growing melt is expelled from the soil and directed to an off-gas treatment system. The simulation addresses the question: under what conditions will other volatile species also be expelled from the soil and be directed to the off-gas system (or oxidized or pyrolyzed in transit) The simulation is based on an assumed spherical symmetry of temperature, liquid saturation, and contaminant concentration profiles adjacent to an assumed expanding hemispherical melt. A set of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically to predict the transport of water and steam in two regions: a boiling region (essentially a heat pipe) assumed to be devoid of air, and a diffusion region assumed to be at constant pressure. The results of the simulation are presented in terms of the degree of sorption in soil required to predict that the contaminant is captured by the growing ISV melt. Results are presented for carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and acetone. The results are very favorable for acetone; success in capturing immiscible species such as carbon tetrachloride depend on the organic content of the soil, which affects sorption of organic species.

  19. Simulation of radioelement volatility during the vitrification of radioactive wastes by arc plasma.

    PubMed

    Ghiloufi, Imed

    2009-04-15

    A computer model is used to simulate the volatility of some radioelements cesium ((137)Cs), cobalt ((60)Co), and ruthenium ((106)Ru) during the radioactive wastes vitrification by thermal plasma. This model is based on the calculation of system composition using the free enthalpy minimization method, coupled with the equation of mass transfer at the reactional interface. The model enables the determination of the effects of various parameters (e.g., temperature, plasma current, and matrix composition) on the radioelement volatility. The obtained results indicate that any increase in molten bath temperature causes an increase in the cobalt volatility; while ruthenium has a less obvious behavior. It is also found that the oxygen flux in the carrier gas supports the radioelement incorporations in the containment matrix, except in the case of the ruthenium which is more volatile under an oxidizing atmosphere. For electrolyses effects, an increase in the plasma current considerably increases both the vaporization speed and the vaporized quantities of (137)Cs and (60)Co. The increase of silicon percentage in the containment matrix supports the incorporation of (60)Co and (137)Cs in the matrix. The simulation results are compared favorably to the experimental measurements obtained by emission spectroscopy.

  20. Development of in situ vitrification for remediation of ORNL contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tixier, J.S.; Spalding, B.P.

    1994-08-01

    A full-scale field treatability study of in situ vitrification (ISV) is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the remediation of radioactive liquid waste seepage pits and trenches that received over one million curies of mixed fission products (mostly {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr) during the 1950s and 1960s. The treatability study is being conducted on a portion of the original seepage pit and will support an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) for closure of one or more of the seven seepage pits and trenches in early fiscal year (FY) 1996. Mr treatability study will establish ft technical performance of ISV for remediation of the contaminated soil sites. Melt operations at ORNL are expected to begin in early FY 1994. This paper presents the latest accomplishments of the project in preparation for the field testing. Discussion centers on the results of a parametric crucible melt study, a description of the site characterization efforts, and the salient features of a new hood design.

  1. Effects of solute methoxylation on glass-forming ability and stability of vitrification solutions

    PubMed

    Wowk; Darwin; Harris; Russell; Rasch

    1999-11-01

    The effects of replacing hydroxyl groups with methoxyl (OCH(3)) groups in the polyols ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), glycerol, and threitol were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during cooling of aqueous solutions to -150 degrees C and subsequent rewarming. For 35% (w/w) PG, 40% EG, and 45% glycerol, a single substitution of a terminal hydroxyl group with a methoxyl group reduced the critical cooling rate necessary to avoid ice on cooling (vitrify) from approximately 500 to 50 degrees C/min. This reduction was approximately equivalent to increasing the parent polyol concentration by 5% (w/w). The critical warming rate calculated to avoid formation of ice on rewarming (devitrification) was also reduced by methoxyl substitution, typically by a factor of 10(4) for dilute solutions. Double methoxylation (replacement of both terminal hydroxyls) tended to result in hydrate formation, making these compounds less interesting. An exception was threitol, for which substituting both terminal hydroxyls by methoxyls reduced the critical rewarming rate of a 50% solution by a factor of 10(7) without any hydrate formation. These glass-forming and stability properties of methoxylated compounds, combined with their low viscosity, enhanced permeability, and high glass transition temperatures, make them interesting candidate cryoprotective agents for cryopreservation by vitrification or freezing. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    PubMed

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  3. Vitrification: an alternative to minimize environmental impact caused by leather industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Basegio, T; Beck Leão, A P; Bernardes, A M; Bergmann, C P

    2009-06-15

    The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the immobilization of chromium ion present in the ash from the incineration of chromium-tanned leather shavings (ACS) by means of vitrified ceramic bodies. To achieve the immobilization samples were initially produced adding soda-lime glass to ACS. After that, new formulations were produced with the addition of pure oxides, TiO(2) and MgO, to the soda-lime glass and ACS sample. These samples were conformed by pressing and fired in an eletrical furnace, at temperatures of 750, 800, 950 and 1000 degrees C. The ceramic bodies were evaluated with respect to their physical properties and mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The chromium immobilization was characterized by leaching tests according to Brazilian Regulations (NBR 10005). The results confirmed the immobilization of the chromium ion within the allowed limits of Brazilian Regulations, NBR 10004 (5mg/L), with the use of glass and vitrification/densification agents such as titanium and magnesium oxides.

  4. Processing of Oak Ridge B&C pond sludge surrogate in the transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-04-16

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) developed at the Savannah River Site is designed to process low-level and mixed radioactive wastes into a stable glass product. The TVS consists of a feed preparation and delivery system, a joule-heated melter, and an offgas treatment system. Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) B&C pond sludge was treated in a demonstration of the TVS system at Clemson University and at ORR. After initial tests with soda-lime-silica (SLS) feed, three melter volumes of glass were produced from the surrogate feed. A forthcoming report will describe glass characterization; and melter feeding, operation, and glass pouring. Melter operations described will include slurry characterization and feeding, factors affecting feed melt rates, glass pouring and pour rate constraints, and melter operating temperatures. Residence time modeling of the melter will also be discussed. Characterization of glass; including composition, predicted liquidity and viscosity, Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and devitrification will be covered. Devitrification was a concern in glass container tests and was found to be mostly dependent on the cooling rate. Crucible tests indicated that melter shutdown with glass containing Fe and Li was also a devitrification concern, so the melter was flushed with SLS glass before cooldown.

  5. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique.

    PubMed

    Merino, O; Aguagüiña, W E; Esponda, P; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, E; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R

    2015-03-01

    Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, shows antioxidant and antiviral properties and has been successfully used for mammalian sperm cryopreservation. In this study, BHT was included in a vitrification solution to determine its cryoprotective effect on human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and vitrified in close sealed straw using either a combination of human tubal fluid (HTF), sucrose and BHT 1 mm (VMBHT), or only HTF and sucrose (VM). The optimal concentration of BHT was determined by the observation of preserved progressive sperm motility (PSM) after warming and detection of plasma membrane (PMI), membrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) and DNA integrity. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected. The PSM was significantly higher in the VMBHT group (80.86 ± 5.41%) compared with the VM group (68.9 ± 3.67%) (P < 0.05). Butylhydroxytoluene significantly preserved DNA integrity (4.0 ± 0.1% versus 6.1 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05) and reduced ROS production (5.5 ± 2.2 versus 8.6 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Plasma membrane and ΔΨm showed no statistical differences. One millimolar BHT effectively maintained cell function and due to its antioxidant and antiviral properties could be used in semen cryopreservation of patients with viral infections transmitted by seminal plasma.

  6. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  8. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L.

    1995-11-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system.

  9. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  10. First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0{sub 2},B{sub 2}O{sub 3},A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O,Li{sub 2}O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

  11. First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0[sub 2],B[sub 2]O[sub 3],A1[sub 2]O[sub 3], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], Na[sub 2]O,Li[sub 2]O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

  12. Vitrification of kidney precursors as a new source for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Garcia-Dominguez, Ximo; Jimenez-Trigos, Estrella; Vera-Donoso, Cesar D; Vicente, Jose S

    2015-06-01

    Kidney transplantation from deceased or living human donors has been limited by donor availability as opposed to the increasing demand, and by the risk of allograft loss rejection and immunosuppressive therapy toxicity. In recent years, xenotransplantation of developed kidney precursor cells has offered a novel solution for the unlimited supply of human donor organs. Specifically, transplantation of kidney precursors in adult hosts showed that intact embryonic kidneys underwent maturation, exhibiting functional properties, and averted humoural rejection post-transplantation from non-immunosuppressed hosts. Even if supply and demand could be balanced using xenotransplants or lab-grown organs from regenerative medicine, the future of these treatments would still be compromised by the ability to physically distribute the organs to patients in need and to produce these products in a way that allows adequate inventory control and quality assurance. Kidney precursors originating from fifteen-day old rabbit embryos were vitrified using Cryotop® as a device and VM3 as vitrification solution. After 3 months of storage in liquid nitrogen, 18 kidney precursors were transplanted into non-immunosuppressed adult hosts by laparoscopy surgery. Twenty-one days after allotransplantation, 9 new kidneys were recovered. All the new kidneys recovered exhibited significant growth and mature glomeruli. Having achieved these encouraging results, we report, for the first time, that it is possible to create a long-term biobank of kidney precursors as an unlimited source of organs for transplantation, facilitating the inventory control and distribution of organs.

  13. Standard and modified electrode engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Tixier, J.S. ); Winkelman, R.G. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) electrode tests conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).(a) The purpose of these tests was to establish baseline data to serve as a foundation on which to improve the design of standard graphite rod electrodes, which are currently used in all applications. Changes in electrode design are proposed as one method to increase ISV melt depths that typically reach about 5 m. Melt depths of 10 m are needed to remediate some contaminated soil sites within the DOE complex. To establish baseline data, we performed a thermal distribution analysis and tested three electrode designs: (1) the standard graphite rod electrodes, (2) a modified design referred to as the composite graphite/molybdenum electrode, and (3) a second modified design, the dilated-tip graphite electrode. In total we performed six tests, two of each design. Within the scope of these tests, there were four specific objectives. Our first objective was to determine the influence of electrode design on monolith mass and shape. Our second objective was to determine the correlation between the actual test results and the results of the numerical heat distribution analysis using the TEMPEST code. Our third objective was to qualitatively evaluate the melt resistance and the electrode contact resistance that resulted from the three electrode designs. Finally, our fourth objective was to verify the reproducibility of the engineering-scale test results.

  14. Fifth in situ vitrification engineering-scale test of simulated INEL buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, T.M.; Shade, J.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1992-06-01

    In September 1990, an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test was conducted on sealed canisters containing a combined mixture of buried waste materials expected to be present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist INEL in treatability studies of the potential application of ISV to mixed transuranic wastes at the INEL SDA. The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of a close-packed layer of sealed containers on ISV processing performance. Specific objectives included determining (1) the effect of releases from sealed containers on hood plenum pressure and temperature, (2) the release pressure ad temperatures of the sealed canisters, (3) the relationships between canister depressurization and melt encapsulation, (4) the resulting glass and soil quality, (5) the potential effects of thermal transport due to a canister layer, (6) the effects on particle entrainment of differing angles of approach for the ISV melt front, and (7) the effects of these canisters on the volatilization of voltatile and semivolatile contaminants into the hood plenum.

  15. Na-doped optical Germanium bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, G. S.; Singaevsky, A. F.

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to develop a material for infrared (IR) optics with improved parameters, bulk crystals of optical germanium doped with Na have been first grown and studied. Single-crystalline and coarse-crystalline Ge:Na boules of different shapes and dimensions, up to 10 kg by weight, have been grown. Sodium was incorporated into the Ge crystal during the crystal growing from the melt. Despite the fact that Na contamination in the source material was not strictly controlled, the density of Na in the grown crystals determined by the neutron activation analysis as well as by the glow discharge mass spectrometry did not exceed 1015 cm-3. Just this value may be supposed to be close to the solubility limit of Na incorporated in Ge in the course of bulk crystal growth. A first demonstration of donor behavior of Na in bulk Ge crystals is made by means of a thermoelectric type of testing. An interstitial location of Na impurity has been verified by experiments on donor drift in the dc electric field. The crystals are grown with free electron density in the range from 5ṡ1013 to 4ṡ1014 cm-3 which is optimal for using Ge crystals as an optical material for fabricating passive elements of the IR technique. A comparison between the properties of Ge:Na crystals and Ge crystals doped with Sb, a conventional impurity in optical germanium, grown under the same technological conditions and from the same intrinsic Ge as a source material, revealed a number of advantages of Ge:Na crystals; among them, the higher transparency in the IR region, smaller radiation scattering and higher regular optical transmission, lower dislocation density, more uniform distribution of electrical and optical characteristics over the crystal volume, the identity of optical parameters in the single-crystalline, and coarse-crystalline boules. No degradation of optical elements fabricated from Ge:Na crystals was detected in the course of their commercial application, starting from 1998.

  16. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  17. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  18. Piezoelectric Measurement Of Bulk Modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1992-01-01

    In method of measuring bulk modulus of elasticity of elastomeric material, piezoelectric crystals of various sizes and energized by alternating voltage embedded in material. Concept demonstrated in test cell in which piezoelectric crystal mounted either unconstrained or between two rubber pads and connected as actuator in loud-speaker. The 1-in. diameter crystal excited with 24 Vac at 60 Hz. When crystal was unconstrained, it drew current of 0.8 mA. When crystal was constrained between rubber pads, current fell to 0.65 mA. Low current, minimal heating, and absence of arcing makes technique suitable for measurement of bulk moduli of elasticity of flammable or explosive rubbery materials.

  19. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  20. TNT Equivalency of Bulk Nitrocellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    9TIN ’IN AD-E400 576 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-81007 TNT EQUIVALENCY OF BULK NITROCELLULOSE F. L. MCINTYRE COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION NSTL...September 1978 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F. L. Mc~ntyre, Computer Sciences Corporation P. Price...PROJECT. TASK Computer Sciences Corporation AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS NSTL Station, MS 39529 MMT-5784285 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12