Science.gov

Sample records for bulking substance evaluation

  1. Leachables evaluation for bulk drug substance.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Victor; Somma, Maria S; Zitzner, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive analytical approach for evaluating potential leachables from product-contacting material surfaces in the manufacture of bulk drug substance (BDS) for use in parenteral products. A qualitative step-by-step evaluation of the process stream for the production, purification, and storage of the BDS was performed. The product-contact equipment surfaces were then grouped based on their materials of construction and prioritized according to the potential risk of contributing leachables to the BDS. Based on this evaluation, 13 potential leachable species were identified and classified either as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), anions, cations, or trace metals. The BDS was first screened for the presence of VOCs, SVOCs, anions, cations, and trace metals using analytical methods that were qualified for their application with the BDS. Thirteen potential leachables were then spiked in the BDS and in the water for injection for spike-recovery studies. The analysis of the BDS for potential leachables showed that the potential impurities were not present in the BDS except for a trace amount of silicon, and that the residual solvent concentrations were lower than the recommended limits established by the International Committee on Harmonisation. The spike-recovery studies confirmed that the analytical methods could effectively determine the leachable compounds in the BDS. Moreover, the 13 contaminants did not form a complex with the protein in the BDS and did not represent a potential risk to the BDS's safety and stability.

  2. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this section, no OSV may carry a noxious liquid substance (NLS) in bulk without the approval of the Commandant...

  3. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this section, no OSV may carry a noxious liquid substance (NLS) in bulk without the approval of the Commandant...

  4. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this section, no OSV may carry a noxious liquid substance (NLS) in bulk without the approval of the Commandant...

  5. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this section, no OSV may carry a noxious liquid substance (NLS) in bulk without the approval of the Commandant...

  6. Vantris, a biocompatible, synthetic, non-biodegradable, easy-to-inject bulking substance. Evaluation of local tissular reaction, localized migration and long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Ormaechea, María; Paladini, Mario; Pisano, Roberto; Scagliotti, Miguel; Sambuelli, Rubén; Lopez, Santiago; Guidi, Andrés; Muñoz, Juan; Rossetti, Victor; Carnerero, Manuel; Beltramo, Dante; Alasino, Roxana; Bianco, Ismael; Griguol, Osvaldo; Valladares, Daniela; De Badiola, Francisco

    2008-03-01

    Biodegradable injectable bulking agents of animal origin present a fast rate of bio-reabsorption and may cause an allergic reaction. Biodegradable elements of synthetic origin have a high rate of reabsorption after a year. Non-biodegradable agents of synthetic origin lead to the formation of a fibrotic capsule, giving stability and long-term permanence. VANTRIS is categorized into this last group; it belongs to the family of Acrylics, particles of polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer immersed in a glycerol and physiological solution carrier. Molecular mass is very high. When injected in soft tissues, this material causes a bulkiness that remains stable through time. The carrier is a 40% glycerol solution with a pH of 6. Once injected, the carrier is eliminated by the reticular system through the kidneys, without metabolizing. Particles of this polyacrylate polyalcohol with glycerol are highly deformable by compression, and may be injected using a 23-gauge needle. The average of particles size is 320 mm. Once implanted, particles are covered by a fibrotic capsule of up to 70 microns. Particles of this new material are anionic with high superficial electronegativity, thus promoting a low cellular interaction and low fibrotic growth. The new polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer with glycerol was tested for biocompatibility according to ISO 10993-1:2003 in vitro, showing that they are not mutagenic for the Salmonella T. strains analyzed. The extract turned out to be non-cytotoxic for cell lines in culture and non-genotoxic for mice. In in vivo studies, acrylate did not cause sensitization in mice. The macroscopic reaction of tissue irritation was not significant in subcutaneous implants and in urethras of rabbits. Seven female dogs were injected transurethrally with VANTRIS to evaluate short and long-term migration (13 weeks and 12 months respectively). No particles or signs of inflammation or necrosis are observed in any of the organs examined 13 weeks and 12 months after

  7. OSCEE fan exhaust bulk absorber treatment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustic suppression capability of bulk absorber material designed for use in the fan exhaust duct walls of the quiet clean short haul experiment engine (OCSEE UTW) was evaluated. The acoustic suppression to the original design for the engine fan duct which consisted of phased single degree-of-freedom wall treatment was tested with a splitter and also with the splitter removed. Peak suppression was about as predicted with the bulk absorber configuration, however, the broadband characteristics were not attained. Post test inspection revealed surface oil contamination on the bulk material which could have caused the loss in bandwidth suppression.

  8. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  9. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  10. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  11. 49 CFR 172.324 - Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous substances in non-bulk packagings. 172.324 Section 172.324 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  12. Program Evaluation Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substance abuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a discussion of approaches to process, outcome, and impact evaluation. Evaluation designs are reviewed with attention given to topics such as recruitment and retention of sites and participants, defining interventions,…

  13. Evaluation of Bulk Modulus of Oil System with Hydraulic Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hružík, L.; Vašina, M.; Bureček, A.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to experimentally measure and ealuate bulk modulus of oil/steel pipe system and oil/hose system. The measurement was performed using experimental device on the basis of a measured pressure difference depending on time. Bulk modulus is evaluated from pressure change with known flow and volume of line. Pressure rise is caused by valve closure at the line end. Furthermore, a mathematical model of the experimental device is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. Time dependencies of pressure for the oil/steel pipe system and the oil/hose system are simulated on this mathematical model. The simulations are verified by experiment.

  14. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  15. Process Evaluation in Corrections-Based Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, James L.; Hartmann, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that process evaluation is needed to validate prison-based substance abuse treatment effectiveness. Five groups--inmates, treatment staff, prison staff, prison administration, and the parole board--should be a part of this process evaluation. Discusses these five groups relative to three stages of development of substance abuse treatment in…

  16. Purity Evaluation of Bulk Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Wang, J.; Liang, J.; Hornbostel, B.; Cech, J.; Roth, S.

    2005-09-01

    We report on our experience using a preliminary protocol for quality control of bulk single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) materials produced by the electric arc-discharge and laser ablation method. The first step in the characterization of the bulk material is mechanical homogenization. Quantitative evaluation of purity has been performed using a previously reported procedure based on solution phase near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results confirm that this method is reliable in determining the nanotube content in the arc-discharge sample containing carbonaceous impurities (amorphous carbon and graphitic particles). However, the application of this method to laser ablation samples gives a relative purity value over 100 %. The possible reason for that might be different extinction coefficient meaning different oscillator strength of the laser ablation tubes. At the present time, a 100 % pure reference sample of laser ablation SWNT is not available, so we chose to adopt the sample showing the highest purity as a new reference sample for a quantitative purity evaluation of laser ablation materials. The graphitic part of the carbonaceous impurities has been estimated using X-ray diffraction of 1:1 mixture of nanotube material and C60 as an internal reference. To evaluate the metallic impurities in the as prepared and homogenized carbon nanotube soot inductive coupled plasma (ICP) has been used.

  17. EHR-based phenotyping: Bulk learning and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po-Hsiang; Hripcsak, George

    2017-06-01

    In data-driven phenotyping, a core computational task is to identify medical concepts and their variations from sources of electronic health records (EHR) to stratify phenotypic cohorts. A conventional analytic framework for phenotyping largely uses a manual knowledge engineering approach or a supervised learning approach where clinical cases are represented by variables encompassing diagnoses, medicinal treatments and laboratory tests, among others. In such a framework, tasks associated with feature engineering and data annotation remain a tedious and expensive exercise, resulting in poor scalability. In addition, certain clinical conditions, such as those that are rare and acute in nature, may never accumulate sufficient data over time, which poses a challenge to establishing accurate and informative statistical models. In this paper, we use infectious diseases as the domain of study to demonstrate a hierarchical learning method based on ensemble learning that attempts to address these issues through feature abstraction. We use a sparse annotation set to train and evaluate many phenotypes at once, which we call bulk learning. In this batch-phenotyping framework, disease cohort definitions can be learned from within the abstract feature space established by using multiple diseases as a substrate and diagnostic codes as surrogates. In particular, using surrogate labels for model training renders possible its subsequent evaluation using only a sparse annotated sample. Moreover, statistical models can be trained and evaluated, using the same sparse annotation, from within the abstract feature space of low dimensionality that encapsulates the shared clinical traits of these target diseases, collectively referred to as the bulk learning set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Practice-Based Clinical Evaluation of a Bulk Fill Restorative Material.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell John; Panchal, Ditesh; Redfearn, Philip; Sands, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the handling, by a group of practice-based researchers, of a recently introduced bulk fill resin-based composite restorative material, Filtek Bulk Fill Restorative (3M ESPE). The twelve selected evaluators were sent explanatory letters, a pack of the material under investigation to use for 8 weeks, and a questionnaire. The evaluators rated the ease of use of the bulk fill restorative the same as the previously used posterior composite material. The provision of one shade only for evaluation may have compromised the score for aesthetic quality. No post-operative sensitivity was reported. The bulk fill material was well received as indicated by the high number of evaluators who would both purchase the material and recommend it to colleagues. A recently introduced bulk fill restorative material achieved a rating for handling which was similar to the evaluators' previously used resin composite, although there were some concerns regarding the translucency of the material.

  19. Evaluation of Magnetic Cutting and Polishing with Superconducting Bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Otabe, E. S.; Suzuki, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Kiuchi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, magnetic levitation tool with superconducting bulks is introduced as a new hollow machining technology. Magnetic levitation tool is the machine that magnet levitates above superconducting bulks and driving force of rotating magnet shaves the object. This tool is expected to use for a grinding machine and machining device because of hollow machining and micromachining by strong fixing. For using magnetic levitation tool, the attractive force, the repulsive force and rotating torque are important for grinding machine, machining outer surface and both, respectively. These forces are calculated by FEM, and compared with experimental results. The experimental results are agreed well with calculated results. However, the attractive force is one order smaller than that required in chemical mechanical polishing.

  20. Evaluation of Marginal Integrity of Four Bulk-Fill Dental Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Mirosław; Tarczydło, Bożena; Chałas, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Methods. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. Results. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration) was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. Conclusion. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration) in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite. PMID:25874254

  1. Evaluation of marginal integrity of four bulk-fill dental composite materials: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Orłowski, Mirosław; Tarczydło, Bożena; Chałas, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration) was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration) in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite.

  2. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  3. 78 FR 72838 - Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., Concerning Outsourcing Facilities; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... outsourcing facilities. To identify candidates for this bulk drugs list, interested groups and individuals may... new section 503B to the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 353b) that creates a new category of...

  4. EVALUATION OF AEROSOLIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND RELATED FIBERS FROM BULK MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings; and, 2. Update on the Evaluation of Aerosolization of Asbestos and Related Fibers from Bulk Materials. This abstract a...

  5. EVALUATION OF AEROSOLIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND RELATED FIBERS FROM BULK MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings; and, 2. Update on the Evaluation of Aerosolization of Asbestos and Related Fibers from Bulk Materials. This abstract a...

  6. Misprescribing controlled substances: An evaluation of a professional development program.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Charlene M; Ghulyan, Marine V; Swiggart, William H

    2016-01-01

    Controlled prescription drug (CPD) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Most physicians attending a 3-day continuing medical education (CME) professional development program (PDP) lack training in identifying risk and in managing patients who misuse CPDs. To address this issue, the authors conducted an evaluation of a PDP that trains physicians on proper prescribing, identifying substance abuse, utilizing screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT), and implementing motivational interviewing (MI). The authors conducted a program evaluation to assess the efficacy and impact of the PDP on physicians' knowledge and prescribing behaviors. Participants (N = 174) were typically middle-aged (average age of 53 years), male (89%), and physicians (82%) and other health care professionals (18%). Many physicians practice in solo primary care settings (46%). Course evaluations were completed by n = 155 (89%) participants who rated the course and presenters highly (mean 4.8/5 respectively). Physicians' knowledge scores on pre/post assessments increased significantly: pretest (M = 58.7, SD = 13.12) and posttest (M = 78.28, SD = 9.83) (t(173) = 20.06, P ≤ .0001, 95% confidence interval, CI: [-21.51, -17.65]). Almost half of the participants, n = 83/174 (48%), completed the follow-up survey, and 93% agreed/strongly agreed (A/SA) they made professional practice changes. Of participants practicing with an active DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) registration (n = 57), most agreed/strongly agreed they implemented changes to align their practices with current guidelines (89%), used CPD more appropriately (87%), implemented office policies on prescribing (81%), identified and referred more substance abuse patients to treatment (80%), shared new information/experience from course with other 25 health professionals (93%), and felt the course positively impacted their behaviors personally and professionally (90% and 96%, respectively

  7. Evaluation of Radiopacity of Bulk-fill Flowable Composites Using Digital Radiography.

    PubMed

    Tarcin, B; Gumru, B; Peker, S; Ovecoglu, H S

    2016-01-01

    New flowable composites that may be bulk-filled in layers up to 4 mm are indicated as a base beneath posterior composite restorations. Sufficient radiopacity is one of the several important requirements such materials should meet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of bulk-fill flowable composites and to provide a comparison with conventional flowable composites using digital imaging. Ten standard specimens (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were prepared from each of four different bulk-fill flowable composites and nine different conventional flowable composites. Radiographs of the specimens were taken together with 1-mm-thick tooth slices and an aluminum step wedge using a digital imaging system. For the radiographic exposures, a storage phosphor plate and a dental x-ray unit at 70 kVp and 8 mA were used. The object-to-focus distance was 30 cm, and the exposure time was 0.2 seconds. The gray values of the materials were measured using the histogram function of the software available with the system, and radiopacity was calculated as the equivalent thickness of aluminum. The data were analyzed statistically (p<0.05). All of the tested bulk-fill flowable composites showed significantly higher radiopacity values in comparison with those of enamel, dentin, and most of the conventional flowable composites (p<0.05). Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus Kulzer) provided the highest radiopacity value, whereas Arabesk Flow (Voco) showed the lowest. The order of the radiopacity values for the bulk-fill flowable composites was as follows: Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus Kulzer) ≥ X-tra Base (Voco) > SDR (Dentsply DeTrey) ≥ Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). To conclude, the bulk-fill flowable restorative materials, which were tested in this study using digital radiography, met the minimum standard of radiopacity specified by the International Standards Organization.

  8. Monetary conversion factors for economic evaluations of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; Sayed, Bisma; French, Michael T; Leff, Jared A; Schackman, Bruce R

    2017-10-01

    Estimating the economic consequences of substance use disorders (SUDs) is important for evaluating existing programs and new interventions. Policy makers in particular must weigh program effectiveness with scalability and sustainability considerations in deciding which programs to fund with limited resources. This study provides a comprehensive list of monetary conversion factors for a broad range of consequences, services, and outcomes, which can be used in economic evaluations of SUD interventions (primarily in the United States), including common co-occurring conditions such as HCV and HIV. Economic measures were selected from standardized clinical assessment instruments that are used in randomized clinical trials and other research studies (e.g., quasi-experimental community-based projects) to evaluate the impact of SUD interventions. National datasets were also reviewed for additional SUD-related consequences, services, and outcomes. Monetary conversion factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review of published articles as well as targeted searches of other sources such as government reports. Eight service/consequence/outcome domains were identified containing more than sixty monetizable measures of medical and behavioral health services, laboratory services, SUD treatment, social services, productivity outcomes, disability outcomes, criminal activity and criminal justice services, and infectious diseases consequences. Unit-specific monetary conversion factors are reported, along with upper and lower bound estimates, whenever possible. Having an updated and standardized source of monetary conversion factors will facilitate and improve future economic evaluations of interventions targeting SUDs and other risky behaviors. This exercise should be repeated periodically as new sources of data become available to maintain the timeliness, comprehensiveness, and quality of these estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  10. Evaluation of cervical marginal and internal adaptation using newer bulk fill composites: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rolly Shrivastav; Hiremath, Hemlatha; Agarwal, Jatin; Garg, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cervical marginal and internal adaptation of posterior bulk fill resin composites of different viscosities, before and after thermo-cycling (TMC). Materials and Methods: Eighty box-only class II cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human premolars with the distal proximal box beneath the enamel-cementum junction (CEJ). The teeth in the experimental groups were restored with bulk fill resin composite restorations (Gr. I- Sonic Fill, Gr. II- SDR, Gr. III- Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill or a conventional composite designed for 2-mm increments (Gr. IV- Tetric N Flow along with Tetric N Ceram). Before and after thermal cycling, the gap-free marginal length was analyzed using SEM of epoxy resin replicas. After thermal cycling, specimens were cut longitudinally in order to investigate internal dentine adaptation by epoxy replicas under SEM (500 × magnification). Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Tukey Post Hoc tests (P < 0.05). In enamel, high percentages of gap-free margins were initially identified for all the groups, which declined after thermal cycling. However, no significant differences were identified among any of the groups (P > 0.05). In dentine, bulk fill groups performed at par with the incremental placement; for both marginal and internal adaptation (P < 0.05), for all materials except Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill. Conclusions: Viscosity of the bulk fill restorative material influenced the proportion of gap-free marginal interface and the internal adaptation in dentin. PMID:25657529

  11. [Toxicological evaluation of diagnostic methods used for poisoning with psychoactive substances].

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, R

    2001-01-01

    Toxicological diagnosis in cases of intoxication with psychoactive substances known in clinical and forensic toxicology requires appropriate laboratory studies. The paper pertains evaluation of the currently employed techniques of quantitative and qualitative analysis of psychoactive substances in a biological material. Usefulness of the most frequently applied screening (immunochemical) approaches and the confirmation (physicochemical) techniques was evaluated against the validation criteria, relating to the specificity, detection limit and sensitivity of the discussed substances.

  12. Test and evaluation of an Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fellers, C.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1981-06-30

    The Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter (BAC) was subjected to a series of tests, using plutonium-238 heat standards, to evaluate the performance of the calorimeter over its operating range. The results of these tests provide baseline information of the instrument performance under laboratory conditions.

  13. Evaluating the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships: the role of GESAMP and its EHS working group.

    PubMed

    Wells, P G; Höfer, T; Nauke, M

    1999-09-30

    GESAMP's EHS working group, evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships, contributed in the early 1970s to the chemical carriage provisions (Annexes II and III) of the MARPOL Convention, and after formal setup in 1974 under IMCO/IMO, has evaluated the hazards of approximately 2200 chemical substances transported worldwide by shipping. Hazard ratings for chemicals based on five criteria: bioaccumulation in marine organisms and tainting of seafood; damage to marine life defined by aquatic toxicity thresholds; acute hazard to human health, defined by oral intake; hazard to human health on the basis of skin or eye contact; and reduction of amenities, have been assigned by the working group experts (30 scientists from 11 countries overall). The ratings are used by IMO committes to assign marine pollution categories under MARPOL 73/78, ensuring that shipping of chemicals in bulk or as packaged goods is conducted with due consideration for ship type, guidelines for discharges from tank cleaning and deballasting operations, packaging and labeling and response during accidents or loss. Since 1995, the working group has reviewed and revised its hazard criteria, and largely harmonized them with OECD. This will ensure compatibility of criteria and approaches across transport sectors. The criteria now include two measures of bioaccumulation, biodegradation, chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, additional human health endpoints, and effects on marine wildlife and benthic habitats. The working group maintains a composite list of evaluations of hazards of harmful substances at IMO, London.

  14. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Holly E.; Shannon-Lewy, Colleen; McFarland, Bentson

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study assessed authenticity of SPs as substance abuse treatment clients. Twenty-one substance abuse counselors interviewed SP(s) with differing profiles. Counselors provided quantitative and qualitative ratings of SP authenticity. Counselor responses to the study procedures were analyzed as well. Quantitative results include high authenticity ratings for the SPs but counselors’ subjective responses varied. Counselor’s rated the experience of participating in the study positively and provided constructive comments for future applications of this methodology. Results support future work on SPs as teaching and evaluation tools in substance abuse counseling. Findings also illustrate the need to refine definitions of authenticity for SPs as substance abuse clients. PMID:19197781

  15. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  16. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  17. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  18. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National...

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  20. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  1. 76 FR 10906 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 25 Toxicological Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Request for comments on the proposed substances to be... Environmental Medicine is soliciting public nominations from the list of proposed substances to be evaluated for...

  2. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... evaluation of substances or ingredients for the organic production and handling sections of the National List...

  3. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  4. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  5. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  6. In vivo evaluation of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass alloy bar.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Ryo; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Ichinose, Shizuko; Itoh, Soichiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ti-based bulk metallic glasses are reported with high strength, low Young modulus and high corrosion resistance, suggesting their potentials in biomedical applications. However a thorough in vivo evaluation of its biocompatibilities has not been conducted yet. In this study, we implanted bars of Ti-based bulk metallic glass in the femoral bone of rats, followed up local tissue reaction as well as its component ions' diffusion in local area and whole body. The Ti-based BMG (Ti40Zr10Cu34Pd14Sn2) alloy exhibited favorable features of both high strength and high elasticity. In vivo implant evaluation showed that it has a good tissue compatibility, equivalent bone integration and bonding ability with Ti sample. No component ion diffusion was detected up to 3 months post implantation. The possibility and efficacy of its use for bone implant is confirmed. Thus further long term implant study is recommended.

  7. Food Simulating Organic Solvents for Evaluating Crosslink Density of Bulk Fill Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Bahgat, Hala A.; Al Kaba, Eman Hussain; Buholayka, Maryam Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate crosslink densities of two bulk fill composite resins and determine if the used Food Simulating Organic Solvent (FSOS) affected them. Methods. Forty specimens were prepared from SureFill and SonicFill bulk fill composite resins, 20 each. All specimens were stored dry for 24 h. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: stored in ethanol (E) 75% or in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 100% for 24 h. Crosslink density was evaluated by calculating the difference between the Vickers hardness numbers of the specimens stored dry and after their storage in FSOS. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results. The means of crosslink density in E and MEK were 6.99% and 9.44% for SureFill and 10.54% and 11.92% for SonicFill, respectively. t-test displayed significant differences between crosslink densities of SureFill and SonicFill: (P < 0.0001) in E and (P = 0.02) in MEK and between crosslink densities of SureFill in E and MEK (P = 0.02). Conclusions. Crosslink density of bulk fill composite resin can be evaluated using E or MEK. SureFill has higher crosslink density than SonicFill in both E and MEK. PMID:28487739

  8. Systematic study of substance P analogs. I. Evaluation of peptides synthesized by the multipin method for quantitative receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Bray, A M; Dipasquale, A J; Maeji, N J; Geysen, H M

    1993-10-01

    The multipin peptide synthesis technique, a method for simultaneous multiple peptide synthesis, was developed for large-scale screening of oligopeptides [Geysen et al. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81, 3998-4002]. A modification of the technique allows the peptides assembled on polyethylene pins to be cleaved in their native amide form and reconstituted into physiologically compatible solutions. In this study, the suitability of these peptides for quantitative receptor binding assay was evaluated. Substance P and 18 analogs, including a set of N-terminal truncated substance P and a set of naturally occurring substance P analogs, were synthesized by the multipin methods. An average yield of 20 +/- 3 nmol of peptide per pin was obtained. The purity of the peptides was estimated to be ca. 90%. The binding activities of these peptides were determined in a competition assay against 125I-BHSP binding to a rat brain synaptosome preparation. The rank order of the affinities of these peptides depicted a typical pharmacological profile of central NK1 receptor. The IC50 values obtained were also in good agreement with data reported by other groups using similar experimental conditions, except that bulk synthesized peptides were used. This study demonstrates that the peptides synthesized with the multipin technique are suitable for quantitative receptor studies, particularly for a high-volume screening of bioactive peptides.

  9. A new damage testing system for detailed evaluation of damage behavior of bulk KDP and DKDP

    SciTech Connect

    DeMange, P; Negres, R A; Carr, C W; Radousky, H B; Demos, S G

    2004-11-17

    We describe a new damage testing approach and instrumentation that provides quantitative measurements of bulk damage performance versus fluence for several frequencies. A major advantage of this method is that it can simultaneously provide direct information on pinpoint density and size, and beam obscuration. This allows for more accurate evaluation of material performance under operational conditions. Protocols for laser conditioning to improve damage performance can also be easily and rapidly evaluated.This damage testing approach has enabled us to perform complex experiments toward probing the fundamental mechanisms of damage initiation and conditioning.

  10. Evaluating Faculty Development and Clinical Training Programs in Substance Abuse: A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzner, Michael; Stewart, Kathryn

    Intended to provide an overview of program evaluation as it applies to the evaluation of faculty development and clinical training programs in substance abuse for health and mental health professional schools, this guide enables program developers and other faculty to work as partners with evaluators in the development of evaluation designs that…

  11. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A research agenda for economic evaluation of substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Drummond, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Economic analyses of substance abuse interventions play a critical role in informing the decision makers involved in funding these programs. Despite the emergence of new and more effective interventions, the adoption of costlier services still demands justification based on economic evidence. Updated and more rigorous economic information allows patients, health care professionals, insurance companies, policymakers, and others to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. To prepare for the next wave of addiction health services research, this article presents background information on the economics of addiction health services, reviews recent empirical and methodological contributions, and provides 15 research recommendations.

  13. Evaluation of the potential health risks of substances migrating from polycarbonate replacement baby bottles.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Van Hoeck, Els; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Simon, Coraline; Onghena, Matthias; Vandermarken, Tara; Van Langenhove, Kersten; Demaegdt, Heidi; Vandermeiren, Karin; Covaci, Adrian; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Elskens, Marc; Van Loco, Joris

    2016-11-01

    Since the European Commission prohibited the use of bisphenol A in the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles, many other materials have replaced PC for the manufacture of this type of food contact materials. In the present study, the potential migration risks associated with these alternative materials were investigated. First, all substances were evaluated for endocrine disruptive (ED) activity by using different existing lists of (suspected) ED chemicals. Next, the potential non-ED risks were assessed. A distinction was made between migrants listed in Annex I of European Regulation 10/2011 and the unlisted substances (e.g. non-intentionally added substances). For the listed substances, concentrations in the migration solutions were compared to their respective specific migration limits (SML) (when applicable). Migration of all substances was shown to be below their SML. The unlisted substances were evaluated using toxicological information from previous evaluations, or if not available, by applying the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach. In case the estimated exposure to the unlisted substance exceeded the human exposure TTC value, a more indepth risk assessment was performed. Based on the results of both parts of the study, four baby bottles were considered of high concern because of the potential toxicity of migrating compounds.

  14. Federal Register Notice: Procedures for Prioritization of Chemicals for Risk Evaluation Under the Toxic Substances Control Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final rule that establishes the process and criteria that EPA will use to identify chemical substances as either High-Priority Substances for risk evaluation,or Low-Priority Substances for which risk evaluations are not warranted.

  15. Evaluation of a bulk calorimeter and heat balance for determination of supersonic combustor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclinton, C. R.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from the shakedown and evaluation test of a bulk calorimeter. The calorimeter is designed to quench the combustion at the exit of a direct-connect, hydrogen fueled, scramjet combustor model, and to provide the measurements necessary to perform an analysis of combustion efficiency. Results indicate that the calorimeter quenches reaction, that reasonable response times are obtained, and that the calculated combustion efficiency is repeatable within + or -3 percent and varies in a regular way with combustor model parameters such as injected fuel equivalence ratio.

  16. A re-evaluation of PETROTOX for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Leon Paumen, Miriam; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; den Haan, Klass

    2017-08-01

    The PETROTOX model was developed to perform aquatic hazard assessment of petroleum substances based on substance composition. The model relies on the hydrocarbon block method, which is widely used for conducting petroleum substance risk assessments providing further justification for evaluating model performance. Previous work described this model and provided a preliminary calibration and validation using acute toxicity data for limited petroleum substance. The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate PETROTOX using expanded data covering both acute and chronic toxicity endpoints on invertebrates, algae, and fish for a wider range of petroleum substances. The results indicated that recalibration of 2 model parameters was required, namely, the algal critical target lipid body burden and the log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ) limit, used to account for reduced bioavailability of hydrophobic constituents. Acute predictions from the updated model were compared with observed toxicity data and found to generally be within a factor of 3 for algae and invertebrates but overestimated fish toxicity. Chronic predictions were generally within a factor of 5 of empirical data. Furthermore, PETROTOX predicted acute and chronic hazard classifications that were consistent or conservative in 93 and 84% of comparisons, respectively. The PETROTOX model is considered suitable for the purpose of characterizing petroleum substance hazard in substance classification and risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2245-2252. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Laser-activated membrane introduction mass spectrometry for high-throughput evaluation of bulk heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Amit; Liu, Renxuan; Allen, Robert J; McCall, Michael J; Willis, Richard R; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2002-05-01

    Laser-activated membrane introduction mass spectrometry (LAMIMS), a high-throughput screening method, evaluates heterogeneous catalysts under realistic reactor conditions. It is a precise, versatile system requiring no moving parts. The catalyst array is supported on carbon paper overlaid upon a silicone rubber membrane configured in a variation of membrane introduction mass spectrometry as introduced by Cooks. The carbon paper serves as a heat-dissipating gas diffusion layer that permits laser heating of catalyst samples far above the decomposition temperature of the polymer membrane that separates the array from the mass spectrometer vacuum chamber. A computer-controlled CO2 bar code writing laser is used for fine-tune heating of the catalyst spots above the base temperature of the LAMIMS reactor. The detailed design and performance of LAMIMS is demonstrated on arrays of "real world" bulk water-gas shift catalysts using natural and isotopically labeled reactor feed streams. A bulk catalyst array spot can be evaluated for activity and selectivity in as little as 1.5 min. All array screening results were confirmed by industrial microreactor evaluations.

  18. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality.

  19. Phototoxicity Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Substances with a Reactive Oxygen Species Assay Using Ultraviolet A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Lim, Hye Rim; Kim, Tae Sung; Ahn, Il Young; Ko, Kyungyuk; Kim, JooHwan; Park, Hye-Kyung; Sohn, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Kwon

    2017-01-01

    With ultraviolet and visible light exposure, some pharmaceutical substances applied systemically or topically may cause phototoxic skin irritation. The major factor in phototoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen and superoxide anion that cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Thus, measuring the generation of ROS can predict the phototoxic potential of a given substance indirectly. For this reason, a standard ROS assay (ROS assay) was developed and validated and provides an alternative method for phototoxicity evaluation. However, negative substances are over-predicted by the assay. Except for ultraviolet A (UVA), other UV ranges are not a major factor in causing phototoxicity and may lead to incorrect labeling of some non-phototoxic substances as being phototoxic in the ROS assay when using a solar simulator. A UVA stimulator is also widely used to evaluate phototoxicity in various test substances. Consequently, we identified the applicability of a UVA simulator to the ROS assay for photoreactivity. In this study, we tested 60 pharmaceutical substances including 50 phototoxins and 10 non-phototoxins to predict their phototoxic potential via the ROS assay with a UVA simulator. Following the ROS protocol, all test substances were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide or sodium phosphate buffer. The final concentration of the test solutions in the reaction mixture was 20 to 200 μM. The exposure was with 2.0~2.2 mW/cm(2) irradiance and optimization for a relevant dose of UVA was performed. The generation of ROS was compared before and after UVA exposure and was measured by a microplate spectrophotometer. Sensitivity and specificity values were 85.7% and 100.0% respectively, and the accuracy was 88.1%. From this analysis, the ROS assay with a UVA simulator is suitable for testing the photoreactivity and estimating the phototoxic potential of various test pharmaceutical substances.

  20. Phototoxicity Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Substances with a Reactive Oxygen Species Assay Using Ultraviolet A

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Lim, Hye Rim; Kim, Tae Sung; Ahn, Il Young; Ko, Kyungyuk; Kim, JooHwan; Park, Hye-Kyung; Sohn, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Kwon

    2017-01-01

    With ultraviolet and visible light exposure, some pharmaceutical substances applied systemically or topically may cause phototoxic skin irritation. The major factor in phototoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen and superoxide anion that cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Thus, measuring the generation of ROS can predict the phototoxic potential of a given substance indirectly. For this reason, a standard ROS assay (ROS assay) was developed and validated and provides an alternative method for phototoxicity evaluation. However, negative substances are over-predicted by the assay. Except for ultraviolet A (UVA), other UV ranges are not a major factor in causing phototoxicity and may lead to incorrect labeling of some non-phototoxic substances as being phototoxic in the ROS assay when using a solar simulator. A UVA stimulator is also widely used to evaluate phototoxicity in various test substances. Consequently, we identified the applicability of a UVA simulator to the ROS assay for photoreactivity. In this study, we tested 60 pharmaceutical substances including 50 phototoxins and 10 non-phototoxins to predict their phototoxic potential via the ROS assay with a UVA simulator. Following the ROS protocol, all test substances were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide or sodium phosphate buffer. The final concentration of the test solutions in the reaction mixture was 20 to 200 μM. The exposure was with 2.0~2.2 mW/cm2 irradiance and optimization for a relevant dose of UVA was performed. The generation of ROS was compared before and after UVA exposure and was measured by a microplate spectrophotometer. Sensitivity and specificity values were 85.7% and 100.0% respectively, and the accuracy was 88.1%. From this analysis, the ROS assay with a UVA simulator is suitable for testing the photoreactivity and estimating the phototoxic potential of various test pharmaceutical substances. PMID:28133512

  1. Evaluation of Vickers hardness of bulk-fill composites cured by different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Turki A.; Yagmoor, Mohammed A.; Alsadi, Fahad M.; Jamleh, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    [Objective] The current in vitro study was performed to evaluate Vickers hardness (VHN) of two different composite resins that were cured by using two different light curing units. [Materials and Methods] Porcelain tube samplers were used to fabricate composite cylinders from either Tetric Evoceram BulkFill (BF; Ivoclar/Vivadent, USA) or SonicFill composite (SF; Kerr, USA). Each composite type had 12 cylindrical specimens, and each specimen was cured with either Blue-phase N light-cure (Bp; Polywave, Ivoclar/Vivadent, USA) or Elipar S10 (El; Monowave, 3M ESPE, Germany). The VHN data were analyzed and tested by using Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of 5%. [Results] Statistical analyses demonstrated an interaction between the type of composite and the type of light curing source. Significant differences (P<0.05) were recorded for all groups with higher VHN hardness of SF-El and lowest for BF-El. [Conclusions] It can be concluded that the surface hardness of bulk-fill composite is not dependent on the type of light-cure. This research was supported by King Abdulaziz University.

  2. New Concepts in the Evaluation of Biodegradation/Persistence of Chemical Substances Using a Microbial Inoculum

    PubMed Central

    Thouand, Gérald; Durand, Marie-José; Maul, Armand; Gancet, Christian; Blok, Han

    2011-01-01

    The European REACH Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of CHemical substances) implies, among other things, the evaluation of the biodegradability of chemical substances produced by industry. A large set of test methods is available including detailed information on the appropriate conditions for testing. However, the inoculum used for these tests constitutes a “black box.” If biodegradation is achievable from the growth of a small group of specific microbial species with the substance as the only carbon source, the result of the test depends largely on the cell density of this group at “time zero.” If these species are relatively rare in an inoculum that is normally used, the likelihood of inoculating a test with sufficient specific cells becomes a matter of probability. Normally this probability increases with total cell density and with the diversity of species in the inoculum. Furthermore the history of the inoculum, e.g., a possible pre-exposure to the test substance or similar substances will have a significant influence on the probability. A high probability can be expected for substances that are widely used and regularly released into the environment, whereas a low probability can be expected for new xenobiotic substances that have not yet been released into the environment. Be that as it may, once the inoculum sample contains sufficient specific degraders, the performance of the biodegradation will follow a typical S shaped growth curve which depends on the specific growth rate under laboratory conditions, the so called F/M ratio (ratio between food and biomass) and the more or less toxic recalcitrant, but possible, metabolites. Normally regulators require the evaluation of the growth curve using a simple approach such as half-time. Unfortunately probability and biodegradation half-time are very often confused. As the half-time values reflect laboratory conditions which are quite different from environmental conditions (after a

  3. Neurotoxicity in Aquatic Systems: Evaluation of Anthropogenic Trace Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity, as well as acute and developmental neurotoxicity. In this endeavor, one of our focuses is on contaminants found in drinking water. To exp...

  4. Neurotoxicity in Aquatic Systems: Evaluation of Anthropogenic Trace Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity, as well as acute and developmental neurotoxicity. In this endeavor, one of our focuses is on contaminants found in drinking water. To exp...

  5. Candidate substances for space bioprocessing methodology and data specification for benefit evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Analytical and quantitative economic techniques are applied to the evaluation of the economic benefits of a wide range of substances for space bioprocessing. On the basis of expected clinical applications, as well as the size of the patient that could be affected by the clinical applications, eight substances are recommended for further benefit evaluation. Results show that a transitional probability methodology can be used to model at least one clinical application for each of these substances. In each recommended case, the disease and its therapy are sufficiently well understood and documented, and the statistical data is available to operate the model and produce estimates of the impact of new therapy systems on the cost of treatment, morbidity, and mortality. Utilizing the morbidity and mortality information produced by the model, a standard economic technique called the Value of Human Capital is used to estimate the social welfare benefits that could be attributable to the new therapy systems.

  6. Counselor Confounds in Evaluations of Vocational Rehabilitation Methods in Substance Dependency Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staines, Graham L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Blankertz, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation research on vocational counseling in substance dependency treatment should distinguish between the effects of counselors and counseling methods on clients' employment outcomes. Three experimental designs permit investigation of possible confounds between these types of effects: (a) nested designs (each counselor delivers one counseling…

  7. Multidimensional Implementation Evaluation of a Residential Treatment Program for Adolescent Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Leyla; Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors applied contemporary methods from the evaluation literature to measure implementation in a residential treatment program for adolescent substance abuse. A logic model containing two main components was measured. Program structure (adherence to the intended framework of service delivery) was measured using data from daily activity logs…

  8. Evaluating Admission Alternatives in an Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Bryan R.; Godley, Susan H.; Funk, Rodney R.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated streamlined admission procedures for adolescents entering outpatient substance abuse treatment, comparing 128 adolescents receiving existing procedures with 149 receiving the new admission and admission tracking procedures. Results show that adolescents were admitted to treatment sooner under the new procedures, but the percentage who…

  9. Evaluation of a Substance Use Disorder Curriculum for Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Melissa R.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Parish, Sharon J.; Kunins, Hillary V.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching about diagnosis, treatment, and sequelae of substance use disorders (SUDs) is insufficient in most Internal Medicine residency programs. To address this, the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a novel and comprehensive SUD curriculum for first year residents (interns) in Internal Medicine, which anchors the ensuing 3-year…

  10. Substance Abuse Education for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Target Approach to Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelin, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure pre and post-test knowledge in response to an educational intervention. This program evaluation was completed on 68 undergraduate nursing students to determine if education related to substance use, alcohol poisoning and high risk behavior had an impact on knowledge base. The educational intervention was…

  11. 75 FR 16153 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 24 Toxicological Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... FR 61332); October 21, 1999 (64 FR 56792); October 25, 2001 (66 FR 54014); and November 7, 2003 (68 FR 63098), December 7, 2005 (70 FR 72840). ] Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 24... BROMODICHLOROETHANE 000683-53-4 3 1,2,3-TRICHLOROBENZ 000087-61-6 ENE. 4 POLONIUM-210....... 013981-52-7 5 LEAD-210...

  12. Evaluation of a Substance Use Disorder Curriculum for Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Melissa R.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Parish, Sharon J.; Kunins, Hillary V.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching about diagnosis, treatment, and sequelae of substance use disorders (SUDs) is insufficient in most Internal Medicine residency programs. To address this, the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a novel and comprehensive SUD curriculum for first year residents (interns) in Internal Medicine, which anchors the ensuing 3-year…

  13. Economic Evaluation of Continuing Care Interventions in the Treatment of Substance Abuse: Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.; McKay, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The chronic and relapsing nature of substance abuse points to the need for continuing care after a primary phase of treatment. This article reviews the economic studies of continuing care, discusses research gaps, highlights some of the challenges of conducting rigorous economic evaluations of continuing care, and offers research guidelines and…

  14. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mohd. Aamir; Ahmad, Niyaz; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Mahmood, Danish; Khalid Anwer, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Major and biologically most explored components of natural organic matter (NOM) are humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). We have explored rock shilajit as a source of NOM. On the other hand carbamazepine (CBZ) is a well known anticonvulsant drug and has a limited accessibility to brain. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of CBZ have been improved by complexation and different techniques also. Present study has assessed the comparative abilities of FA and HA as complexing agent for CBZ in order to enhance pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ and accessibility to the brain. These two complexing agents have been compared on various indices such as their abilities to cause complexation and enhance solubility, permeability and dissolution. The present study also compared pharmacodynamic and biochemical profiles after oral administration of complexes. With the help of various pharmaceutical techniques such as freeze drying, physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation, two molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2) were selected for complexation and evaluated for conformational analysis (molecular modeling). Complex formed was further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Preclinical study on rodents with CBZ–HA and CBZ–FA has yielded appreciable results in terms of their anticonvulsant and antioxidants activities. However, CBZ–HA (1:2) demonstrated better result than any other complex. PMID:25755978

  15. Evaluation of the Current Opioid Misuse Measure among substance use disorder treatment patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) has demonstrated promising psychometric properties among pain clinic and primary care patients. Given the high prevalence of the nonmedical use of prescription opioids among substance use disorder patients, the COMM may also be useful in substance use disorder treatment settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the COMM in a sample of substance use disorder patients. Participants (n = 351) were recruited from a large residential substance use disorder treatment center and completed the COMM and several questionnaires assessing various substance use and health functioning characteristics. Factor analyses yield a two-factor solution; however, each of the items in the second factor cross-loaded onto the first factor and just one factor was retained. To provide support for this new 11-item COMM, we found that higher scores on this COMM were associated with greater drug use severity, greater endorsement of positive, negative, and pain relief outcome expectancies related to opioid use, increased pain intensity, and decreased physical and mental health functioning. These findings provide initial support for the psychometric properties of this version of the COMM adapted for substance use disorder treatment settings. Given its promising psychometric properties, the 11 items of the COMM to evaluate the nonmedical use of prescription opioids has potential utility among substance use disorder patients. The COMM could be used to examine nonmedical use over the course of treatment and to aid treatment planning. It could also be used in research as an outcome measure. PMID:25800105

  16. A model for evaluating physico-chemical substance properties required by consequence analysis models.

    PubMed

    Nikmo, Juha; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Riikonen, Kari

    2002-04-26

    Modeling systems for analyzing the consequences of chemical emergencies require as input values a number of physico-chemical substance properties, commonly as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. This paper presents a mathematical model "CHEMIC", which can be used for evaluating such substance properties, assuming that six basic constant quantities are available (molecular weight, freezing or melting point, normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure and critical volume). The model has been designed to yield reasonably accurate numerical predictions, while at the same time keeping the amount of input data to a minimum. The model is based on molecular theory or thermodynamics, together with empirical corrections. Mostly, model equations are based on the so-called law of corresponding states. The model evaluates substance properties as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. These include seven properties commonly required by consequence analysis and heavy gas dispersion modeling systems: vapor pressure, vapor and liquid densities, heat of vaporization, vapor and liquid viscosities and binary diffusion coefficient. The model predictions for vapor pressure, vapor and liquid densities and heat of vaporization have been evaluated by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. We have also compared the predictions of the CHEMIC model with those of the DATABANK database (developed by the AEA Technology, UK), which includes detailed semi-empirical correlations. The computer program CHEMIC could be easily introduced into consequence analysis modeling systems in order to extend their performance to address a wider selection of substances.

  17. Efficacy evaluation of a multifunctional cosmetic formulation: the benefits of a combination of active antioxidant substances.

    PubMed

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2014-11-10

    This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts) was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy). The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  18. In vivo evaluation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy intramedullary nails in rat femora.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2014-03-01

    Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) show high corrosion resistance in vitro and higher strength and lower Young's modulus than crystalline alloys with the similar composition. This study aimed to perform an in vivo evaluation of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG. Osteotomy of the femur was done in rats and stabilized with intramedullary nails made of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel. Systemic and local effects of each type of nail were evaluated by measuring the levels of Cu and Ni in the blood and the surrounding soft tissue. Changes of the surface of each nail were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Healing of the osteotomy was evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. No increase of Cu and Ni levels was recognized. Surface of the BMG showed no noticeable change, while Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed Ca and P deposition and 316L stainless steel showed surface irregularities and pitting by SEM observation. The stress strain index, maximum torque, torsional stiffness, and energy absorption values were larger for the BMG than those for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, although there was no significant difference. The Zr-based BMG can promote osteotomy healing as fast as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with the possible advantage of the Zr-based BMG that bone bonding is less likely, allowing easier nail removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The Zr-based BMG is promising for the use in osteosynthetic devices that are eventually removed.

  19. System and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating presence of substance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice; Lusby, Michael; Van Hook, Arthur; Cook, Charles J.; Wenski, Edward G.; Solyom, David

    2006-10-24

    A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

  20. System and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating presence of substance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice [Kansas City, MO; Lusby, Michael [Kansas City, MO; Van Hook, Arthur [Lotawana, MO; Cook, Charles J [Raytown, MO; Wenski, Edward G [Lenexa, KS; Solyom, David [Overland Park, KS

    2012-02-14

    A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

  1. System And Method For Identifying, Reporting, And Evaluating Presence Of Substance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice; Lusby, Michael; Hook, Arthur Van; Cook, Charles J.; Wenski, Edward G.; Solyom, David

    2005-09-20

    A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

  2. Evaluation of Bond Strength, Marginal Integrity, and Fracture Strength of Bulk- vs Incrementally-filled Restorations.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Fernanda Silva; Lima, Suellen Nogueira Linares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Malaquias, Pamela; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    This study evaluated the effect of application technique and preparation size on the fracture strength (FS), microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and marginal integrity (MI) of direct resin composite restorations. Conservative (5 × 2 × 2 mm) or extended (5 × 4 × 2 mm) preparations below the cementoenamel junction were performed in 140 human maxillary premolars (n = 70 per group). After adhesive application (XP Bond), half of each group was restored with the bulk technique (one 4-mm increment of Surefill SDR Flow plus one 1-mm horizontal capping layer of TPH3 [Spectrum TPH3 resin composite]) and half incrementally (TPH3 in three horizontal incremental layers, 1.5 to 2 mm each), all using a metal matrix band. After storage (24 h at 37°C), the proximal surfaces of each tooth were polished with Sof-Lex disks. For FS measurement, 60 restorations were mounted in a universal testing machine and subjected to a compressive axial load applied parallel to the long axis of the tooth, running at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. For μTBS testing, 40 teeth were longitudinally sectioned to obtain resin-dentin bonded sticks from the cavity floor (bonded area: 0.8 mm2). Specimens were tested in tension at 0.5 mm/min. The external marginal integrity of both proximal surfaces was analyzed using SEM of epoxy resin replicas. The μTBS, marginal integrity, and fracture resistance data were subjected to two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's post-hoc test was used for pair-wise comparisons (a = 0.05). Fracture resistance, microtensile bond strength, and marginal integrity values were not statistically significantly affected by application technique or preparation size (p = 0.71, p = 0.82, and p = 0.77, respectively). The use of a bulk-fill flowable composite associated with a conventional resin composite as a final capping layer did not jeopardize the fracture strength, bond strength to dentin, or marginal integrity of posterior restorations.

  3. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  4. Personality and substance use: psychometric evaluation and validation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in English, Irish, French, and German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jurk, Sarah; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Kroemer, Nils B; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Mann, Karl F; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Struve, Maren; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal study was the psychometric evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS). We analyzed data from N = 2,022 adolescents aged 13 to 15 at baseline assessment and 2 years later (mean interval 2.11 years). Missing data at follow-up were imputed (N = 522). Psychometric properties of the SURPS were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined structural as well as convergent validity with other personality measurements and drinking motives, and predictive validity for substance use at follow-up. The hypothesized 4-factorial structure (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity [IMP], and sensation seeking [SS]) based on all 23 items resulted in acceptable fit to empirical data, acceptable internal consistencies, low to moderate test-retest reliability coefficients, as well as evidence for factorial and convergent validity. The proposed factor structure was stable for both males and females and, to lesser degree, across languages. However, only the SS and the IMP subscales of the SURPS predicted substance use outcomes at 16 years of age. The SURPS is unique in its specific assessment of traits related to substance use disorders as well as the resulting shortened administration time. Test-retest reliability was low to moderate and comparable to other personality scales. However, its relation to future substance use was limited to the SS and IMP subscales, which may be due to the relatively low-risk substance use pattern in the present sample. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Evaluation and Management of Caustic Injuries from Ingestion of Acid or Alkaline Substances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the numbers have decreased compared with in the past, cases of patients who ingest caustic substances and visit the emergency room are not rare. However, well-summarized data about caustic injuries are insufficient. Therefore, in this article, I will discuss the etiologic causative agents, injury mechanism, and clinical characteristics, as well as the endoscopic evaluation of the degree of injury and proper management of the patient, in gastrointestinal caustic injury. PMID:25133115

  6. Evaluation of a single-moment bulk microphysics scheme using a satellite simulator and TRMM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, W.; Masaki, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical precipitation systems make important contributions to the global energy budget and play a key role in climate and weather modeling. One important issue in a cloud modeling is the parameterization of the microphysical processes of hydrometeors. Single-moment schemes that calculate only the mass concentrations of hydrometeors have been widely used for large-scale experiments and long-term cloud simulations. Several studies have examined the role of microphysics parameterizations in tropical convective systems. We investigate how the results are evaluated using more realistic size distributions of microphysics. In this study, the cloud microphysics of deep convective systems is evaluated over the tropical open ocean simulated by a cloud system resolving model using a satellite simulator. We evaluate the horizontal distribution of cloud sizes, the joint probability distributions of cloud-top temperature, precipitation-top height, and CFADs of radar reflectivities for each category in cloud-system-resolving simulations using a TRMM precipitation radar (PR) and infrared scanner following the approach proposed by Masunaga and Kummerow (2006) and Matsui et al. (2009). The control experiment shows biases related to underestimation of stratiform precipitation and a higher frequency of precipitating deep clouds whose top height is higher than 12 km compared with the TRMM data, although it shows good agreement for the horizontal distribution and statistical cloud size distributions of deep convective systems. The biases in the joint histogram are improved by changing the cloud microphysics parameters in the framework of a single-moment bulk microphysics scheme. In particular, the effects of the size distribution of precipitating hydrometeors are examined. Global cloud system resolving simulations with a 3.5 km horizontal resolution are done and analyzed using TRMM and CloudSat. The T3EF structure is similar to the regional cloud system resolving results. The modified

  7. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  8. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  9. Evaluation of esophageal injuries secondary to ingestion of unlabeled corrosive substances: pediatric case series.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Gonul; Gollu, Gulnur; Ates, Ufuk; Cakmak, Zeynep A; Kologlu, Meltem; Yagmurlu, Aydın; Aktug, Tanju; Dindar, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ahmet M

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal or gastric injuries secondary to caustic substance ingestion is still an important issue in developing countries. Its clinical spectrum can vary from absence of mucosal injury to complications such as severe burns, strictures and perforation. Physical examination and first endoscopic evaluation are very important in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to present 154 children who were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of caustic substance ingestion including descaler, degreaser, unlabeled bleach, drain opener, surface cleaner, dishwasher rinse aid, hydrochloric acid. Sixty-nine children had positive oropharyngeal findings. Sixtythree children were found to have burns in the first endoscopic examination and forty of these burns were severe burn. In the follow-up, twenty children developed strictures that were undergone dilatation program. Fourteen children in the dilatation program had successful dilatation and intralesional steroid injection. However three children had undergone colonic interposition and three undergone laparoscopic gastroduodenostomy and gastrojejunostomy.

  10. POWERCOACH{reg_sign}: An intelligent decision system for evaluating bulk power transactions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    POWERCOACH is an intelligent decision system (IDS) that provides a valuable step forward in the analysis of bulk power transaction decisions, including purchases, sales, or exchanges. An attractive feature is its ability to coach non-expert users in applying the rigorous methodology of decision analysis to create tailored decision models for their bulk power transactions. The most important benefit of using POWERCOACH is not the data output but the insights that suggest creative ways to manage the risks and rewards of a transaction. POWERCOACH provides a new way of thinking and analysis for bulk power decision-making and directs that skill to many levels in an organization. This report describes the challenges faced in developing POWERCOACH and why an IDS meets the requirements set forth by utility advisors. It begins with a discussion of decision analysis and an in-depth look at the components of a generic IDS: the decision model, the knowledge base, and the decision analysis cycle. This includes a description of the influence diagram--a decision model that is popular because of its effectiveness as a communications tool. POWERCOACH is an IDS tailored for bulk power market participants. The POWERCOACH consultation is described in detail, as well as the analysis results that provide insights to decision-makers. The broader applications of POWERCOACH include risk management, consensus building, and training. In this report, engineers and strategists at the Tennessee Valley Authority and Ohio Edison present their experiences with POWERCOACH and the benefits gained through its use.

  11. Introducing the Bulking Factor to Quantify Clogging in Petroleum Formation Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, E. D.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of both fluid and particle interactions in porous media is important for applications in groundwater hydrology, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and petroleum reservoir characterization. In particular, petroleum reservoir damage costs $10 billion annually, according to the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Petroleum reservoir damage, also called formation damage, results from various operations related to oil and gas production, including drilling, completions, and production phases. In this study, an extension to the widely applied Kozeny-Carman equation will be used to explore the characteristics of a dimensionless clogging parameter called the bulking factor, which was first introduced by Ojha and Graham in the 1990s. This present study will explore the tendency for fines, also called colloids, to cause clogging in initially clean porous media. Analysis proceeds using a mathematical model in which the dimensionless bulking factor is used to extend the widely utilized Kozeny-Carman equation to account for other clogging factors that are not correlated with the volume of deposited fines. The velocity dependence of the bulking factor is illustrated by considering several experimental studies from the literature that use a variety of porosities, fluids, colloid diameters and types, filter materials, and flow velocities. The filtration data sets had porosity from 35% to 46%, filter material diameters from 163 μm to 1400 μm, and colloid diameters from 0.10 μm to 8.00 μm. The filter materials were uniform sand, glass beads, or Clementine silica. Results indicate that with increasing velocity, the bulking factor decreases for all of the experiments analyzed. This correlation indicates that when other variables are held constant, filtration experiments conducted at higher flow velocity result in less clogging, at least for the case of initially clean porous media. Fitted values of the bulking factor were also correlated with the Peclet

  12. Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment. Evidence suggests that the psychedelics have a much greater safety profile than the major addictive drugs, having extremely low levels of mortality, and producing little if any physical dependence. This paper reviews studies evaluating the use of LSD, peyote, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of dependencies and the possible mechanisms underlying the indications of effectiveness. Evidence suggests that these substances help assist recovery from drug dependency through a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including a notable "after-glow" effect that in part reflects their action on the serotonin neurotransmitter system. Serotonin has been long recognized as central to the psychedelics' well-known phenomenological, physical, emotional and cognitive dynamics. These serotonin-based dynamics are directly relevant to treatment of addiction because of depressed serotonin levels found in addict populations, as well as the role of serotonin as a neuromodulators affecting many other neurotransmitter systems.

  13. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  14. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18–69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30–72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive–behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  15. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  16. Evaluation of the structure and acid-base properties of bulk wood by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Q.; Rahiala, H.; Rosenholm, J.B.

    1998-10-15

    The structure of pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.) has been analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, taking birch wood and the wood components cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan), and lignin as well as previously characterized wood resins as references. The acid-base properties of bulk pine wood were evaluated by comparing the spectra recorded before and after the treatment with various solvents. After the treatment with the probe liquids having only a Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) component, it was found that the LW interactions in pine wood take place without changing the main structure. After treatment with Lewis acid-base active probe liquids, the spectra indicate that, e.g., the intense peak located at {approximately}2936 cm{sup {minus}1} (CH{sub 2} stretch) seems to disappear, suggesting that this peak may be related to Lewis acidity. In addition, after treatment with a Lewis acid, it was found that the intense peak located at {approximately}1657 cm{sup {minus}1} (C{double_bond}C) is shifted, relating to Lewis basicity. With the ratio {approximately}2936/{approximately}1657 cm{sup {minus}1} as a measure of the acid-base properties of bulk wood, a value of about 2.00 indicates that the bulk pine wood is largely acidic. The pH determined supports the evaluation made by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  18. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Alexandra; Ramos, João; Alves, Sofia; Messias, Ana; Alberto, Nélia; Nogueira, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n = 10). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable "low-shrinkage" resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α = 0.05) considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p < 0.01). Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23%) and 7.8 μm (0.20%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p = 0.015) and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation.

  20. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, João; Alves, Sofia; Nogueira, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n = 10). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable “low-shrinkage” resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α = 0.05) considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p < 0.01). Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23%) and 7.8 μm (0.20%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p = 0.015) and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation. PMID:27190517

  1. Evaluation of the relationship between bulk organic precursors and disinfection byproduct formation for advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Daugherty, Erin; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-02-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining traction as they offer mineralization potential rather than transferring contaminants between media. However, AOPs operated with limited energy and/or chemical inputs can exacerbate disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation, even as precursors such as dissolved organic carbon, UV254, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) decrease. This study examined the relationship between DBP precursors and formation using TiO2 photocatalysis experiments, external AOP and non-AOP data, and predictive DBP models. The top-performing indicator, SUVA, generally correlated positively with trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, but limited-energy photocatalysis yielded contrasting negative correlations. The accuracy of predicted DBP values from models based on bulk parameters was generally poor, regardless of use and extent of AOP treatment and type of source water. Though performance improved for scenarios bounded by conditions used in model development, only 0.5% of the model/dataset pairings satisfied all measured parameter boundary conditions, thereby introducing skepticism toward model usefulness. Study findings suggest that caution should be employed when using bulk indicators and/or models as a metric for AOP mitigation of DBP formation potential, particularly for limited-energy/chemical inputs.

  2. Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Biochars from Neem Seed Active Substance Extracted Residues (NSASER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jialei; Lu, Shuwen

    2017-05-01

    Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People’s Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application.

  3. Evaluating the use of sub-tile Bulk Averaged inputs to simulate evapotranspiration within Heterogeneous Land-Atmosphere Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiting; Jia, Li; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration plays a crucial role in the regional water and energy balance and often takes place within heterogeneous land-atmosphere systems. Heterogeneity usually appears in the resolvable elements in Land Surface Models (LSMs). Typically, Land surface modelling to simulate evapotranspiration tends to oversimplify the sub-Tile heterogeneity of a Land-atmosphere parameter by a single representative value. This paper evaluates the inaccuracy of LSMs resulting from inaccurately representing the heterogeneity within resolvable elements by a bulk average value. In a synthetic experiment, seven Probability Density Functions (PDFs) were used to simulate the different scenarios of heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and top Soil Moisture (SM). Evapotranspiration estimates based on bulk averaged LAI and SM status were compared with the one obtained by the real distributed LAI and SM. Their difference is due to the combined effect of heterogeneities in LAI and SM, and the nonlinear processes in the LSMs. Besides the synthetic numerical experiment, we also tested the reliability of the bulk average scheme in a real world case for the Heihe river basin, northwest of China, to further demonstrate the importance of accounting for sub-Tile heterogeneity in evapotranspiration estimates and its implications for the regional and irrigation water management.

  4. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. Objective To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). Methods We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use

  5. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Evans, William; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-06-27

    Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use; attitudes toward social media

  6. Evaluation of free to grow: head start partnerships to promote substance-free communities.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; Rogers, Todd; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Barker, Dianne C; Talton, Jennifer W; Ip, Edward H; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Parries, Maria T; Easterling, Doug

    2011-04-01

    Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities (FTG) was a national initiative in which local Head Start (HS) agencies, in partnership with other community organizations, implemented a mix of evidence-based family-strengthening and community-strengthening strategies. The evaluation of FTG used a quasi-experimental design to compare 14 communities that participated in the FTG intervention with 14 matched comparison communities. Telephone surveys were conducted with two cohorts of the primary caregivers of children in HS at baseline and then annually for 2 years. The survey was also administered to repeated cross-sectional samples of primary caregivers of young children who were not enrolled in HS. No consistent evidence was found in changes in family functioning or neighborhood conditions when the 14 FTG sites were compared to 14 matched sites. However, caregivers of young children who were not in HS in three high-implementing FTG sites showed evidence of improvements in neighborhood organization, neighborhood norms against substance abuse, and child disciplinary practices. Results provide highly limited support for the concept that family and neighborhood conditions that are likely to affect child development and well-being can be changed through organized efforts implemented by local HS programs.

  7. Ultrastructural evaluation of radicular dentin after Nd:YAG laser irradiation combined with different chemical substances.

    PubMed

    Faria, Maria Isabel Anastacio; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Marchesan, Melissa Andreia; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa

    2008-01-01

    This aticle sought to evaluate the dentin morphology after irradiation by a Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, using different chemical substances to irrigate radicular canals: distilled water, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plus Cetavlon (EDTAC), 1% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% chlorhexidine. Groups were subdivided according to the protocol of laser application (n=9). The specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No differences were found in dentin morphology when different root thirds were examined. Regardless of the chemical substance used, alterations were more evident in groups in which the surfaces were dried before laser irradiation. Fusion areas, craters, carbonization, and partially exposed tubules were verified. When the irradiation was performed in water, the smear layer was incorporated into the laser-modified surface. Among the specimens irrigated with EDTAC and laser-treated, partial obliteration of dentin tubules due to the laser action was verified; in addition, there was no remaining smear layer on the surfaces. Samples irrigated with sodium hypochlorite followed by laser irradiation demonstrated similar morphology to the samples in the chlorhexidine group, with some fusion areas present and no exposed dentin tubules or fissures. The irradiation from an Nd:YAG laser in the presence of EDTAC solution provided a more favorable surface pattern compared to the other experimental conditions, due to the removal of the contaminated layer and the posterior sealing of dentin tubules.

  8. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology: a randomized, controlled 6-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-08-01

    This randomized study evaluated a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in posterior restorations and compared it intraindividually with a conventional 2-mm resin composite layering technique over a 6-yr follow-up period. Thirty-eight pairs of Class II restorations and 15 pairs of Class I restorations were placed in 38 adults. In all cavities a single-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In the first cavity of each pair, the flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments of up to 4 mm. The occlusal part was completed with a layer of nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono). In the second cavity of each pair, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2-mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then annually for a time period of 6 yr. After 6 yr, 72 Class II restorations and 26 Class I restorations could be evaluated. Six failed Class II molar restorations, three in each group, were observed, resulting in a success rate of 93.9% for all restorations and an annual failure rate (AFR) of 1.0% for both groups. The AFR for Class II and Class I restorations in both groups was 1.4% and 0%, respectively. The main reason for failure was resin composite fracture. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. A novel integrated approach to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2012-12-01

    A novel integrated approach is developed to quantitatively evaluate the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction efficiency after taking into account EPS yield, EPS damage, and cell lysis. This approach incorporates grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic analysis, in which the evaluation procedure is established on the basis of grey relational coefficients generation, membership functions construction, and fuzzy rules description. The flocculation activity and DNA content of EPS are chosen as the two evaluation responses. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach, EPS from Bacillus megaterium TF10 are extracted using five different extraction methods, and their extraction efficiencies are evaluated as one real case study. Based on the evaluation results, the maximal extraction grades and corresponding optimal extraction times of the five extraction methods are ordered as EDTA, 10 h > formaldehyde + NaOH, 60 min > heating, 120 min > ultrasonication, 30 min > H₂SO₄, 30 min > control. The proposed approach here offers an effective tool to select appropriate EPS extraction methods and determine the optimal extraction conditions.

  10. Evaluation of cavity wall adaptation of bulk esthetic materials to restore class II cavities in primary molars.

    PubMed

    Gaintantzopoulou, Maria D; Gopinath, Vellore K; Zinelis, Spiros

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the cavity wall adaptation and gap formation of a bulk fill composite resin and reinforced conventional glass ionomer cement and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement in class II restorations on primary molars. Standardized class II slot cavity preparations were prepared in exfoliating primary molars. Teeth were restored with one of the three tested materials (n = 10): SonicFill bulk fill composite resin (SF), EQUIA Fil conventional reinforced glass ionomer cement (EQF), and Vitremer resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (VT). Cavity wall adaptation of the restorations was investigated by computerized X-ray micro-tomography and the percentage void volume fraction (%VVF) was calculated. Same specimens were sectioned and the interfaces were evaluated by reflection optical microscopy to measure the percentage linear length (%LD) of the interfacial gaps. Samples were further evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). EQF and SF showed significantly lower %VVF and %LD values than VT (p < 0.05). This was in accordance with ESEM findings where VT illustrated extended interfacial gaps. SF and EQF showed better cavity wall adaptation than VT in class II restorations on primary molars. High-strength conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC EQF) and bulk fill composite SF requiring fewer application steps and reduced operating time than the traditional composite resin materials showed good cavity wall adaptation. Short operating time and good cavity wall adaptation are advantages of the materials in restorative and pediatric dentistry, especially while working on children with limited attention span.

  11. Participatory monitoring and evaluation within a statewide support system to prevent adolescent substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jerry A; Pandya, Sheetal; Sims, Momina; Jones, Jami A; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To prevent youth substance abuse, a state prevention system aims to support implementation of best practices statewide. A critical component is the prevention support system; that is, the network of people and organizations that build capacity within communities to implement prevention activities. This study describes the Kansas Prevention Network (KPN), the prevention support system within Kansas. It examines how KPN uses monitoring and evaluation to guide support for implementation of prevention activities. From 2009 to 2011, support organizations implemented nearly 4,000 activities to build capacity of local coalitions to better implement interventions. Activities focused primarily on building capacity for community-based processes, such as assessment and planning, and for dissemination of information. This report describes innovative approaches to documenting and monitoring the statewide effort as well as structured approaches for using the data to guide decision making and technical assistance.

  12. A chemical-biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A; Wright, Fred A; Reif, David M; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L; Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-08-21

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  13. Engaging health professional students in substance abuse research: development and early evaluation of the SARET program.

    PubMed

    Truncali, Andrea; Kalet, Adina L; Gillespie, Colleen; More, Frederick; Naegle, Madeline; Lee, Joshua D; Huben, Laura; Kerr, David; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to build the ranks of health care professionals engaged in substance abuse (SA)-focused clinical research. The authors simultaneously developed and evaluated SARET, the Substance Abuse Research Education and Training program. The fundamental goal of this interprofessional program is to stimulate medical, dental, and nursing student interest and experience in SA research. Evaluation aims to understand program feasibility and acceptability and to assess short-term impact. SARET comprises 2 main components: stipend-supported research mentorships and a Web-based module series, consisting of 6, interactive, multimedia modules addressing core SA research topics, delivered via course curricula and in the research mentorships. Authors assessed program feasibility and impact on student interest in conducting SA research by tracking participation and conducting participant focus groups and online surveys. Thirty early health care professional students completed mentorships (25 summer, 5 yearlong) and 1324 completed at least 1 Web-module. SARET was considered attractive for the opportunity to conduct clinically oriented research and to work with health care professionals across disciplines. Mentorship students reported positive impact on their vision of SA-related clinical care, more positive attitudes about research, and, in some cases, change in career plans. Web-based modules were associated with enhanced interest in SA (35% increase, P = 0.005, in those somewhat/very interested for neurobiology module) and SA research (+38%, P < 0.001 for activation, +45%, P < 0.001 for personal impact, +7%, P = 0.089 for neurobiology). The SARET program stimulates SA clinical and research interest among students of nursing, medicine, and dentistry and may lend itself to dissemination.

  14. Evaluation of a microwave resonator for predicting grain moisture independent of bulk density

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work evaluated the ability of a planar whispering mode resonator to predict moisture considering moisture and densities expected in an on-harvester application. A calibration model was developed to accurately predict moisture over the moisture, density and temperature ranges evaluated. This mod...

  15. 76 FR 35243 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine... controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The...

  16. Microcosms as potential screening tools for evaluating transport and effects of toxic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Ausmus, B.S.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Draggan, S.J.; Giddhings, J.M.; Jackson, D.R.; Luxmoore, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; O'Neill, R.V.; Ross-Todd, M.; Van Voris, P.

    1980-06-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic microcosms were evaluated for use in research on environmental contaminants. Research completed in this project attempted to: (1) evaluate relationships among size, complexity, stability, and replicability; (2) assess the simularity between microcosm results and actual environmental transport and effects; (3) identify and quantify system-level parameters that might be sensitive indicators of effects of chemical contaminants; (4) determine the relationship between system-level parameters measured in microcosms and in natural ecosystems; and (5) suggest protocols for establishing, maintaining, and interpreting results from microcosms. A number of experimental approaches using several microcosm designs and contaminants are reported. The use of terrestrial microcosm results was evaluated in conjunction with mathematical simulation models as a means of extending short-term exprimental results to interpret conditions as they might occur in the natural ecosystem. Although microcosms offer an excellent experimental system, their application to toxic substance testing is not a straightforward matter. They are characterized by complex dynamics and counterintuitive responses just as is the ecosystem to which they are an analog. These factors notwithstanding, microcosms do offer an excellent means of studying specific aspects of contaminant behavior and ecosystem processes. With appropriate attention to the design of specific questions, answers to which are relevant to interpreting ecological transport and effects of contaminants, microcosms can be useful tools.

  17. Evaluation and analysis of non-intrusive techniques for detecting illicit substances

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.; Demirgian, J.C.; Kunz, T.D.; Ulvick, S.J.; Cui, J.

    1995-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) have been tasked by the Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center of the Office of National Drug Control Policy to conduct evaluations and analyses of technologies for the non-intrusive inspection of containers for illicit substances. These technologies span the range of nuclear, X-ray, and chemical techniques used in nondestructive sample analysis. ANL has performed assessments of nuclear and X-ray inspection concepts and undertaken site visits with developers to understand the capabilities and the range of applicability of candidate systems. ANL and HARC have provided support to law enforcement agencies (LEAs), including participation in numerous field studies. Both labs have provided staff to assist in the Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program for evaluating drug detection systems. Also, the two labs are performing studies of drug contamination of currency. HARC has directed technical evaluations of automated ballistics imaging and identification systems under consideration by law enforcement agencies. ANL and HARC have sponsored workshops and a symposium, and are participating in a Non-Intrusive Inspection Study being led by Dynamics Technology, Incorporated.

  18. Evaluation of lung epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Derya; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koca, Gokhan

    2011-10-01

    Chronic inhalant use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological, renal, hepatic, and pulmonary damage. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding respiratory complications in inhalant abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse (VSA) using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. This study included 18 patients with volatile substance abuse and 18 volunteer controls. All of patients and controls were smokers. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in all cases. Time-activity curves from each lung were generated and clearance half-time (T(1/2)) of Tc-99m DTPA were calculated. T(1/2) of whole lung was calculated as a mean of the T(1/2) of left and right lung. The T(1/2) values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in the substance abusers were significantly decreased as compared to the control group with respective mean values of 28.86 ± 8.44, and 62.14 ± 26.12 min (p = 0.001). It was seen Tc-99m DTPA clearance from lung was faster as the duration of substance abuse was increased. Tc-99m DTPA pulmonary clearance is markedly accelerated in the volatile substance abuse. This suggests that inhalant abuse of substance may produce abnormalities in pulmonary alveolo-capillary membrane function.

  19. The Evaluation of Substance User Treatment--A Jubilee Proposal for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Schildhaus, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article recommends a longitudinal, national study of the outcomes of substance user treatment, plus a cohort of users who do not enter treatment. Viewing addiction primarily as a brain disease has provided interesting descriptive information but dismisses the psychological, social, political, economic, and legal dimensions of substance user dependence. An increased emphasis on behavioral study of treatment outcomes with a decreased emphasis on brain-focused research on substance use is overdue.

  20. Evaluation of different school-based preventive interventions for reducing the use of psychotropic substances among students: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Oliveira; De Micheli, Denise

    2015-08-01

    Although many schools perform preventive interventions for reducing drug use, little is known about their implementation processes and results. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of preventive intervention performed in the school setting for reducing substance use among students. The study comprised 1316 students from the 9th year of elementary school to the 3rd year of secondary school in 8 public schools in the city of Guarulhos, São Paulo state, Brazil. Students were randomly assigned to the intervention groups or a control group and were evaluated at two different time-points regarding substance use. The results indicated that interventions performed by teachers were most effective in reducing both substance use and the severity of substance-associated problems. Interventions performed by experts were partially effective, although they only reduced use among experimental users. The results of "Single lecture" interventions revealed that such approaches are counterproductive. In summary, preventive actions that were contextualized to the student's reality and the school environment and that included the active involvement of both teacher and student were most effective at reducing the prevalence of substance use and the severity of associated problems in students.

  1. An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID:27194587

  2. Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Cohen, Samuel M; Doull, John; Feron, Victor J; Goodman, Jay I; Marnett, Lawrence J; Munro, Ian C; Portoghese, Philip S; Waddell, William J; Wagner, Bernard M; Adams, Timothy B

    2005-08-01

    The current status of the GRAS evaluation program of flavoring substances operated by the Expert Panel of FEMA is discussed. The Panel maintains a rigorous rotating 10-year program of continuous review of scientific data related to the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Panel concluded a comprehensive review of the GRAS (GRASa) status of flavors in 1985 and began a second comprehensive review of the same substances and any recently GRAS materials in 1994. This second re-evaluation program of chemical groups of flavor ingredients, recognized as the GRAS reaffirmation (GRASr) program, is scheduled to be completed in 2005. The evaluation criteria used by the Panel during the GRASr program reflects the significant impact of advances in biochemistry, molecular biology and toxicology that have allowed for a more complete understanding of the molecular events associated with toxicity. The interpretation of novel data on the relationship of dose to metabolic fate, formation of protein and DNA adducts, enzyme induction, and the cascade of cellular events leading to toxicity provides a more comprehensive basis upon which to evaluate the safety of the intake of flavor ingredients under conditions of intended use. The interpretation of genotoxicity data is evaluated in the context of other data such as in vivo animal metabolism and lifetime animal feeding studies that are more closely related to actual human experience. Data are not viewed in isolation, but comprise one component that is factored into the Panel's overall safety assessment. The convergence of different methodologies that assess intake of flavoring substances provides a greater degree of confidence in the estimated intake of flavor ingredients. When these intakes are compared to dose levels that in some cases result in related chemical and biological effects and the subsequent toxicity, it is clear that exposure to these substances through flavor use presents no significant human health risk.

  3. 46 CFR 162.060-32 - Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (FIFRA) for use in ballast water treatment prior to submission to the Coast Guard for approval of the... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-32 Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. (a) A ballast water management...

  4. 46 CFR 162.060-32 - Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (FIFRA) for use in ballast water treatment prior to submission to the Coast Guard for approval of the... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-32 Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. (a) A ballast water management...

  5. 46 CFR 162.060-32 - Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (FIFRA) for use in ballast water treatment prior to submission to the Coast Guard for approval of the... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-32 Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. (a) A ballast water management...

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment in the United States: Exemplary Models from a National Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sally J.; Morral, Andrew R.

    This book provides detailed descriptions of exemplary adolescent drug treatment models and gives the latest information on substance use and its consequences. The examinations of treatment models included in this book include programs serving adolescent substance users from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Chapters include: (1)…

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment in the United States: Exemplary Models from a National Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sally J.; Morral, Andrew R.

    This book provides detailed descriptions of exemplary adolescent drug treatment models and gives the latest information on substance use and its consequences. The examinations of treatment models included in this book include programs serving adolescent substance users from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Chapters include: (1)…

  8. Evaluation of the Cooperative Emergency Substance Abuse Prevention Training Program, 1991-1992. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weich, Leah; Philip, Radhika

    The 1991-1992 Cooperative Emergency Substance Abuse Prevention Program was the first year of a two-year program in Community School District 3 in New York City. The overall objectives of the program were to provide staff training in the knowledge and skills necessary to carry out substance abuse prevention education, to make available to students…

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of factors that influence the spin polarization of electrons emitted from bulk GaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Poelker, Matt; Peng, Xincun; Zhang, Shukui; Stutzman, Marcy

    2017-07-01

    The degree of polarization of photoemitted electrons extracted from bulk unstrained GaAs photocathodes is usually considerably less than the theoretical maximum value of 50%, as a result of depolarization mechanisms that originate within the photocathode material and at the vacuum surface interface. This paper provides a comprehensive review of depolarization mechanisms and presents a systematic experimental evaluation of polarization sensitivities to temperature, dopant density, quantum efficiency, and crystal orientation. The highest measured polarization was ˜50%, consistent with the maximum theoretical value, obtained from a photocathode sample with relatively low dopant concentration and cooled to 77 K. In general, measurements indicate electron spin polarization can be enhanced at the expense of photoelectron yield (or quantum efficiency).

  10. A comprehensive evaluation of factors that influence the spin polarization of electrons emitted from bulk GaAs photocathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Wei; Poelker, Matt; Peng, Xincun; ...

    2017-07-19

    Here, the degree of polarization of photoemitted electrons extracted from bulk unstrained GaAs photocathodes is usually considerably less than the theoretical maximum value of 50%, as a result of depolarization mechanisms that originate within the photocathode material and at the vacuum surface interface. This paper provides a comprehensive review of depolarization mechanisms and presents a systematic experimental evaluation of polarization sensitivities to temperature, dopant density, quantum efficiency, and crystal orientation. The highest measured polarization was similar to 50%, consistent with the maximum theoretical value, obtained from a photocathode sample with relatively low dopant concentration and cooled to 77 K. Inmore » general, measurements indicate electron spin polarization can be enhanced at the expense of photoelectron yield (or quantum efficiency).« less

  11. Crisis intervention related to the use of psychoactive substances in recreational settings--evaluating the Kosmicare Project at Boom Festival.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Carmo; de Sousa, Mariana Pinto; Frango, Paula; Dias, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Rodrigues, Marta; Rodrigues, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Kosmicare project implements crisis intervention in situations related to the use of psychoactive substances at Boom Festival (Portugal). We present evaluation research that aims to contribute to the transformation of the project into an evidence-based intervention model. It relies on harm reduction and risk minimization principles, crisis intervention models, and Grof's psychedelic psychotherapy approach for crisis intervention in situations related to unsupervised use of psychedelics. Intervention was expected to produce knowledge about the relation between substance use and mental health impact in reducing potential risk related to the use of psychoactive substances and mental illness, as well as an impact upon target population's views of themselves, their relationship to substance use, and to life events in general. Research includes data on process and outcome indicators through a mixed methods approach, collected next to a sample of n=176 participants. Sample size varied considerably, however, among different research measures. 52% of Kosmicare visitors reported LSD use. Over 40% also presented multiple drug use. Pre-post mental state evaluation showed statistically significant difference (p<.05) confirming crisis resolution. Crisis episodes that presented no resolution were more often related with mental health outburst episodes, with psychoactive substance use or not. Visitors showed high satisfaction with intervention (n=58) and according to follow-up (n=18) this perception was stable over time. Crisis intervention was experienced as very significant. We discuss limitations and implications of evaluating natural setting based interventions, and the relation between psychoactive substance use and psychopathology. Other data on visitor's profile and vulnerability to crisis showed inconclusive.

  12. DSM-5 cannabis use disorder, substance use and DSM-5 specific substance-use disorders: Evaluating comorbidity in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is frequently associated with concurrent substance use and/or comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs); however there is little specificity with regard to commonly abused individual drug types/classes. This study therefore aimed to provide insight into the degree of these co-occurring relationships across several specific newer and older generation illicit and prescription drugs. 36,309 adults aged 18+ from wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were assessed. Weighted cross-tabulations and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate comorbidity between current DSM-5 CUD, substance use and DSM-5 SUD. Current DSM-5 CUD is associated with greater lifetime use of all examined drug classes, and previous 12-month use of several newer-class illicit and prescription stimulant-based substances (all p< 0.05). Current DSM-5 CUD was similarly associated with increased incidence of a range of DSM-5 SUDs and was independently associated with concurrently reporting current DSM-5; sedative (Adjusted OR= 5.1, 95%CI 2.9-9.0), cocaine (AOR= 9.3, 95%CI 5.6-15.5), stimulant (AOR= 4.3, 95%CI 2.3-7.9), club drug (AOR= 16.1, 95%CI 6.3-40.8), opioid (AOR= 4.6, 95%CI 3.0-6.8) and alcohol-use disorder (AOR= 3.0, 95%CI 2.5-3.7); but not heroin or 'other' drug use disorder (both p>0.05). High comorbidity exists between DSM-5 CUD and many specific DSM-5 SUDs. Newer-class illicit and prescription stimulant-based drug use disorders are overrepresented among those with DSM-5 CUD. These findings underscore the need for tailored treatment programs for those presenting with DSM-5 CUD, and for greater treatment specification where poly-drug use is evident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of five selective media for isolation of catalase-negative gram-positive cocci from bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Ashish A; Pillai, Shreekumar R; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2002-05-01

    Five selective media including Edwards modified medium, Edwards modified medium supplemented with colistin sulfate (5 mg/L) and oxolinic acid (2.5 mg/L), Streptococcus selective medium, Streptosel agar, and thallium-crystal violet-toxin-ferric citrate medium were evaluated for the isolation of streptococci and streptococci-like organisms from raw milk. The sensitivity and specificity of these selective media for streptococci and streptococci-like organisms were determined by using American Type Culture Collection reference strains. Under experimental conditions Edwards modified medium with colistin sulfate (5 mg/L) and oxolinic acid (2.5 mg/L) showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) for streptococci and streptococci-like organisms followed by thallium-crystal violettoxin-ferric citrate medium, Edwards modified medium, Streptococcus selective medium, and Streptosel agar. Edwards modified medium supplemented with colistin sulfate (5 mg/L) and oxolinic acid (2.5 mg/L) allowed growth of all streptococci and streptococci-like organisms, while inhibiting growth of the staphylococci and gram-negative reference strains. Bulk tank milk samples from 114 dairy herds were spiral plated onto Edwards modified medium with colistin sulfate (5 mg/L) and oxolinic acid (2.5 mg/L). A total of 344 isolates (at least three isolates from each sample) were randomly selected and identified to their species. This medium permitted growth of 328 streptococci and streptococci-like organisms belonging to genera Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Gemella, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Vagococcus. When Edwards modified medium supplemented with colistin sulfate (5 mg/L) and oxolinic acid (2.5 mg/L) was evaluated using bulk tank milk samples, the sensitivity and specificity of this medium for streptococci and streptococci-like organisms were observed to be 100 and 87.5%, respectively. The positive predictive value for streptococci and streptococci-like organisms was observed to be 99

  14. Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, G.; Nagai, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ashida, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Matsubara, E.; Kanemitsu, Y.

    2014-12-08

    We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Through close analysis of time-resolved data, we extracted the exact number of photoexcited carriers from the sheet carrier density 10 ps after photoexcitation, excluding the influences of spatial diffusion and surface recombination in the time domain. For incident photon energies greater than 4.0 eV, we observed enhanced internal quantum efficiency due to carrier multiplication. The evaluated value of internal quantum efficiency agrees well with the results of photocurrent measurements. This optical method allows us to estimate the carrier multiplication and surface recombination of carriers quantitatively, which are crucial for the design of the solar cells.

  15. Evaluating the ready biodegradability of two poorly water-soluble substances: comparative approach of bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs).

    PubMed

    Sweetlove, Cyril; Chenèble, Jean-Charles; Barthel, Yves; Boualam, Marc; L'Haridon, Jacques; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties encountered in estimating the biodegradation of poorly water-soluble substances are often linked to their limited bioavailability to microorganisms. Many original bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs) have been described, but no global approach was proposed for a standardized comparison of these. The latter would be a valuable tool as part of a wider strategy for evaluating poorly water-soluble substances. The purpose of this study was to define an evaluation strategy following the assessment of different BIMs adapted to poorly water-soluble substances with ready biodegradability tests. The study was performed with two poorly water-soluble chemicals-a solid, anthraquinone, and a liquid, isodecyl neopentanoate-and five BIMs were compared to the direct addition method (reference method), i.e., (i) ultrasonic dispersion, (ii) adsorption onto silica gel, (iii) dispersion using an emulsifier, (iv) dispersion with silicone oil, and (v) dispersion with emulsifier and silicone oil. A two-phase evaluation strategy of solid and liquid chemicals was developed involving the selection of the most relevant BIMs for enhancing the biodegradability of tested substances. A description is given of a BIM classification ratio (R BIM), which enables a comparison to be made between the different test chemical sample preparation methods used in the various tests. Thereby, using this comparison, the BIMs giving rise to the greatest biodegradability were ultrasonic dispersion and dispersion with silicone oil or with silicone oil and emulsifier for the tested solid chemical, adsorption onto silica gel, and ultrasonic dispersion for the liquid one.

  16. A new quality assurance system for the evaluation of ecotoxicity studies submitted under the New Substances Notification Regulations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Breton, Roger L; Gilron, Guy; Thompson, Ryan; Rodney, Sara; Teed, Scott

    2009-01-01

    New substances destined for import into, or manufacture in, Canada must be reported to Environment Canada and Health Canada under the New Substances Notification Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) (NSNR). With the use of information provided by the notifier, and other complementary information available to the 2 departments, the New Substances Program conducts ecological and human health risk assessments. Over the past 10 y, more than 750 ecotoxicity studies have been submitted to the New Substances Program of Environment Canada under the NSNR. Most of these experimental studies are not publicly available but are useful in the ecological risk assessment of new substances and for the development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). In this paper, we describe the development and validation of a computer-based scoring system and our approach in the development of scoring methods used to assess the quality and usability of ecotoxicity studies with fish, Daphnia spp., and green algae. Results of ranking exercises conducted with these methods are described and discussed, together with the potential use of these results in a regulatory context. In addition, the methods are discussed in comparison with other similar evaluation schemes described in the literature.

  17. From single-substance evaluation to ecological process concept: the dilemma of processing gold with cyanide.

    PubMed

    Korte, F; Coulston, F

    1995-10-01

    In the past decades, limit concentration values for environmentally dangerous synthetic and natural chemical substances have been established in industrialized countries. Depending on the range of application, state of aggregation, propagation velocity, specific action on living organisms, long- or short-time effect, etc., different terms are used to specify these limit concentrations (acceptable daily intakes, TLV, LD50, emission values, water quality standards, etc.). Several parameters (e.g., range of application, ethic and social valuation, environmental factors, scientific knowledge) have led to nationally and internationally varying values depending on the region and time. The accuracy of this system of evaluation cannot necessarily be improved by listing further analytical data, but rather by furnishing sufficiently secured scientific data for a serious discussion, with the public concepts influenced more and more by the mass media. The best-established scientific knowledge has been acquired by the chemical industry. National and international groups demand that ecological-chemical problems in other fields of industry be dealt with as well; this research should, without doubt, be intensified. The example of the mining industry, which must employ chemical methods to isolate small concentrations (ppm), demonstrates the environmental conflict caused by the increasing world population, requiring the adaptation of the process by industry to the modern environmental concept. This is illustrated by the evolution of the gold recovery process.

  18. Evaluation of Fluorescently Labeled Lectins for Noninvasive Localization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Sphingomonas Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Hausner, Martina; Schnell, Annette; Wuertz, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Three strains of Sphingomonas were grown as biofilms and tested for binding of five fluorescently labeled lectins (Con A-type IV-TRITC or -Cy5, Pha-E-TRITC, PNA-TRITC, UEA 1-TRITC, and WGA-Texas red). Only ConA and WGA were significantly bound by the biofilms. Binding of the five lectins to artificial biofilms made of the commercially available Sphingomonas extracellular polysaccharides was similar to binding to living biofilms. Staining of the living and artificial biofilms by ConA might be explained as binding of the lectin to the terminal mannosyl and terminal glucosyl residues in the polysaccharides secreted by Sphingomonas as well as to the terminal mannosyl residue in glycosphingolipids. Staining of the biofilms by WGA could only be explained as binding to the Sphingomonas glycosphingolipid membrane, binding to the cell wall, or nonspecific binding. Glycoconjugation of ConA and WGA with the target sugars glucose and N-acetylglucosamine, respectively, was used as a method for evaluation of the specificity of the lectins towards Sphingomonas biofilms and Sphingomonas polysaccharides. Our results show that the binding of lectins to biofilms does not necessarily prove the presence of specific target sugars in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms. The lectins may bind to non-EPS targets or adhere nonspecifically to components of the biofilm matrix. PMID:10919811

  19. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    PubMed

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  20. [Inter-laboratory evaluation studies for establishment of notified ELISA methods for allergic substances (peanuts)].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kenjin; Harikai, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Iijima, Ken; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Mizuguchi, Yamato; Yoshikawa, Reiji; Yamamoto, Miho; Sato, Hidetaka; Watai, Masatoshi; Arakawa, Fumihiro; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Nishihara, Rikuka; Kato, Hisashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Mamegoshi, Shinichi; Muraoka, Shiroo; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sakata, Kozue; Imamura, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Masatake; Matsuda, Rieko; Maitani, Tamio

    2004-12-01

    Inter-laboratory evaluation studies were conducted for ELISA methods for allergic substances (peanuts). Extracts of biscuit, sauce, chocolate and butter spiked with peanut standard protein at a level of 5-20 ng/mL as sample solutions were analyzed in replicate in 10 laboratories. Coefficients of variation (CVs) of the ELISA methods using a Peanut Protein ELISA Kit (Peanut kit) and a FASTKIT Peanut ELISA kit (Peanut ELISA kit) were mostly below 10%. Mean recoveries of the peanut standard protein from the food extracts were over 40% in the two ELISA methods. Repeatability relative standard deviations of peanut standard protein in four food extracts were in the ranges of 15.2-49.7% and 3.0-28.3% for the Peanut kit and the Peanut ELISA kit, respectively. Reproducibility relative standard deviations of peanut standard protein in four food extracts were 23.5-44.4%, 9.6-28.4% for the Peanut kit and the Peanut ELISA kit, respectively. The detection limits of both ELISA methods were 2-2.5 ng/mL in sample solutions. These results suggested that the notified ELISA methods are reliable and reproducible for the inspection of peanut protein levels in extracts of biscuit, sauce, chocolate and butter.

  1. Numerical evaluation of bulk material properties of dental composites using two-phase finite element models.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianying; Li, Haiyan; Fok, Alex S L; Watts, David C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to numerically evaluate the effects of filler contents and resin properties on the material properties of dental composites utilizing realistic 3D micromechanical finite element models. 3D micromechanical finite element models of dental composites containing irregular fillers with non-uniform sizes were created based on a large-scale, surrogate mixture fabricated from irregularly shaped stones and casting resin. The surrogate mixture was first scanned with a micro-CT scanner, and the images reassembled to produce a 3D finite element model. Different filler fractions were achieved by adjusting the matrix volume while keeping the fillers unchanged. Polymerization shrinkage, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and viscosity of the model composites were predicted using the finite element models, and their dependence on the filler fraction and material properties of the resin matrix were considered. Comparison of the numerical predictions with available experimental data and analytical models from the literature was performed. Increased filler fraction resulted in lower material shrinkage, higher Young's modulus, lower Poisson's ratio and higher viscosity in the composite. Predicted shrinkage and Young's modulus agreed well with the experimental data and analytical predictions. The McGee-McCullough model best fit the shrinkage and Young's modulus predicted by the finite element method. However, a new parameter, used as the exponent of the filler fraction, had to be introduced to the McGee-McCullough model to better match the predicted viscosity and Poisson's ratio with those from the finite element analysis. Realistic micro-structural finite element models were successfully applied to study the effects of filler fraction and matrix properties on a wide range of mechanical properties of dental composites with irregular fillers. The results can be used to direct the design of such materials to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Published by

  2. Evaluating the Marginal Integrity of Bulk Fill Fibre Reinforced Composites in Bio-mimetically Restored Tooth.

    PubMed

    Patnana, Arun Kumar; Vanga, V Narsimha Rao; Chandrabhatla, Srinivas Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Over the past years, composites in aesthetic dentistry are showing a considerable progress, but mechanical strength and polymerization shrinkage are the two main drawbacks, which limit their use in high stress bearing areas. To evaluate the marginal integrity of short glass fibre reinforced composite restorations, fibre reinforced composites with composite superficial layer, and fibre reinforced composites with underlying flowable composite layer. This study was done on twenty eight sound premolar teeth with standardized class V cavities restored under four groups as Group I: Particulate filler composite (Filtek Z 250 XT, 3M ESPE); Group II: Short glass fibre reinforced composite (everX Posterior, GC); Group III: Short glass fibre reinforced composite with an overlying layer of particulate filler composite; Group IV: Short glass fibre reinforced composite with an underlying layer of flowable composite (Filtek Z 250 XT, 3M ESPE). Test samples were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours at 37°C and each tooth was sectioned bucco-lingually. Staining along the tooth restoration interface was recorded and results were analysed statistically using Independent sample t-test and Tukey's post-hoc one-way ANOVA. The results showed significant difference in the dye penetration between the restorative materials in the occlusal and gingival margins (p=0.02). Short fibre reinforced composites showed a statistically significant difference in the microleakage scores when compared with the particulate filler composites (p=0.01). Short glass fibre reinforced composite restorations showed an improved marginal integrity when compared to the traditional particulate filler composite restorations.

  3. GRASr2 evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients.

    PubMed

    Marnett, Lawrence J; Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Adams, Timothy B; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2014-04-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  4. A critical evaluation of how ancient DNA bulk bone metabarcoding complements traditional morphological analysis of fossil assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grealy, Alicia C.; McDowell, Matthew C.; Scofield, Paul; Murray, Dáithí C.; Fusco, Diana A.; Haile, James; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2015-11-01

    When pooled for extraction as a bulk sample, the DNA within morphologically unidentifiable fossil bones can, using next-generation sequencing, yield valuable taxonomic data. This method has been proposed as a means to rapidly and cost-effectively assess general ancient DNA preservation at a site, and to investigate temporal and spatial changes in biodiversity; however, several caveats have yet to be considered. We critically evaluated the bulk bone metabarcoding (BBM) method in terms of its: (i) repeatability, by quantifying sampling and technical variance through a nested experimental design containing sub-samples and replicates at several stages; (ii) accuracy, by comparing morphological and molecular family-level identifications; and (iii) overall utility, by applying the approach to two independent Holocene fossil deposits, Bat Cave (Kangaroo Island, Australia) and Finsch's Folly (Canterbury, New Zealand). For both sites, bone and bone powder sub-sampling were found to contribute significantly to variance in molecularly identified family assemblage, while the contribution of library preparation and sequencing was almost negligible. Nevertheless, total variance was small. Sampling over 80% fewer bones than was required to morphologically identify the taxonomic assemblages, we found that the families identified molecularly are a subset of the families identified morphologically and, for the most part, represent the most abundant families in the fossil record. In addition, we detected a range of extinct, extant and endangered taxa, including some that are rare in the fossil record. Given the relatively low sampling effort of the BBM approach compared with morphological approaches, these results suggest that BBM is largely consistent, accurate, sensitive, and therefore widely applicable. Furthermore, we assessed the overall benefits and caveats of the method, and suggest a workflow for palaeontologists, archaeologists, and geneticists that will help mitigate these

  5. [An evaluation of methods for the quantitative determination of praziquantel as a substance].

    PubMed

    Lopatin, B V; Bebris, N K; Lopatina, N B

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of quantitative determination of a new helminthicide prasiquantel as a substance by spectral and chemical analytic procedures has been investigated. Chemical methods based on nitrogen measurement in the samples were shown to lack precision which is obligatory for drug analysis. The quantitative analytic procedures based on UV spectrophotometry are of low precision and selectivity. Infrared spectroscopy is the only method of prasiquantel assay that meets the requirements for drug substance measurement.

  6. Substance abuse may hasten motor onset of Huntington disease: Evaluating the Enroll-HD database.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jordan L; Kamholz, John A; Moser, David J; Feely, Shawna M E; Paulsen, Jane S; Nopoulos, Peg C

    2017-02-28

    To investigate the relationship between substances of abuse and age at motor onset (AMO) in patients with Huntington disease (HD) in a large and diverse patient population. This was a retrospective, observational study of the Enroll-HD database. Participants were determined to belong to 1 of 3 substance abuse groups: (1) tobacco abusers, (2) alcohol abusers, and (3) drug abusers. A group of participants who had never abused substances served as a control group. The average AMO of patients in the substance abuse groups was compared to the control group. The number of CAG repeats was used as a covariate in all analyses. The average difference in AMOs of participants in the tobacco (n = 566), alcohol (n = 374), and drug abuse groups (n = 217) compared to the control group (n = 692) were 2.3 (F1, 1,258 = 33.8, p < 0.0001), 1.0 (F1, 1,066 = 4.2, p = 0.04), and 3.3 (F1, 909 = 29.7, p < 0.0001) years earlier, respectively. In all substance abuse groups, the AMO was lowered to a greater degree in female participants than it was in male participants. Substances of abuse have a strong effect on the AMO in patients with HD. These effects seem to be amplified in women with HD compared to men. These results may provide a safe intervention capable of adding disease-free years to patients with HD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Evaluation of a Training to Reduce Provider Bias Toward Pregnant Patients With Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    SEYBOLD, DARA; CALHOUN, BYRON; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Competencies Model, with specific competencies targeted that related to provider bias. After the conference, 52 of the 70 participants completed a questionnaire to self-assess knowledge level and confidence in skill related to substance abuse management. Participant mean scores were statistically significantly higher following the conference than 1 week prior ( p < .001) in the area of “gender difference with substance abuse,” moving from an average of 2.6 to 4.5 on a 5-point Likert scale. Our conference was successful in increasing attendees’ knowledge about gender difference and substance abuse among pregnant patients. PMID:26207103

  8. Development and evaluation of a multidisciplinary controlled substances committee within a patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Gernant, Stephanie A; Bastien, Rachel; Lai, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To present the development of a multidisciplinary controlled substances committee and describe its effectiveness in relation to prescribers' acceptance of committee recommendations, the number of premature deaths associated with controlled substances, and prescribers' need for education on controlled substances. A patient-centered medical home and accountable care organization in Maine that serves more than 60,000 patients across a large rural area, 70% of whom are classified as lower income. A multidisciplinary group of prescribers and PharmD residents created a committee to influence organizational culture regarding controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Initiative Committee (CSIC) updated institutional policies, developed provider education, and made personalized patient recommendations to prescribers. The primary outcome was average change in daily morphine equivalent dose (MED) in patients for whom CSIC recommended a dose reduction to the patient's prescriber. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who died of a known overdose or suspected drug-related death during 2012-2013 or 2013-2014. In addition, prescriber beliefs about controlled substances were measured via a needs assessment. The average daily MED for patients whom CSIC recommended dose reduction was lower after 3 months compared with at baseline (175.5 ± 344.3 mg vs. 292.7 ± 466.5 mg; P <0.05). The proportion of patients who died of a known overdose did not differ between 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 (11.8% vs. 11.1%; P = 1.00). However, a greater number of patients had a suspected drug-related death during 2013-2014 compared with during 2012-2013 (0% vs. 27.3%; P = 0.05). A multidisciplinary controlled substances committee may improve patient safety and outcomes by offering prescriber support and helping alter prescribing culture.

  9. Evaluation of metal biouptake from the analysis of bulk metal depletion kinetics at various cell concentrations: theory and application.

    PubMed

    Rotureau, Elise; Billard, Patrick; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2015-01-20

    Bioavailability of trace metals is a key parameter for assessment of toxicity on living organisms. Proper evaluation of metal bioavailability requires monitoring the various interfacial processes that control metal partitioning dynamics at the biointerface, which includes metal transport from solution to cell membrane, adsorption at the biosurface, internalization, and possible excretion. In this work, a methodology is proposed to quantitatively describe the dynamics of Cd(II) uptake by Pseudomonas putida. The analysis is based on the kinetic measurement of Cd(II) depletion from bulk solution at various initial cell concentrations using electroanalytical probes. On the basis of a recent formalism on the dynamics of metal uptake by complex biointerphases, the cell concentration-dependent depletion time scales and plateau values reached by metal concentrations at long exposure times (>3 h) are successfully rationalized in terms of limiting metal uptake flux, rate of excretion, and metal affinity to internalization sites. The analysis shows the limits of approximate depletion models valid in the extremes of high and weak metal affinities. The contribution of conductive diffusion transfer of metals from the solution to the cell membrane in governing the rate of Cd(II) uptake is further discussed on the basis of estimated resistances for metal membrane transfer and extracellular mass transport.

  10. CHEMICAL AGENTS IN NEOPLASTIC DISEASES—An Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Substances for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Howard R.

    1953-01-01

    The rapid appearance of many new chemical substances which possess some antineoplastic effects has created a complex problem for the practicing physician. These agents which have shown promise in man and lower animals are grouped according to their modes of action. Each substance is discussed thoroughly with regard to its structure, activity, and influence upon the neoplasms of man. Key references are cited, and the practical value of each chemical agent is defined. The proper methods of administration of the compounds recommended for use are carefully described. In addition a section on agents whose therapeutic value has been disproven is also included. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13009518

  11. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  12. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  13. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of environmental hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, ...

  14. Evaluation of natural substances from Evolvulus alsinoides L. with the purpose of determining their antioxidant potency.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, Frantisek; Koleckar, Vit; Rehakova, Zuzana; Jahodar, Ludek; Kunes, Jiri; Opletal, Lubomir; Hyspler, Radomir; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-08-01

    In recent years, great attention has been given to the search for natural compounds or extracts with the purpose of medical use. Evolvulus alsinoides L. (Convolvulaceae) is a plant used in traditional medicine of East Asia in many indications and has known nootropic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the bioactive constituents have been described poorly in the literature. Four substances isolated from the ethanol extract of E. alsinoides by means of polyamide and Silica-gel chromatography are reported here. Their molecular structures were determined using NMR analyses. There were identified as scopoletin, umbelliferone, scopolin and 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-butanetetrol. The quantity of these substances was determined using HPLC-UV and GC-FID detection. Antioxidant activity of the isolated substances was measured by DPPH assay using the SIA method. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the prepared fractions are also described. The prepared fractions and isolated substances did not exhibit any significant activity in DPPH test.

  15. Forms in Search of Substance: Quality and Evaluation in Romanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geven, Koen; Maricut, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Romania's integration into the European Union is fraught with cultural stereotypes. One dominant narrative is that the country creates "forms without substance": meaningless institutions without adequate personnel or intellectual capital. In this paper, we investigate whether this popular stereotype adequately describes higher education…

  16. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of environmental hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, ...

  17. Forms in Search of Substance: Quality and Evaluation in Romanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geven, Koen; Maricut, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Romania's integration into the European Union is fraught with cultural stereotypes. One dominant narrative is that the country creates "forms without substance": meaningless institutions without adequate personnel or intellectual capital. In this paper, we investigate whether this popular stereotype adequately describes higher education…

  18. Working with Children of Parents with Substance Use Disorders: Evaluation of a Course Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechelt, Shelly A.; Okundaye, Joshua N.

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are in a position to identify the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs) on children and families and provide appropriate interventions in broad practice contexts. Unfortunately, many social workers are not trained to consider parental SUDs and their effects on children in the assessment process. A course module for training…

  19. Working with Children of Parents with Substance Use Disorders: Evaluation of a Course Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechelt, Shelly A.; Okundaye, Joshua N.

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are in a position to identify the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs) on children and families and provide appropriate interventions in broad practice contexts. Unfortunately, many social workers are not trained to consider parental SUDs and their effects on children in the assessment process. A course module for training…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in an Inpatient Sample of Substance Users Using Cue-Reactivity Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Crane, Cory A.; Houston, Rebecca J.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Schlienz, Nicolas J.; Lang, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    The current project sought to examine the psychometric properties of a personality based measure (Substance Use Risk Profile Scale; SURPS: introversion-hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) designed to differentially predict substance use preferences and patterns by matching primary personality-based motives for use to the specific effects of various psychoactive substances. Specifically, we sought to validate the SURPS in a clinical sample of substance users using cue reactivity methodology to assess current inclinations to consume a wide range of psychoactive substances. Using confirmatory factor analysis and correlational analyses, the SURPS demonstrated good psychometric properties and construct validity. Further, impulsivity and sensation-seeking were associated with use of multiple substances but could be differentiated by motives for use and susceptibility to the reinforcing effects of stimulants (i.e., impulsivity) and alcohol (i.e. sensation-seeking). In contrast, introversion-hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity demonstrated a pattern of use more focused on reducing negative affect, but were not differentiated based on specific patterns of use. Taken together, results suggests that among those receiving inpatient treatment for substance use disorders, the SURPS is a valid instrument for measuring four distinct personality dimensions that may be sensitive to motivational susceptibilities to specific patterns of alcohol and drug use. PMID:26052180

  1. International comparison of criteria for evaluating sensitization of PRTR-designated chemical substances.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoe; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Ogawa, Masanori; Sugie, Takuya; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we aim to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to specify whether each Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR)-designated chemical substance is a sensitizer by each organization. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) were studied. Of the 435 PRTR-designated chemical substances, 15 are listed as sensitizers according to the PRTR law, 16 as sensitizers of the airway and 21 as sensitizers of the skin by JSOH, 12 as sensitizers (no discrimination) by ACGIH, 19 (airway) and 85 (skin) by EU, and 15 (airway) and 43 (skin) by DFG. Only 9 substances were designated as sensitizers by all these organizations. The variation in the designation of sensitizers is accounted for by the differences in the classification criteria and grouping of chemical substances. JSOH limits the definition of sensitizers to substances that induce allergic reactions in humans and uses only human data. Other organizations utilize not only human evidence but also appropriate animal tests. In addition, EU designates an isocyanate as a sensitizer except those for which there is evidence showing that they do not cause respiratory sensitivity. The worldwide enforcement of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals could promote not only the consistent designation of sensitizers among national and international organizations, but also the development of testing guidelines and classification criteria for mixtures.

  2. Comparative evaluation of tooth substance loss and its correlation with the abrasivity and chemical composition of different dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Prakash; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Singh, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    In India, teeth cleaning with tooth powder is common in rural and semi-urban areas. These dentifrices may contain low-quality abrasives, which may have a deleterious effect on dental hard tissues. This study aims to evaluate the tooth substance loss caused by different dentifrices and to correlate it with chemical composition, size, and shape of abrasives used. An indigenously made automated machine was used for brushing the specimens. Sixty-four freshly extracted premolars were allocated to eight groups (n = 8). Colgate toothpaste was used as the control group. Each specimen was brushed in a vertical motion for 2½ h at 200 strokes/min with a constant applied load of 200 g corresponding to 6-month brushing. The difference in weight (pre- and post-brushing) was determined by an analytical weighing machine. Chemical analysis was done to determine the presence of iron oxide by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry method. Shape and size of the abrasive particles was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance and Paired t-test were used to analyze the data. Tooth substance loss was maximum in the group brushed with red tooth powder, which was shown to contain the highest amount of iron oxide and also exhibited large, irregularly shaped abrasive particles under SEM. Tooth substance loss was documented to be correlated with chemical composition (iron oxide) and the size and shape of abrasive particles used in dentifrices.

  3. Evaluation of Three Bacterial Identification Systems for Species Identification of Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Bulk Tank Milk Samples.

    PubMed

    Savage, Emily; Chothe, Shubhada; Lintner, Valerie; Pierre, Traci; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Miller, Dawn; Tewari, Deepanker; Jayarao, Bhushan

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Sensititre(®) Automated Reading and Incubation System 2x System (ARIS), API(®) (API), and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI) bacterial species identification systems using 132 diverse bacterial isolates from bovine milk samples and bulk tank milk received at the Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. The results were compared with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which served as the reference method for species identification. The ARIS, API, and MALDI identified 0%, 40%, and 33.4% of species classified as Gram-positive rod isolates belonging to genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium, respectively. It was observed that 76.5%, 93.9%, and 96.9% of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n = 33; Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus) were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively, while 33.4%, 84.5%, and 97.7% of catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci (n = 45; Kocuria, Staphylococcus) were correctly identified to their species by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. A total of 48 isolates (Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pasteurella, Providencia, Pseduomonas, Serratia) of Gram-negative bacteria were examined, of which 85.4%, 93.7%, and 95.8% of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. In our laboratory, the MALDI had the least costs associated with consumables and reagents compared to ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification methods. Identification of bacterial species was accomplished in <2 h using MALDI and 24 h for ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification systems.

  4. Development and Evaluation of the Lifestyle History Questionnaire (LHQ) for People Entering Treatment for Substance Addictions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Linda M; Triscari, Robert; Boisvert, Rosemary; Hipp, Kristi; Gersten, Jennifer; West, Rachel C; Kisling, Elizabeth; Donham, Aaron; Kollar, Naomi; Escobar, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We developed and investigated the psychometric properties of the Lifestyle History Questionnaire (LHQ), a self-report instrument designed to measure the extent of occupational dysfunction attributable to substance abuse. The instrument was developed using concepts in the ecological models of occupational therapy and in the work of William L. White, who defined addiction culture in terms of the patterns of life in context. We analyzed data from two field tests using both classical test theory and item response theory. The final version of the instrument has 70 items, 1 unifying construct, and 8 subscales. We found it to be valid and reliable (α=.93) for measuring the extent of occupational dysfunction and specific areas of strengths and weaknesses. The LHQ is a promising new instrument, the first of its kind to measure occupational dysfunction in context for people with substance addictions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Substance Abuse Relapse in Oxford House Recovery Homes: A Survival Analysis Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ronald; Jason, Leonard A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study used survival analysis to examine risk factors for substance abuse relapse among residents in Oxford Houses (OH) a national network of self-run, self-financed aftercare homes for individuals recovering from substance use disorders. Methods Participants who entered OH within 60 days of a one-year longitudinal study (N=268) were selected from of a nationally representative U.S. sample. Discrete-time survival analysis compared baseline risk of relapse to four hypothesized survival models that included time-invariant and time-varying factors across three subsequent time periods. Results The model predicting higher risk for more severe substance use disorders and psychiatric problems was supported. The hypothesized model that predicted time-varying increases in alcohol (but not drug) abstinence self-efficacy significantly affected risk of relapse. Hypothesized demographic and employment variables did not significantly predict relapse risk. Conclusions Results suggested that OH recovery homes may reduce relapse by providing closer monitoring and referring additional services to new residents with more severe prior addiction severity. Risk for relapse may also be reduced by enhancing abstinence self-efficacy for alcohol regardless of drug of choice. PMID:26308507

  6. Evaluating the male and female reproductive toxicity of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Murray, F Jay; Gray, Thomas M; Roberts, Linda G; Roth, Randy N; Nicolich, Mark J; Simpson, Barry J

    2013-11-01

    To meet the EPA HPV Chemical Challenge Program requirement for reproductive toxicity data on sponsored high-boiling petroleum substances (HBPS), an analysis was conducted using the results of 39 repeat-dose and 59 developmental rat dermal toxicity studies on HBPS samples spanning the boiling range of the sponsored substances, and the results of three one-generation reproductive toxicity studies on two samples spanning the concentration range of polycyclic aromatic compounds of sponsored substances. The analysis found little evidence of male or female reproductive tract toxicity based on histopathology, reproductive organ weight, and sperm parameters, and no evidence of effects on fertility, while significant developmental toxicity and/or systemic repeat-dose toxicity were frequently observed. Among 14 samples of HBPS tested in both repeat-dose toxicity and developmental toxicity studies, there were no studies in which an adverse reproductive tract finding occurred at a dose lower than that producing developmental toxicity or other adverse effects in repeat-dose toxicity studies. The current analysis supports the hypothesis that effects in developmental and/or repeat-dose toxicity studies of HBPS occur at doses lower than those that might affect fertility in rat one-generation reproductive studies. When adequate developmental and repeat-dose toxicity studies are available, a reproductive toxicity study of HBPS appears unnecessary.

  7. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCETM

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won-hee; Jung, Kyoung-mi; Yang, Hye-ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCETM which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCETM can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  8. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    PubMed

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines.

  9. A quantitative exploratory evaluation of the circle of security-parenting program with mothers in residential substance-abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Horton, Evette; Murray, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a risk factor for child maltreatment, child attachment insecurity, and maladaptive social information processing. The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative exploratory evaluation of the effectiveness of an attachment-based parent program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P; G. Cooper, K. Hoffman, & B. Powell, 2009), with a community sample of 15 mothers in residential treatment for substance abuse. Participants attended nine weekly group sessions and were given three measures at pretest and posttest: the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (J.J. Gross & O.P. John, 2003), the Parent Attribution Test (D. Bugental, ), and the Parenting Scale (D.S. Arnold, S.G. O'Leary, L.S. Wolff, & M.M. Acker, 1993). The results indicate that mothers who attended the majority of group sessions showed greater improvements on all three variables. Participants who attended some of the sessions showed some improvements on the measures, but participants who did not attend the group sessions had no improvements, and on some measures, declined significantly. Further analyses of demographic data indicates that participants with more education, no personal history of child maltreatment, less time in the residential program, and lower social desirability scores demonstrated more positive outcomes. These findings suggest that the COS-P may positively impact parental risk factors associated with child maltreatment and maladaptive social information processing in the context of residential substance-abuse treatment. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Evaluation of an integrated group cognitive-behavioral treatment for comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Irena; Chudzik, Susan M; Boyd, Susan; McCabe, Randi E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the development and preliminary evaluation of an integrated group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. The 12-session, manualized treatment was developed collaboratively by a mental health program in a teaching hospital and a community-based addictions service and administered in both settings. Results from an uncontrolled effectiveness trial of 29 treatment completers suggest that integrated group CBT may reduce stress and alcohol use symptoms and improve substance refusal self-efficacy. Changes in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and drug use were not significant, although the effect size for anxiety reduction was in the medium range. Nonetheless, the clinical significance of treatment effects on mood, anxiety, and substance use symptoms was modest. Changes in coping skills and quality of life were not significant, although medium-to-large effects were observed for changes in several coping skills. Participants reported being highly satisfied with treatment, found the treatment strategies to be useful, and noted an improvement in their functioning, particularly socially. Methodological and sample size limitations warrant more rigorous follow-up investigations of this treatment. Results are considered in the context of the current literature on integrated psychological treatments for these common comorbidities.

  11. Integration and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Research Education Training (SARET) into a Master of Social Work program.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Ellen; Hanley, Kathleen; Naegle, Madeline; More, Frederick; Bereket, Sewit; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2017-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Research and Education Training (SARET) program is funded by the National Institutes of Drug Abuse in 2006 as a novel approach to spark interest in substance abuse research among medical, dental, nursing, and social work graduate students through a Web-based curriculum and research mentorships. This report presents the initial integration of the intervention in a Master of Social Work (MSW) program, the components of the program, and the mixed-methods evaluation of its effect on students' attitudes towards substance abuse research and treatment. SARET comprises 2 main components: stipend-supported research mentorships and a Web-based module series, consisting of 6 interactive, multimedia modules addressing core SA research topics, delivered via course curricula and in the research mentorships. An initial evaluation was designed to assess SARET's acceptability and short-term impact on participants' interest in SA research. The components of this Web-based curriculum evaluation include focus group feedback on the relevance of the modules to SW students, number of courses into which the modules were integrated with number of module completions, changes in interest in SA research associated with module completion. The full series of Web-based modules has been integrated across several courses in the social work curriculum, and social work students have become integral participants in the summer mentored research experience. One hundred eighteen students completed at least 1 module and 42 students completed all 6 modules. Neurobiology, Screening, and Epidemiology were the most widely viewed modules. Students reported positive impact on their vision of SA-related clinical care, more positive attitudes about conducting research, and in some cases, change in career. The SARET program's modules and summer mentored research increased clinical and research interest related to SUDs, as well as interprofessional attitudes among social work students

  12. Mechanical Property and Corrosion Resistance Evaluations of Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy Brazed with Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, E.; Kato, H.; Ogata, Toshiaki; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Specht, Eliot D; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Inoue, A.; Hisatsune, K.

    2007-01-01

    Exploitation of metallic glass as new brazing filler for Ti-based biomedical alloy was attempted. Ti-6Al-7Nb was used as a brazed material, and candidates of bulk metallic glass brazing filler were Cu60Hf25Ti15, Mg65Cu25Gd10, Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 and Pd40Cu30P20Ni10. Convergence infrared-ray brazing was conducted for brazing Ti-6Al-7Nb/metallic glass in Ar atmosphere. After brazing, hardness measurement, X-ray tomography, cross-sectional observation, artificial saliva immersion test and tensile test were performed to evaluate brazability, mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the obtained brazing joints. The results of brazing using these metallic glass fillers show that all the metallic glasses were brazable to Ti-6Al-7Nb except for Mg65Cu25Gd10. Mg65Cu25Gd10, Cu60Hf25Ti15 and their joints collapsed rapidly during immersion test. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 joint was the best in terms of degradation resistance; however, tensile strength was inferior to the conventional one. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 filler and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 filler and their joints did not show any collapse or tarnish during the immersion test. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 joint showed the excellent properties in terms of both corrosion resistance and tensile strength, which were superior to a joint brazed using Ti-15Cu-25Ni conventional filler. X-ray tomograph indicates that fracture tends to occur in the vicinity of the brazing interface after tensile test. The brazed metallic glass fillers were fully crystallized, excluding Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 filler. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 brazed filler contained mapleleaf like primary dendrite, peritectoid and a few microns interfacial reaction layer in glassy matrix. The results indicated that Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 is promising brazing filler for dental or biomaterial devices.

  13. Evaluation of brief screens for gambling disorder in the substance use treatment setting.

    PubMed

    Himelhoch, Seth S; Miles-McLean, Haley; Medoff, Deborah R; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Rugle, Loreen; Bailey-Kloch, Marie; Potts, Wendy; Welsh, Christopher; Brownley, Julie

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of brief screens for Gambling Disorder within a sample of people receiving outpatient treatment for substance use disorders. Individuals (n = 300) recruited from intensive outpatient substance use treatment (23.67%) or methadone maintenance programs (76.34%) participated in the study. Four brief screens for Gambling Disorder were administered and compared to DSM-5 criteria. Receiver operator curves were created and an Area Under the Curve (AUC) analysis (an overall summary of the utility of the scale to correctly identify Gambling Disorder) was assessed for each. On average participants were aged 46.4 years (SD = 10.2), African American/Black (70.7%), with an income less than $20,000/year (89.5%). Half the participants were female. Approximately 40% of participants (40.5%; n = 121) met DSM-5 criteria for Gambling Disorder. Accuracy of the brief screens as measured by hit rate were .88 for the BBGS, .77 for the Lie/Bet, .75 for NODS-PERC, and .73 for the NODS-CLiP. AUC analysis revealed that the NODS-PERC (AUC: .93 (95% CI: .91-.96)) and NODS-CLiP (AUC: .90 (95% CI: .86-.93)) had excellent accuracy. The NODS-PERC and NODS-CLiP had excellent accuracy at all cut-off points. However, the BBGS appeared to have the best accuracy at its specified cut-off point. Commonly used brief screens for Gambling Disorder appear to be associated with good diagnostic accuracy when used in substance use treatment settings. The choice of which brief screen to use may best be decided by the needs of the clinical setting. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Evaluation of American Indian Health Service Training in Pain Management and Opioid Substance Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Joanna G; Fore, Chris; Bhatt, Snehal; Greenberg, Nina; Griffin Salvador, Julie; Comerci, George C; Camarata, Christopher; Marr, Lisa; Monette, Rebecca; Arora, Sanjeev; Bradford, Andrea; Taylor, Denise; Dillow, Jenny; Karol, Susan

    2016-08-01

    We examined the benefits of a collaboration between the Indian Health Service and an academic medical center to address the high rates of unintentional drug overdose in American Indians/Alaska Natives. In January 2015, the Indian Health Service became the first federal agency to mandate training in pain and opioid substance use disorder for all prescribing clinicians. More than 1300 Indian Health Service clinicians were trained in 7 possible 5-hour courses specific to pain and addiction. We noted positive changes in pre- and postcourse knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes as well as thematic responses showing the trainings to be comprehensive, interactive, and convenient.

  15. Evaluating Project Connect: improving juvenile probationers' mental health and substance use service access.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Gail A; McReynolds, Larkin S; Musabegovic, Hana; Whited, Andria L; Keating, Joseph M; Huo, Yanling

    2009-11-01

    Project Connect is a multilayered county-specific program aimed at linking juvenile probationers to needed mental health and substance use services. In four NY counties, the intervention included cooperative agreements between probation and mental health authorities, program materials to facilitate referral, in-service training for probation officers, and systematic screening for mental health needs. Charts for 583 Baseline youths were reviewed and compared with 594 youths undergoing intake under Project Connect. Compared to Baseline, under Project Connect, referred youths were 2.7 times as likely to access services, regardless of youth or county characteristics, service availability, or when the intervention took place.

  16. Evaluation of various substances to prevent adsorption of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) to glass surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Landi, S.; Held, H. R.; Tseng, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    It is well known that a dilute tuberculin PPD solution (1 IU or 5 IU per dose) very rapidly loses its potency owing to adsorption of tuberculoprotein to the wall of the container into which it is dispensed. The amount of tuberculoprotein adsorbed per cm2 of glass surface has been measured for phosphate-buffered saline over a wide pH range (pH 1 to pH 10). The maximum adsorption was found at pH 4 (0.31 μg/cm2) and the least at between pH 6 and pH 10 (0.15 μg/cm2). The rate of adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass was not changed when the phosphate-buffered saline was replaced by borate-buffered saline. Tuberculin PPD prepared by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method and by a combination of both methods adsorbed equally well to glass and no difference in the rate of adsorption for these tuberculoproteins was found. Forty-two substances in addition to Tween 80 were tested for their property to prevent adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass in dilute tuberculin PPD solutions (50 IU/ml of 14C-labelled PPD). The most efficient anti-adsorption agents were found to be nonionic surfactants, some ionic surfactants and some colloidal substances; polypeptides and non-surface-active substances of low molecular weight showed little or no anti-adsorption property. The labelling of PPD with 14C has proved to be a valuable tool, particularly for long-term adsorption studies and for screening substances to be used as efficient anti-adsorption agents. These studies have permitted the selection of agents which could be added to dilute solutions of tuberculin PPD (10 IU/ml to 500 IU/ml or 0.2 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml respectively) in order to avoid loss of potency due to adsorption. PMID:5312323

  17. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. VI. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

    PubMed

    Fay, M; Donohue, J M; De Rosa, C

    1999-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (also known as DEHP, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, or BEHP; CAS Registry Number 117-81-7) is a widely-used plasticizer. It is found in numerous plastic articles, such as paints, inks, floor tiles, upholstery, shower curtains, footwear, plastic bags, food-packaging materials, toys, and medical tubing. Not surprisingly, DEHP appears at many waste sites. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals that are of greatest public health concern at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priority List (NPL) sites. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of the bulk of ATSDR's profile for DEHP (ATSDR, 1993) into the mainstream scientific literature. An extensive listing of human and animal health effects, organized by route, duration, and endpoint, is presented. Toxicological information on toxicokinetics, biomarkers, interactions, sensitive subpopulations, reducing toxicity after exposure, and relevance to public health is also included. Environmental information encompasses physical properties, production and use, environmental fate, levels seen in the environment, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations. ATSDR, at the behest of Congress and therefore the citizenry, prepares these profiles to inform the public about site contaminants.

  18. 78 FR 23595 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Penick Corporaton

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances as bulk controlled substance intermediates... Register Representative (ODL), 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, Virginia 22152; and must be filed no...

  19. Evaluating the implementation of nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing in three Veterans Health Administration substance use disorder clinics.

    PubMed

    Conners, E E; Hagedorn, H J; Butler, J N; Felmet, K; Hoang, T; Wilson, P; Klima, G; Sudzina, E; Anaya, H D

    2012-11-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are at higher risk of HIV infection, yet recent studies show rates of HIV testing are low among this population. We implemented and evaluated a nurse-initiated HIV oral rapid testing (NRT) strategy at three Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics. Implementation of NRT includes streamlined nurse training and a computerized clinical reminder. The evaluation employed qualitative interviews with staff and a quantitative evaluation of HIV testing rates. Barriers to testing included lack of laboratory support and SUD nursing resistance to performing medical procedures. Facilitators included the ease of NRT integration into workflow, engaged management and an existing culture of disease prevention. Six-months post intervention, rapid testing rates at SUD clinics in sites 1, 2, and 3 were 5.0%, 1.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Findings indicate that NRT can be successfully incorporated into some types of SUD subclinics with minimal perceived impact on workflow and time.

  20. Evaluating racial disparity in referral source and successful completion of substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Toussaint, Maisha N; Ramirez, Marizen; Ali, Saba R; Arndt, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Health disparity is a significant problem in the United States, and particularly for substance abuse treatment programs. A better understanding of racial differences in treatment pathways associated with successful treatment completion is needed to reduce the existing health disparities. Referral source is a strong predictor of treatment success and most research on health disparities has focused on the criminal justice referrals. However, little research has examined other types of referral sources, and the interaction with race. The current study sought to compare the effect of referral sources on national substance abuse successful treatment completion rates between Black clients (n=324,625) and White clients (n=1,060,444) by examining the interaction of race on referral source and successful treatment completion. Race significantly moderated the difference between referral source and successful treatment completion (Wald χ(2)=1477.73, df=6, p<0.0001). Employment referral was associated with the greatest percentage of successful treatment completion for Black clients. Criminal justice referral was associated with the greatest percentage of successful treatment completion for White clients. Results from the present study support a reevaluation of incentives leading to successful treatment completion with a multicultural perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comprehensive structural evaluation of humic substances using several fluorescence techniques before and after ozonation. Part II: evaluation of structural changes following ozonation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Schlenger, Patrick; García-Valverde, María

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this work (Part II) is to evaluate the usefulness of fluorescence techniques to monitor structural changes in humic substances produced by the ozonation treatment, using all the current fluorescence techniques: Emission scan fluorescence (ESF), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), total luminescence spectroscopy (TLS or EEM) through the use of both 2-D contour maps and 3-D plots, fluorescence index and the λ0.5 parameter. Four humic substances were studied in this work: three of them were provided by the International Humic Substances Society (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Standard: SUFA, Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard: SUHA and Nordic Reservoir Fulvic Acid Reference: NOFA) and the other one was a commercial humic acid widely used as a surrogate for aquatic humic substances in various studies (Aldrich Humic Acid: ALHA). The lowest ozone dosage tested (0.25mg O3/mg TOC) caused no appreciable change in the different types of fluorescence spectra under study, therefore the structural change produced in the humic macromolecules may be considered of little significance. Concerning EEM and synchronous spectra, the two natural fulvic acids (SUFA and NOFA) showed a decrease in fluorescence intensity as ozone dosage increased, but the natural humic acid (SUHA) showed a different behaviour: an initial increase in fluorescence intensity at medium ozone dosages (1.5 mg O3/mg TOC) followed by an intensity decrease for the higher ozone dose (7.5 mg O3/mg TOC). Regarding synchronous spectra, the moderate dosage of 1.5 mg O3/mg TOC led to an increase in the fluorescence of the protein-like peak at λsyn=285 nm for the natural humic substances. The results obtained for the fluorescence index and λ0.5 may suggest that the greatest degradation of aromatic structures within the humic macromolecule occurs at high ozone dosages, whereas the predominant effect at moderate dosages would be the break-up of the humic macromolecule into lower molecular weight

  2. Seesaw in the Bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, A.; Yoshioka, K.

    2011-01-01

    A five-dimensional seesaw framework is analyzed with the lepton-number-violating propagator of bulk right-handed neutrinos. That can bypass summing up the effects of heavy Majorana particles whose masses and wavefunctions are not exactly known. The propagator method makes it easier to evaluate the seesaw-induced neutrino mass for various boundary conditions of bulk neutrinos and in a general background geometry, including the warped extra dimension. It is also found that the higher-dimensional seesaw gives a natural framework for the inverse seesaw suppression of low-energy neutrino masses.

  3. [Toxicological and sanitary evaluation of air pollution by substances discharged during managing of urban dumping soil].

    PubMed

    Prostakishin, G P; Osin, O M; Ivashina, L I; Markin, A A; Ivanova, I N; Gazie v, G A; Sotnikov, E E; Volkov, N N

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the results of sanitary and hygienic investigations whose reason was the situation established with the removal of dumping earth in the dwelling area of Mitino Microdistrict 8 gamma. The removed dumping earth found to have formaldehyde, benzenes, acetaldehyde, phenols, aromatic hydro carbons, polyaromatic compounds was a source of bad smelling substances that had entered the ambient air. A special study of the earth showed that it might yield volatile and bad smelling compounds, such as organic sulfides, aldehydes, mercaptans, ketones, etc. Their harmful health effects (during operations and in the late period) seem to be unlikely. When such work is under way, it is necessary to inform the population about possible consequences.

  4. Evaluation of salinity effect on quantitative analysis of aquatic humic substances using nonionic DAX-8 resin.

    PubMed

    Kida, Morimaru; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Kato, Taku; Suzuki, Takeshi; Fujitake, Nobuhide

    2016-03-01

    A nonionic macroporous resin, Amberlite(®) XAD-8, or its substitute, Supelite™ DAX-8, is used when isolating or quantifying aquatic humic substances (AHS). However, the effect of salinity on the adsorption behavior of AHS onto the resin is yet to be confirmed, rendering the possibility of salinity-induced changes in the values of quantified amounts or characteristics of AHS obtained from a salty system. To verify the results of quantification and isolation of AHS using the resin in different salinity systems, the effect of salinity on such quantitative analyses of AHS has been examined. It has been concluded that the salinity effect is in general trivial and will not hinder comparison of results regardless of sample solution salinity.

  5. Evaluation of the Consequences of a Cistern Truck Accident While Transporting Dangerous Substances through a Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Malecha, Ziemowit M; Poliski, Jarosaw; Chorowski, Maciej

    2017-03-23

    The transportation of dangerous substances by truck carriers harbors important safety issues in both road and mine tunnels. Even though traffic conditions in road and mine tunnels are different, the potential geometric and hydrodynamic similarities can lead to similar effects from the uncontrolled leakage of the dangerous material. This work was motivated by the design study of the LAGUNA-LBNO (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics and Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations) project. The considered neutrino detector requires a huge amount of liquid argon, which must be transported down the tunnel. The present work focuses on the estimation of the most credible incident and the resulting consequences in the case of a truck accident in the tunnel. The approach and tools used in the present work are generic and can be adapted to other similar situations.

  6. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people.

  7. [The evaluation of concentration of certain NSAID in the procedure of screening medicinal and narcotic substances in blood].

    PubMed

    Dvorskaya, K; Kataev, S S; Silina, K; Krokhin, I P

    2016-01-01

    We have undertaken the metrological assessment of the method for the quantitative determination of a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, indomethacin, naproxen, and ketoprofen with the use of gas chromatography mass spectrometry in the model blood samples in the framework of the screening survey of medicinal and narcotic substances. The method was evaluated in terms of the following characteristics: specificity, linearity, correctness, precision (reproducibility), and intra-laboratory precision. The proposed method can be applied for the quantitative evaluation of indomethacin, ketoprofen, and naproxen content as well as for the preliminary quantitative determination of ibuprofen and diclofenac in the framework of the chemico-toxicological and forensic chemical analysis. The method can be employed for the quantitative determination of ketorolac from such characteristics as «linearity» and «reproducibility».

  8. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents' Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Erika; Fiellin, Lynn E; Fakhouri, Tamer; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2015-10-28

    Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg).

  9. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  10. Feasibility and Implementation of a Statewide Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Waller, Raymond J.; King, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Statewide evaluations of mental health services are colossal undertakings, reports of which are few in the published literature. Social workers are often called on to conduct program evaluations of both small- and large-scale mental health systems. A statewide evaluation system was implemented in the state of Georgia in 1999 to measure the impact…

  11. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  12. Evaluation of a suicide prevention training curriculum for substance abuse treatment providers based on Treatment Improvement Protocol Number 50.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Wood, Jane; Pisani, Anthony R; Kemp, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) confer risk for suicide yet there are no empirically supported suicide prevention training curricula tailored to SUD treatment providers. We assessed the efficacy of a 2-hour training that featured a suicide prevention training video produced by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The video was based on Treatment Improvement Protocol Number 50 (TIP 50) a practical manual to manage suicide risk produced by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The training was provided in small groups to 273 SUD treatment providers in 18 states. Results were evaluated using self-report assessments obtained at pre-test, post-test, and 2-month follow-up. Statistically significant changes (p < .001) within subjects were obtained on self-efficacy, knowledge, and frequency of suicide prevention practice behaviors. The positive results together with the brevity of the training and its ease of implementation indicate high potential for widespread adoption and the importance of further study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Malondialdehyde measurement in oxidized foods: evaluation of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test in various foods.

    PubMed

    Papastergiadis, Antonios; Mubiru, Edward; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-09-26

    The ability of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) in various food matrices was evaluated. MDA was extracted from the foods; the extract reacted with thiobarbituric acid (TBA); and the formed TBA-MDA adduct was measured spectrophotometricaly at 532 nm. In parallel, the TBA-MDA adduct was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection. Oils and unprocessed and uncooked meat and fish products did not exhibit any significant difference in the amount of MDA measured by the two methods, indicating that the major substance reacting with TBA and forming an adduct that absorbs at 532 nm was MDA. However, in products such as dry nuts, pork sausages, cooked fish, and gouda cheese, an overestimation of MDA was observed, indicating that TBARS test was unsuitable for accurate determination of MDA. Furthermore, the results in the present work suggest that the overestimation of MDA by the TBARS test as it was applied is related to the interference of other than secondary lipid oxidation products.

  14. [Psychosocial vulnerability and substance use screening during pregnancy: Evaluation of a composite auto-questionnaire versus usual medical questioning].

    PubMed

    Fline-Barthes, M-H; Vandendriessche, D; Gaugue, J; Urso, L; Therby, D; Subtil, D

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate auto-questionnaire use for psychosocial vulnerability and substance use (smoking, alcohol consumption, depression, intimate violence) screening during pregnancy versus usual medical report. An auto-questionnaire based on validated tests (Fagerström/HSI, T-ACE, EPDS, SSQ6) was proposed to 1977 pregnant patients at their first obstetrical consultation. We compared results of auto-questionnaire and usual medical questioning. The auto-questionnaire was filled by 1676 pregnant patients (89.4 %). The two Fagerström/HIS questions showed that 20.7 % smoked during pregnancy. T-ACE score was better than usual medical questioning to detect excessive alcohol consumption (4.0 % vs 0.1 %, P<0.05). Drug use before pregnancy was reported by 9.8 % patients in auto-questionnaire, but was only found in 4.9 % of medical files (P<0.001). Seven percent patients reported at least 3 depressive symptoms on 4 purposed in auto-questionnaire. Intimate violence, physical or psychological, was reported in 9.4 %. All of these vulnerability factors were linked together, in auto-questionnaire or in usual medical reports. Using auto-questionnaire based on standardized screening tests could help medical practioneers to detect psychosocial vulnerability and/or substance use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Building a Model Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns and Their Families: From Needs Assessment to Intervention, Evaluation, and Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielman, Eda; Herriott, Anna; Paris, Ruth; Sommer, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing concern about substance misuse in pregnancy and infants born substance-exposed, few programs have been developed that address the complex needs of this vulnerable population. This article describes the process of developing Project NESST® (Newborns Exposed to Substances: Support and Therapy), from needs assessment to program…

  16. Building a Model Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns and Their Families: From Needs Assessment to Intervention, Evaluation, and Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielman, Eda; Herriott, Anna; Paris, Ruth; Sommer, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing concern about substance misuse in pregnancy and infants born substance-exposed, few programs have been developed that address the complex needs of this vulnerable population. This article describes the process of developing Project NESST® (Newborns Exposed to Substances: Support and Therapy), from needs assessment to program…

  17. Evaluation of WaySafe: A Disease-risk Reduction Curriculum for Substance-Abusing Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Wayne E.K.; Rowan, Grace A.; Greener, Jack M.; Joe, George W.; Yang, Yang; Knight, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on reducing disease risk behavior in the community, a six-session curriculum, WaySafe, was developed to increase positive decision-making skills among soon-to-be-released inmates participating in a therapeutic community substance abuse treatment program. The intervention used TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling as an approach to focus on cognitive aspects of risky sexual and drug use behaviors in an effort to improve problem recognition, commitment to change, and strategies for avoiding behavioral risks of infections. A total of 1,393 inmates from eight different institutions in two states were randomly assigned to receive WaySafe or treatment as usual (TAU). Baseline and follow-up surveys measured knowledge, confidence, and motivation regarding general HIV information, risky sex and drug use, HIV testing, and risk reduction skills. WaySafe participants had significantly better scores on all measures at follow-up than did TAU participants, supporting the efficacy of WaySafe in improving knowledge, motivation, and confidence in avoiding risky behaviors. PMID:26059002

  18. An evaluation of fall speed characteristics in bin and bulk microphysical schemes and use of bin fall speeds to improve forecasts of warm-season rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligo, Eric A.

    2011-12-01

    evaluated. First, various tests were performed with various microphysical schemes and cases in order to find the vertical grid configuration that provides the best rainfall forecast. Rainfall forecasts worsened when the number of vertical levels was doubled from a control configuration of 31 levels and an over prediction of rainfall occurred. The largest improvement in skill occurred when the levels above the melting level were doubled and this was attributed to better resolved cold-cloud microphysical processes. As such, simulations using the probability matching technique employed the vertical configuration with refined vertical grid resolution above the melting layer. The different convective morphologies responded similarly when the fall speed modifications were made with all systems simulating a narrower stratiform region, less stratiform rainfall and a larger anvil. Rainfall forecasts generally improved with the use of the probability matching technique with improvements in the lightest and heaviest rainfall. The reduced stratiform rainfall occurred as a result of slower falling snow and a reduction in downward fluxes of snow, while forecasts of convective rainfall intensity improved as a result of faster falling graupel. Sensitivity tests were performed by computing bulk-like fall speeds in the bin scheme, which resulted in a modification of the particle size distribution of snow, which led to faster falling snow, larger downward fluxes of snow and a larger stratiform rain region.

  19. Culturally grounded substance use prevention: an evaluation of the keepin' it R.E.A.L. curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Michael L; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A; Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia; Miller-Day, Michelle

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a culturally grounded prevention intervention targeting substance use among urban middle-school students. The curriculum consists of 10 lessons promoting antidrug norms and teaching resistance and other social skills, reinforced by booster activities and a media campaign. Three versions were delivered: Mexican American, combined African American and European American, and Multicultural. Thirty-five middle schools were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 versions or the control. Students completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires over a 2-year period (total 6,035 respondents). Analyses utilizing a generalized estimating equations approach assessed the overall effectiveness of cultural grounding and the cultural matching hypothesis. Support was found for the intervention's overall effectiveness, with statistically significant effects on gateway drug use as well as norms, attitudes, and resistance strategies but with little support for the cultural matching hypothesis. Specific contrasts found the Mexican American and Multicultural versions impacted the most outcomes.

  20. Evaluation of gel filtration resins for the removal of PCR-inhibitory substances from soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N

    2001-02-01

    A variety of gel filtration resins (Sephadex G200 and G150; Sepharose 6B, 4B and 2B; Bio-Gel P100, P200; and Toyopearl HW 55, HW 65, and HW 75) were evaluated for their efficacy in removing PCR-inhibitory substances from feedlot soil DNA crude extracts using gravity-flow disposable columns. Sepharose resins demonstrated the best properties for DNA purification when compared to other gel filtration resins, and Sepharose 2B was the most efficient purification resin based upon flow rate and the elution of DNA and humic acids from the columns. A method for purifying large solution volumes of DNA extract economically was also developed using low-cost disposable Disposaflex columns. Crude DNA extracts of cattle feedlot soil and aquifer sediment impacted by animal and human wastes were easily purified using the Disposaflex column method regardless of whether a gentle chemical lysis or a bead mill homogenization DNA extraction method was employed.

  1. Non-destructive prediction of thiobarbituricacid reactive substances (TBARS) value for freshness evaluation of chicken meat using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Xie, Anguo; Han, Zhong; Luo, Man

    2015-07-15

    This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (Rp) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with Rp of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat.

  2. ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy - evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kondo, S; Yasui, C; Kuzmenko, P J; Tokoro, H; Terada, H

    2009-08-12

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of CVD-ZnS, CVD-ZnSe, Si, and GaAs, in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of {alpha}{sub att} = 0.01-0.03 cm{sup -1} among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to {lambda}{sup -2}, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least > 80 %, even for the spectral resolution of R = 300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  3. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... a bulk manufacturer of Diphenoxylate (9170), a basic class of controlled substance listed...

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bulk aqueous solutions at oceanic pressures: evaluation of key measurement parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Anna P. M.; Lawrence-Snyder, Marion; Angel, S. Michael; Chave, Alan D

    2007-05-01

    The development of in situ chemical sensors is critical for present-day expeditionary oceanography and the new mode of ocean observing systems that we are entering. New sensors take a significant amount of time to develop; therefore, validation of techniques in the laboratory for use in the ocean environment is necessary. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising in situ technique for oceanography. Laboratory investigations on the feasibility of using LIBS to detect analytes in bulk liquids at oceanic pressures were carried out. LIBS was successfully used to detect dissolved Na, Mn, Ca, K, and Li at pressures up to 2.76x107 Pa. The effects of pressure, laser-pulse energy, interpulse delay, gate delay, temperature, and NaCl concentration on the LIBS signal were examined. An optimal range of laser-pulse energies was found to exist for analyte detection in bulk aqueous solutions at both low and high pressures. No pressure effect was seen on the emission intensity for Ca and Na, and an increase in emission intensity with increased pressure was seen for Mn. Using the dual-pulse technique for several analytes, a very short interpulse delay resulted in the greatest emission intensity. The presence of NaCl enhanced the emission intensity for Ca, but had no effect on peak intensity of Mn or K. Overall, increased pressure, the addition of NaCl to a solution, and temperature did not inhibit detection of analytes in solution and sometimes even enhanced the ability to detect the analytes. The results suggest that LIBS is a viable chemical sensing method for in situ analyte detection in high-pressure environments such as the deep ocean.

  5. Quantitative study of controlled substance bedside wasting, disposal and evaluation of potential ecologic effects.

    PubMed

    Mankes, Russell F; Silver, Charles D

    2013-02-01

    Drugs in wastewater arise from many sources. For health care, these include excretion and direct disposal (bedside wasting). The present study reports on the dispensing and wasting of 15 controlled substances (CS) at two health care facilities in Albany, NY over a nearly two year period. The study considered measures of ecotoxicity, drug metabolism, excretion and disposal of these CS. Potential alternatives to flushing of CS into wastewaters from healthcare facilities are discussed. Drug medication and waste collection records (12,345) included: numbers of drugs dispensed, returned and wasted. Overall, 8528 g of 15 CS were wasted. Three (midazolam, acetaminophen-codeine and fentanyl) accounted for 87.5% of the total wasted. Wasting varied by hospital, 14 CS at the academic medical center hospital and 8 at the surgical care center were wasted. Liquids were more frequently wasted than tablets or pills. Some combination drugs (acetaminophen (APAP)-codeine) were frequently (50% of drug dispensed) wasted while others were less wasted (APAP-hydrocodone-6.3%; APAP-oxycodone-1.3%). The 8 CS judged more hazardous to aquatic life were: APAP-codeine, APAP-hydrocodone, APAP-oxycodone, alprazolam, diazepam, fentanyl, midazolam, and testosterone. Ketamine, morphine, oxycodone and zolpidem were of lesser acute toxicity based on available LC50 values. These CS might provide a therapeutically equivalent alternative to the more environmentally harmful drugs. In health care facilities, professionals dispose of CS by bedside wasting into water or other receptacles. This can be avoided by returning CS to the hospital's pharmacy department, thence to a licensed distributor. Study of this process of drug wasting can identify opportunities for process improvements. We found 3 CS (APAP-codeine, midazolam and testosterone) where ½ to 1/3 of the drug was wasted and 5 others with 30 to 13% wasted. Knowledge of the adverse impacts from the release of highly toxic drugs into the environment

  6. Formula to evaluate efficacy of vaccines and systemic substances against three-host ticks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-05-01

    The control of ticks with vaccines is of global interest. Experimental vaccines incorporate new technologies as soon as they are available. Historically, the main vaccine studies have focused on the one-host cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, and efficacy evaluations have been standardised for this tick species. On the other hand, evaluations of vaccine candidates for three-host ticks are being done somewhat arbitrarily and thus comparisons within the current literature on the efficacy of vaccines, as well as other methods of control, are difficult. We herein provide a formula for the evaluation of efficacy of a vaccine designed against three-host ticks that incorporates the whole life cycle of the tick. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate....

  8. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  9. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate....

  10. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  11. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  12. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  13. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  14. Should computerised tomography replace endoscopy in the evaluation of symptomatic ingestion of corrosive substances?

    PubMed

    Bonnici, K S; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2014-11-01

    indicates the need for an endoscopy. In children, it appears that an even greater degree of caution is needed. How soon after ingestion should investigation be performed? For whom an endoscopy is required, it is prudent to enable surgery and other specifics regarding management of corrosives to be decided quickly (< 12 h). There are many incidences where endoscopy has been done safely beyond 48 h although this is not needed frequently. Management recommendations Asymptomatic patients, particularly adults with a normal clinical examination and who can eat and drink normally, can be discharged safely without endoscopy. Endoscopy is preferred over CT in the assessment of risk in symptomatic patients with corrosive ingestion. If patients have any oropharyngeal injury and in particular symptoms of drooling, vomiting, dysphagia or pain (retrosternal or otherwise), the risk of having a high-grade injury is higher, and urgent endoscopy should be performed to grade the injury and determine whether surgical intervention is required. Patients who have non-specific symptoms, such as cough, should also undergo endoscopy, but this is less urgent. Despite the lack of high-quality clinical trial data, the available evidence and clinical experience support the use of early endoscopy (< 12 h) in patients who are symptomatic after ingestion of a corrosive substance. We propose a clinical guideline that can be used to help plan management of corrosives.

  15. [Genetic rat models of type 2 diabetes for evaluation the effectiveness of minor biologically active food substances].

    PubMed

    Mazo, V K; Murashev, A N; Sidorova, Yu S; Zorin, S N; Kochetkova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The purposeful use of plant minor biologically active food substances (with demonstrated evident hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant action) in the composition of specialized dietary products can become the inno- vative approach for the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical testing of minor biologically active food substances of plant origin and their further use in the composition of specialized dietary products should be preceded by the stage of complex physiological and biochemical studies in vivo. It all turns on the question: to which extent the results obtained with the biomodel can be extrapolated on the human body. Hence, this review comparatively evaluates the rat models of type 2 diabetes. In this paper, we overview the most frequently used monogenic models of obesity with the damage of the leptin signaling path- way, when the animal loses control over saturation, hyperphagia and subsequent obesity appear. We describe polygenic models of obesity-related diabetes with fatty rats, which are more approximated to type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. The characteristic of the type 2 diabetes model without obesity is given in the article: the SDT (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii) rats are genetically predisposed to glucose intolerance. Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-fa/fa (SDT fatty) rat is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a younger age as compared with SDTrats. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rats are useful as a model for the development of new drugs and/or specialized dietary products to reduce body fat mass.

  16. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions.

  17. Evaluating the Bulk Lorentz Factors of Outflow Material: Lessons Learned from the Extremely Energetic Outburst GRB 160625B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Yun-Feng; Jin, Zhi-Ping; He, Hao-Ning; Liao, Neng-Hui; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-02-01

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright outburst with well-monitored afterglow emission. The geometry-corrected energy is high, up to ∼5.2 × 1052 erg or even ∼8 × 1052 erg, rendering it the most energetic GRB prompt emission recorded so far. We analyzed the time-resolved spectra of the prompt emission and found that in some intervals there were likely thermal-radiation components and the high energy emission was characterized by significant cutoff. The bulk Lorentz factors of the outflow material are estimated accordingly. We found out that the Lorentz factors derived in the thermal-radiation model are consistent with the luminosity-Lorentz factor correlation found in other bursts, as well as in GRB 090902B for the time-resolved thermal-radiation components, while the spectral cutoff model yields much lower Lorentz factors that are in tension with the constraints set by the electron pair Compton scattering process. We then suggest that these spectral cutoffs are more likely related to the particle acceleration process and that one should be careful in estimating the Lorentz factors if the spectrum cuts at a rather low energy (e.g., ∼tens of MeV). The nature of the central engine has also been discussed, and a stellar-mass black hole is favored.

  18. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  19. [Evaluation of gene protective effects of some natural anti-mutation substance].

    PubMed

    Iamnenko, M I; Berdyshev, G D

    2001-01-01

    Antimutation activity of some bee products was evaluated with a battery of test-systems. Tablets of apilac prepared out of queen bee milk did not demonstrate gene-protective effects in Ames' test. Other bee products, i.e. propolis, beebread, honey preparations 1 and 2 and queen bee milk were able to mitigate to a degree ill effects of some chemical and physical mutagenes. Propolis was found to be toxic to the yeast cell. Antimutation properties of natural queen bee milk revealed in the experiment with test-objects were lost after the product had been processed into the tabloid form or stored at room temperature.

  20. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE MANAGING YOUTH TRAUMA EFFECTIVELY PROGRAM FOR SUBSTANCE-ABUSING WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Vanderzee, Karin L; John, Sufna G; Edge, Nicola; Pemberton, Joy R; Kramer, Teresa L

    2017-05-01

    This article provides a description of the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of feasibility and acceptability of the Managing Youth Trauma Effectively (MYTE) program and highlights perceptions of changes in mothers' trauma-informed parenting practices. The program consists of a training and consultation program for staff of the U.S. State of Arkansas' Specialized Women's Programs (SWS), and an 8-week, group psychoeducational program designed to help mothers with substance-abuse problems learn how traumatic experiences may affect their children and how they may help support their children by creating a safe and nurturing environment. A posttraining evaluation with leadership and staff at SWS centers, feedback provided on consultation calls with MYTE facilitators, and a retrospective pre/post survey were used to examine feasibility, acceptability, and perceptions of changes in mothers' trauma-informed parenting practices. Preliminary results suggest that the MYTE program is feasible to implement and is acceptable to training participants, facilitators, and mothers participating in the program. Mothers reported significant growth in their perceptions of use of trauma-informed parenting practices. Future research is necessary to confirm these results and examine the effectiveness of the program using a randomized clinical trial. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?: Evaluate SEMs’ practical performance

    DOE PAGES

    Xing, Q.

    2016-07-11

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. Themore » electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energydispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. Finally, for an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly affect the usability of the SEM.« less

  2. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?: Evaluate SEMs’ practical performance

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Q.

    2016-07-11

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. The electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energydispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. Finally, for an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly affect the usability of the SEM.

  3. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?: Evaluate SEMs’ practical performance

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Q.

    2016-07-11

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. The electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energydispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. Finally, for an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly affect the usability of the SEM.

  4. An Evaluation of an Hypothesized Paradigm: The Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Substance Use Mediated by Biopsychosocial Factors among Priority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Loretta N.

    This study evaluated an hypothesized model of biopsychosocial factors that mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and substance abuse. A questionnaire packet consisting of self-report measures was administered to 160 drug dependent participants with and without co-occurring psychological disorders in residential, partial, and outpatient…

  5. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on High Risk Behaviors in the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Finkbiner, Richard; Bishop, Sharon

    Substance abusers are at particular risk for becoming infected with, and for spreading, a number of serious communicable diseases. The value of substance abuse treatment in helping to reduce the associated risk behaviors for these diseases is the focus of this technical report. This analysis examines the risk behaviors of injection drug use and…

  6. The Preliminary Evaluation of a Program To Help Educators Address the Substance Use/Prevention Need of Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Jacques; French, Deanne C.; Moore, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    In pilot study, special education teachers were exposed to experiences designed to enhance their skills in adapting substance abuse prevention activities and materials for their students. Although pilot students noted an increase in their teachers' emphasis on substance abuse prevention and their criterion-related attitudes/behaviors improved…

  7. Evaluation for skin sensitization based on published literatures (existing information) of major PRTR designated chemical substances in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoko; Ishii, Kaori; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Fujino, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Nakadate, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Of the 354 substances designated as class I under the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) law in Japan, we reviewed the sensitization data of the selected 144 substances and analyzed it from various aspects comparing human and animal data, determining the relationship between skin sensitization and chemical structure and comparing the various international organizations. Although most of them were expected to be hazardous substances, 49 out of the 144 substances lacked both human and animal sensitization data. Positive substances accounted for 69% and 42% of the substances for which sensitization data were available in the case of humans and animals, respectively. A correlation was observed between the chemical structures of the substances and sensitization, despite the relatively few substances examined in this study and the limited homogeneity of the collected data. In particular, epoxides clearly had sensitizing potentials and more than half of carboxylic esters or dicarboxyl anhydrides, aliphatic aldehydes, and aromatic compounds with at least two hydroxyl groups also had sensitizing potentials. Also, this study clearly demonstrated the lack of consistency across the sensitization assessment criteria adopted by different countries or among those adopted by the same country on the basis of different laws or administrative measures.

  8. Tanning addiction and psychopathology: Further evaluation of anxiety disorders and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin E

    2014-03-01

    Little research has investigated the correlates of problematic tanning and tanning dependence. We sought to identify characteristics associated with problematic tanning and tanning dependence, and to evaluate simultaneously the associations of variables as correlates of problematic tanning and tanning dependence. To assess tanning-related characteristics, psychopathology, and demographics, we administered questionnaires to 533 tanning university students; 31% met criteria for tanning dependence, 12% for problematic tanning. Both problematic tanning and tanning dependence were significantly associated with being female (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively) and with screening positive on measures of obsessive-compulsive (P < .001 and P = .005, respectively) and body dysmorphic (P = .019 and P < .001, respectively) disorders. Frequency of tanning in the past month was the strongest correlate of problematic tanning (P < .001) and tanning dependence (P < .001) when included in a model that controlled for shared variance among demographics and psychopathology. The sample was recruited from 1 university and contained only self-report measures. Results suggest that many who engage in excessive tanning may also have significant psychiatric distress. Additional research is needed to characterize compulsive, problematic tanning and its rates, correlates, and risk factors among diverse samples. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a column classification method using the separation of alfuzosin from its related substances.

    PubMed

    Szulfer, Jarosław; Plenis, Alina; Bączek, Tomasz

    2012-03-16

    The popularity and commercial availability of reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) stationary phases cause analysts to be often confronted with the problem of column selection. For this reason, general test methods to characterize RP-LC columns have been extensively studied since the 1970s. This paper focuses on correlating the column classification based on a method developed at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL method) with the selectivity obtained for a real separation. The analysis of alfuzosin hydrochloride and related compounds was carried out according to the method prescribed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph. This separation was performed on 36 new RP-LC stationary phases which had been previously characterized chromatographically. For deeper comparative analysis of KUL classification of the stationary RP-LC brands and their column performance in pharmaceutical practice two chemometric tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), have been used. It was shown that stationary phase classes closely related by KUL method gave comparable separation for alfuzosin and related compounds. Therefore, the column ranking system based on the evaluation of F-values can be considered as a helpful tool in the selection of a suitable column for pharmaceutical analyses.

  10. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aims This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. Methods We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 × 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Results The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52–0.93). Conclusion The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements

  11. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Stoddard, Anne M; Roelofs, Cora; Sembajwe, Grace; Sapp, Amy L; Sorensen, Glorian

    2009-03-26

    This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 x 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements quantitative exposure assessment with an

  12. Comparative evaluation of microleakage between bulk esthetic materials versus resin-modified glass ionomer to restore Class II cavities in primary molars.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the microleakage of one high-viscosity conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) and a bulk-fill composite resin, in comparison to a resin-modified GIC in Class II restorations in primary molars. Standardized Class II slot cavity preparations were prepared in exfoliating primary molars. Teeth were restored using one of the three materials tested (n = 10): SonicFill bulk-fill composite resin (SF), EQUIA Fil conventional reinforced GIC (EQF), and Vitremer resin-reinforced GIC (VT). The restorations were then subjected to thermocycling procedure (×2000 5°C-55°C 10 s/min) and soaked in 1% neutralized fuchsin solution (pH: 7.4) for 24 h at 37°C. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction under continuous cooling into three slabs of 1 mm thickness and studied under a stereomicroscope for dye penetration. Data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's multiple comparison test employing 95% (α = 0.05). EQF and SF showed significantly lower microleakage scores and percentage of dye penetration (%RL) when compared to VT resin-reinforced GIC (P < 0.001). SF and EQF produced the minimum microleakage when compared to VT in Class II restorations on primary molars. Fewer application procedures and reduction in treatment time in SF and EQF systems proved advantageous in pediatric dentistry.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated During Traditional Sicilian Cheese Making.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Giusi; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Gaglio, Raimondo; Mancuso, Isabella; Scatassa, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-18

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA) and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin), amylolytic (a-amylase) and lipolytic (lipase) enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis) were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  14. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  15. Assessing the ecotoxicity of potentially neurotoxic substances - Evaluation of a behavioural parameter in the embryogenesis of Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Fabian G; Floeter, Carolin; Meza Artmann, Adriana S; Kammann, Ulrike

    2017-11-01

    The pollution of the aquatic environment is currently characterised by a large number of contaminants, especially by mixtures of micro-pollutants including neurotoxins. The ecotoxicological consequences of this burden are not yet assessable. Within the present study, a new test method was applied which evaluates behavioural changes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to quantify the neurotoxic effect of selected chemicals. Changes in the frequency of spontaneous tail movements - a parameter of locomotion - occurring during embryogenesis was assessed as parameter for neurotoxic effects. Embryos were exposed in 24-microwell plates to neurotoxic compounds. Behaviour was examined after 24 h of exposure by videotaping and quantifying spontaneous locomotion. Additionally, acute toxicity was determined after 48 h of exposure by utilising the fish embryo toxicity test. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, chlorpyrifos-oxon and carbamazepine were analysed using both: the new and classic acute test methods. The results showed the neurotoxic effect of the substances. Furthermore, an increased sensitivity compared to acute toxicity data was shown. The aim of the present study, to illustrate the sensitivity and specificity of the established endpoint to reliably assess adverse, neurotoxic effects of compounds on the model organism Danio rerio and to apply a new test method was achieved. Therefore, the present study is a substantial contribution to an effect-based risk assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated During Traditional Sicilian Cheese Making

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Giusi; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Gaglio, Raimondo; Mancuso, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA) and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin), amylolytic (a-amylase) and lipolytic (lipase) enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis) were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product. PMID:27800430

  17. Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of sewage sludge and corn stalk under different aeration rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Danyang; Li, Jijin; Li, Guoxue; Zhang, Bangxi

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge and corn stalk were co-composted under different aeration rates 0.12 (AR0.12), 0.24 (AR0.24), 0.36 (AR0.36)L·kg(-1)DMmin(-1), respectively. Transformation of humic substance was evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods to reveal compost humification. Results showed that aeration rate could significantly affect compost stability and humification process. Humic acid contents in AR0.24 were significantly higher than those in the other two treatments. The final humic acid/fulvic acid ratios in AR0.12, AR0.24 and AR0.36 treatment were 1.0, 1.9 and 0.8, respectively, corresponding to the final E4/E6 of 4.7, 3.2 and 5.5. Moreover, compost in AR0.24 treatment had a high stability degree due to the low C/N atom ratio and high C/H atom ratio. However, it is noteworthy that composting could not significantly affect the structure of HA in a 35-day period. These results indicate that composting with the aeration rate of 0.24L·kg(-1)DMmin(-1) could accelerated the humification process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Country-wide distance training for delivery of screening and brief intervention for problematic substance use: A pilot evaluation of participant experiences and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ana Paula Leal; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2017-08-11

    In this study, the authors evaluated if the 120-hour distance learning (DL) course SUPERA (an acronym in Portuguese meaning "System for detection of excessive use or dependence on psychoactive substances: brief Intervention, social reinsertion and follow-up") was an effective way to train health professionals and social workers to apply screening and brief intervention (SBI) for patients with substance use disorders. In the first phase, 2420 health professionals or social workers, who had completed the course, answered an online survey about their use of the SBI. In the second phase, 25 of those professionals applied the ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) followed by a brief intervention (BI) to patients with substance use disorders. Three months after the SBI delivery, independent researchers followed up 79 patients who had received SBI, reapplying the ASSIST and a questionnaire to evaluate the patients'/clients' satisfaction with the intervention they received. In the first phase, it was found that most health professionals and social workers who completed the course applied the SBI in their work and felt very motivated to do it. In the second phase of the study, at a 3-month follow-up, most patients had significantly reduced their ASSIST scores in respect of alcohol and cocaine/crack in relation to their baseline levels. Those patients classified by their ASSIST score as "suggestive of dependence" presented a significant reduction in their scores regarding alcohol, tobacco, and cocaine/crack, whereas those classified as "at risk" presented a reduction in respect of alcohol problems only. Patients associated changes in their substance use with the SBI received. A reduction in substance use-related problems was associated with the SBI applied by the health professionals or social workers trained by the DL course SUPERA. Two significant limitations of this study were the small number of participants (professionals and patients in the

  19. Mental health care in post-genocide Rwanda: evaluation of a program specializing in posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ng, L. C.; Harerimana, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the genocide, millions of Rwandans are likely living with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Le Centre Psychothérapeutique Icyizere provides the only specialized treatment for PTSD in the Rwandan healthcare system. Methods Demographics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and scores on assessments of functioning and PTSD were recorded from clinical charts of all patients receiving care between October 2013 and 2014. Descriptive statistics and within-group t tests comparing functional impairment and PTSD symptoms at intake to discharge and follow-up were calculated. Results A total of 719 patients (55.08% male) received care. Patients were more educated, more likely to live in the capital, and less likely to be married than the general population. Patients reported high desire for, and strong satisfaction with, care. Most patients (55.60%) were still in care by the end of the program evaluation. Functioning improved from intake to discharge (p < 0.001), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (p < 0.001). Most adults were diagnosed with psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, or depression. Only 20 patients were diagnosed with PTSD, and symptoms were improved at discharge (p = 0.003). Conclusions This program evaluation demonstrated the utility of a low-resource information management system to provide clarity about the patient population and outcomes. Results suggest that services are effective and sustainable, although people with PTSD were not the primary recipients of care. Disparities in care by diagnosis, education, marital status, and geography are discussed. Results have contributed to changes in service delivery and care and efforts to increase access to care. PMID:27610238

  20. 75 FR 69466 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  1. 75 FR 32506 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: May 28,...

  2. 75 FR 69467 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed... company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled...

  3. 75 FR 69466 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed... 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes...

  4. Long-range transport of acidifying substances in East Asia—Part I. Model evaluation and sensitivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meiyun; Oki, Taikan; Holloway, Tracey; Streets, David G.; Bengtsson, Magnus; Kanae, Shinjiro

    This study has conducted a comprehensive model evaluation to help identify major uncertainties of regional air quality model in predicting long-range transport and deposition of acidifying substances in East Asia. Annual predictions of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model are carried out at two horizontal scales: an 81 km domain over East Asia and a 27 km domain over Northeast Asia. The model successfully reproduces the magnitudes and diurnal variations of SO 2 mixing ratios at most sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Through the comparison with tropospheric NO 2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the model is shown to be able to capture major spatial and seasonal variations of NO 2 observed from space over East Asia. Regarding the magnitudes, however, CMAQ underpredicts the GOME retrieval over industrial area of eastern China in March and December, and over the remote western China in July. Primary reasons for the discrepancy over eastern China are the uncertainties both in emission inventory and in the GOME retrieval in wintertime. For the wet season the soil-biogenic NO emission estimates need to be reviewed regarding the intensity and timing of fertilizer applications, and the magnitude of rain-induced pulsing. The sensitivities of predicted NO 2 columns, NOx mixing ratios, and wet nitrate deposition to 50% increase of NOx emissions are studied. Due to the underpredictions of NOx and also to the uncertainty in modeled precipitation and nitrate formation, CMAQ has a tendency to underpredict annual wet deposition loads of nitrate observed by the EANET network.

  5. An evaluation of the impact of ‘Lifeskills’ training on road safety, substance use and hospital attendance in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10–11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. Methods The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14–15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n = 1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11–16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14–16 years). Results Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Conclusions Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. PMID:26540015

  6. An evaluation of the impact of 'Lifeskills' training on road safety, substance use and hospital attendance in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10-11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14-15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n=1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11-16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14-16 years). Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Availability of iron to Pseudomonas fluorescens in rhizosphere and bulk soil evaluated with an ice nucleation reporter gene.

    PubMed Central

    Loper, J E; Henkels, M D

    1997-01-01

    The biological availability of iron in the rhizosphere was assessed by evaluating ice nucleation activity (INA) expressed in situ by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 containing a transcriptional fusion (pvd-inaZ) of an iron-regulated promoter to an ice nucleation reporter gene (inaZ). Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ expresses INA that is inversely related to the iron availability of a growth medium (J. E. Loper and S. E. Lindow, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1934-1941, 1994). INA expressed by rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ was at a maximum within 12 to 24 h following inoculation of the bacterium onto bean roots and typically decreased gradually during the following 4 days. Iron availability in the soil, which was altered by the addition of chelators, influenced INA expressed by rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ. In soil adjusted to a pH of 7.0 or 8.0 by adding Ca(OH)2, rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ expressed greater INA, indicating lower iron availability, than they did in the nonamended soil at a pH of 5.4. Similarly, rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ expressed less INA in an agricultural soil of pH 5.4 than in other agricultural soils ranging in pH from 6.4 to 7.7. These results conform to the predictions of chemical models stating that pH is a major factor influencing iron availability in soil solutions. The results of this study indicate that P. fluorescens Pf-5 encountered an iron-limited environment immediately after it was inoculated onto bean roots planted in agricultural field soils. One to two days after the bacterium was inoculated onto root surfaces, however, iron became more available to rhizosphere populations of Pf-5. We speculate that iron acquisition systems of plants and other rhizosphere organisms may provide available sources of iron to established rhizosphere populations of P. fluorescens. PMID:8979343

  8. LC-MS of novel narcoepileptics and related substances.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara; Shinde, Dhananjay D; Ramesh, Venna; Srinivas, Ragampeta

    2009-05-01

    Modafinil, adrafinil and their related substances were synthesized and analyzed by RP-LC with ESI-MS/MS. The ionization mode, polarity, cone voltage, and chromatographic conditions were evaluated. The optimum LC-MS conditions to obtain fragment ions indispensable for identification of the structures were described. The bulk drugs purity of modafinil and adrafinil was evaluated on Kromasil C(18) column with ACN/0.02 M ammonium acetate as mobile phase in gradient elution mode at 30 degrees C. The method was found to be suitable not only for monitoring the reactions during the process development but also for quality assurance of modafinil and adrafinil.

  9. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  10. Re-evaluating 142Nd/ 144Nd in lunar mare basalts with implications for the early evolution and bulk Sm/Nd of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Debaille, Vinciane; Beard, Brian L.; Rankenburg, Kai; Neal, Clive

    2009-10-01

    distinct second analytical campaign to further test their reproducibility. Evaluation of accuracy and neutron fluence corrections indicates that the multidynamic Nd isotope measurements in this study and the 3 in Boyet and Carlson [Boyet M. and Carlson R. W. (2007) A highly depleted Moon or a non-magma origin for the lunar crust? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.262, 505-516] are reproducible, while static measurements in the previous two studies show analytical artifacts and cannot be used at the resolution of 10 ppm to determine a bulk Moon with either chondritic or superchondritic Sm/Nd ratios. The multidynamic data are best explained by a bulk Moon with a superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio that is similar to the present-day average for depleted MORB. Hafnium isotope data were collected on the same aliquots measured for their 142Nd/ 144Nd isotope ratios in order to assess if the correlation line for 142Nd- 143Nd systematics reflect mixing processes or times at which lunar mantle sources formed. Based on the combined 142Nd- 143Nd- 176Hf obtained we conclude that the 142Nd- 143Nd correlation line measured in this study is best interpreted as an isochron with an age of 229 +24-20Ma after the onset of nebular condensation. The uncertainties in the data permit the sources of these samples to have formed over a 44 Ma time interval. These new results for lunar mare basalts are thus consistent with a later Sm-Nd isotope closure time of their source regions than some recent studies have postulated, and a superchondritic bulk Sm/Nd ratio of the Moon and Earth. The superchondritic Sm/Nd signature was inherited from the materials that accreted to make up the Earth-Moon system. Although collisional erosion of crust from planetesimals is favored here to remove subchondritic Sm/Nd portions and drive the bulk of these bodies to superchondritic in composition, removal of explosive basalt material via gravitational escape from such bodies, or chondrule sorting in the inner solar system, may also explain

  11. Economic evaluation of a behavioral intervention versus brief advice for substance use treatment in pregnant women: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Yonkers, Kimberly A; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-03-07

    Substance use in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidities and substantial economic costs. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of substance use treatment programs in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of a behavioral intervention that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) for treatment of substance use in pregnancy, in comparison with brief advice. We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial by collecting data on resource utilization and performing a cost minimization analysis as MET-CBT and brief advice had similar effects on clinical outcomes (e.g., alcohol and drug use and birth outcomes). Costs were estimated from the health care system's perspective and included intervention costs, hospital facility costs, physician fees, and costs of psychotropic medications from the date of intake assessment until 3-month postpartum. We compared effects of MET-CBT on costs with those of brief advice using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Although the integrated MET-CBT therapy had higher intervention cost than brief advice (median = $1297/participant versus $303/participant, p < 0.01), costs of care during the prenatal period, delivery, and postpartum period, as well as for psychotropic medications, were comparable between the two groups (all p values ≥ 0.55). There was no statistically significant difference in overall cost of care (median total cost = $26,993/participant for MET-CBT versus $27,831/participant for brief advice, p = 0.90). The MET-CBT therapy and brief advice resulted in similar clinical outcomes and overall medical costs. Further research incorporating non-medical costs, targeting women with more severe substance use disorders, and evaluating the impact of MET-CBT on participants' quality of life will provide additional insights. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00227903 . Registered 27 September

  12. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  13. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  14. 76 FR 53961 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-Piperidine... controlled substance in the manufacturer of another controlled substance. No comments or objections have...

  15. [Evaluation of the content of harmful substances in the air of sewage treatment facilities of Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the progress in regard to the degree of processing of natural gas and condensate in the Astrakhan gas processing plant is significant, necessary hygienic normalization of working environment on the part of the content of harmful substances in the air of working areas is still unable. Harmful substances were detected in the breathing zone of workers of sewage treatment plant almost constantly. In this connection there is a need in the further joint work hygienists, designers and manufacturers for the development and justification of new, more effective decisions - both on the part of as well technology as hardware design - with the purpose of improvement of working conditions.

  16. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Making Prevention Effective for Adolescent Boys and Girls: Gender Differences in Substance Use and Prevention. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Results indicate that overall, boys and girls respond to prevention differently. Boys…

  17. First tier modeling of consumer dermal exposure to substances in consumer articles under REACH: a quantitative evaluation of the ECETOC TRA for consumers tool.

    PubMed

    Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H; ter Burg, W; van Engelen, J G M

    2013-02-01

    The demonstration of safe use of chemicals in consumer products, as required under REACH, is proposed to follow a tiered process. In the first tier, simple conservative methods and assumptions should be made to quickly verify whether risks for a particular use are expected. The ECETOC TRA Consumer Exposure Tool was developed to assist in first tier risk assessments for substances in consumer products. The ECETOC TRA is not a prioritization tool, but is meant as a first screening. Therefore, the exposure assessment needs to cover all products/articles in a specific category. For the assessment of the dermal exposure for substances in articles, ECETOC TRA uses the concept of a 'contact layer', a hypothetical layer that limits the exposure to a substance contained in the product. For each product/article category, ECETOC TRA proposes default values for the thickness of this contact layer. As relevant experimental exposure data is currently lacking, default values are based on expert judgment alone. In this paper it is verified whether this concept meets the requirement of being a conservative exposure evaluation method. This is done by confronting the ECETOC TRA expert judgment based predictions with a mechanistic emission model, based on the well established theory of diffusion of substances in materials. Diffusion models have been applied and tested in many applications of emission modeling. Experimentally determined input data for a number of material and substance combinations are available. The estimated emissions provide information on the range of emissions that could occur in reality. First tier tools such as ECETOC TRA tool are required to cover all products/articles in a category and to provide estimates that are at least as high as is expected on the basis of current scientific knowledge. Since this was not the case, it is concluded that the ECETOC TRA does not provide a proper conservative estimation method for the dermal exposure to articles. An

  18. Evaluation of an Intensive In-Home Services Program Aimed at Parents with Substance Abuse Issues Reported for Child Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Martha Morrison

    This paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of a demonstration program designed to provide in-home intervention with parents and children in families with substance abuse issues. The goals of the program were to prevent further child abuse or neglect, prevent family breakdown and child placement, and facilitate…

  19. Characteristics of Substance-Abusing Women on Welfare: Findings from the Evaluation of CASAWORKS for Families Pilot Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Marjorie A.; Ketterlinus, Robert D.; McLellan, A. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To describe and compare the characteristics and needs of substance-abusing women on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) who enroll in a multi-service "welfare to work" program (n = 673) with two other relevant groups: (a) women from the general TANF population in the same locales (n = 157) and (b) a sample of…

  20. Addressing Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Evaluation of Washington's Prevention and Intervention Services Program. 2001-03 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deck, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Substances of Abuse: An Evaluation of the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act Emergency Grants Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    A program was developed and implemented to train early childhood educators in two New York City school districts in how to identify and refer students who have been prenatally exposed to drugs or alcohol. Two substance abuse prevention and intervention specialists implemented the program, training 88 teachers in 4 schools. At the end of the…

  2. Addressing Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Evaluation of Washington's Prevention and Intervention Services Program. 2001-03 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deck, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…

  3. Measuring Negative Consequences of College Student Substance Use: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Brown, Natashia T.; Donovan, Brooke M.; Dude, Kim

    2005-01-01

    A commonly used instrument to assess negative consequences of substance use among college students is the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & J. S. Leichliter, 1998; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & R. Lyerla, 1993). Results from 2 studies suggest that a subset of CADS negative consequences items can be…

  4. Measuring Negative Consequences of College Student Substance Use: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Brown, Natashia T.; Donovan, Brooke M.; Dude, Kim

    2005-01-01

    A commonly used instrument to assess negative consequences of substance use among college students is the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & J. S. Leichliter, 1998; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & R. Lyerla, 1993). Results from 2 studies suggest that a subset of CADS negative consequences items can be…

  5. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  6. Implementing a gero-infused curriculum in advanced-level MSW courses in health, mental health and substance abuse: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Judy; Zodikoff, Bradley D; Rozario, Philip A; Joyce, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    This article presents evaluation results from a curricular innovation aimed at increasing the capacity of social work graduates to serve older adults in health, mental health, and substance abuse settings. Working as a team, faculty developed, incorporated, and evaluated gerontology-infused syllabi and teaching modules in multiple sections of the 3 courses, with 2 sections serving as a comparison group. Results indicated that students exposed to the gero-infused curriculum increased their age-related knowledge and self-competence from pre- to posttest, and achieved a greater increase in knowledge than did the comparison group. Implications of the findings to social work education are discussed.

  7. An Open-Label, Noncomparative, Multicenter Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of NASHA/Dx Gel as a Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Dodi, Giuseppe; Jongen, Johannes; de la Portilla, Fernando; Raval, Manoj; Altomare, Donato F.; Lehur, Paul-Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is the involuntary loss of rectal contents through the anal canal. Reports of its prevalence vary from 1–21%. Studies, have demonstrated a positive effect on FI symptoms with injectable bulking agents. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of NASHA/Dx gel in the treatment of FI. One hundred fifteen eligible patients suffering from FI received 4 injections of 1 mL NASHA/Dx gel. Primary efficacy was based on data from 86 patients that completed the study. This study demonstrated a ≥50% reduction from baseline in the number of FI episodes in 57.1% of patients at 6 months, and 64.0% at 12 months. Significant improvements (P < .001) were also noted in total number of both solid and loose FI episodes, FI free days, CCFIS, and FIQL scores in all 4 domains. The majority of the treatment related AEs (94.9%) were mild or moderate intensity, and (98.7%) of AEs resolved spontaneously, or following treatment, without sequelae. Results of this study indicate NASHA/Dx gel was efficacious in the treatment of FI. Treatment effect was significant both in reduction of number of FI episodes and disease specific quality of life at 6 months and lasted up to 12 months after treatment. PMID:21234379

  8. Evaluation of Equivalent Circuit Models for Plasma Bulk Characterization by Comparing IEDF Predictions with those of a Spatially Resolved CCP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naggary, Schabnam; Shihab, Mohammed; Atteln, Frank; Megahed, Mustafa; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2013-09-01

    Capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges are widely used in the semiconductor processing industry for thin film deposition and etching. Thus the evaluation of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is of paramount importance for industrial applications. Spatially and temporally resolved CCP models are generally computationally expensive leading to reduced applicability of these models for industrial optimization. In order to reduce the simulation time, as an alternative method, we use equivalent circuits based on a global model to characterize the plasma bulk and provide the needed input parameters for a hybrid sheath model [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . The overall computational time to obtain time averaged IEDFs lies within seconds, hence the concept is very attractive for industrial scanning and optimization. In order to assess the applicability of this novel approach the results are compared with those of commercial multi-physics software CFD-ACE+ in 2 and 3 dimensions. Our investigation demonstrates the feasibility of the compromise between short simulation times and accurate calculation of spatially resolved IEDF. The authors acknowledge support by the ESI Group, DFG via SFB-TR87, and the Ruhr-University Research School.

  9. Hydrogen interstitial in H-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, T.; Kamioka, K.; Nishimura, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The origins of low resistivity in H ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak concentration: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into ZnO is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The maximum of the concentration of the implanted H estimated by a TRIM simulation is at 3600 nm in depth. The resistivity decreases from ∼103 Ω cm for un implanted ZnO to 6.5 Ω cm for as-implanted, 2.3 × 10-1 Ω cm for 200 °C annealed, and 3.2 × 10-1 Ω cm for 400 °C annealed samples. The ERDA measurements can evaluate the concentration of hydrogens which move to the vicinity of the surface (surface to 300 nm or 100 nm) because of the diffusion by the annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 2.0 MeV helium beam is ∼3.8 × 1013 cm-2 for annealed samples. From EPR measurements, the oxygen vacancy of +charge state (Vo+) is observed in as-implanted samples. The Vo+ related signal (g = 1.96) observed under no illumination disappears after successive illumination with a red LED and appears again with a blue light illumination. The activation energy of as-implanted, 200 °C annealed, and 400 °C annealed samples estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration lies between 29 meV and 23 meV, suggesting the existence of H interstitial as a shallow donor level.

  10. Evaluating the Impact of a Substance Use Intervention Program on the Peer Status and Influence of Adolescent Peer Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Christopher S.; Golonka, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The current study involved an examination of the impact of a peer-led substance use intervention program on the peer leaders beyond the substance use-related goals of the intervention. Specifically, unintended consequences of an adult-sanctioned intervention on the targeted peer leader change agents were investigated, including whether their participation affected their peer status, social influence, or self perceptions. Twenty-two 7th grade peer-identified intervention leaders were compared to 22 control leaders (who did not experience the intervention) and 146 cohort peers. Three groups of measures were employed: sociometric and behavioral nominations, social cognitive mapping, and leadership self-perceptions. Results indicated that unintended consequences appear to be a legitimate concern for females. Female intervention leaders declined in perceived popularity and liked most nominations over time, whereas males increased in total leader nominations. Explanations for these results are discussed and further directions suggested. PMID:21935657

  11. Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials Evaluating the Impact of Quarterly Recovery Management Checkups with Adult Chronic Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christy K; Dennis, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Post-discharge monitoring and early re-intervention have become standard practice when managing numerous chronic conditions. These two experiments tested the effectiveness of Recovery Management Checkup (RMC) protocols for adult chronic substance users. Intervention RMC included quarterly monitoring; motivational interviewing to provide personalized feedback and to resolve ambivalence about substance use; treatment linkage, engagement, and retention protocols to increase the amount of treatment received. Participants and Setting Recruited from sequential addiction treatment admissions, participants in the two experiments were on average 36 and 38 years of age, mostly female (59% vs. 46%), African American (85% vs. 80%), and met past-year criteria for dependence (87% vs. 76%). Design Participants in both experiments were randomly assigned to the RMC or control condition and interviewed quarterly for 2 years. Measurement The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) was the main assessment instrument. Findings RMC participant outcomes were better than control participants in both experiments. Effect sizes were larger in the second experiment in terms of reducing days to readmission (Cohen’s d=0.41 vs. d=0.22), successive quarters in the community using substances (d= −0.32 vs. −0.19), past-month symptoms of abuse/dependence (d=−0.23 vs. −0.02) and increasing the days of abstinence over 2 years (d=+0.29 vs. 0.04). Conclusion RMC, which provided ongoing monitoring and linkage, is feasible to conduct and is effective for adults with chronic substance dependence. PMID:19344441

  12. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  13. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  14. Evaluation of infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy measurement and locally weighted partial least-squares for rapid analysis of residual drug substances in cleaning processes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Tajima, Takahiro; Kano, Manabu; Kim, Sanghong; Hasebe, Shinji; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Nakagami, Hiroaki

    2012-04-17

    The usefulness of infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IR-RAS) for the rapid measurement of residual drug substances without sampling was evaluated. In order to realize the highly accurate rapid measurement, locally weighted partial least-squares (LW-PLS) with a new weighting technique was developed. LW-PLS is an adaptive method that builds a calibration model on demand by using a database whenever prediction is required. By adding more weight to samples closer to a query, LW-PLS can achieve higher prediction accuracy than PLS. In this study, a new weighting technique is proposed to further improve the prediction accuracy of LW-PLS. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of the IR-RAS spectra analyzed by LW-PLS with the new weighting technique was compared with that analyzed by PLS and locally weighted regression (LWR). The RMSEP of LW-PLS with the proposed weighting technique was about 36% and 14% smaller than that of PLS and LWR, respectively, when ibuprofen was a residual drug substance. Similarly, LW-PLS with the weighting technique was about 39% and 24% better than PLS and LWR in RMSEP, respectively, when magnesium stearate was a residual excipient. The combination of IR-RAS and LW-PLS with the proposed weighting technique is a very useful rapid measurement technique of the residual drug substances.

  15. Long-term consequences of non-intentional flows of substances: Modelling non-intentional flows of lead in the Dutch economic system and evaluating their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Elshkaki, Ayman Voet, Ester van der; Holderbeke, Mirja van; Timmermans, Veerle

    2009-06-15

    Substances may enter the economy and the environment through both intentional and non-intentional flows. These non-intentional flows, including the occurrence of substances as pollutants in mixed primary resources (metal ores, phosphate ores and fossil fuels) and their presence in re-used waste streams from intentional use may have environmental and economic consequences in terms of pollution and resource availability. On the one hand, these non-intentional flows may cause pollution problems. On the other hand, these flows have the potential to be a secondary source of substances. This article aims to quantify and model the non-intentional flows of lead, to evaluate their long-term environmental consequences, and compare these consequences to those of the intentional flows of lead. To meet this goal, the model combines all the sources of non-intentional flows of lead within one model, which also includes the intentional flows. Application of the model shows that the non-intentional flows of lead related to waste streams associated with intentional use are decreasing over time, due to the increased attention given to waste management. However, as contaminants in mixed primary resources application, lead flows are increasing as demand for these applications is increasing.

  16. Long-term consequences of non-intentional flows of substances: modelling non-intentional flows of lead in the Dutch economic system and evaluating their environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Elshkaki, Ayman; van der Voet, Ester; Holderbeke, Mirja Van; Timmermans, Veerle

    2009-06-01

    Substances may enter the economy and the environment through both intentional and non-intentional flows. These non-intentional flows, including the occurrence of substances as pollutants in mixed primary resources (metal ores, phosphate ores and fossil fuels) and their presence in re-used waste streams from intentional use may have environmental and economic consequences in terms of pollution and resource availability. On the one hand, these non-intentional flows may cause pollution problems. On the other hand, these flows have the potential to be a secondary source of substances. This article aims to quantify and model the non-intentional flows of lead, to evaluate their long-term environmental consequences, and compare these consequences to those of the intentional flows of lead. To meet this goal, the model combines all the sources of non-intentional flows of lead within one model, which also includes the intentional flows. Application of the model shows that the non-intentional flows of lead related to waste streams associated with intentional use are decreasing over time, due to the increased attention given to waste management. However, as contaminants in mixed primary resources application, lead flows are increasing as demand for these applications is increasing.

  17. Hydrogen ion-implantation induced low resistive layer in KNbO3 bulk single crystal: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkawa, A.; Shibasaki, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.

    2016-03-01

    Origins of low resistivity in H-ion implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystals are studied by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak ion fluence: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into KNbO3 is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The sheet resistance decreases from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.33 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted, 2.29 × 105 Ω/□ for 100 °C annealed, and 4.25 × 105 Ω/□ for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively. The ERDA experiment using the 1.5 MeV-4He+ beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to around 60 nm. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 1.5 MeV helium beam is 5.1 × 1014 cm-2 for un-implanted KNbO3 sample, 5.6 × 1014 cm-2 for as-implanted, 3.4 × 1014 cm-2 for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively, indicating that a part of hydrogen is diffused out by annealing. The low resistive layer induced in H-ion implanted KNbO3 suggests the existence of a shallow energy level related to the complex defect consisting of hydrogen interstitial and the proton induced defect such as oxygen vacancy.

  18. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Yoko; Jinkawa, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hidenori; Gondo, Takahiro; Zaita, Norihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of 'substantial equivalence' to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines.

  19. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  20. 77 FR 75670 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...

  1. 77 FR 75671 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Euticals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine (1100) II Lisdexamfetamine (1205) II Methylphenidate (1724) II... amphetamine (1100), the company plans to acquire the listed controlled substance in bulk from a...

  2. 77 FR 67676 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Johnson Matthey Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Dihydromorphine (9145) I Difenoxin...

  3. 78 FR 69132 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Johnson Matthey, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Dihydromorphine (9145) I Difenoxin...

  4. An Evaluation of Substance Abuse Treatment and HIV Education on Safe Sex Practices in Cocaine Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Winhusen, Theresa M.; Somoza, Eugene C.; Lewis, Daniel F.; Kropp, Frankie; Theobald, Jeff; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background. There is a strong association between crack/cocaine use and increased sexual risk behavior, but little research on the efficacy of HIV education for decreasing such behavior in crack/cocaine-addicted individuals in substance abuse treatment. Method. Datasets from two cocaine dependence trials including either one or three HIV education sessions, respectively, were analyzed for changes over time in the proportion of participants practicing safe sex. A pooled dataset from two earlier trials not offering HIV education was also analyzed. Results. We included 83 participants from the 1-session trial and 65 participants from the 3-session trial. Both sets of participants evidenced a significant increase in the proportion of participants having safe sex with casual partners. Participants in the 3-session HIV education study also evidenced a significant increase in the proportion of participants having safe sex with regular partners. In the trials without HIV education, no change in safe sex practices was found, and change in condom use was observed only among female participants. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with recommendations that HIV education/counseling should be provided to individuals in substance abuse treatment. A randomized controlled trial to confirm these results may be warranted. This trial is registered with NCT00033033, NCT00086255, NCT00015106, and NCT00015132. PMID:25938124

  5. Evaluation of a Microbiological Multi-Residue System on the detection of antibacterial substances in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Althaus, Rafael; Berruga, Maria Isabel; Montero, Ana; Roca, Marta; Molina, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-19

    To protect both, public health and the dairy industry, from the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, control programmes have been established, which include the needed screening tests. This work focuses on the application of a Microbiological Multi-Residue System in ewe milk, a method based on the use of six different plates, each seeded with one of the following bacteria: Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis (beta-lactams), Bacillus subtilis at pH 8.0 (aminoglycosides), Kocuria rhizophila (macrolides), Escherichia coli (quinolones), B. cereus (tetracyclines) and B. subtilis at pH 7.0 (sulphonamides), respectively. Twenty-three antimicrobial substances were analysed and a logistic regression was established for each substance assayed to relate the antibiotic concentration and the zone of microbial growth inhibition. Great linearity in the response was observed (regression coefficients of over 0.97). This fact suggests the possibility of establishing a decision level of antibiotic concentrations near to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). Zones of inhibition were suggested as proposed action levels for the different antimicrobial groups (diameters of inhibition of 18 mm for the aminoglycoside, beta-lactam and sulphonamide plates; 19 mm for the tetracycline plate, 21 mm for the macrolide plate, and 24 mm for the quinolone plate). Specificity and cross-reactivity were also assayed.

  6. Evaluation of underlying mechanisms in the link between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use.

    PubMed

    Vitulano, Michael L; Fite, Paula J; Hopko, Derek R; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen; Asif, Irfan

    2014-09-01

    Although there has been support for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk for early substance use, this link is not fully established or understood. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms explaining these associations are unclear. The current study examined peer rejection, school bonding, and internalizing problems as potential mediators of the association between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use. The sample included a control group of 126 students with problematic aggression (79% African American, 66% male) from an intervention study following children from fourth to ninth grade. Results suggested that ADHD symptoms follow a path to early initiation of tobacco use through the combined effects of peer rejection and internalizing problems as well as through internalizing problems alone. ADHD symptoms were also associated with the cubic slope of marijuana use initiation, such that increased ADHD symptoms were associated with a strong cubic trend (e.g., a more rapid acceleration of risk for initiation). ADHD symptoms were not associated with risk for early initiation of alcohol use. Identification of important vulnerability factors in children with ADHD symptoms highlight the need for primary prevention and psychological interventions that target these factors and decrease the likelihood of early tobacco and marijuana use initiation.

  7. Effectiveness of dual focus mutual aid for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders: a review and synthesis of the "Double Trouble" in Recovery evaluation.

    PubMed

    Magura, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Over 5 million adults in the United States have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (self-help) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City (NYC) in 1998 and following them up for 2 years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer-reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample's characteristics were as follows: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder, 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several "common" therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation and social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy and reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach.

  8. Evaluation of the validity of the UN SADT H.4 test for solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances.

    PubMed

    Steensma, M; Schuurman, P; Malow, M; Krause, U; Wehrstedt, K-D

    2005-01-31

    Many self-accelerating decomposition temperatures (SADTs) of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances have been determined with the UN test method H.4, which is a scaled down test in a small Dewar vessel. For solid organic peroxides and solid self-reactive substances Fierz has questioned this procedure in a recent paper. Fierz concluded that the Dewar test results should not be extrapolated to beyond 8l packages, owing to the thermal insulation value of solids. On the other hand, long term experience with the test, with a great variety of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances show about equal critical temperatures in the small Dewar vessel and on 50 kg scale. In the present work, we first checked, by numerical simulations, the Dewar scale versus the larger scale, in a way comparable with Fierz' method: both scales are simulated by spheres, consisting of a number of annular layers, for the large scale the usual external heat loss term is used but for the small scale the outside heat transfer is strongly limited. The outcome of these simulations, covering a variety of physical parameters, supports the concerns expressed by Fierz. After this, we performed accurate cooling and heating experiments with solid organic peroxide in the usual Dewar vessel, provided with a large set of thermocouples. The results of these experiments showed that the simulation model for the Dewar vessel has to be changed from a spherical analogue to a short cylinder of solid material with heat exchange mainly via its top (U(top) approximately 3.5 W/(m(2)K), overall heat transfer coefficient) and some heat exchange (U(side) approximately 0.29 W/(m(2)K)) through its cylindrical and bottom part. With this "modified cylinder" model (being neither an infinitely long cylinder nor a slab) of the Dewar vessel, we found that the UN method H.4 enables an accurate prediction of the SADT, with small deviations of 0+/-2.5 degrees C. Further, by performing a truly three

  9. EVALUATION OF PLASMA SUBSTANCE P AND BETA‐ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH PRADER‐WILLI SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Butler, M.G.; Nelson, T. A.; Driscoll, D.J.; Manzardo, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare obesity-related genetic disorder often caused by a deletion of the chromosome 15q11–q13 region inherited from the father or by maternal disomy 15. Growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hypogonadism, cognitive and behavioral problems, analgesia, decreased gastric motility and decreased ability to vomit with hyperphagia are common in PWS leading to severe obesity in early childhood, if not controlled. Substance P (SP) and beta-endorphin (BE) are neuropeptides involved with centrally and peripherally mediated pain perception, emotional regulation, and gastric motility impacting nausea, emesis and feeding patterns. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms for PWS symptom development for pain, emotion and gastric motility and plasma levels of substance P and beta-endorphin between PWS and unrelated unaffected children. Methodology Plasma samples were collected from 23 Caucasian children with PWS and 18 unrelated, unaffected siblings with an average age of 8.2 ±2.0 years and age range of 5 to 11 years following an overnight fast and neuropeptide substance p and beta-endorphin levels were assessed using Multiplex sandwich immunoassays using the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Linear regression analysis was carried out on log-transformed values adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results The mean plasma SP (57 ± 23 pg/ml) and BE (592 ± 200 pg/ml) levels in PWS were significantly higher than SP (35 ± 20 pg/ml, F=10.5, P<0.01) and BE (402 ± 162 pg/ml, F=10.8, P<0.01) levels found in unrelated, unaffected siblings suggesting a previously uncharacterized neuroendocrine pathophysiology in PWS. Conclusions The increased BE and SP plasma levels relative to unrelated, unaffected siblings may contribute to hyperphagia, abnormal pain sensation and adrenal insufficiency seen in PWS. Increases in SP levels may be modulated by central and/or peripheral actions of BE on

  10. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  11. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics in JMA-NHM Simulations Using Bin or Bulk Microphysical Schemes through Comparison with Cloud Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, Takamichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Khain, Alexander P.; Saito, Kazuo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Hajime; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations using the Japan Meteorological Agency NonhydrostaticModel (JMA-NHM) are conducted for three precipitation events observed by shipborne or spaceborneW-band cloud radars. Spectral bin and single-moment bulk cloud microphysics schemes are employed separatelyfor an intercomparative study. A radar product simulator that is compatible with both microphysicsschemes is developed to enable a direct comparison between simulation and observation with respect to theequivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze, Doppler velocity (DV), and path-integrated attenuation (PIA). Ingeneral, the bin model simulation shows better agreement with the observed data than the bulk modelsimulation. The correction of the terminal fall velocities of snowflakes using those of hail further improves theresult of the bin model simulation. The results indicate that there are substantial uncertainties in the masssizeand sizeterminal fall velocity relations of snowflakes or in the calculation of terminal fall velocity of snowaloft. For the bulk microphysics, the overestimation of Ze is observed as a result of a significant predominanceof snow over cloud ice due to substantial deposition growth directly to snow. The DV comparison shows thata correction for the fall velocity of hydrometeors considering a change of particle size should be introducedeven in single-moment bulk cloud microphysics.

  12. 75 FR 20001 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... substances in bulk to manufacture in-vitro diagnostic test kits. The company distributes the test kits for sale to its customers. The process used in manufacturing the test kits irreversibly alters...

  13. 75 FR 53719 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... registered as a bulk manufacturer of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) (2010), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) (2010) in...

  14. 76 FR 23627 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  15. 75 FR 62570 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... manufacture of Benzphetamine, a schedule III non-narcotic controlled substance. The methamphetamine will not...

  16. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... controlled substance, and further distribution to its customers. The methamphetamine will not be sold as a...

  17. 75 FR 14190 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Gamma...

  18. 75 FR 14189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  19. 76 FR 21916 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-...

  20. 76 FR 14690 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  1. 75 FR 75497 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  2. 76 FR 30970 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  3. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Accordance With Section 503A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration.... Background Section 503A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 353a) describes the... Products in Accordance with Section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,...

  4. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103) seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were delivered. There were 3 first

  5. Antiretroviral medication treatment for all HIV-infected individuals: a protocol using innovative multilevel methodologies to evaluate New York City's universal ART policy among problem substance users.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Des Jarlais, Don; Hannah, Cooper; Braunstein, Sarah; Tross, Susan; Kersanske, Laura; Borges, Christine; Pavlicova, Martina; Jefferson, Kevin; Newville, Howard; Weaver, Laurel; Wolff, Margaret

    2016-08-02

    The intersection of HIV-related health outcomes and problem substance use has been well documented. New York City continues to be a focal point of the U.S. HIV epidemic. In 2011, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) issued a recommendation that all HIV infected individuals should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 cell count or other indicators of disease progression. This policy is based in the concept of "treatment as prevention," in which providing ART to people living with HIV (PLWH) greatly reduces the likelihood of HIV transmission, while also improving individual health. The "ART for ALL" (AFA) study was designed to inform modifications to and identify gaps in the implementation of universal ART, and specifically to help guide allocation of resources to obtain local policy goals for increasing viral suppression among PLWH who have problem substance use. The AFA Study is informed by two complementary frameworks: Glasgow and colleagues' RE-AIM model, a multi-level framework developed to guide the evaluation of implementation of new policies, and Bronfrenbrenner's ecological systems model, which conceptualizes the bi-directional interplay between people and their environment. Using multi-level data and mixed methods, the primary aims of the AFA Study are to assess rates of viral load suppression, using the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry, within 12 months of HIV diagnosis with (a) yearly cohorts of high-risk-to-transmit, difficult-to-treat, substance using patients recruited from NYC Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics and a large detoxification unit and (b) yearly cohorts of all newly HIV diagnosed people in NYC. Further goals include (c) recruiting cross-sectional samples of HIV/AIDS service providers to assess ART initiation with problem substance users and d) examining geographic factors that influence rates of viral load suppression. An Implementation Collaborative Board meets regularly to guide study

  6. Linear-rank testing of a non-binary, responder-analysis, efficacy score to evaluate pharmacotherapies for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Tyson H; Li, Shou-Hua; McCann, David J

    2016-11-23

    The design of pharmacological trials for management of substance use disorders is shifting toward outcomes of successful individual-level behavior (abstinence or no heavy use). While binary success/failure analyses are common, McCann and Li (CNS Neurosci Ther 2012; 18: 414-418) introduced "number of beyond-threshold weeks of success" (NOBWOS) scores to avoid dichotomized outcomes. NOBWOS scoring employs an efficacy "hurdle" with values reflecting duration of success. Here, we evaluate NOBWOS scores rigorously. Formal analysis of mathematical structure of NOBWOS scores is followed by simulation studies spanning diverse conditions to assess operating characteristics of five linear-rank tests on NOBWOS scores. Simulations include assessment of Fisher's exact test applied to hurdle component. On average, statistical power was approximately equal for five linear-rank tests. Under none of conditions examined did Fisher's exact test exhibit greater statistical power than any of the linear-rank tests. These linear-rank tests provide good Type I and Type II error control for comparing distributions of NOBWOS scores between groups (e.g. active vs. placebo). All methods were applied to re-analyses of data from four clinical trials of differing lengths and substances of abuse. These linear-rank tests agreed across all trials in rejecting (or not) their null (equality of distributions) at ≤ 0.05.

  7. Evaluation of a suicide prevention training curriculum for substance abuse treatment providers based on Treatment Improvement Protocol Number 50 (TIP 50)

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Wood, Jane; Pisani, Anthony R.; Kemp, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) confer risk for suicide yet there are no empirically supported suicide prevention training curricula tailored to SUD treatment providers. We assessed the efficacy of a 2-hour training that featured a suicide prevention training video produced by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The video was based on Treatment Improvement Protocol Number 50, TIP 50, a practical manual to manage suicide risk produced by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The training was provided in small groups to 273 SUD treatment providers in 18 states. Results were evaluated using self-report assessments obtained at pre-test, post-test, and 2-month follow-up. Statistically significant changes (p<.001) within subjects were obtained on self-efficacy, knowledge, and frequency of suicide prevention practice behaviors. The positive results together with the brevity of the training and its ease of implementation indicate high potential for widespread adoption and the importance of further study. PMID:22417671

  8. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vera P.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  9. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-08

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  10. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera P; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed.

  11. Evaluating filterability of different types of sludge by statistical analysis: The role of key organic compounds in extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Keke; Chen, Yun; Jiang, Xie; Zhou, Yan

    2017-03-01

    An investigation was conducted for 20 different types of sludge in order to identify the key organic compounds in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that are important in assessing variations of sludge filterability. The different types of sludge varied in initial total solids (TS) content, organic composition and pre-treatment methods. For instance, some of the sludges were pre-treated by acid, ultrasonic, thermal, alkaline, or advanced oxidation technique. The Pearson's correlation results showed significant correlations between sludge filterability and zeta potential, pH, dissolved organic carbon, protein and polysaccharide in soluble EPS (SB EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB EPS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to further explore correlations between variables and similarities among EPS fractions of different types of sludge. Two principal components were extracted: principal component 1 accounted for 59.24% of total EPS variations, while principal component 2 accounted for 25.46% of total EPS variations. Dissolved organic carbon, protein and polysaccharide in LB EPS showed higher eigenvector projection values than the corresponding compounds in SB EPS and TB EPS in principal component 1. Further characterization of fractionized key organic compounds in LB EPS was conducted with size-exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection-organic nitrogen detection (LC-OCD-OND). A numerical multiple linear regression model was established to describe relationship between organic compounds in LB EPS and sludge filterability.

  12. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-02-10

    Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners-either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be evaluated. The current study is the first to evaluate the relevance of a well-established marketing framework (the Marketing Mix) and measurement approach (measurement of perceived service quality [PSQ]) with parents of ASUDs in need of treatment. A mixed-methods design is employed across three study phases, consistent with well-established methods used in the field of marketing science. Phase 1 consists of formative qualitative research with parents (and a supplementary sample of adolescents) in order to evaluate and potentially adapt a conceptual framework (Marketing Mix) and measure of PSQ. Phase 2 is a targeted survey of ASUD parents to elucidate their marketing preferences, using the adapted Marketing Mix framework, and to establish the psychometric properties of the PSQ measure. The survey will also gather data on parents' preferences for different targeted marketing messages. Phase 3 is a two-group randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of targeted marketing messages versus standard clinical information. Key outcomes will include parents' ratings of PSQ (using the new measure), behavioral intentions to seek out information about EBP, and actual information-seeking behavior. The current study will inform the field whether a well-established marketing framework and measurement approach can be used to increase demand for EBP among parents of ASUDs. Results of this study will have the potential to immediately inform DTC marketing efforts by professional organizations

  13. The Structure and Substance of Teachers' Opportunities to Learn about Teacher Evaluation Reform: Promise or Pitfall for Equity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Woulfin, Sarah; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Cobb, Casey D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to overhaul teacher evaluation policies and practices, scant research examines how educators at the street level of such reform--principals and teachers--make sense of them, and almost no research examines the implications of current evaluation reforms for equity. This article provides findings based on a study of 14…

  14. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    PubMed

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases.

  15. 75 FR 69461 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... inspection and testing of the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to... substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import the listed controlled substance in bulk to...

  16. 76 FR 8777 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of... manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: February 4, 2011. Joseph...

  17. 19 CFR 12.118 - Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Articles § 12.118 Toxic Substances Control Act. The importation into the customs territory of the United States of a chemical substance in bulk or as part of a mixture, or article containing a chemical... of the Treasury in consultation with the Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). ...

  18. 75 FR 75498 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic..., Inc.'s legal existence as a corporation and as a DEA registrant as a bulk manufacturer will...

  19. 75 FR 69467 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated March... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of controlled...

  20. 75 FR 20002 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes... 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  1. 76 FR 14690 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic... accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of...

  2. 75 FR 69463 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... 1301.33, the above named company is granted ] registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic...

  3. 75 FR 75498 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated May... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  4. 75 FR 2160 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  5. 75 FR 69467 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Carfentanil (9743... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of controlled...

  6. Trends in volatile substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry; Lorenz, Douglas J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substance abuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and U.S. Census Bureau for each of the 50 states for the years 2000 through 2005 for unemployment rate, population density, poverty rate, high school graduation rate and percentage of population with bachelor degree. The two datasets were compared for geographic (by state) and temporal (by year) relationships using U.S. government demographic categories. The U.S. poison centers state that 12,428 patients with volatile substance abuse have been reported over the 6 year period of 2000-2005, with a mean of 2,071 patients annually. A strong negative trend was found between volatile substance abuse and population density, with volatile substance abuse increasing as population density decreased. This trend remained consistent over the 6 years of evaluation. A negative trend was found with percentage of population with a bachelor's degree and volatile substance abuse. No trend was found when comparing volatile substance abuse and poverty rate, unemployment rate, or high school graduation rate. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as population density decreases, following a previously suggested relationship with a rural setting. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as percentage of population with a bachelor's degree decreases.

  7. Evaluating Carbon Isotope Signature of Bulk Organic Matter and Plant Wax Derived n-alkanes from Lacustrine Sediments as Climate Proxies along the Western Side of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Werne, J. P.; Araneda, A.; Conejero, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary carbon isotope values (δ13C) of bulk organic matter and long chain (C25 to C35) n-alkanes are among the most long-lived and widely utilized proxies of organic matter and vegetation source. The carbon distribution (e.g. average carbon chain length, ACL) and isotope signature from long chain n-alkanes had been intensively used on paleoclimate studies because they are less influenced by diagenesis, differential preservation of compound classes, and changes in the sources of organic matter than bulk δ13C values. Recently, studies of modern plant n-alkanes have challenged the use of carbon distribution and carbon isotope signature from sedimentary n-alkanes as reliable indicators of vegetation and climate change. The climate in central-south western South America (SA) is projected to become significantly warmer and drier over the next several decades to centuries in response to anthropogenically driven warming. Paleolimnological studies along western SA are critical to obtain more realistic and reliable regional reconstructions of past climate and environments, including vegetation and water budget variability. Here we discuss bulk δ13C, distribution and δ13C in long chain n-alkanes from a suite of ~40 lake surface sediment (core-top) samples spanning the transition from a Mediterranean climate with a patchwork of cultivated vegetation, pastureland, conifers in central Chile to a rainy temperate climate dominated by broadleaf deciduous and evergreen forest. Data are compared to the latitudinal and orographic climatic trends of the Andes based on the climatology (e.g. precipitation and temperature) of the locations of all lakes involved in this study, using monthly gridded reanalysis products of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), based on the NCEP global forecast model and meteorological stations available in the region, from January 1979 to December 2010 with a 0.5° horizontal resolution.

  8. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse/Use Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Substance Abuse/Use How Are Alcohol and Drug Use Related ... or transmitting HIV is to stop using drugs . Substance abuse treatment programs can help you do this. Many ...

  9. The Costs and Benefits of Substance Abuse Treatment: Findings from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lane; Denmead, Gabrielle; Nguyen, Robert; Harrison, Margaret; Harwood, Henrick

    This study seeks to quantify the costs and benefits of alcohol and drug abuse treatment and the resulting economic benefits to society. Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), and client questionnaires, estimates were made of the average costs per client in terms of crime-related costs, health care costs, and…

  10. TVOntario's Substance Abuse Series: Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions. A Summative Evaluation. Report No. 19-1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Gerald W.

    A summative evaluation of the two TVOntario series, Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions was carried out in the April-to-June 1991 period. Classes (N=23) were recruited for the intermediate and senior grade level study, which included more than 550 students. The intermediate series, Dealing with Drugs, designed for grade 7 and 8 students,…

  11. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Preventing Substance Abuse: Major Findings from the National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Herman, Jack

    This multiple-site study assessed 48 prevention programs for high-risk youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, identifying program characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes. Data analysis indicated that substance abuse programs reduced rates of substance use, and the positive effects of program…

  12. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost-) effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost-) effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost-) effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list) care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended measure for the intervention

  13. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction following a selective, personality-targeted intervention programme: the Co-Venture trial.

    PubMed

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mâsse, Benoit; Pihl, Robert O; Stewart, Sherry H; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-10-01

    Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention programme on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (3826 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools. Public/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada). All grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (40-45% youth). Self-reported substance use and mental health symptoms and cognitive functioning measured annually throughout 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4 years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2 years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions; namely, the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically. This longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents' substance use and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bortes, Cristian; Geidne, Susanna; Eriksson, Charli

    2016-06-22

    In 2013, around 40 % of the schools in Sweden had structured programs to prevent tobacco and alcohol debut in compulsory school. There has unfortunately been a lack of scientific evidence to support most of the prevention methods focusing on primary prevention in schools in Sweden. The aim and purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Non-Governmental Organization SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of youth substance use and other problem behaviors amongst Swedish adolescents. Students from five schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were surveyed in three waves from 7(th) to 9(th) grade of compulsory school. We used General Linear Model (GLM) repeated-measures ANOVA to test if the outcome measures smoking, use of snus and alcohol, drunkenness, delinquency, and bullying significantly changed different amounts over time in groups that had participated in the SMART program for long time, a short time, sporadically- or not at all. Groups were compared on demographic background variables, and outcome measures were assessed on all measurement occasions by a one-way ANOVA. The magnitude of group differences at the end of the study was estimated according to Cohen's d. Number of years with a contract has an effect on the levels of self-reported youth problems in 9(th) grade. We found small to medium-sized differences in measured outcomes between students who participated in the program for the longest period of time, 5 years, and who participated for the shortest time, 0-2 years. Findings suggests that the SMART program has preventive effects on adolescent substance use.

  15. An implementation-focused process evaluation of an incentive intervention effectiveness trial in substance use disorders clinics at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Hildi J; Stetler, Cheryl B; Bangerter, Ann; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kivlahan, Daniel

    2014-07-09

    One of the pressing concerns in health care today is the slow rate at which promising interventions, supported by research evidence, move into clinical practice. One potential way to speed this process is to conduct hybrid studies that simultaneously combine the collection of effectiveness and implementation relevant data. This paper presents implementation relevant data collected during a randomized effectiveness trial of an abstinence incentive intervention conducted in substance use disorders treatment clinics at two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers. Participants included patients entering substance use disorders treatment with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and/or stimulant dependence that enrolled in the randomized trial, were assigned to the intervention arm, and completed a post intervention survey (n = 147). All staff and leadership from the participating clinics were eligible to participate. A descriptive process evaluation was used, focused on participant perceptions and contextual/feasibility issues. Data collection was guided by the RE-AIM and PARIHS implementation frameworks. Data collection methods included chart review, intervention cost tracking, patient and staff surveys, and qualitative interviews with staff and administrators. Results indicated that patients, staff and administrators held generally positive attitudes toward the incentive intervention. However, staff and administrators identified substantial barriers to routine implementation. Despite the documented low cost and modest staff time required for implementation of the intervention, securing funding for the incentives and freeing up any staff time for intervention administration were identified as primary barriers. Recommendations to facilitate implementation are presented. Recommendations include: 1) solicit explicit support from the highest levels of the organization through, for example, performance measures or clinical practice guideline recommendations; 2

  16. Processes for Risk Evaluation and Chemical Prioritization for Risk Evaluation under the Amended Toxic Substances Control Act; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunities for Public Comment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice provides information for two public meetings to obtain input into the Agency’s development of processes for risk evaluation and chemical prioritization for risk evaluation under amended TSCA.

  17. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼103 Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10-2 Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  18. Evaluation of high-resolution gamma-ray methods for determination of solid plutonium holdup in high-throughput bulk-processing equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, P.A.; Siebelist, R.; Painter, J.A. ); Gilmer, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The first field testing of high-resolution gamma-ray methods and current hardware and software technologies applied to measurements of solid plutonium holdup in high-throughput bulk-processing equipment has shown promising results. The gamma-ray assays agree reasonably with the quantities recovered from the cleanout of a continuous-feed rotary calciner. The limitations on these measurements are primarily the uncertainties in the equipment attenuation factors. Approaches to reduce these uncertainties and to correct for effects of deposit self-attenuation are discussed. The criteria for success in measurements of this type are reviewed, and the impact of anticipated holdup on the recommended startup procedures for new facilities is addressed. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of Carbon Interstitial in C-ion Implanted ZnO Bulk Single Crystals by a Nuclear Reaction Analysis Study: An Origin of Low Resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Izawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2011-12-23

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) of carbon-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals (carbon concentration: 1.5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), in conjunction with the channeling technique, using the {sup 12}C(d,p){sup 13}C and {sup 16}O(d,p){sup 17}O reactions shows the presence of the interstitial carbon (C{sub i}) and the occupancy of substitute sites of oxygen atoms. These results suggest that the variation in resistivity from the order of 10{sup 4} {Omega}cm(for un-implanted samples) to that of 10 {Omega}cm (for as-implanted ones) is attributed to the C{sub i} and/or its complex defects, which would act as a shallow donor in ZnO.

  20. Evaluating climate signal recorded in tree ring δ(13) C and δ(18) O values from bulk wood and α-cellulose for six species across four sites in the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Jennings, Katie; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Ollinger, Scott

    2017-09-22

    We evaluated the applicability of tree ring δ(13) C and δ(18) O values in bulk wood - instead of the more time and lab-consuming α-cellulose δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, for assessing climate and physiological signals across multiple sites and for six tree species along a latitudinal gradient (35°97(') N to 45°20(') N) of the northeastern United States. Wood cores (n=4 per tree) were sampled from ten trees per species. Cores were cross-dated within and across trees at each site, and for the last 30 years. Seven years, including the driest on record, were selected for this study. The δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were measured on two of the ten trees from the bulk wood and the α-cellulose. The offsets between materials in δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were assessed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the strength of the climate signal across sites. Finally the relationship between δ(13) C and δ(18) O values in bulk wood vs α-cellulose was analyzed to assess the consistency of the interpretation, in terms of CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, from both materials. We found an offset of 1.1‰ and 5.6‰ between bulk and α-cellulose for δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, respectively, consistent with offset values reported in the literature. Bulk wood showed similar or stronger correlations to climate parameters than α-cellulose for the investigated sites. In particular, temperature and vapour pressure deficit and SPEI were the most visible climate signals recorded in δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, respectively. For most of the species, there was no relationship between δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, regardless of the wood material considered. α-cellulose extraction was not necessary to detect climate signals in tree rings across the four investigated sites. Furthermore, the physiological information inferred from the dual isotope approach was similar for most of the species regardless of the material considered. This article

  1. Randomized 3-year clinical evaluation of Class I and II posterior resin restorations placed with a bulk-fill resin composite and a one-step self-etching adhesive.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the 3-year clinical durability of the flowable bulk-fill resin composite SDR in Class I and Class II restorations. Thirty-eight pairs of Class I and 62 pairs of Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female patients (mean age 52.4 years). Each patient received at least two extended Class I or Class II restorations that were as similar as possible. In all cavities, a one-step self-etching adhesive (XenoV+) was applied. One of the cavities of each pair was randomly assigned to receive the flowable bulk-fill resin composite SDR in increments up to 4 mm as needed to fill the cavity 2 mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with an ormocer-based nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, only the resin composite CeramX mono+ was placed in 2 mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then annually for 3 years. Caries risk and bruxing habits of the participants were estimated. No post-operative sensitivity was reported. At the 3-year follow-up, 196 restorations - 74 Class I and 122 Class II - were evaluated. Seven restorations failed (3.6%), 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 3 CeramX mono+ only restorations, all of which were Class II. The main reason for failure was tooth fracture, followed by resin composite fracture. The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was 1.2% for the bulkfilled restorations and 1.0% for the resin composite-only restorations (p > 0.05). For the Class II restorations, the AFR was 2.2% and 1.6%, respectively. The 4-mm bulk-fill technique showed good clinical effectiveness during the 3-year follow-up.

  2. Evaluating training of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for substance use: Reliability of the MD3 SBIRT Coding Scale.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Carlo C; Crouch, Taylor Berens; Norwood, Amber E Q; Delahanty, Janine; Welsh, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has become an empirically supported and widely implemented approach in primary and specialty care for addressing substance misuse. Accordingly, training of providers in SBIRT has increased exponentially in recent years. However, the quality and fidelity of training programs and subsequent interventions are largely unknown because of the lack of SBIRT-specific evaluation tools. The purpose of this study was to create a coding scale to assess quality and fidelity of SBIRT interactions addressing alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medication misuse. The scale was developed to evaluate performance in an SBIRT residency training program. Scale development was based on training protocol and competencies with consultation from Motivational Interviewing coding experts. Trained medical residents practiced SBIRT with standardized patients during 10- to 15-min videotaped interactions. This study included 25 tapes from the Family Medicine program coded by 3 unique coder pairs with varying levels of coding experience. Interrater reliability was assessed for overall scale components and individual items via intraclass correlation coefficients. Coder pair-specific reliability was also assessed. Interrater reliability was excellent overall for the scale components (>.85) and nearly all items. Reliability was higher for more experienced coders, though still adequate for the trained coder pair. Descriptive data demonstrated a broad range of adherence and skills. Subscale correlations supported concurrent and discriminant validity. Data provide evidence that the MD3 SBIRT Coding Scale is a psychometrically reliable coding system for evaluating SBIRT interactions and can be used to evaluate implementation skills for fidelity, training, assessment, and research. Recommendations for refinement and further testing of the measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13 on Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2013-05-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13: Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  4. Chemometric evaluation of the column classification system during the pharmaceutical analysis of lamotrigine and its related substances.

    PubMed

    Szulfer, Jarosław; Plenis, Alina; Bączek, Tomasz

    2013-08-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a column classification system developed at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven applied to pharmaceutical chromatographic analyses. The liquid chromatography assay of lamotrigine and related compounds was carried out according to the method prescribed in the European Pharmacopoeia monograph, using 28 brands of stationary phases. A ranking was built based on the F KUL value calculated against the selected reference column, then compared with the column test performance established for the stationary phases studied. Therefore, the system suitability test prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia in order to distinguish between suitable or unsuitable columns for this analysis was evaluated. Moreover, it was examined whether the classes of the stationary phases, determined using test parameter results, contain either suitable or unsuitable supports for the lamotrigine separation. This assay was performed using chemometric a technique, namely factor analysis.

  5. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students'…

  6. What Works for Preventing and Stopping Substance Use in Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade-long decline in substance use among adolescents, research tells that about 80 percent of teens have begun to drink alcohol and 50 percent have used an illegal drug by their senior year in high school. Substance use among teens is related to poorer outcomes for adolescents and youth (e.g., unintentional injuries, homicides and…

  7. What Works for Preventing and Stopping Substance Use in Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade-long decline in substance use among adolescents, research tells that about 80 percent of teens have begun to drink alcohol and 50 percent have used an illegal drug by their senior year in high school. Substance use among teens is related to poorer outcomes for adolescents and youth (e.g., unintentional injuries, homicides and…

  8. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK)

    PubMed Central

    Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, Mc

  9. Physicochemical characterization of complex drug substances: evaluation of structural similarities and differences of protamine sulfate from various sources.

    PubMed

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Keire, David; Lee, Sau; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence; Habib, Muhammad J; Khan, Mansoor A; Shah, Rakhi B

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and evaluate differences of protamine sulfate, a highly basic peptide drug, obtained from five different sources, using orthogonal thermal and spectroscopic analytical methods. Thermogravimetric analysis and modulated differential scanning calorimetry showed that all five protamine sulfate samples had different moisture contents and glass transition and melting temperatures when temperature was modulated from 25 to 270°C. Protamine sulfate from source III had the highest residual moisture content (4.7 ± 0.2%) at 105°C, resulting in the lowest glass transition (109.7°C) and melting (184.2°C) temperatures compared with the other four sources. By Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the five sources of protamine sulfate had indistinguishable spectra, and the spectra were consistent with a predominantly random coil conformation in solution and a minor population in a β-sheet conformation (~12%). Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry confirmed the FTIR results with prominent minima at 206 nm observed for all five sources. Finally, proton ((1)H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that all five protamine sulfate sources had identical spectra with backbone amide chemical shifts between 8.20 and 8.80 ppm, consistent with proteins with predominantly random coil conformation. In conclusion, thermal analyses showed differences in the thermal behavior of the five sources of protamine sulfate, while spectroscopic analyses showed the samples had a predominantly random coil conformation with a small amount of β-sheet present.

  10. Complementarity of in vitro and in vivo models for the evaluation of gastro-protective effects of pharmacological substances.

    PubMed

    Goineau, Sonia; Castagné, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Gastric mucosa is frequently exposed to various gastric irritants, and there is a continuing requirement to develop new gastro-protective agents. This study compares the effects of three such agents, sucralfate, rebamipide, and cimetidine in both in vivo and in vitro indomethacin-induced gastric damage models. For the in vivo approach, rats were orally administered sucralfate, rebamipide, and cimetidine at 300 mg/kg before an acute dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg). Gastric lesions were then macroscopically examined. For the in vitro approach, gastric mucosal cells were incubated with sucralfate (3 and 5 mg/mL), rebamipide (0.3 and 1 mm), and cimetidine (10 and 50 μg/mL) before exposure to indomethacin (3.8 mm). The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial function were then measured. Sucralfate, rebamipide, and cimetidine displayed gastro-protective effects in vivo (decreased number of gastric ulcers: -50% P < 0.05, -22% NS, and -69% P < 0.05, respectively, and reduced length of gastric lesions: -62% P < 0.05, -29% NS, and -70% P < 0.001, respectively). Cell damage induced by indomethacin in vitro was inhibited by sucralfate (LDH release) and by rebamipide and cimetidine (mitochondrial function and LDH release). In contrast, sucralfate accentuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in mitochondrial function. Although cultured gastric cells offer a promising tool for evaluating the cytotoxic or protective effects of test compounds, data from in vivo models are still needed to confirm in vitro data. Using both approaches provides more comprehensive insight into the effects of test compounds on the gastric mucosa. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Evaluating the correlation between liquid fragility and glass-forming ability in the extremely strong Ce-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-09-01

    This investigation focuses on liquid fragility (m) and its correlation with glass-forming ability (GFA) of Ce-Ga-Cu, Ce-Al-Cu-Ni and newly developed Ce-Ga-Cu-Ni bulk metallic glass (BMG) systems. The present Ce-based BMGs belong to the extremely strong glass-forming system, whose fragility m values lie in a strong liquid range of 18-33. The quantitative correlation between m and GFA in the present Ce-based BMGs cannot be described well by previous criteria proposed by Senkov [Phys. Rev. B 76, 104202 (2007)], Wang [Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261913 (2012)], and Johnson [Nat. Commun. 7, 10313 (2016)]. By considering both the stability of the liquid phase and the stability of the competing crystalline phases, it is found that the stability of the competing crystalline phases plays a dominant role in the determination of GFA of strong Ce-based BMGs. And, the influence of reduced glass transition temperature (Trg) on GFA would be submerged by that of fragility m when m is below ˜30. The results help in further understanding the underlying correlation between fragility and GFA in metallic glasses, especially for the strong glass-forming liquids.

  12. [Rapid screening and quality evaluation for the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection using LC-MS/MS method].

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing-ce; He, Jing-jing; Bai, Jin-fa; Zheng, Ya-jie; Zhang, Rui-ping; Li, Tie-gang; Wang, Zhong-hua; He, Jiu-ming; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-11-01

    To screen the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection which are commonly used, and to preliminarily evaluate the quality of these injections, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was taken as an index. The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in 56 samples which consist of 23 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and glucose injection were determined using LC-MS/MS, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was detected in 52 of these samples. The minimal content was 0.0038 microg x L(-1) and the maximum content was 1420 microg x mL(-1). The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural were significantly different in traditional Chinese medicine injection which came from different kinds, manufacturers or batches. The results showed the quality difference of commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection is significant taking 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content as assessment index. More attention should be paid to the safety of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injection, and unified limitation standard should be set to improve medication safety of traditional Chinese medicine injection.

  13. 'Human-on-a-chip' developments: a translational cutting-edge alternative to systemic safety assessment and efficiency evaluation of substances in laboratory animals and man?

    PubMed

    Marx, Uwe; Walles, Heike; Hoffmann, Silke; Lindner, Gerd; Horland, Reyk; Sonntag, Frank; Klotzbach, Udo; Sakharov, Dmitry; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Lauster, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Various factors, including the phylogenetic distance between laboratory animals and humans, the discrepancy between current in vitro systems and the human body, and the restrictions of in silico modelling, have generated the need for new solutions to the ever-increasing worldwide dilemma of substance testing. This review provides a historical sketch on the accentuation of this dilemma, and highlights fundamental limitations to the countermeasures taken so far. It describes the potential of recently-introduced microsystems to emulate human organs in 'organ-on-a-chip' devices. Finally, it focuses on an in-depth analysis of the first devices that aimed to mimic human systemic organ interactions in 'human-on-a-chip' systems. Their potential to replace acute systemic toxicity testing in animals, and their inability to provide alternatives to repeated dose long-term testing, are discussed. Inspired by the latest discoveries in human biology, tissue engineering and micro-systems technology, this review proposes a paradigm shift to overcome the apparent challenges. A roadmap is outlined to create a new homeostatic level of biology in 'human-on-a-chip' systems in order to, in the long run, replace systemic repeated dose safety evaluation and disease modelling in animals.

  14. Perceptions of behavioral health care among veterans with substance use disorders: results from a national evaluation of mental health services in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Bui, Leena; Harris, Alex H S; Hepner, Kimberly A; Kivlahan, Daniel R

    2014-08-01

    Understanding patients' perceptions of care is essential for health care systems. We examined predictors of perceptions of behavioral health care (satisfaction with care, helpfulness of care, and perceived improvement) among veterans with substance use disorders (SUD; n = 1,581) who participated in a phone survey as part of a national evaluation of mental health services in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration. In multivariate analyses, SUD specialty care utilization and higher mental health functioning were associated positively with all perceptions of care, and comorbid schizophrenia, bipolar, and PTSD were associated positively with multiple perceptions of care. Perceived helpfulness of care was associated with receipt of SUD specialty care in the prior 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.77, p<.001). Controlling for patient characteristics, satisfaction with care exhibited strong associations with perceptions of staff as supportive and empathic, whereas perceived improvement was strongly linked to the perception that staff helped patients develop goals beyond symptom management. Survey responses that account for variation in SUD patients' perceptions of care could inform and guide quality improvement efforts with this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. An implementation-focused process evaluation of an incentive intervention effectiveness trial in substance use disorders clinics at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the pressing concerns in health care today is the slow rate at which promising interventions, supported by research evidence, move into clinical practice. One potential way to speed this process is to conduct hybrid studies that simultaneously combine the collection of effectiveness and implementation relevant data. This paper presents implementation relevant data collected during a randomized effectiveness trial of an abstinence incentive intervention conducted in substance use disorders treatment clinics at two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers. Methods Participants included patients entering substance use disorders treatment with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and/or stimulant dependence that enrolled in the randomized trial, were assigned to the intervention arm, and completed a post intervention survey (n = 147). All staff and leadership from the participating clinics were eligible to participate. A descriptive process evaluation was used, focused on participant perceptions and contextual/feasibility issues. Data collection was guided by the RE-AIM and PARIHS implementation frameworks. Data collection methods included chart review, intervention cost tracking, patient and staff surveys, and qualitative interviews with staff and administrators. Results Results indicated that patients, staff and administrators held generally positive attitudes toward the incentive intervention. However, staff and administrators identified substantial barriers to routine implementation. Despite the documented low cost and modest staff time required for implementation of the intervention, securing funding for the incentives and freeing up any staff time for intervention administration were identified as primary barriers. Conclusions Recommendations to facilitate implementation are presented. Recommendations include: 1) solicit explicit support from the highest levels of the organization through, for example, performance measures or clinical

  16. Er:YAG laser radiation: contact versus non-contact enamel ablation and sonic-activated bulk composite placement: microleakage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, T.; Jelinkova, H.; Kasparova, M.; Ginzelova, K.; Feberova, J.; Sulc, J.; Nemec, M.; Fibrich, M.; Bradna, P.

    2015-02-01

    Our study aims to analyze the bond after the Er:YAG laser-radiation-prepared cavity was filled with a new kind of bulk-filled composite material. The laser radiation acted in a contact and non-contact mode. The setting for contact ablation was as follows: energy 250 mJ/pulse with a pulse repetition rate 15 Hz, giving an average power of 3.75 W. For non-contact ablation these values were 600 mJ/pulse, 6 Hz, and 3.6 W. Scanning ablation was provided in non-contact mode (1440 pulses/cavity) and the parameters were: energy 300 mJ/pulse, repetition rate 1 Hz, and mean power 0.3 W. Three types of laser cavities were filled with sonic activated composite resin. Four longitudinal sections were prepared after immersion in 5% methylene blue for 24 h. Microleakage was assessed quantitatively by the degree of dye penetration; the data were analyzed by the Fisher exact test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Contact and non-contact laser treatments prepared similar cavities (5167.31 versus 5356.31 µm). Defocusing of non-contact therapy has a direct influence on the presence of dye penetration microleakage (481.19 versus 611.94 µm). The non-contact scan is a more effective method for laser ablation (8508.05 µm). For that reason the dye penetration (microleakage) is higher (1458.65 µm). These results are statistically significant.

  17. Bulk modification of PDMS microchips by an amphiphilic copolymer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A simple and rapid bulk-modification method based on adding an amphiphilic copolymer during the fabrication process was employed to modify PDMS microchips. Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) was used as the additive substance. Compared to the native PDMS microchips, both the contact angle and the EOF of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips decreased. The effects of the additive loading and the pH on the EOF were investigated in detail. The bulk-modified PDMS microchips exhibited reproducible and stable EOF behavior. The application of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips was also studied and the results indicated that they could be successfully used to separate amino acids and to suppress protein adsorption.

  18. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  19. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  20. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  1. Bulk amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work was to develop the competency for the synthesis of novel bulk amorphous alloys. The authors researched their synthesis methods and alloy properties, including thermal stability, mechanical, and transport properties. The project also addressed the development of vanadium-spinel alloys for structural applications in hostile environments, the measurement of elastic constants and thermal expansion in single-crystal TiAl from 300 to 750 K, the measurement of elastic constants in gallium nitride, and a study of the shock-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi alloys.

  2. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  3. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  4. Bulk Site Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barich, J.J. III; Jones, R.R. Sr.

    1996-12-31

    The selection, manufacture and use of Bulk Site Reference Materials (BSRMs) at hazardous waste sites is discussed. BSRMs are useful in preparing stabilization/solidification (S/S) formulations for soils, ranking competing S/S processes, comparing S/S alternatives to other technologies, and in interpreting data from different test types. BSRMs are large volume samples that are representative of the physical and chemical characteristics of a site soil, and that contain contaminants at reasonably high levels. A successful BSRM is extremely homogeneous and well-characterized. While not representative of any point on the site, they contain the contaminants of the site in the matrices of the site. Design objectives for a BSRM are to produce a material that (1) maintains good fidelity to site matrices and contaminants, and (2) exhibits the lowest possible relative standard deviation.

  5. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  6. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  7. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice that accumulates around and on top of tanks influence heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpensive an...

  8. Comparative evaluation of the microtensile bond strength of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sonali; Kumar, Pragya; Kumar, Avnish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum. Materials and Methods: Standardized conservative box-shaped Class II cavities were prepared on sixty sound-impacted human third molars. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (n = 30) - horizontal incremental technique and Group II (n = 30) - bulk fill technique (SonicFill). They were further subdivided into three subgroups of (n = 10) samples each according to the different occluso-gingival height: subgroup (A - 4 mm, B - 5 mm, and C - 6 mm). The gingival margins for all the samples were located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The restored samples were subjected to thermocycling (500 cycles) followed by μTBS testing. The scores were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc test using SPSS software version 16. Results: Subgroups IA and IB showed lower μTBS than subgroups IIA and IIB (P < 0.05) whereas subgroup IC showed higher μTBS than subgroup IIC (P < 0.05). SonicFill showed a significant reduction in μTBS as the depth increased. Conclusion: SonicFill should be used in two increments for cavities with a depth of more than 5 mm. PMID:27994314

  9. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  10. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    PubMed

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  11. Evaluation of Yoga for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Risk Factors in a Middle School Setting: A Preliminary Group-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; LoRusso, Amanda; Shin, Sunny H; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a key developmental period for preventing substance use initiation, however prevention programs solely providing educational information about the dangers of substance use rarely change adolescent substance use behaviors. Recent research suggests that mind-body practices such as yoga may have beneficial effects on several substance use risk factors, and that these practices may serve as promising interventions for preventing adolescent substance use. The primary aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of yoga for reducing substance use risk factors during early adolescence. Seventh-grade students in a public school were randomly assigned by classroom to receive either a 32-session yoga intervention (n = 117) in place of their regular physical education classes or to continue with physical-education-as-usual (n = 94). Participants (63.2 % female; 53.6 % White) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires assessing emotional self-regulation, perceived stress, mood impairment, impulsivity, substance use willingness, and actual substance use. Participants also completed questionnaires at 6-months and 1-year post-intervention. Results revealed that participants in the control condition were significantly more willing to try smoking cigarettes immediately post-intervention than participants in the yoga condition. Immediate pre- to post-intervention differences did not emerge for the remaining outcomes. However, long-term follow-up analyses revealed a pattern of delayed effects in which females in the yoga condition, and males in the control condition, demonstrated improvements in emotional self-control. The findings suggest that school-based yoga may have beneficial effects with regard to preventing males' and females' willingness to smoke cigarettes, as well as improving emotional self-control in females. However additional research is required, particularly with regard to the potential long-term effects of mind-body interventions

  12. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  13. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  14. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  15. Adjustment of urinary concentration to urinary volume in relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations: an evaluation of urinary heavy metals and organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Aono, H.; Murata, K.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of urinary volume on adjusted and nonadjusted urinary excretion of 11 heavy metals and organic substances were examined in relation to plasma and erythrocyte concentrations in 19 metal workers under conditions of water restriction and loading. Blood lead concentrations in these workers ranged from 25 to 59 micrograms/dl. The results indicated that: urinary volume significantly affects not only nonadjusted urinary concentration for all substances, but also affects timed excretion and concentrations adjusted to urinary specific gravity and to urinary creatinine for most substances; the concentration adjusted to urinary volume is, on the other hand, independent of urinary volume; and urinary excretion of lead and mercury is related more closely to erythrocyte concentration than to plasma concentration. This last finding reflects complex renal excretory mechanisms for these heavy metals.

  16. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    DOEpatents

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  17. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal partners. Substances, particularly chemicals, can have many valid synonyms. For example, toluene, methyl benzene, and phenyl methane, are commonly used names for the same chemical. EPA programs collect environmental data for this chemical using each of these names, plus others. This diversity leads to problems when a user is looking for programmatic data for toluene but is unaware that the data is stored under the synonym methyl benzene. For each substance, the SRS identifies the statutes, EPA programs, as well as organization external to EPA, that track or regulate that substance and the synonym used by that statute, EPA program or external organization. Besides standardized information for each chemical, such as the Chemical Abstracts Services name and the Chemical Abstracts Number and the EPA Registry Name (the EPA standard name), the SRS also includes additional information, such as molecular weight and molecular formula. Additionally, an SRS Internal Tracking Number uniquely identifies each substance, enabling cross-walking between synonyms. EPA is providing a large .ZIP file providing the SRS data in CSV format, and a separate small metadata file in XML containing the field names and definitions.

  18. Evaluation of double-moment representation of ice hydrometeors in bulk microphysical parameterization: comparison between WRF numerical simulations and UND-Citation data during MC3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Lin, Chao

    2015-12-01

    The influence of double-moment representation of warm-rain and ice hydrometeors on the numerical simulations of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) over the US Southern Great Plains has been evaluated. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the MCS with three different microphysical schemes, including the WRF single-moment 6-class (WSM6), WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6), and Morrison double-moment (MORR) schemes. It is found that the double-moment schemes outperform the single-moment schemes in terms of the simulated structure, life cycle, cloud coverage, precipitation, and microphysical properties of the MCS. However, compared with UND-Citation observations, collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), the WRF simulated ice hydrometeors with all three schemes do not agree well with the observations. Overall results from this study suggest that uncertainty in microphysical schemes could still be a productive area of future research from perspective of both model improvements and observations.

  19. Phobos: Observed bulk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Martin; Andert, Tom; Jacobson, Robert; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Dehant, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    This work is a review of the mass determinations of the Mars moon Phobos by spacecraft close flybys, by solving for the Martian gravity field and by the analysis of secular orbit perturbations. The absolute value and accuracy is sensitive on the knowledge and accuracy of the Phobos ephemeris, of the spacecraft orbit, other perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the resolution of the Martian gravity field besides the measurement accuracy of the radio tracking data. The mass value and its error improved from spacecraft mission to mission or from the modern analysis of “old” tracking data but these solutions depend on the accuracy of the ephemeris at the time of observation. The mass value seems to settle within the range of GMPh=(7.11±0.09)×10-4 km3 s-2 which covers almost all mass values from close flybys and “distant” encounters within its 3-σ error (1.5%). Using the volume value determined from MEX HRSC imaging, the bulk density is (1873±31) kg m-3 (3-σ error or 1.7%), a low value which suggests that Phobos is either highly porous, is composed partially of light material or both. The determination of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22 from the Mars Express 2010 close flyby does not allow to draw conclusion on the internal structure. The large errors do not distinguish whether Phobos is homogeneous or not. In view of theories of the Phobos' origin, one possibility is that Phobos is not a captured asteroid but accreted from a debris disk in Mars orbit as a second generation solar system object.

  20. Effectiveness of Culturally Specific Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention: Findings from CSAP's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High Risk Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Winter, William; Sambrano, Soledad; Chipungu, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the degree to which culturally specific interventions enhance substance abuse prevention effectiveness for targeted cultural groups. A large and diverse (African American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian) sample of 10,500 youth across 48 programs was obtained. Youth participating in culturally specific programming showed…

  1. Diagnostic Efficiency of DSM-IV Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder: An Evaluation in Hispanic Men and Women with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Becker, Daniel F.; Anez, Luis Miguel; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined diagnostic efficiency of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). One hundred thirty monolingual Hispanic adults (90 men, 40 women) at an outpatient psychiatric and substance abuse clinic were assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of…

  2. Depression outcome in alcohol dependent patients: an evaluation of the role of independent and substance-induced depression and other predictors.

    PubMed

    Foulds, James A; Douglas Sellman, J; Adamson, Simon J; Boden, Joseph M; Mulder, Roger T; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-03-15

    Depression commonly co-occurs with alcohol use disorders but predictors of depression treatment outcome in patients with both conditions are not well established. Outpatients with alcohol dependence and major depression (n=138) were prescribed naltrexone and randomized to citalopram or placebo for 12 weeks, followed by a 12-week naturalistic outcome phase. General linear mixed models examined predictors of Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score over 24 weeks. Predictors included whether depression was independent or substance-induced, and demographic, alcohol use, and personality variables (Temperament and Character Inventory subscales). Most improvement in drinking and depression occurred between baseline and week 3. During follow-up, patients with substance-induced depression reduced their drinking more and they had better depression outcomes than those with independent depression. However, greater reduction in drinking was associated with better depression outcomes for both independent and substance-induced groups, while antidepressant therapy had no effect for either group. Baseline demographic and alcohol use variables did not predict depression outcomes. Among personality variables, high self-directedness was a strong predictor of better depression outcomes. Subjects were not abstinent at baseline. The influence of naltrexone on depression outcomes could not be tested. Alcohol dependent patients with substance-induced depression have better short term depression outcomes than those with independent depression, but this is largely because they reduce their drinking more during treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic Efficiency of DSM-IV Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder: An Evaluation in Hispanic Men and Women with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Becker, Daniel F.; Anez, Luis Miguel; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined diagnostic efficiency of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). One hundred thirty monolingual Hispanic adults (90 men, 40 women) at an outpatient psychiatric and substance abuse clinic were assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of…

  4. Toxicogenomics in vitro as an alternative tool for safety evaluation of petroleum substances and PAHs with regard to prenatal developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsitou, Polyxeni; Heneweer, Marjoke; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The REACH legislation requires chemicals - including petroleum substances - that are put on the EU market in quantities greater than 1000 tonnes/year, to be tested for prenatal developmental toxicity. This will require large numbers of animals since prenatal development toxicity testing is animal-intensive. The application of toxicogenomic technologies might reduce the number of animals to study prenatal developmental toxicity of petroleum substances by allowing their grouping into categories with the same toxicological properties. This substance categorization may be supported by similarities in molecular fingerprints. The developmental toxicity effects observed in some oil products are most likely related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with high-molecular weight. However, the current review indicates that even though the available studies provide clues regarding the HOX, FOX, SHH and PAX family genes, which regulate functions in skeleton development, single individual genes cannot be used as biomarkers of PAHs exposure and subsequent prenatal developmental toxicity. Furthermore, it should be considered that toxicogenomic technologies applied to specific tissues/organs testing might lead to unreliable results regarding developmental toxicity due to induction of tissue-specific pathways. Thus, an approach which applies a battery of in vitro tests including the zebrafish embryo test, embryonic stem cells, and the whole embryo culture is suggested as it would be more relevant for studying developmental effects in the terms of substances categorization.

  5. Bulk production and evaluation of high specific activity (186g)Re for cancer therapy using enriched (186)WO3 targets in a proton beam.

    PubMed

    Mastren, Tara; Radchenko, Valery; Bach, Hong T; Balkin, Ethan R; Birnbaum, Eva R; Brugh, Mark; Engle, Jonathan W; Gott, Matthew D; Guthrie, James; Hennkens, Heather M; John, Kevin D; Ketring, Alan R; Kuchuk, Marina; Maassen, Joel R; Naranjo, Cleo M; Nortier, F Meiring; Phelps, Tim E; Jurisson, Silvia S; Wilbur, D Scott; Fassbender, Michael E

    2017-06-01

    Rhenium-186g (t1/2 = 3.72 d) is a β(-) emitting isotope suitable for theranostic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production by way of the reaction (185)Re(n,γ)(186g)Re, which results in low specific activities limiting its use for cancer therapy. Production via charged particle activation of enriched (186)W results in a (186g)Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used more broadly for targeted radiotherapy applications. This targets the unmet clinical need for more efficient radiotherapeutics. A target consisting of highly enriched, pressed (186)WO3 was irradiated with protons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Isotope Production Facility (LANL-IPF) to evaluate (186g)Re product yield and quality. LANL-IPF was operated in a dedicated nominal 40 MeV mode. Alkaline dissolution followed by anion exchange chromatography was used to isolate (186g)Re from the target material. Phantom and radiolabeling studies were conducted with the produced (186g)Re activity. A (186g)Re batch yield of 1.38 ± 0.09 MBq/μAh or 384.9 ± 27.3 MBq/C was obtained after 16.5 h in a 205 μA average/230μA maximum current proton beam. The chemical recovery yield was 93% and radiolabeling was achieved with efficiencies ranging from 60-80%. True specific activity of (186g)Re at EOB was determined via ICP-AES and amounted to 0.788 ± 0.089 GBq/μg (0.146 ± 0.017 GBq/nmol), which is approximately seven times higher than the product obtained from neutron capture in a reactor. Phantom studies show similar imaging quality to the gold standard (99m)Tc. We report a preliminary study of the large-scale production and novel anion exchange based chemical recovery of high specific activity (186g)Re from enriched (186)WO3 targets in a high-intensity proton beam with exceptional chemical recovery and radiochemical purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  7. 78 FR 12103 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Alltech Associates... application to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  8. 77 FR 43862 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Nektar Therapeutics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Nektar Therapeutics... letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  9. 78 FR 12102 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Sigma Aldrich... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following classes of controlled...

  10. 78 FR 53480 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Euticals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Euticals, Inc... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  11. 77 FR 43864 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic...

  12. 77 FR 64144 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Chemica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... manufacture of Benzphetamine, a schedule III non-narcotic controlled substance. The methamphetamine will not...

  13. 78 FR 69133 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Johnson Matthey, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine (1100) II Methylphenidate (1724) II Codeine (9050) II Oxycodone (9143...

  14. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL...PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0074 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Lisa M...Board, Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2011-pres. Editorial Board, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2014-pres

  15. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    W81XWH1020074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lisa Najavits, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...1 August 2011 – 31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10...months as we then dropped Fort Jackson as a site due 6 to a change in our site PI’s role there (no longer having oversight of the substance abuse

  16. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Methamphetamines. www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/methamphetamine/ ...

  17. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research report series: Hallucinogens and dissociative drugs. Updated ...

  18. Substance Abuse Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following substances have you ever used? (NON-MEDICAL USE ONLY) Tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants, inhalants, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens, opioids, and ¿ ...

  19. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  20. [International comparison of sensitizing chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoe; Oyma, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Narai, Rie; Kanaoka, Maki; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-09-01

    Some occupational and environmental chemicals cause allergic diseases. To prevent chemical allergies, it is essential to identify the chemical substances that cause sensitization and to eliminate such sensitizers from daily life. As an occupational countermeasure, information for evaluating sensitization of chemical substances is needed. The aims of this article are to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to make out a list of these chemical substances. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSHO), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) and Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy were studied. There are 1,389 chemical substances which are designated as sensitizers by any of the laws and five organizations. We specify each chemical substance in the list.

  1. Consequences of prenatal substance use.

    PubMed

    Sithisarn, Thitinart; Granger, Don T; Bada, Henrietta S

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a major public health problem and a social morbidity, with consequences on the drug user and the offspring. This review focuses on the child and adolescent outcomes following in utero drug exposure. Studies on the effects of specific substances, legal and illegal; i.e., tobacco or nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine were evaluated and analyzed. In general, manifestations of prenatal exposure to legal and illegal substances include varying deficits in birth anthropometric measurements, mild-to-moderate transient neurobehavioral alterations in infancy and long-term behavioral problems noted from early childhood to adolescence. Severity of expression of behavioral problems is influenced by environmental factors. Further, behavioral alterations following in utero drug exposure often exist with mental health co-morbidities. Because of the long-term consequences of prenatal drug exposure on child and adolescent mental health, health providers need to promote substance use prevention, screen for exposure effects and provide or refer affected youths for intervention services. Preventive measures and treatment should consider other factors that may further increase the risk of psychopathology in the exposed children.

  2. Chemical substances and contact allergy--244 substances ranked according to allergenic potency.

    PubMed

    Schlede, E; Aberer, W; Fuchs, T; Gerner, I; Lessmann, H; Maurer, T; Rossbacher, R; Stropp, G; Wagner, E; Kayser, D

    2003-12-01

    From 1985 to 2001 a group consisting of thirty experts including dermatologists from universities, representatives from the chemical industry and from regulatory authorities elaborated and consequently decided on the potency ranking of chemicals with contact allergenic properties. These chemicals were defined either as synthetic chemicals or as chemicals identified as ingredients in natural products. On 244 substances clinical and experimental data on humans and results of animal tests as documented in the scientific literature were carefully collected and evaluated. This careful evaluation and assessment of these chemicals clearly demonstrate that ranking of substances according to their allergenic potency is possible and justified. It was decided to rank the most potent contact allergens in Category A of substances having significant allergenic properties. Substances with a solid-based indication of a contact allergenic potential and substances with the capacity of cross-reactions were listed in Category B and substances with insignificant or questionable allergenic effects were listed in Category C. An assessment of these compiled data is published here. Three Appendices give a comprehensive overview of the 98 substances listed in Category A, the 77 substances listed in Category B and the 69 substances listed in Category C.

  3. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of terrestrial humic substances and their size fractions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, A; Spiteller, M

    2003-11-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to evaluate the average molecular mass of terrestrial humic substances, such as humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids from a soil, and humic acid from a lignite (NDL). Their ESI mass spectra, by direct infusion, gave average molecular masses comparable to those previously obtained for aquatic humic materials. The soil HA and FA were further separated in size-fractions by preparative high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and analyzed with ESI-MS by both direct infusion and a further on-line analytical HPSEC. Unexpectedly, their average molecular mass was only slightly less than for the bulk sample and, despite different nominal molecular size, did not substantially vary among size-fractions. The values increased significantly (up to around 1200 Da) after on-line analytical HPSEC for the HA bulk sample, at both pH 8 and 4, and for the HA size-fractions when pH was reduced from 8 to 4. It was noticed that HA size-fractions at pH 8 were separated by on-line HPSEC in further peaks showing average masses which progressively increased with elution volume. Furthermore, when the HA and NDL bulk samples were sequentially ultracentrifuged at increasing rotational speed, their supernatants showed mass values which were larger than bulk samples and increased with rotational speed. These variations in mass values indicate that the electrospray ionization is dependent on the composition of the humic molecular mixtures and increases when their heterogeneity is progressively reduced. It is suggested that the dominance of hydrophobic compounds in humic supramolecular associations may inhibit the electrospray ionization of hydrophilic components. Our results show that ESI-MS is reasonably applicable to humic substances only after an extensive reduction of their chemical complexity.

  4. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  5. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  6. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  7. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  8. Bulk Charging of Dielectrics in Cryogenic Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.; Blackwell, W. C., Jr.; Parker, L. N.; Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    We use a 1-D bulk charging model to evaluate dielectric charging at cryogenic temperatures relevant to space systems using passive cooling to <100K or extended operations in permanently dark lunar craters and the lunar night.

  9. 77 FR 4833 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The company plans to acquire the listed...

  10. 75 FR 9614 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference...

  11. 75 FR 64744 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference...

  12. 76 FR 21917 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code...

  13. 75 FR 65659 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Remifentanil (9739) II Sufentanil (9740) II Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk for distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7370 the company... Representative (ODL), 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, Virginia 22152; and must be filed no later than...

  14. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Methylphenidate (1724) II Hydrocodone (9193) II The company plans to utilize this facility to manufacture small... company's primary manufacturing facility in West Deptford, New Jersey. The controlled substances manufactured in bulk at this facility will be distributed to the company's customers. Any other such applicant...

  15. 76 FR 72974 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Remifentanil (9739) II Sufentanil (9740) II The company plans to utilize this facility to manufacture small... company's primary manufacturing facility in West Deptford, New Jersey. The controlled substances manufactured in bulk at this facility will be distributed to the company's customers. Any other such applicant...

  16. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  17. 77 FR 2323 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following...

  18. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  19. 76 FR 21915 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... finished drug product in dosage form for distribution to its customers. The company does not import the listed controlled substance in bulk ] active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic sources of Nabilone in finished drug product form available in the United States. The U.S. Food and...

  20. 76 FR 3160 - Importer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... product in dosage form only for distribution to its customers. The company does not import the listed controlled substance in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic sources of Nabilone in finished drug product form available in the United States. The U.S. Food and...

  1. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of controlled... of Benzphetamine, a schedule III non-narcotic controlled substance. The methamphetamine will not be... its customers. The methamphetamine will not be sold. Any other such applicant, and any person who is...

  2. 75 FR 36683 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug... renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of... manufacture the above listed controlled substance for sale to veterinary pharmacies, zoos, and for other...

  3. 76 FR 31638 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug... renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of... manufacture the above listed controlled substance for sale to veterinary pharmacies, zoos, and for other...

  4. 75 FR 14189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... sale to dosage form manufacturers. Any other such applicant, and any person who is presently...

  5. 76 FR 62450 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of...

  6. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of ] the following...

  7. 75 FR 82073 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 249 (Wednesday, December 29, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 82073] [FR Doc No: 2010-32855] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and...

  8. 75 FR 13304 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic... commercial distribution. The company plans to manufacture Hydromorphone HCL for sale to other...

  9. 75 FR 32506 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  10. 76 FR 51400 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... ] Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Morphine (9300),...

  11. 75 FR 14190 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  12. 75 FR 14189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  13. 76 FR 44358 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  14. 75 FR 14189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Amphetamine (1100),...

  15. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes...

  16. 75 FR 75497 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to 1301.33(a... ] letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  17. 76 FR 36577 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  18. 76 FR 62450 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Cocaine (9041),...

  19. Investigating widely available substances as vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Microbicides to protect women from HIV are urgently needed. Several potential pharmaceutical microbicides are now undergoing obligatory clinical trials to check safety, acceptability and efficacy before approval for use. Microbicides may have side-effects and, paradoxically, their use may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Several widely available substances have been suggested as microbicides, including substances with a low pH such as lemon juice, vinegar, soft drinks and lactobacillus dairy products. Because of the potential for harm it is important that these substances are tested before their use is widely promoted. After small scale safety and acceptability studies, their promotion needs to be evaluated as a communication intervention.

  20. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    PubMed

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  1. Bulking agents in sludge composting

    SciTech Connect

    De Bertoldi, M.; Citernesi, U.; Griselli, M.

    1980-01-01

    Composting is one of the most effective ways of disposing of sludge in agriculture. Three bulking agents were studied: (1) the organic fraction of solid wastes, (2) solid agricultural and forestry waste (straw, maize cobs, sawdust, cork, pine cones, etc.), and (3) recyclable inert substrates (polystyrene or polyethylene balls, porous clay balls, etc.). The sole purpose of the inert bulking agent is to aid in the aeration and drying of the composting material.

  2. 78 FR 64021 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Noramco, Inc. (GA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Noramco, Inc. (GA... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Opium Tincture (9630), a basic class of... above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of...

  3. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  4. Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: role of known and unknown substances.

    PubMed

    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U; Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Severin, I; Dahbi, L; Dahlman, O; Lhuguenot, J-C; Andersson, M A; Hakulinen, P; Hoornstra, D; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Turco, L; Stammati, A; Zucco, F; Weber, A; von Wright, A

    2010-03-01

    In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone.

  5. Age of onset of substance use and psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Anju; Gautam, Sital

    2017-01-11

    Substance use is generally initiated in adolescence or early adulthood and is commonly associated with several physical, psychological, emotional and social problems. The objective of this study is to assess the age of onset of substance use differences on psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) residing in drug rehabilitation centers. A descriptive cross sectional research design was carried out. Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling technique was used to select the drug rehabilitation centers and all the respondents meeting the inclusion criteria of the selected seven rehabilitation centers were taken as a sample and comprised of 221 diagnosed individuals with SUDs. A semi structured self administered questionnaires were used to collect the information regarding demographic and substance use related characteristics. A standard tool Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R) was used to assess the psychosocial problems among individuals with SUDs. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multivariate general linear model (MANOVA and MANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences in psychosocial problems between early vs late onset substance users. The age of onset of substance use was significantly associated with psychosocial problems. The mean psychosocial problem scores were higher in early onset substance user (17 years or younger) than late onset substance user (18 years or higher) in various domains of DUSI-R even after controlling confounding factors. The two groups (early vs late) differed significantly in relation to age, gender, occupational status, current types of substance use, frequency of use, mode of substance use and relapse history. The study indicated that early onset substance users are at higher risk for psychosocial problems in various areas of life such as Behavior Pattern, Psychiatric disorder, Family system, Peer relationship, Leisure/Recreation and Work adjustment

  6. General evaluation of risk associated with the use of pesticides and other chemical substances on animal breeding and plant production farms.

    PubMed

    Pomorska, K

    1999-01-01

    A general characteristic of chemical risk on plant production farms in Poland is presented. The paper describes risk associated with the natural occurrence of chemical substances (such as ammonium and hydrogen sulfide) in the process of animal breeding and risk connected with the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides are briefly described taking into consideration toxicity classes and the toxic effect of individual compounds. Exposure to pesticides is presented for individual methods and related activities. Finally, the author discusses pesticide risk on fruit-growing farms and in greenhouses.

  7. Membrane filtration studies of aquatic humic substances and their metal species: a concise overview. Part 2. Evaluation of conditional stability constants by using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Nifant'eva, T I; Shkinev, V M; Spivakov, B Y; Burba, P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of conditional stability constants of aquatic humic substance (HS) metal complexes is overviewed with special emphasis on the application of ultrafiltration methods. Fundamentals and limitations of stability functions in the case of macromolecular and polydisperse metal-HS species in aquatic environments are critically discussed. The review summarizes the advantages and application of ultrafiltration for metal-HS complexation studies, discusses the comparibility and reliability of stability constants. The potential of ultrafiltration procedures for characterizing the lability of metal-HS species is also stressed.

  8. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  9. Evaluating Mediators of the Impact of the Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) Multimodal Preventive Intervention on Substance Use Initiation and Growth across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    DeGarmo, David S.; Eddy, J. Mark; Reid, John B.; Fetrow, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Substance use outcomes were examined for 351 youth participating in a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a school-based multimodal universal preventive intervention, Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT). Frequency of any use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs was assessed via self-report from grades 5 through 12. Latent variable growth models specified average levels, linear, and accelerated growth. The LIFT intervention had a significant effect on reducing the rate of growth in use of tobacco and illicit drugs, particularly for girls, and had an overall impact on average levels of use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Average tobacco use reductions were mediated by increases in family problem solving. The intervention obtained significant indirect effects on growth in substance use through intervention effects on reduced playground aggression and increased family problem solving. The intervention was also associated with roughly a 10% reduced risk in initiating tobacco and alcohol use. Implications for future studies of multimodal preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:19238545

  10. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  11. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Hallucinogen - LSD ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research report series: Hallucinogens and dissociative drugs. Updated ...

  12. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  13. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  14. Substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options.

  15. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  16. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  17. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  18. Schizophrenia and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Hucker, S

    1994-07-01

    Recent research from North America has demonstrated higher than expected rates of drug and alcohol abuse among the seriously mentally ill. Schizophrenics appear to be particularly susceptible to the negative effects of substance abuse. These include psychiatric and social complications, with antisocial behaviour, particularly violence emerging as one of the most worrying features. This review examines the strength of the association and explores the possible explanations for the apparent link between schizophrenia, substance abuse and violence. The literature was searched using Medline, supplemented with a manual literature search. Very few articles specifically approached the problem of violence among substance abusing schizophrenics, but over 80 papers were identified which were helpful in exploring the link between dangerous behaviour and substance abuse by schizophrenics. While there is circumstantial evidence to support the hypothesis that schizophrenics who abuse drugs or alcohol are at an increased risk of behaving violently, longitudinal studies are required to facilitate a better understanding of the mediating mechanisms.

  19. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  20. Preventive efficacy of bulk and nanocurcumin against lead-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Flora, Gagan; Gupta, Deepesh; Tiwari, Archana

    2013-04-01

    Chronic lead exposure is associated with several health disorders in humans and animals. Lead exposure leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletes body antioxidant enzymes causing damage to various macromolecules and ultimately cell death. Curcumin has been widely recognized to protect against metal toxicity but has major limitations of reduced bioavailability. Nanoencapsulation of curcumin could be an effective strategy to combat lead induced toxic manifestations. The present study investigates the protective efficacy of bulk and nanocurcumin against lead-induced toxicity. Swiss albino mice were daily exposed to lead acetate (25 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and after 1 h treated either with curcumin (15 mg/kg, orally) or nanocurcumin (15 mg/kg, orally) for two consecutive weeks. The preventive efficacy of nanocurcumin was evaluated against various altered biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress and lead accumulation in blood and soft tissues. Coadministration of nanocurcumin with lead restored the altered δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, glutathione (reduced and oxidized) levels, and also decreased reactive oxygen species, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. Nanocurcumin due to its possible chelating property and enhanced bioavailability efficiently removed lead from blood and soft tissues compared to bulk curcumin. Results demonstrate the enhanced preventive efficacy of nanocurcumin and suggest an interesting and novel approach for better treatment of lead toxicity.

  1. Looking for a bulk point

    DOE PAGES

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2017-01-03

    Here, we consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We also argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at thesemore » locations. Finally, we prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.« less

  2. Looking for a bulk point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  3. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Importers must still report 24 hours in advance of loading any containerized or non-qualifying break bulk... this chapter that a cargo declaration be filed with Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 24 hours before... Border Protection (CBP) 24 hours before such cargo is laden aboard the vessel at the foreign port,...

  4. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  5. REL - English Bulk Data Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Richard Henry

    A bulk data input processor which is available for the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) English versions is described. In REL English versions, statements that declare names of data items and their interrelationships normally are lines from a terminal or cards in a batch input stream. These statements provide a convenient means of declaring some…

  6. The parenting partnership: The evaluation of a human service/corporate workplace collaboration for the prevention of substance abuse and mental health problems, and the promotion of family and work adjustment.

    PubMed

    Felner, R D; Brand, S; Mulhall, K E; Counter, B; Millman, J B; Fried, J

    1994-12-01

    A partnership between corporate worksites, a community-based prevention agency, and families in those worksites is described. Its primary goals were the reduction of family risk and enhancement of family protective factors that predispose children and youth to substance abuse and related social and emotional difficulties. A related goal of the program is to reduce family stress levels and attitudes that may influence the parents' levels of risk for substance abuse and related disorder. The program delivery strategy is conceived of as part of the necessart efforts of prevention programs to reach target populations in host settings in which they may naturally participate, thereby reducing obstacles and barriers to participation that often impede prevention efforts. Evaluation revealed that the program was generally better able to retain parents for a fairly lengthy period, and with high rates of attendance. Program attendance was also not affected by parental background characteristics that, in other delivery approaches, are often associated with poor attendance and high drop-out levels. Results also indicated that levels of program exposure (dosage) do make a significant difference in the efficacy of such efforts as those parents in the program who participated in higher percentages and numbers of sessions (i.e. more than 80% of sessions) showed both short-term and longer-term (i.e. across 18 month follow-ups) gains in their ratings of the target child's behavior problems and strengths, substance abuse resistance related knowledge and attitudes, reduced parental stress, depression and irritability, and increased utilization of social support. By contrast, parents who received a low program exposure exhibited a more restricted set of short-term gains. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for consideration of program dosage for prevention programs, and the need to attend to the context in which programming is offered as it may facilitate or impede

  7. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  8. Substance use capital: Social resources enhancing youth substance use.

    PubMed

    Baggio, S; Mohler-Kuo, M; Dupuis, M; Henchoz, Y; Studer, J; N'Goran, A A; Gmel, G

    2016-09-01

    Social capital is described as a protective factor against youth substance use, but it may also be associated with behaviours that do not enhance health. The present study hypothesized that 'substance use capital', i.e. resources favourable to substance use, is a risk factor for substance use and misuse. We used baseline data from the ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) that included a representative sample of young Swiss men (n=5623). Substance use (alcohol, cannabis, 15 illicit drugs, lifetime use, hazardous use and dependence), substance use capital (parental and peer attitudes towards substance use, parental and peer drug use, perceived norms of substance use) and aspects of social capital (relationships with parents and peers) were assessed. Logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between substance-related resources and social resources, and substance use. Results showed that substance-related resources were associated with an increased risk of substance use (OR between 1.25 and 4.67), whereas social resources' associations with substance use were commonly protective but weaker than substance-related resources. Thus, a drug-friendly environment facilitated substance use and misuse. Moreover, the results showed that peer environments were more drug-friendly than familial environments. In conclusion, this study highlighted a concept of 'substance use capital', which may be useful for advancing both theoretical and applied knowledge of substance use. Indeed, substance use is not only associated with a lack of social resources, but also with specific drug-friendly social resources coming from environment and background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  10. A comparison between the multimedia fate and exposure models CalTOX and uniform system for evaluation of substances adapted for life-cycle assessment based on the population intake fraction of toxic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Geelen, Loes M J; Hertwich, Edgar G; McKone, Thomas E; van de Meent, Dik

    2005-02-01

    In life-cycle assessment (LCA) and comparative risk assessment, potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the population intake fraction (iF), which represents the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess the influence of model differences in the calculation of the population iF ingestion and inhalation iFs of 365 substances emitted to air, freshwater, and soil were calculated with two commonly applied multimedia fate and exposure models, CalTOX and the uniform system for evaluation of substances adapted for life-cycle assessment (USES-LCA). The model comparison showed that differences in the iFs due to model choices were the lowest after emission to air and the highest after emission to soil. Inhalation iFs were more sensitive to model differences compared to ingestion iFs. The choice for a continental seawater compartment, vertical stratification of the soil compartment, rain and no-rain scenarios, and drinking water purification mainly clarify the relevant model differences found in population iFs. Furthermore, pH correction of chemical properties and aerosol-associated deposition on plants appeared to be important for dissociative organics and metals emitted to air, respectively. Finally, it was found that quantitative structure-activity relationship estimates for superhydrophobics may introduce considerable uncertainty in the calculation of population intake fractions.

  11. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and spectroscopic properties of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.; O'Loughlin, E.

    1994-01-01

    The number- and weight-averaged molecular weights of a number of aquatic fulvic acids, a commercial humic acid, and unfractionated organic matter from four natural water samples were measured by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Molecular weights determined in this manner compared favorably with those values reported in the literature. Both recent literature values and our data indicate that these substances are smaller and less polydisperse than previously believed. Moreover, the molecular weights of the organic matter from three of the four natural water samples compared favorably to the fulvic acid samples extracted from similar environments. Bulk spectroscopic properties of the fulvic substances such as molar absorptivity at 280 nm and the E4/E6 ratio were also measured. A strong correlation was observed between molar absorptivity, total aromaticity, and the weight average molecular weights of all the humic substances. This observation suggests that bulk spectroscopic properties can be used to quickly estimate the size of humic substances and their aromatic contents. Both parameters are important with respect to understanding humic substance mobility and their propensity to react with both organic and inorganic pollutants. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  12. Piezoelectric Measurement Of Bulk Modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1992-01-01

    In method of measuring bulk modulus of elasticity of elastomeric material, piezoelectric crystals of various sizes and energized by alternating voltage embedded in material. Concept demonstrated in test cell in which piezoelectric crystal mounted either unconstrained or between two rubber pads and connected as actuator in loud-speaker. The 1-in. diameter crystal excited with 24 Vac at 60 Hz. When crystal was unconstrained, it drew current of 0.8 mA. When crystal was constrained between rubber pads, current fell to 0.65 mA. Low current, minimal heating, and absence of arcing makes technique suitable for measurement of bulk moduli of elasticity of flammable or explosive rubbery materials.

  13. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender

  14. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10-15 g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  15. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  16. TNT Equivalency of Bulk Nitrocellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    9TIN ’IN AD-E400 576 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-81007 TNT EQUIVALENCY OF BULK NITROCELLULOSE F. L. MCINTYRE COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION NSTL...September 1978 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F. L. Mc~ntyre, Computer Sciences Corporation P. Price...PROJECT. TASK Computer Sciences Corporation AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS NSTL Station, MS 39529 MMT-5784285 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12

  17. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  18. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  20. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  2. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  3. A chemical–biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6gc01147k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A.; Wright, Fred A.; Reif, David M.; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L.; Yeakley, Joanne M.; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J.; Ketelslegers, Hans B.; Rohde, Arlean M.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  4. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  5. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  6. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  7. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  8. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  9. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  10. A Study on Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçim, Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine options to increase the supportive power of parents, teachers, school administrators, and counselors who directly interact with children and adolescents and have a fundamental responsibility to protect them from the risks of substance abuse and evaluate the effectiveness of associated training programs. The study design…

  11. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  12. Analytical characterization and pharmacological evaluation of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) and differentiation between the (±)-threo and (±)-erythro diastereomers.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Gavin; Morris, Noreen; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D; Dowling, Geraldine; Twamley, Brendan; O'Brien, John; Hessman, Gary; Murphy, Brian; Walther, Donna; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H; Brandt, Simon D

    2017-03-01

    Misuse of (±)-threo-methylphenidate (methyl-2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate; Ritalin®; MPH) has long been acknowledged, but the appearance of MPH analogs in the form of 'research chemicals' has only emerged in more recent years. 4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) is one of these recent examples. This study presents the identification and analytical characterization of two powdered 4F-MPH products that were obtained from an online vendor in 2015. Interestingly, the products appeared to have originated from two distinct batches given that one product consisted of (±)-threo-4F-MPH isomers whereas the second sample consisted of a mixture of (±)-threo and (±)-erythro 4F-MPH. Monoamine transporter studies using rat brain synaptosomes revealed that the biological activity of the 4F-MPH mixture resided with the (±)-threo and not the (±)-erythro isomers based on higher potencies determined for blockage of dopamine uptake (IC50 4F-MPHmixture  = 66 nM vs. IC50 (±)-threo = 61 nM vs. IC50 (±)-erythro = 8,528 nM) and norepinephrine uptake (IC50 4F-MPHmixture  = 45 nM vs. (±)-threo = 31 nM vs. IC50 (±)-erythro = 3,779 nM). In comparison, MPH was three times less potent than (±)-threo-4F-MPH at the dopamine transporter (IC50  = 131 nM) and around 2.5 times less potent at the norepinephrine transporter (IC50  = 83 nM). Both substances were catecholamine selective with IC50 values of 8,805 nM and >10,000 nM for (±)-threo-4F-MPH and MPH at the serotonin transporter. These findings suggest that the psychostimulant properties of (±)-threo-4F-MPH might be more potent in humans than MPH. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Young People's Involvement in a Substance Misuse Communications Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mathew; Salmon, Debra; Orme, Judy

    2004-01-01

    There is growing emphasis in public policy on involving young people in the development of health promotion campaigns and information resources on substance misuse. To date there has been little literature that explores the level and nature young people's involvement in such initiatives. This paper reports on an evaluation of a substance misuse…

  14. Substance Use and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... that addiction to drugs or alcohol is a mental illness? Substance use disorder changes normal desires and priorities. ... had both a substance use disorder and another mental illness. More than half of the people with both ...

  15. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  16. PETROTOX: an aquatic toxicity model for petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2012-11-01

    A spreadsheet model (PETROTOX) is described that predicts the aquatic toxicity of complex petroleum substances from petroleum substance composition. Substance composition is characterized by specifying mass fractions in constituent hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) based on available analytical information. The HBs are defined by their mass fractions within a defined carbon number range or boiling point interval. Physicochemical properties of the HBs are approximated by assigning representative hydrocarbons from a database of individual hydrocarbons with associated physicochemical properties. A three-phase fate model is used to simulate the distribution of each structure among the water-, air-, and oil-phase liquid in the laboratory test system. Toxicity is then computed based on the predicted aqueous concentrations and aquatic toxicity of each structure and the target lipid model. The toxicity of the complex substance is computed assuming additivity of the contribution of the individual assigned hydrocarbons. Model performance was evaluated by using direct comparisons with measured toxicity data for petroleum substances with sufficient analytical characterization to run the model. Indirect evaluations were made by comparing predicted toxicity distributions using analytical data on petroleum substances from different product categories with independent, empirical distributions of toxicity data available for the same categories. Predictions compared favorably with measured aquatic toxicity data across different petroleum substance categories. These findings demonstrate the utility of PETROTOX for assessing environmental hazards of petroleum substances given knowledge of substance composition.

  17. Preface: Bulk nitride workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Jaime A.; Pasova, Tania; Bockowski, Michal; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The 9th ;International Workshop on Bulk Nitride Semiconductors; (IWBNS-IX) was held in Wonju, South Korea, from November 2-6, 2015, following the eight previous workshops held in November 2000 (Brazil), May 2002 (Brazil), September 2004 (Poland), October 2006 (Japan), September 2007 (Brazil), August 2009 (Poland), March 2011 (Japan), and October 2013 (Germany). The quietude and the beautiful surrounding nature of the Hansol Oak Valley provided the right environment to host the latest edition of this workshop series, the first one held in South Korea.

  18. Measuring Venus' Bulk Elemental Composition with BECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. M.; Grau, J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Miles, J.; Peplowski, P. N.; Perkins, L.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    The Bulk Elemental Composition Analyzer (BECA) instrument uses high energy neutrons and gamma rays to measure the bulk elemental composition of Venus beneath a landed probe. We will present the results of a BECA prototype tested at NASA/GSFC.

  19. 7 CFR 201.40 - Bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.40 Bulk. Bulk seeds or screenings shall be sampled by... taken as the minimum which would be required for the same quantity of seed or screenings in bags of a...

  20. Substance use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Slater, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The increase in substance use which occurred in the 1980s was disproportionately large among women of reproductive age, so both the numbers of women who use drugs and the duration of drug use have increased (Hepburn 2004). While drug use occurs throughout society, the type and pattern of drug use that is associated with medical and social problems is closely associated with socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is in turn associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviours such as smoking and poor diet. Deprivation, associated lifestyles and substance use adversely affect the health of mother and baby, so the effects are cumulative. Consequently women with problem drug and/or alcohol use have potentially complex pregnancies (Hepburn 2004).