Science.gov

Sample records for bumps precision extraction

  1. Procedures For Making Precision CH Bumps On Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; Klingmann, J; Cook, B

    2004-11-10

    Recently we were asked to produce target capsules with bumps on the surface. The bumps were to test the effects of fill tubes in future targets. The bumps desired were to be Gaussian in shape and from 60 to 40 {micro}m in diameter and from 1 to 6 {micro}m high. The capsules had a nominal diameter of 500 {micro}m. The approach we used was to align a precision aperture to the capsule and coat through the aperture onto the capsule surface using plasma polymer coating. The bumps were characterized using optical microscopy, Wyko interferometry, and AFM sphere mapping.

  2. NSRL Extraction Bump Control in the Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,L.

    2008-10-01

    Due to inadequacies in the user interface of the booster orbit control system, a number of new tools were developed. The first priority was an accurate calculation of the winding currents given specific displacements at each extraction septa. Next, the physical limits of the power supplies ({+-}600 amps) needed to be taken into account. In light of this limit, a system is developed that indicates to the user what the allowed values of one bump parameter are once the other two have been specified. Finally, techniques are developed to account for the orbit behavior once power supplies are requested to exceed their {+-}600 amp limit. This includes a recalculation of bump parameters and a calculation of the amplitude of the residuals. Following this, possible areas for further development are outlined. These techniques were computationally developed in Mathematica and tested in the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) program before they were implemented into the control system. At the end, a description of the implementation of these techniques in a new interface is described. This includes a depiction of the appearance and functionality of the graphical user interface, a description of the input and output flow, and an outline of how each important calculation is performed.

  3. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  4. Tank bump consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Board, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to derive radiological and toxicological consequences for a tank bump event based on analysis performed using the GOTH computer model, to estimate the mitigative effect of pump and sluice pit cover blocks, and to discuss preventative measures.

  5. Tank bump consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Board, B.D.

    1996-08-07

    The purpose of this document is to derive radiological and toxicological consequences for a tank bump event based on analysis performed using the GOTH computer model, to estimate the mitigative effect of pump and sluice pit cover blocks, and to discuss preventative measures.

  6. Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Dickie, Matthew R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between the two parts, a solder material is used between the bond pads on each side. Solder bumps, composed of indium metal, are typically deposited by thermal evaporation onto the active regions of the device and substrate. While indium bump technology has been a part of the electronic interconnect process field for many years and has been extensively employed in the infrared imager industry, obtaining a reliable, high-yield process for high-density patterns of bumps can be quite difficult. Under the right conditions, a moderate hydrogen plasma exposure can raise the temperature of the indium bump to the point where it can flow. This flow can result in a desirable shape where indium will efficiently wet the metal contact pad to provide good electrical contact to the underlying readout or imager circuit. However, it is extremely important to carefully control this process as the intensity of the hydrogen plasma treatment dramatically affects the indium bump morphology. To ensure the fine-tuning of this reflow process, it is necessary to have realtime feedback on the status of the bumps. With an appropriately placed viewport in a plasma chamber, one can image a small field (a square of approximately 5 millimeters on each side) of the bumps (10-20 microns in size) during the hydrogen plasma reflow process. By monitoring the shape of the bumps in real time using a video camera mounted to a telescoping 12 magnifying zoom lens and associated optical elements, an engineer can precisely determine when the reflow of the bumps has occurred, and can shut off the plasma before evaporation or de-wetting takes place.

  7. Study of bump bonding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk Cihangir et al.

    2003-10-17

    Pixel detectors proposed for the new generation of hadron collider experiments will use bump-bonding technology based on either indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have previously reported large-scale tests of the yield using both indium and Pb/Sn solder bump [1]. The conclusion is that both seem to be viable for pixel detectors. We have also carried out studies of various effects (e.g. storage over long period, effect of heating and cooling, and radiation) on both types of bump bonds using daisy-chained parts on a small scale [2], [3]. Overall, these tests showed little changes in the integrity of the bump connections. Nevertheless, questions still remain on the long-term reliability of the bumps due to thermal cycle effects, attachment to a substrate with a different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and radiation.

  8. Fabrication Of Surface Bumps On A Capsule To Simulate Fill Tube Mass Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; King, C; Cook, R

    2005-06-30

    Precision single bumps were deposited on the surface of ICF capsules to simulate the hydrodynamic instability caused by a fill tube. The bump is fabricated by placing an aperture mask on the capsule and coating plasma polymer through the aperture. The apparatus and procedures used to align and hold the shell for coating will be described. Bumps were made having a width of about 50 {micro}m and from 1 to 10 {micro}m in height. The bumps were characterized using interference microscopy and AFM.

  9. The bumps on the hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    The hippocampus has been the focus of more imaging research than any other subcortical structure in the human brain. However a feature that has been almost universally overlooked are the bumpy ridges on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus, which we refer to as hippocampal dentation. These bumps arise from folds in the CA1 layer of Ammon's horn. Similar to the folding of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal dentation allows for greater surface area in a confined space. However, while quantitative studies of radiologic brain images have been advancing for decades, examining numerous approaches to hippocampal segmentation and morphology analysis, virtually all published 3D renderings of the hippocampus show the under surface to be quite smooth or mildly irregular; we have rarely seen the characteristic bumpy structure in the reconstructed 3D scene, one exception being the 9.4T postmortem study. This is presumably due to the fact that, based on our experience with high resolution images, there is a dramatic degree of variability in hippocampal dentation between individuals from very smooth to highly dentated. An apparent question is, does this indicate that this specific morphological signature can only be captured using expensive ultra-high field techniques? Or, is such information buried in the data we commonly acquire, awaiting a computation technique that can extract and render it clearly? In this study, we propose a super-resolution technique that captures the fine scale morphometric features of the hippocampus based on common T1-weighted 3T MR images.

  10. Under bump metallurgy study for Pb-free bumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Se-Young; Wolf, Juergen; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2002-05-01

    The demand for Pb-free and high-density interconnection technology is rapidly growing. The electroplating-bumping method is a good approach to meet finepitch requirements, especially for high-volume production, because to volume change of patterned-solder bumps during reflow is not so large compared with the stencil-printing method. This paper proposes a Sn/3.5 Ag Pb-free electroplating-bumping process for high-density Pb-free interconnects. It was found that a plated Sn/Ag bump becomes Sn/Ag/Cu by reflowing when Cu containing under bump metallurgy (UBM) is used. Another important issue for future flip-chip interconnects is to optimize the UBM system for high-density and Pb-free solder bumps. In this work, four UBM systems, sputtered TiW 0.2 µm/Cu 0.3 µm/electroplated Cu 5 µm, sputtered Cr 0.15 µm/Cr-Cu 0.3 µm/Cu 0.8 µm, sputtered NiV 0.2 µm/Cu 0.8 µm, and sputtered TiW 0.2 µm/NiV 0.8 µm, were investigated for interfacial reaction with electroplated Pb/63Sn and Sn/3.5Ag solder bumps. Both Cu-Sn and Ni-Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) growth were observed to spall-off from the UBM/solder interface when the solder-wettable layer is consumed during a liquid-state “reflow” process. This IMC-spalling mechanism differed depending on the barrier layer material.

  11. Shadows for bump-mapped surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1985-11-05

    Bump mapping produces realistic shading by perturbing normal vectors to a surface, but does not show the shadows that the bumps cast on nearby parts of the same surface. In this paper, these shadows are found from precomputed tables of horizon angles, listing, for each position entry, the elevation of the horizon in a sampled collection of directions. These tables are made for bumps on a standard flat surface, and then a transformation is developed so that the same tables can be used for an arbitrary curved parameterized surface patch. This necessitates a new method for scaling the bump size to the patch size. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  13. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  14. Bumps in Small-World Networks.

    PubMed

    Laing, Carlo R

    2016-01-01

    We consider a network of coupled excitatory and inhibitory theta neurons which is capable of supporting stable spatially-localized "bump" solutions. We randomly add long-range and simultaneously remove short-range connections within the network to form a small-world network and investigate the effects of this rewiring on the existence and stability of the bump solution. We consider two limits in which continuum equations can be derived; bump solutions are fixed points of these equations. We can thus use standard numerical bifurcation analysis to determine the stability of these bumps and to follow them as parameters (such as rewiring probabilities) are varied. We find that under some rewiring schemes bumps are quite robust, whereas in other schemes they can become unstable via Hopf bifurcation or even be destroyed in saddle-node bifurcations.

  15. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  16. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach--based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants--that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  17. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach--based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants--that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  18. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  19. Automated extraction of precise protein expression patterns in lymphoma by text mining abstracts of immunohistochemical studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Fu; Popescu, Mihail; Arthur, Gerald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In general, surgical pathology reviews report protein expression by tumors in a semi-quantitative manner, that is, -, -/+, +/-, +. At the same time, the experimental pathology literature provides multiple examples of precise expression levels determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) tissue examination of populations of tumors. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques enable the automated extraction of such information through text mining. We propose establishing a database linking quantitative protein expression levels with specific tumor classifications through NLP. Materials and Methods: Our method takes advantage of typical forms of representing experimental findings in terms of percentages of protein expression manifest by the tumor population under study. Characteristically, percentages are represented straightforwardly with the % symbol or as the number of positive findings of the total population. Such text is readily recognized using regular expressions and templates permitting extraction of sentences containing these forms for further analysis using grammatical structures and rule-based algorithms. Results: Our pilot study is limited to the extraction of such information related to lymphomas. We achieved a satisfactory level of retrieval as reflected in scores of 69.91% precision and 57.25% recall with an F-score of 62.95%. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of a web-based curation tool for confirming and correcting our findings. Conclusions: The experimental pathology literature represents a rich source of pathobiological information, which has been relatively underutilized. There has been a combinatorial explosion of knowledge within the pathology domain as represented by increasing numbers of immunophenotypes and disease subclassifications. NLP techniques support practical text mining techniques for extracting this knowledge and organizing it in forms appropriate for pathology decision support systems. PMID:23967385

  20. Bumps in Small-World Networks

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Carlo R.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a network of coupled excitatory and inhibitory theta neurons which is capable of supporting stable spatially-localized “bump” solutions. We randomly add long-range and simultaneously remove short-range connections within the network to form a small-world network and investigate the effects of this rewiring on the existence and stability of the bump solution. We consider two limits in which continuum equations can be derived; bump solutions are fixed points of these equations. We can thus use standard numerical bifurcation analysis to determine the stability of these bumps and to follow them as parameters (such as rewiring probabilities) are varied. We find that under some rewiring schemes bumps are quite robust, whereas in other schemes they can become unstable via Hopf bifurcation or even be destroyed in saddle-node bifurcations. PMID:27378897

  1. Rapid and simple UPLC-MS/MS method for precise phytochelatin quantification in alga extracts.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Anja; Wesenberg, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative phytochelatin (PC) analysis is, due to oxidation sensitivity of the PCs, matrix effects, and time consuming sample preparation, still a challenging analytical task. In this study, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for precise determination of native PCs in crude extracts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed. Algae were exposed 48 h to 70 μM Cd. Coupling of ultra performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multi-reaction mode transitions for detection permitted the required short-time, high-resolution separation and detection specificity. Thus, under optimized chromatographic conditions, 10 thiol peptides were baseline-separated within 7 min. Relative detection limits in the nanomolar range in microliter sample volumes were achieved (corresponding to absolute detection limits at femtomole level). Next to glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cadmium-induced PCs in C. reinhardtii, namely CysGSH, PC(2), PC(3), CysPC(2), and CysPC(3), were quantified with high reproducibility at concentrations between 15 and 198 nmol g(-1) fresh weight. The biological variation of PC synthesis of nine independently grown alga cultures was determined to be on average 13.7%. PMID:20632163

  2. The chorionic bump: Etiologic insights from two pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wax, Joseph R; Blaszyk, Hagen; Jones, Michael; Cartin, Angelina; Pinette, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    The clinical significance and etiology of the chorionic bump remain unclear. We describe two pregnancies characterized by chorionic bumps, which subsequently were diagnosed with a complete mole and trisomy 18, respectively. We hypothesize that placental pathology, including edema and hydropic villi, may contribute to or cause the sonographic finding of some chorionic bumps. An association between chorionic bumps and aneuploidy awaits future study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:452-454, 2016. PMID:27220064

  3. Good Teaching: The Goose Bump Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciotti, Joseph A.

    1988-01-01

    Teachers who can trigger the "goose bump" response have probably mastered the fine art of teaching. Such teachers are enthusiastic, excited about their subject matter, and genuinely care about their students. When "artistic" teachers manifest glaring teaching deficiencies, the sensitive principal overlooks these flaws or handles them without…

  4. Adapting bump model for ventral photoreceptors of Limulus

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Light-evoked current fluctuations have been recorded from ventral photoreceptors of Limulus for light intensity from threshold up to 10(5) times threshold. These data are analyzed in terms of the adapting bump noise model, which postulates that (a) the response to light is a summation of bumps; and (b) the average size of bump decreases with light intensity, and this is the major mechanism of light adaptation. It is shown here that this model can account for the data well. Furthermore, the model provides a convenient framework to characterize, in terms of bump parameters, the effects of calcium ions, which are known to affect photoreceptor functions. From responses to very dim light, it is found that the average impulse response (average of a large number of responses to dim flashes) can be predicted from knowledge of both the noise characteristics under steady light and the dispersion of latencies of individual bumps. Over the range of light intensities studied, it is shown that (a) the bump rate increases in strict proportionality to light intensity, up to approximately 10(5) bumps per second; and (b) the bump height decreases approximately as the -0.7 power of light intensity; at rates greater than 10(5) bumps per second, the conductance change associated with the single bump seems to reach a minimum value of approximately 10(-11) reciprocal ohms; (c) from the lowest to the highest light intensity, the bump duration decreases approximately by a factor of 2, and the time scale of the dispersion of latencies of individual bumps decreases approximately by a factor of 3; (d) removal of calcium ions from the bath lengthens the latency process and causes an increase in bump height but appears to have no effect on either the bump rate or the bump duration. PMID:7108487

  5. Electrodeposition of Indium Bumps for Ultrafine Pitch Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingtao; Liu, Changqing; Hutt, David; Stevens, Bob

    2014-02-01

    Electroplating is a promising method to produce ultrafine pitch indium bumps for assembly of pixel detectors in imaging applications. In this work, the process of indium bumping through electrodeposition was demonstrated and the influences of various current waveforms on the bump morphology, microstructure and height uniformity were investigated. Electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of electroplated indium bumps and a Zygo white light interferometer was utilised to evaluate the height uniformity. The results indicated that the bump uniformities on wafer, pattern and feature scales were improved by using unipolar pulse and bipolar pulse reverse current waveforms.

  6. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  7. Electroplated indium bump arrays and the bonding reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiuping, Huang; Gaowei, Xu; Gang, Quan; Yuan, Yuan; Le, Luo

    2010-11-01

    A novel electroplating indium bumping process is described, as a result of which indium bump arrays with a pitch of 100 μm and a diameter of 40 μm were successfully prepared. UBM (under bump metallization) for indium bumping was investigated with an XRD technique. The experimental results indicate that Ti/Pt (300 Å / 200 Å) has an excellent barrier effect both at room temperature and at 200 °C. The bonding reliability of the indium bumps was evaluated by a shear test. Results show that the shear strength of the indium bump significantly increases after the first reflow and then changes slowly with increasing reflow times. Such a phenomenon may be caused by the change in textures of the indium after reflow. The corresponding flip-chip process is also discussed in this paper.

  8. Lateral Scanning Linnik Interferometry for Large Field of View and Fast Scanning: Wafer Bump Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Y.; Veluvolu, Kalyana C.; Lee, Soon-Geul

    2011-07-01

    Wafer-level packaging is currently the major trend in semiconductor packaging for miniaturization and high-density integration. To ensure the package reliability, the wafer and substrate bumps utilized as connection junctions need to be in-line inspected as regards their top-height distribution, coplanarity, and volume uniformity. This article proposes a lateral scanning interferometric system for wafer bump shape inspection in three dimensions with a large field of view and fast inspection speed based on an optomechatronic system design. For multiple-peak interferogram from wafer bumps around a transparent film layer, two-step information extraction algorithms are suggested, including top surface profile and under-layer surface profile detection algorithms. The multiple-peak interferogram is acquired with variations of lateral position of the reference mirror by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). A series of experiments is performed for representative wafer samples with solder and gold bumps, and the effectiveness of the proposed inspection system is verified from the test results.

  9. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  10. Argument-predicate distance as a filter for enhancing precision in extracting predications on the genetic etiology of disease

    PubMed Central

    Masseroli, Marco; Kilicoglu, Halil; Lang, François-Michel; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    Background Genomic functional information is valuable for biomedical research. However, such information frequently needs to be extracted from the scientific literature and structured in order to be exploited by automatic systems. Natural language processing is increasingly used for this purpose although it inherently involves errors. A postprocessing strategy that selects relations most likely to be correct is proposed and evaluated on the output of SemGen, a system that extracts semantic predications on the etiology of genetic diseases. Based on the number of intervening phrases between an argument and its predicate, we defined a heuristic strategy to filter the extracted semantic relations according to their likelihood of being correct. We also applied this strategy to relations identified with co-occurrence processing. Finally, we exploited postprocessed SemGen predications to investigate the genetic basis of Parkinson's disease. Results The filtering procedure for increased precision is based on the intuition that arguments which occur close to their predicate are easier to identify than those at a distance. For example, if gene-gene relations are filtered for arguments at a distance of 1 phrase from the predicate, precision increases from 41.95% (baseline) to 70.75%. Since this proximity filtering is based on syntactic structure, applying it to the results of co-occurrence processing is useful, but not as effective as when applied to the output of natural language processing. In an effort to exploit SemGen predications on the etiology of disease after increasing precision with postprocessing, a gene list was derived from extracted information enhanced with postprocessing filtering and was automatically annotated with GFINDer, a Web application that dynamically retrieves functional and phenotypic information from structured biomolecular resources. Two of the genes in this list are likely relevant to Parkinson's disease but are not associated with this disease

  11. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  12. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps. PMID:24006129

  13. Bumping into Someone: Japanese Students' Perceptions and Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieske, Carmella

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study explores the apologies Japanese nursing college students thought they would use in their L1 (i.e. Japanese) and their L2 (i.e. English) when bumping into each other. The students completed a questionnaire, the results of which indicated that they believed they should always apologize for bumping into someone. The paper describes…

  14. 'Goose bumps' as presenting feature of intraventricular glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Asha, Mohammed J; Tansey, Rosamond J; Gan, Yee-Chiung

    2014-04-01

    'Goose-bumps' seizures are rare manifestations of epilepsy. They are rarely reported by patients and can be easily dismissed by clinicians. Clinically, it carries some diagnostic localising value especially with unilateral onset. In this report, we present a case of intraventricular glioblastoma multiforme with ipsilateral goose bumps and review the literature.

  15. Bump Bonding Using Metal-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bump bonding hybridization techniques use arrays of indium bumps to electrically and mechanically join two chips together. Surface-tension issues limit bump sizes to roughly as wide as they are high. Pitches are limited to 50 microns with bumps only 8-14 microns high on each wafer. A new process uses oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a metal (indium) in a wicking process using capillary actions to increase the aspect ratio and pitch density of the connections for bump bonding hybridizations. It merges the properties of the CNTs and the metal bumps, providing enhanced material performance parameters. By merging the bumps with narrow and long CNTs oriented in the vertical direction, higher aspect ratios can be obtained if the metal can be made to wick. Possible aspect ratios increase from 1:1 to 20:1 for most applications, and to 100:1 for some applications. Possible pitch density increases of a factor of 10 are possible. Standard capillary theory would not normally allow indium or most other metals to be drawn into the oriented CNTs, because they are non-wetting. However, capillary action can be induced through the ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. This hybridization of two technologies (indium bumps and CNTs) may also provide for some additional benefits such as improved thermal management and possible current density increases.

  16. Tank Bump Accident Potential and Consequences During Waste Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-09-27

    This report provides an evaluation of Hanford tank bump accident potential and consequences during waste retrieval operations. The purpose of this report is to consider the best available new information to support recommendations for safety controls. A new tank bump accident analysis for safe storage (Epstein et al. 2000) is extended for this purpose. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. Tank bump scenarios, physical models, and frequency and consequence methods are fully described in Epstein et al. (2000). The analysis scope is waste retrieval from double-shell tanks (DSTs) including operation of equipment such as mixer pumps and air lift circulators. The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential during retrieval, application of the criteria to the DSTs, evaluation of bump frequency, and consequence analysis of a bump. The result of the consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks; radiological dose is calculated using standard methods (Cowley et al. 2000).

  17. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  18. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  19. On the accuracy and precision of numerical waveforms: effect of waveform extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-08-01

    We present a new set of 95 numerical relativity simulations of non-precessing binary black holes (BBHs). The simulations sample comprehensively both black-hole spins up to spin magnitude of 0.9, and cover mass ratios 1-3. The simulations cover on average 24 inspiral orbits, plus merger and ringdown, with low initial orbital eccentricities e\\lt {10}-4. A subset of the simulations extends the coverage of non-spinning BBHs up to mass ratio q = 10. Gravitational waveforms at asymptotic infinity are computed with two independent techniques: extrapolation and Cauchy characteristic extraction. An error analysis based on noise-weighted inner products is performed. We find that numerical truncation error, error due to gravitational wave extraction, and errors due to the Fourier transformation of signals with finite length of the numerical waveforms are of similar magnitude, with gravitational wave extraction errors dominating at noise-weighted mismatches of ˜ 3× {10}-4. This set of waveforms will serve to validate and improve aligned-spin waveform models for gravitational wave science.

  20. Towards Evidence-based Precision Medicine: Extracting Population Information from Biomedical Text using Binary Classifiers and Syntactic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kalpana; Dasot, Naman; Goyal, Pawan; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for prevention and treatment of disease that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. The dissemination of individualized evidence by automatically identifying population information in literature is a key for evidence-based precision medicine at the point-of-care. We propose a hybrid approach using natural language processing techniques to automatically extract the population information from biomedical literature. Our approach first implements a binary classifier to classify sentences with or without population information. A rule-based system based on syntactic-tree regular expressions is then applied to sentences containing population information to extract the population named entities. The proposed two-stage approach achieved an F-score of 0.81 using a MaxEnt classifier and the rule- based system, and an F-score of 0.87 using a Nai've-Bayes classifier and the rule-based system, and performed relatively well compared to many existing systems. The system and evaluation dataset is being released as open source. PMID:27570671

  1. Towards Evidence-based Precision Medicine: Extracting Population Information from Biomedical Text using Binary Classifiers and Syntactic Patterns.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Dasot, Naman; Goyal, Pawan; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for prevention and treatment of disease that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. The dissemination of individualized evidence by automatically identifying population information in literature is a key for evidence-based precision medicine at the point-of-care. We propose a hybrid approach using natural language processing techniques to automatically extract the population information from biomedical literature. Our approach first implements a binary classifier to classify sentences with or without population information. A rule-based system based on syntactic-tree regular expressions is then applied to sentences containing population information to extract the population named entities. The proposed two-stage approach achieved an F-score of 0.81 using a MaxEnt classifier and the rule- based system, and an F-score of 0.87 using a Nai've-Bayes classifier and the rule-based system, and performed relatively well compared to many existing systems. The system and evaluation dataset is being released as open source. PMID:27570671

  2. Review of research into shock control bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, P. J. K.; Colliss, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a review of research on shock control bumps (SCBs), a class of flow control device with potential for application to transonic wings. Beginning with a brief review of the origins of the SCB concept, the primary focus is on the more recent studies from the last decade. Results from both experimental and numerical work are considered and the synergy between these two approaches to SCB research is critically explored. It is shown that the aerodynamic performance enhancement potential of SCBs, namely their capacity for drag reduction and delaying the onset of buffet for transonic wings, has been widely demonstrated in the literature, as has the high sensitivity of SCB performance to flow conditions including shock strength and position, and post-shock adverse pressure gradient. These characteristic features of SCBs are relatively well explained in terms of the flow physics that have been observed for different bump geometries. This stems from a number of studies that have focused on the balance of viscous and inviscid flow features and also the mechanism by which finite span SCBs generate streamwise vorticity. It is concluded that our understanding of SCBs is reaching an advanced level of maturity for SCBs in simple configurations and steady flow fields. However, SCB performance in unsteady flow and on swept wings requires further investigation before the concept can be considered a viable candidate for transonic wings. These investigations should adopt a multi-disciplinary approach combining carefully designed experiments and targeted computations. Finally, two concepts for future SCB research are suggested: the adaptive SCB and SCBs in engine intakes.

  3. Height inspection of wafer bumps without explicit 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mei; Chung, Ronald; Zhao, Yang; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2006-02-01

    The shrunk dimension of electronic devices leads to more stringent requirement on process control and quality assurance of their fabrication. For instance, direct die-to-die bonding requires placement of solder bumps not on PCB but on the wafer itself. Such wafer solder bumps, which are much miniaturized from the counterparts on PCB, still need to have their heights meet the specification, or else the electrical connection could be compromised, or the dies be crushed, or even the manufacturing equipments be damaged. Yet the tiny size, typically tens of microns in diameter, and the textureless and mirror nature of the bumps pose great challenge to the 3D inspection process. This paper addresses how a large number of such wafer bumps could have their heights massively checked against the specification. We assume ball bumps in this work. We propose a novel inspection measure about the collection of bump heights that possesses these advantages: (1) it is sensitive to global and local disturbances to the bump heights, thus serving the bump height inspection purpose; (2) it is invariant to how individual bumps are locally displaced against one another on the substrate surface, thus enduring 2D displacement error in soldering the bumps onto the wafer substrate; and (3) it is largely invariant to how the wafer itself is globally positioned relative to the imaging system, thus having tolerance to repeatability error in wafer placement. This measure makes use of the mirror nature of the bumps, which used to cause difficulty in traditional inspection methods, to capture images of two planes. One contains the bump peaks and the other corresponds to the substrate. With the homography matrices of these two planes and fundamental matrix of the camera, we synthesize a matrix called Biplanar Disparity Matrix. This matrix can summarize the bumps' heights in a fast and direct way without going through explicit 3D reconstruction. We also present a design of the imaging and

  4. Optimizing galvanic pulse plating parameters to improve indium bump to bump bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan J.; Rowen, Adam; Mani, Seethambal S.; Yelton, W. Graham; Arrington, Christian; Gillen, Rusty; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Okerlund, Daniel; Ionescu, Adrian

    2010-02-01

    The plating characteristics of a commercially available indium plating solution are examined and optimized to help meet the increasing performance demands of integrated circuits requiring substantial numbers of electrical interconnections over large areas. Current fabrication techniques rely on evaporation of soft metals, such as indium, into lift-off resist profiles. This becomes increasingly difficult to accomplish as pitches decrease and aspect ratios increase. To minimize pixel dimensions and maximize the number of pixels per unit area, lithography and electrochemical deposition (ECD) of indium has been investigated. Pulse ECD offers the capability of improving large area uniformity ideal for large area device hybridization. Electrochemical experimentation into lithographically patterned molds allow for large areas of bumps to be fabricated for low temperature indium to indium bonds. The galvanic pulse profile, in conjunction with the bath configuration, determines the uniformity of the plated array. This pulse is manipulated to produce optimal properties for hybridizing arrays of aligned and bonded indium bumps. The physical properties of the indium bump arrays are examined using a white light interferometer, a SEM and tensile pull testing. This paper provides details from the electroplating processes as well as conclusions leading to optimized plating conditions.

  5. Modeling interseismic deformation field of North Tehran Fault extracted from precise leveling observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amighpey, Masoome; Voosoghi, Behzad; Arabi, Siyavash

    2016-06-01

    The North Tehran Fault (NTF) stands out as a major active thrust fault running for approximately 110 km north of Tehran, the capital province of Iran. It has been the source of several major historical earthquakes in the past, including those in 958, 1665, and 1830. In this paper, interseismic strain accumulation on the NFT was investigated using precise leveling measurements obtained over the time frame 1997-2005. The relationship between surface deformation field and interseismic deformation models was evaluated using simulated annealing optimization in a Bayesian framework. The results show that the NTF fault follows an elastic dislocation model creep at a rate of 2.5 ± 0.06 mm/year in the eastern part and 6.2 ± 0.04 mm/year in the western part. Moreover, the locking depth of the fault was evaluated to be ± 1.1 km in the eastern part and 1.3 ± 0.2 km in the western part.

  6. Extracting Accurate and Precise Topography from Lroc Narrow Angle Camera Stereo Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, M. R.; Manheim, M. R.; Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.; LROC Team

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) includes two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) that acquire meter scale imaging. Stereo observations are acquired by imaging from two or more orbits, including at least one off-nadir slew. Digital terrain models (DTMs) generated from the stereo observations are controlled to Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) elevation profiles. With current processing methods, digital terrain models (DTM) have absolute accuracies commensurate than the uncertainties of the LOLA profiles (~10 m horizontally and ~1 m vertically) and relative horizontal and vertical precisions better than the pixel scale of the DTMs (2 to 5 m). The NAC stereo pairs and derived DTMs represent an invaluable tool for science and exploration purposes. We computed slope statistics from 81 highland and 31 mare DTMs across a range of baselines. Overlapping DTMs of single stereo sets were also combined to form larger area DTM mosaics, enabling detailed characterization of large geomorphic features and providing a key resource for future exploration planning. Currently, two percent of the lunar surface is imaged in NAC stereo and continued acquisition of stereo observations will serve to strengthen our knowledge of the Moon and geologic processes that occur on all the terrestrial planets.

  7. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; de Gouvea, A.; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  8. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDF's). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parametrized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  9. Low-cost bump bonding activities at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähänen, S.; Tick, T.; Campbell, M.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional bumping processes used in the fabrication of hybrid pixel detectors for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use electroplating for Under Bump Metallization (UBM) and solder bump deposition. This process is laborious, involves time consuming photolithography and can only be performed using whole wafers. Electroplating has been found to be expensive when used for the low volumes which are typical of HEP experiments. In the low-cost bump bonding development work, electroless deposition technology of UBM is studied as an alternative to the electroplating process in the bump size / pitch window beginning from 20 μm / 50 μm. Electroless UBM deposition used in combination with solder transfer techniques has the potential to significantly lower the cost of wafer bumping without requiring increased wafer volumes. A test vehicle design of sensor and readout chip, having daisy chains and Kelvin bump structures, was created to characterize the flip chip process with electroless UBM. Two batches of test vehicle wafers were manufactured with different bump pad metallization. Batch #1 had AlSi(1%) metallization, which is similar to the one used on sensor wafers, and Batch #2 had AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization, which is very similar to the one used on readout wafers. Electroless UBMs were deposited on both wafer batches. In addition, electroplated Ni UBM and SnPb solder bumps were grown on the test sensor wafers. Test assemblies were made by flip chip bonding the solder-bumped test sensors against the test readout chips with electroless UBMs. Electrical yields and individual joint resistances were measured from assemblies, and the results were compared to a well known reference technique based on electroplated solder bumps structures on both chips. The electroless UBMs deposited on AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization showed excellent electrical yields and small tolerances in individual joint resistance. The results from the UBMs deposited on AlSi(1%) metallization were non

  10. Extracting Precise and Affordable Dems Despite of the Clouds. Ajax: the Joining of Radar and Optical Strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunin, 1 L.; Nonin, 2 P.; Janoth, 3 J.; Bernard, 4 M.

    2012-07-01

    On the one hand, onboard SPOT 5, the HRS instrument systematically collects stereopairs around the Globe since 2002. Each stereopair can encompass an area up to 600 km x 120 km within a single pass (i.e. 72 000 km² stereoscopic strips). Covering now more than 120 millions sq.km of the Earth landmasses, SPOT 5 stereoscopic imagery has become one of main satellite data sources for accurate DEM extraction, at least where the cloud coverage leaves a chance to do so ! On the other hand, the TerraSAR-X satellite, launched in June 2007, is able to collect radar data through the clouds in several modes. An approach to extract height information by radargrammetry was developed, and the commercial distribution of Digital Elevation Models based on TerraSAR-X StripMap and SpotLight Modes (resp. 3m and 1m resolution) has started in 2010. To improve the overall height accuracy of the DEM, acquisitions from both orbit directions are utilised, each point on the ground being thus imaged at least 4 times by TerraSAR-X. Since 2002, Spot Image and French National Cartographic Institute (IGN) are building a worldwide database called Elevation30/Reference3D™, which includes a Digital Elevation Model at 1-arc-second resolution (DTED level 2) extracted from HRS stereopairs. To answer the wide demand of precise DEMs over Tropical and Northern areas, frequently covered by clouds, a study was performed to integrate StripMap radargrammetric TerraSAR-X data into the Reference3D process, and two prototype products were issued, over Colombia and Congo areas. During this experiment, efforts have been made to stick to technical steps that could be integrated within a standardized production process, in order to keep offering affordable prices while maintaining a high standard of horizontal and vertical accuracy. The DEMs extracted from TerraSAR-X and HRS proved extremely consistent with each other, showing a mean difference of 0.80m. This allows to propose a unified Elevation30 product to the

  11. New pulsed orbit bump magnets for the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.R.; Carson, J.A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Makarov, A.; Prebys, E.J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The beam from the Fermilab Linac is injected onto a bump in the closed orbit of the Booster Synchrotron where a carbon foil strips the electrons from the Linac's negative ion hydrogen beam. Although the Booster itself runs at 15 Hz, heat dissipation in the orbit bump magnets has been one limitation to the fraction of the cycles that can be used for beam. New 0.28 T pulsed dipole magnets have been constructed that will fit into the same space as the old ones, run at the full repetition rate of the Booster, and provide a larger bump to allow a cleaner injection orbit. The new magnets use a ferrite in the yoke rather than laminated steel.

  12. The Influence of Road Bumps Characteristics on the Chaotic Vibration of a Nonlinear Full-Vehicle Model with Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraei, J.; Khanlo, H. M.; Ghayour, M.; Faramarzi, Kh.

    In this paper, the chaotic behavior of a ground vehicle system with driver subjected to road disturbances is studied and the relationship between the nonlinear vibration of the vehicle and ride comfort is evaluated. The vehicle system is modeled as fully nonlinear with seven degrees of freedom and an additional degree of freedom for driver (8-DOF). The excitation force is the road irregularities that are assumed as road speed control bumps. The sinusoidal, consecutive half-sine and dented-rectangular waveforms are considered to simulate the road speed control bumps. The nonlinearities of the system are due to the nonlinear springs and dampers that are used in the suspension system and tires. The governing differential equations are extracted under Newton-Euler laws and solved via numerical methods. The chaotic behaviors were studied in more detail with special techniques such as bifurcation diagrams, phase plane portrait, Poincaré map and Lyapunov exponents. The ride comfort was evaluated as the RMS value of the vertical displacement of the vehicle body and driver. Firstly, the effect of amplitude (height) and frequency (vehicle’s speed) of these speed control bumps on chaotic vibrations of vehicle are studied. The obtained results show that various forms of vibrations, such as periodic, subharmonic and chaotic vibrations, can be detected in the system behavior with the change of the height and frequency of speed control bumps and present different types of strange attractors in the vehicle with and without driver. Then, the influence of nonlinear vibration on ride comfort and the relationship between chaotic vibrations of the vehicle and driving comfort are investigated. The results of analyzing the RMS diagrams reveal that the chaotic behaviors can directly affect the driving comfort and lead to the driver’s comfort being reduced. The obtained results can be used in the design of vehicle and road bumps pavement.

  13. Full waveform inversion with an auxiliary bump functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Mulder, Wim; Drijkoningen, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Least-squares inversion of seismic arrivals can provide remarkably detailed models of the Earth's subsurface. However, cycle skipping associated with these oscillatory arrivals is the main cause for local minima in the least-squares objective function. Therefore, it is often difficult for descent methods to converge to the solution without an accurate initial large-scale velocity estimate. The low frequencies in the arrivals, needed to update the large-scale components in the velocity model, are usually unreliable or absent. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a multi-objective inversion scheme that uses the conventional least-squares functional along with an auxiliary data-domain objective. As the auxiliary objective effectively replaces the seismic arrivals by bumps, we call it the bump functional. The bump functional minimization can be made far less sensitive to cycle skipping and can deal with multiple arrivals in the data. However, it can only be used as an auxiliary objective since it usually does not provide a unique model after minimization even when the regularized-least-squares functional has a unique global minimum and hence a unique solution. The role of the bump functional during the multi-objective inversion is to guide the optimization towards the global minimum by pulling the trapped solution out of the local minima associated with the least-squares functional whenever necessary. The computational complexity of the bump functional is equivalent to that of the least-squares functional. In this paper, we describe various characteristics of the bump functional using simple and illustrative numerical examples. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective inversion scheme by considering more realistic examples. These include synthetic and field data from a cross-well experiment, surface-seismic synthetic data with reflections and synthetic data with refracted arrivals at long offsets.

  14. Development of indium bumping technology through AZ9260 resist electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuping; Xu, Gaowei; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Le

    2010-05-01

    Indium bumping is very critical technology in the application of high-density interconnection between a FPA (focal plane array) and a Si ROIC (read-out integrated circuit) by flip-chip bonding. In this paper, the indium BGA (ball grid array) chips are prepared with an electroplating method on the Si substrate. With such a method, the first difficulty arises in removing the seed layer. Two ways, including IBE (ion beam etching) and lift-off, are adopted to overcome it. The results show that the lift-off process is effective but not IBE. During the reflow process, many indium bumps fall off the substrate. Two ways are tried to solve this problem: one is to optimize the reflow profile and the other is to thicken the wetting layer. The results show that these two ways can effectively improve such status. The barrier effects of the UBM (under bump metallization) for indium, which are Ti/Pt (300 Å/200 Å) and Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), are also investigated. Experimental results indicate that both of them can be used in application of integration of the FPA and ROIC. Reliability of indium bumps with these two kinds of UBM is evaluated by the shear test. The results show that their shear strength has a significant increase after reflow. For the indium bump with UBM of Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), IMC (intermetallic compounds) at the interface of Au-In can strengthen the indium bump but may change the plasticity of indium.

  15. Growth Characteristics Downstream of a Shallow Bump: Computation and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Grosch, Chester E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity field created by a shallow bump on a wall revealed that an energy peak in the spanwise spectrum associated with the driver decays and an initially small-amplitude secondary mode rapidly grows with distance downstream of the bump. Linear theories could not provide an explanation for this growing mode. The present Navier-Stokes simulation replicates and confirms the experimental results. Insight into the structure of the flow was obtained from a study of the results of the calculations and is presented.

  16. Dispersion in closed, off-axis orbit bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsimon, R.; Esberg, J.; Owen, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a proof to show that there exists no system of linear or nonlinear optics which can simultaneously close multiple local orbit bumps and dispersion through a single beam transport region. The second combiner ring in the CLIC drive beam recombination system, CR2, is used as an example of where such conditions are necessary. We determine the properties of a lattice which is capable of closing the local orbit bumps and dispersion and show that all resulting solutions are either unphysical or trivial.

  17. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  18. Actinic characterization of EUV bump-type phase defects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Liang, Ted

    2011-01-10

    Despite tremendous progress and learning with EUV lithography, quantitative experimental information about the severity of point-like phase defects remains in short supply. We present a study of measured, EUV aerial images from a series of well-characterized, open-field, bump-type programmed phase defects, created on a substrate before multilayer deposition.

  19. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Robert Alan; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim; Hasz, Wayne Charles

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  20. Numerical characterization of bump formation in the runaway electron tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J.; Hirvijoki, E.; Embreus, O.; Peysson, Y.; Stahl, A.; Pusztai, I.; Fülöp, T.

    2016-02-01

    Runaway electrons are generated in a magnetized plasma when the parallel electric field exceeds a critical value. For such electrons with energies typically reaching tens of MeV, the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) radiation force, in reaction to the synchrotron emission, is significant and can be the dominant process limiting electron acceleration. The effect of the ALD force on runaway electron dynamics in a homogeneous plasma is investigated using the relativistic finite-difference Fokker-Planck codes LUKE (Decker and Peysson 2004 Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA), and CODE (Landreman et al 2014 Comput. Phys. Commun. 185 847). The time evolution of the distribution function is analyzed as a function of the relevant parameters: parallel electric field, background magnetic field, and effective charge. Under the action of the ALD force, we find that runaway electrons are subject to an energy limit, and that the electron distribution evolves towards a steady-state. In addition, a bump is formed in the tail of the electron distribution function if the electric field is sufficiently strong. The mechanisms leading to the bump formation and energy limit involve both the parallel and perpendicular momentum dynamics; they are described in detail. An estimate for the bump location in momentum space is derived. We observe that the energy of runaway electrons in the bump increases with the electric field amplitude, while the population increases with the bulk electron temperature. The presence of the bump divides the electron distribution into a runaway beam and a bulk population. This mechanism may give rise to beam-plasma types of instabilities that could, in turn, pump energy from runaway electrons and alter their confinement.

  1. Study on a robust insert-bump (ISB) bonding technique for a 3D package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, S. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding process, commonly used in bonding technology for the 3D stacking of TSV (through silicon via) formed chips, requires an additional process for the generation of bumps on the face and back-side of the chip, and it has a drawback in that it is structurally vulnerable to mechanical stresses, such as thermal stress. This study proposes an ISB (insert-bump) bonding process to overcome such drawbacks. Compared to the conventional Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding process, the ISB bonding process has advantages in that it is simple and has high mechanical reliability of the package due to the mechanical interlocking. The stress distributions at the joints of the packages produced from Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding and ISB processes were compared and analyzed through FEM analyses, and characteristics analyses of the fracture mode and joint characteristics; process variable optimization with respect to the bonding parameters was also conducted through experiments. The results of the analyses and experiments verified that the ISB bonding process yields a bonding strength of 917.6 mgf/bump, which is approximately twice as much as that of the conventional Cu pillar bump to Cu pillar bump bonding, and which yields a highly reliable mechanical structure.

  2. Reliability Investigations on SnAg Bumps on Substrate Pads with Different Pad Finish

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.; Ebersberger, B.; Kupfer, C.; Alexa, L.

    2006-02-07

    SnAg solder bump is one bump type which is used to replace eutectic SnPb bumps. In this work tests have been done to characterize the reliability properties of this bump type. Electromigration (EM) tests, which were accelerated by high current and high temperature and high temperature storage (HTS) tests were performed. It was found that the reliability properties are sensitive to the material combinations in the interconnect stack. The interconnect stack includes substrate pad, pad finish, bump, underbump metallization (UBM) and the chip pad. Therefore separate test groups for SnAg bumps on Cu substrate pads with organic solderability preservative (OSP) finish and the identical bumps on pads with Ni/Au finish were used. In this paper the reliability test results and the corresponding failure analysis are presented. Some explanations about the differences in formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are given.

  3. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory: effects of age, gender, education, and culture.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Steve M J; Chessa, Antonio G; Murre, Jaap M J

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the age distribution of autobiographical memories with the Galton-Crovitz method through the Internet. Almost 2000 participants in the United States and the Netherlands aged between 11 and 70 years participated. They were presented with 10 cue words, and were asked to recall and date autobiographical memories. We found strong evidence for a "reminiscence bump" in all participant groups at all ages, with peaks at ages 15--18 for men and 13--14 for women. This peak could be localised more precisely than in previous studies due to our large sample size. We were able to remove the forgetting effect from the empirical age distribution with a method that allows separate estimation of memory encoding and forgetting. American participants showed a tendency to report older memories than the Dutch. Age group and level of education did not influence the lifetime encoding function.

  4. A novel study: forgetting curves and the reminiscence bump.

    PubMed

    Copeland, David E; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Goodwin, Kerri A

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the forgetting curves for information read in a novel. People read a 10-chapter novel where each chapter covered an approximately 10-year period in the life of the protagonist. After reading the entire novel, participants completed various memory tests in which they summarised the novel, provided associated information from cues, and answered specific questions. Performance was plotted as the amount of information or the accuracy of question answering for each chapter. All of the memory tests revealed similar patterns: (a) better performance for early information (a primacy effect), (b) a bump in performance when the protagonist was approximately 20 years old, and (c) a smaller bump in performance when the protagonist began a career later in life. These results are considered in the context of theories of forgetting, autobiographical memory, and situation models.

  5. Bump formation in a binary attractor neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Koroutchev, Kostadin; Korutcheva, Elka

    2006-02-15

    The conditions for the formation of local bumps in the activity of binary attractor neural networks with spatially dependent connectivity are investigated. We show that these formations are observed when asymmetry between the activity during the retrieval and learning is imposed. An analytical approximation for the order parameters is derived. The corresponding phase diagram shows a relatively large and stable region where this effect is observed, although critical storage and information capacities drastically decrease inside that region. We demonstrate that the stability of the network, when starting from the bump formation, is larger than the stability when starting even from the whole pattern. Finally, we show a very good agreement between the analytical results and the simulations performed for different topologies of the network.

  6. The AGB bump: a calibrator for core mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, Diego; Miglio, Andrea; Salaris, Maurizio; Girardi, Léo; Montalbán, Josefina; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Noels, Arlette

    2015-09-01

    The efficiency of convection in stars affects many aspects of their evolution and remains one of the key-open questions in stellar modelling. In particular, the size of the mixed core in core-He-burning low-mass stars is still uncertain and impacts the lifetime of this evolutionary phase and, e.g., the C/O profile in white dwarfs. One of the known observables related to the Horizontal Branch (HB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) evolution is the AGB bump. Its luminosity depends on the position in mass of the helium-burning shell at its first ignition, that is affected by the extension of the central mixed region. In this preliminary work we show how various assumptions on near-core mixing and on the thermal stratification in the overshooting region affect the luminosity of the AGB bump, as well as the period spacing of gravity modes in core-He-burning models.

  7. A novel study: forgetting curves and the reminiscence bump.

    PubMed

    Copeland, David E; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Goodwin, Kerri A

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the forgetting curves for information read in a novel. People read a 10-chapter novel where each chapter covered an approximately 10-year period in the life of the protagonist. After reading the entire novel, participants completed various memory tests in which they summarised the novel, provided associated information from cues, and answered specific questions. Performance was plotted as the amount of information or the accuracy of question answering for each chapter. All of the memory tests revealed similar patterns: (a) better performance for early information (a primacy effect), (b) a bump in performance when the protagonist was approximately 20 years old, and (c) a smaller bump in performance when the protagonist began a career later in life. These results are considered in the context of theories of forgetting, autobiographical memory, and situation models. PMID:19206017

  8. The physics of bump drafting in car racing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-11-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the physics of drag in moving vehicles. In the context of a physics undergraduate course, it is shown that the dynamics of two moving cars in the same air slipstream on a straight line allows them to increase their speed up to a factor of \\sqrt{2} . This conclusion is also extended to an arbitrary number of n identical moving cars, resulting in an increase of \\sqrt{n} .

  9. Characterization of indium and solder bump bonding for pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk Cihangir and Simon Kwan

    2000-09-28

    A review of different bump-bonding processes used for pixel detectors is given. A large scale test on daisy-chained components from two vendors has been carried out at Fermilab to characterize the yield of these processes. The vendors are Advanced Interconnect Technology Ltd. (AIT) of Hong Kong and MCNC in North Carolina, US. The results from this test are presented and technical challenges encountered are discussed.

  10. Micro Cu Bump Interconnection on 3D Chip Stacking Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, Kazumasa; Umemoto, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Naotaka; Tomita, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) chip stacking LSI technology under development at the Association of Super-Advanced Electronic Technologies (ASET) is a new packaging technology to realize high-density and high-speed transmission, and superfine flip-chip bonding technologies in 20-μm-pitch microbumps on Cu through-via (TV) are substantial technologies. As for advanced bonding technology, Cu bump bonding (CBB) utilizing Sn alloy is a simple process to connect Cu TVs directly without the formation of bumps on the device back surface, and the influence of the intermetallic compound (IMC) on the minute interconnection focusing on the bondability and reliability was verified, and the following results were obtained. The IMC state formed at the bonding interface depended on bonding temperature, and was confirmed as multilayered Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn at 240°C, and single-layered Cu3Sn at 350°C. The IMC state is the governing factor of bondabilities of Cu bump interconnection in a 20-μm-pitch. The electroresistance value of the Cu bump interconnection was approximately 0.45 Ω, and no significant difference was confirmed under each condition. Young’s modulus values of IMC (Cu6Sn5:112.6 GPa and Cu3Sn:132.7 GPa) were obtained by the nano-indentation test. The Sn-Ag layer as bonding material should be reduced to Cu-Sn IMC, and a low-rigid resin was preferable in terms of interconnection reliability based on the results of finite element method (FEM) analysis. Finally, the vertical interconnections utilizing CBB were formed, and the increase in electrical resistance by stacking one TV chip was approximately 0.03 Ω. Therefore, sufficient electrical vertical interconnection of Cu TV in a 20-μm-pitch was performed.

  11. Electromigration of composite Sn-Ag-Cu solder bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Xu, Di Erick; Chow, Jasper; Mayer, Michael; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the electromigration (EM) behavior of lead free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder alloys that were reinforced with different types of nanoparticles [Copper-coated carbon nanotubes (Cu/CNT), La2O3, Graphene, SiC, and ZrO2]. The composite solders were bumped on a Cu substrate at 220°C, and the resistance of the bumped solders was measured using a four wire setup. Current aging was carried out for 4 hours at a temperature of 160°C, and an increase in resistance was noted during this time. Of all the composite solders that were studied, La2O3 and SiC reinforced SAC solders exhibited the smallest resistances after current aging. However, the rate of change in the resistance at room temperature was lower for the SiC-reinforced SAC solder. The SAC and Graphene reinforced SAC solder bumps completely failed within 15 - 20 min of these tests. The SiC nanoparticles were reported to possibly entrap the SAC atoms better than other nanoparticles with a lower rate of EM. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events: A comparison across different cueing methods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised by spikes in citations according to the years these events occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that the bump in most important autobiographical memories was a function of the cultural life script. Our findings did not yield support for any of the dominant existing accounts of the bump as underlying the bump in word-cued memories.

  13. A precise extraction of the induced polarization in the 4He(e,e'p)3H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Malace, M. Paolone, S. Strauch

    2011-01-01

    We measured with unprecedented precision the induced polarization Py in 4He(e,e'p)3H at Q^2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)^2 and 1.3 (GeV/c)^2. The induced polarization is indicative of reaction-mechanism effects beyond the impulse approximation. Our results are in agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation calculation but are over-estimated by a calculation with strong charge-exchange effects. Our data are used to constrain the strength of the spin independent charge-exchange term in the latter calculation.

  14. A study of thermal cycling and radiation effects on indium and solder bump bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk Cihangir et al.

    2001-09-12

    The BTeV hybrid pixel detector is constructed of readout chips and sensor arrays which are developed separately. The detector is assembled by flip-chip mating of the two parts. This method requires the availability of highly reliable, reasonably low cost fine-pitch flip-chip attachment technology. We have tested the quality of two bump-bonding technologies; indium bumps (by Advanced Interconnect Technology Ltd. (AIT) of Hong Kong) and fluxless solder bumps (by MCNC in North Carolina, USA). The results have been presented elsewhere[1]. In this paper we describe tests we performed to further evaluate these technologies. We subjected 15 indium bump-bonded and 15 fluxless solder bump-bonded dummy detectors through a thermal cycle and then a dose of radiation to observe the effects of cooling, heating and radiation on bump-bonds.

  15. Aqueous-based thick photoresist removal for bumping applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John C.; Brewer, Alex J.; Law, Alman; Pettit, Jared M.

    2015-03-01

    Cleaning processes account for over 25% of processing in microelectronic manufacturing [1], suggesting electronics to be one of the most chemical intensive markets in commerce. Industry roadmaps exist to reduce chemical exposure, usage, and waste [2]. Companies are encouraged to create a safer working environment, or green factory, and ultimately become certified similar to LEED in the building industry [3]. A significant step in this direction is the integration of aqueous-based photoresist (PR) strippers which eliminate regulatory risks and cut costs by over 50%. One of the largest organic solvent usages is based upon thick PR removal during bumping processes [4-6]. Using market projections and the benefits of recycling, it is estimated that over 1,000 metric tons (mt) of residuals originating from bumping processes are incinerated or sent to a landfill. Aqueous-based stripping would eliminate this disposal while also reducing the daily risks to workers and added permitting costs. Positive-tone PR dissolves in aqueous strippers while negative-tone systems are lifted-off from the substrate, bumps, pillars, and redistribution layers (RDL). While the wafers are further processed and rinsed, the lifted-off PR is pumped from the tank, collected onto a filter, and periodically back-flushed to the trash. The PR solids become a non-hazardous plastic waste while the liquids are mixed with the developer stream, neutralized, filtered, and in most cases, disposed to the sewer. Regardless of PR thickness, removal processes may be tuned to perform in <15min, performing at rates nearly 10X faster than solvents with higher bath lives. A balanced formula is safe for metals, dielectrics, and may be customized to any fab.

  16. [Bumping into a knife--exculpatory statement or (tragic) accident?].

    PubMed

    Wilke, Nadine; Püschel, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Assessing stab wounds is a common task in forensic medicine. Quite often an accused claims that the victim bumped into the knife. Taking into account all the facts ascertained in the investigations conducted, such a statement can be rapidly disproved in most cases. The present case of a 14-year-old boy fatally wounded by his mother with a kitchen knife examines the aspect of walking into a knife. It is an example that this statement cannot always be regarded as implausible and that every single case has to be reconstructed in detail on the basis of all the investigation results. PMID:22039697

  17. Cortical Clefts and Cortical Bumps: A Continuous Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asthik; Furruqh, Farha; Thirunavukarasu, Suresh; Vivekandan, Ravichandran

    2016-07-01

    Cortical 'clefts' (schizencephaly) and cortical 'bumps' (polymicrogyria) are malformations arising due to defects in postmigrational development of neurons. They are frequently encountered together, with schizencephalic clefts being lined by polymicrogyria. We present the case of an eight-year-old boy who presented with seizures. Imaging revealed closed lip schizencephaly, polymicrogyria and a deep 'incomplete' cleft lined by polymicrogyria not communicating with the lateral ventricle. We speculate that hypoperfusion or ischaemic cortical injury during neuronal development may lead to a spectrum of malformations ranging from polymicrogyria to incomplete cortical clefts to schizencephaly. PMID:27630923

  18. Precise determination of the deuteron spin structure at low to moderate Q2 with CLAS and extraction of the neutron contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, N.; Fersch, R. G.; Kuhn, S. E.; Bosted, P.; Griffioen, K. A.; Keith, C.; Minehart, R.; Prok, Y.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We present the final results for the deuteron spin structure functions obtained from the full data set collected in 2000-2001 with Jefferson Lab's continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS). Polarized electrons with energies of 1.6, 2.5, 4.2, and 5.8 GeV were scattered from deuteron (15ND3 ) targets, dynamically polarized along the beam direction, and detected with CLAS. From the measured double-spin asymmetry, the virtual photon absorption asymmetry A1d and the polarized structure function g1d were extracted over a wide kinematic range (0.05 GeV2extract from these data the polarized structure functions A1n and g1n of the (bound) neutron, which are so far unknown in the resonance region, W <2 GeV. We compare our final results, including several moments of the deuteron and neutron spin structure functions, with various theoretical models and expectations, as well as parametrizations of the world data. The unprecedented precision and dense kinematic coverage of these data can aid in future extractions of polarized parton distributions, tests of perturbative QCD predictions for the quark polarization at large x , a better understanding of quark-hadron duality, and more precise values for higher-twist matrix elements in the framework of the operator product expansion.

  19. Precise determination of the deuteron spin structure at low to moderate Q2 with CLAS and extraction of the neutron contribution

    DOE PAGES

    Guler, N.; Fersch, R. G.; Kuhn, S. E.; Bosted, P.; Griffioen, K. A.; Keith, C.; Minehart, R.; Prok, Y.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; et al

    2015-11-02

    In this study, we present the final results for the deuteron spin structure functions obtained from the full data set collected with Jefferson Lab's CLAS in 2000-2001. Polarized electrons with energies of 1.6, 2.5, 4.2 and 5.8 GeV were scattered from deuteron (15ND3) targets, dynamically polarized along the beam direction, and detected with CLAS. From the measured double spin asymmetry, the virtual photon absorption asymmetry Ad1 and the polarized structure function gd1 were extracted over a wide kinematic range (0.05 GeV2 < Q2 < 5 GeV2 and 0.9 GeV < W < 3 GeV). We use an unfolding procedure andmore » a parametrization of the corresponding proton results to extract from these data the polarized structure functions An1 and g1n of the (bound) neutron, which are so far unknown in the resonance region, W < 2 GeV. We compare our final results, including several moments of the deuteron and neutron spin structure functions, with various theoretical models and expectations as well as parametrizations of the world data. The unprecedented precision and dense kinematic coverage of these data can aid in future extractions of polarized parton distributions, tests of perturbative QCD predictions for the quark polarization at large x, a better understanding of quark-hadron duality, and more precise values for higher-twist matrix elements in the framework of the Operator Product Expansion.« less

  20. Measurement of the ratio σ{tt}/σ{Z/γ{*}→ll} and precise extraction of the tt cross section.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-07-01

    We report a measurement of the ratio of the tt to Z/γ{*} production cross sections in sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV pp collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6  fb{-1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The tt cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/γ{*}→ll cross section predicted by the standard model, the extracted tt cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result σ{tt}=7.70±0.52  pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5  GeV/c{2}.

  1. Analysis and design modifications for upgrade of storage ring bump pulse system driving the injection bump magnets at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, G.D.

    1995-04-01

    A fast (4.0 ms half period) resonant discharge pulse system, using SCRs, was designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet system at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The commissioning process revealed a high frequency resonance (T = 800 NS) superimposed on the driver discharge wave form. In addition, the peak amplitude of the magnet load recovery current exceeded design specifications. A SPICE analysis confirmed the suspected mechanisms for the parasitic ringing and the excessive load current {open_quotes}undershoot{close_quotes}. This paper will address the subsequent analysis, measurements, and modifications carried out during the maintenance shutdown in June 1993.

  2. Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.

    PubMed

    Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error.

  3. Evaluating the solution from MrBUMP and BALBES

    SciTech Connect

    Keegan, Ronan M.; Long, Fei; Fazio, Vincent J.; Winn, Martyn D.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Vagin, Alexei A.

    2011-04-01

    The automated pipelines for molecular replacement MrBUMP and BALBES are reviewed, with an emphasis on understanding their output. Conclusions are drawn from their performance in extensive trials. Molecular replacement is one of the key methods used to solve the problem of determining the phases of structure factors in protein structure solution from X-ray image diffraction data. Its success rate has been steadily improving with the development of improved software methods and the increasing number of structures available in the PDB for use as search models. Despite this, in cases where there is low sequence identity between the target-structure sequence and that of its set of possible homologues it can be a difficult and time-consuming chore to isolate and prepare the best search model for molecular replacement. MrBUMP and BALBES are two recent developments from CCP4 that have been designed to automate and speed up the process of determining and preparing the best search models and putting them through molecular replacement. Their intention is to provide the user with a broad set of results using many search models and to highlight the best of these for further processing. An overview of both programs is presented along with a description of how best to use them, citing case studies and the results of large-scale testing of the software.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF A DC BUMP AT THE STORAGE RING INJECTION STRAIGHT SECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan, T.; Kramer, S.K.; Fliller, R.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Yu, L.H.; Parker, B.; Willeke, F.J.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS II beam injection works with a DC septum, a pulsed septum and four fast kicker magnets. The kicker power supplies each produce a two revolution period pulsed field, 5.2 {micro}s half sine waveform, using {approx}5kA drive voltage. The corresponding close orbit bump amplitude is {approx}15mm. It is desired that the bump is transparent to the users for top-off injection. However, high voltage and short pulse power supplies have challenges to maintain pulse-to-pulse stability and magnet-to-magnet reproducibility. To minimize these issues, we propose implementing a DC local bump on top of the fast bump to reduce the fast kicker strength by a factor of 2/3. This bump uses two storage ring corrector magnets plus one additional magnet at the septum to create a local bump. Additionally, these magnets could provide a DC bump to simulate the septum position effects on the store beam lifetime. This paper presents the detail design of this DC injection bump and related beam dynamics.

  5. Dust and gas density evolution at a radial pressure bump in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Masaki; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the simultaneous evolution of dust and gas density profiles at a radial pressure bump located in a protoplanetary disk. If dust particles are treated as test particles, a radial pressure bump traps dust particles that drift radially inward. As the dust particles become more concentrated at the gas pressure bump, however, the drag force from dust to gas (back-reaction), which is ignored in a test-particle approach, deforms the pressure bump. We find that the pressure bump is completely deformed by the back-reaction when the dust-to-gas mass ratio reaches ~ 1 for a slower bump restoration. The direct gravitational instability of dust particles is inhibited by the bump destruction. In the dust-enriched region, the radial pressure support becomes ~ 10-100 times lower than the global value set initially. Although the pressure bump is a favorable place for streaming instability (SI), the flattened pressure gradient inhibits SI from forming large particle clumps corresponding to 100-1000 km sized bodies, which has been previously proposed. If SI occurs there, the dust clumps formed would be 10-100 times smaller, that is, of about 1-100 km.

  6. Effect of Compressibility on the Flow past a Two-dimensional Bump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W F; Daley, Bernard N

    1952-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine experimentally the effects of compressibility on the flow past a bump and to compare the experimentally determined results with theory. Pressure measurements and Schlieren photographs were made of the flow past two bumps having thickness-chord ratios of 0.10 and 0.30 at Mach numbers between 0.20 and 0.84

  7. Computer analysis of flow perturbations generated by placement of choke bumps in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.

  8. Planning and drilling geothermal energy extraction hole EE-2: a precisely oriented and deviated hole in hot granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Helmick, C.; Koczan, S.; Pettitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    During the preceding work (Phase I) of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy Project at Fenton Hill, two holes were drilled to a depth of nearly 3048 m (10,000 ft) and connected by a vertical hydraulic fracture. In this phase, water was pumped through the underground reservoir for approximately 417 days, producing an energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t). Energy Extraction Hole No. 2 (EE-2) is the first of two deep holes that will be used in the Engineering-Resource Development System (Phase II) of the ongoing HDR Project of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This phase of the work consists of drilling two parallel boreholes, inclined in their lower, open-hole sections at 35/sup 0/ to the vertical and separated by a vertical distance of 366 m (1200 ft) between the inclined parts of the drill holes. The holes will be connected by a series of vertical, hydraulically produced fractures in the Precambrian granitic rock complex. EE-2 was drilled to a depth of 4660 m (15,289 ft), where the bottom-hole temperature is approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F). Directional drilling techniques were used to control the azimuth and deviation of the hole. Upgrading of the temperature capability of existing hardware, and development of new equipment was necessary to complete the drilling of the hole in the extremely hot, hard, and abrasive granitic formation. The drilling history and the problems with bits, directional tools, tubular goods, cementing, and logging are described. A discussion of the problems and recommendations for overcoming them are also presented.

  9. Study of indium and solder bumps for the BTeV Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Simon W Kwan et al.

    2003-11-05

    The pixel detector proposed for the BTeV experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron will use bump-bonding technology based on either Indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have studied the strength of the bumps by visual inspection of the bumps bonding silicon sensor modules to dummy chips made out of glass. The studies were done before and after thermal cycles, exposed to intense irradiation, and with the assemblies glued to a graphite substrate. We have also carried out studies on effects of temperature changes on both types of bump bonds by observing the responses of single-chip pixel detectors to an Sr{sup 90} source. We report the results from these studies and our plan to measure the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the bumps.

  10. Bumps, witches and bouncing beams: lab investigations of internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Thomas; Balmforth, Neil; Tabaei, Ali

    2005-11-01

    There is a great, ongoing effort to better understand the processes surrounding internal wave generation, propagation and dissipation in the oceans. To contribute to this effort, we are in the process of establishing a state-of-the-art experimental facility. The facility, based around the digital schlieren method, is designed to investigate both linear and non-linear phenomena in a laboratory setting. We here report the latest experimental results concerning tidal conversion by typical topographic features, such as a Gaussian bump and a knife-edge. The quantitative results compare very well with theoretical predictions developed from the classic work of Bell and Hurley, and more recent analysis of subcritical topography by Balmforth et al. In addition, we present more details on recently published results concerning the nonlinear generation of second-harmonic wavebeams at reflecting boundaries.

  11. The anti-lotus leaf effect in nanohydrodynamic bump arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Keith; Tsui, Ophelia K. C.; Tung, Chih-Kuan; Sturm, James C.; Chou, Stephen Y.; Austin, Robert

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we address the hydraulic flow of fluids on and within nanofabricated hydrophilic (as opposed to hydrophobic) surfaces, and the influence of an extended precursor film on the wetting dynamics of water penetrating a nano-textured array of posts that has no sealing surface (open-top). The width of the precursor film in front of the wetting edge δ is extraordinarily large, approximately 2 mm for our device, and it drives the wetting penetration film in the open-top array. We discuss the way this thin precursor film controls the movement of the macroscopic wetting front Lw and its dynamics in the nanofabricated array of posts. Rapid and controllable transport of nanoparticles in such an open top array of posts, as controlled by the precursor film, is demonstrated using a bump array textured morphology.

  12. Single bump, two-color quantum dot camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, E.; Lenz, M.; Lee, S. J.; Brown, J. S.; Ramirez, D. A.; Stintz, A.; Krishna, S.; Reisinger, Axel; Sundaram, Mani

    2007-08-01

    The authors report a two-color, colocated quantum dot based imaging system used to take multicolor images using a single focal plane array (FPA). The dots-in-a-well (DWELL) detectors consist of an active region composed of InAs quantum dots embedded in In.15Ga.85As quantum wells. DWELL samples were grown using molecular beam epitaxy and fabricated into 320×256 focal plane arrays with indium bumps. The FPA was then hybridized to an Indigo ISC9705 readout circuit and tested. Calibrated blackbody measurements at a device temperature of 77K yield midwave infrared and long wave infrared noise equivalent difference in temperature of ˜55 and 70mK.

  13. ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jaeger, C.; Rouille, G.; Huisken, F.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, Th. E-mail: Cornelia.Jaeger@uni-jena.de

    2010-03-20

    Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  14. Extraction of CO2 from air samples for isotopic analysis and limits to ultra high precision delta18O determination in CO2 gas.

    PubMed

    Werner, R A; Rothe, M; Brand, W A

    2001-01-01

    be as long as 20 min for high precision delta18O measurements. The presence of traces of air in almost all CO2 gases that we analyzed was another major source of error. Nitrogen and oxygen in the ion source of our mass spectrometer (MAT 252, Finnigan MAT, Bremen, Germany) give rise to the production of NO2 at the hot tungsten filament. NO2+ is isobaric with C16O18O+ (m/z 46) and interferes with the delta18O measurement. Trace amounts of air are present in CO2 extracted cryogenically from air at -196 degrees C. This air, trapped at the cold surface, cannot be pumped away quantitatively. The amount of air present depends on the surface structure and, hence, the alteration of the measured delta18O value varies with the surface conditions. For automated high precision measurement of the isotopic composition of CO2 of air samples stored in glass flasks an extraction interface ('BGC-AirTrap') was developed which allows 18 analyses (including standards) per day to be made. For our reference CO2-in-air, stored in high pressure cylinders, the long term (>9 months) single sample precision was 0.012 per thousand for delta13C and 0.019 per thousand for delta18O.

  15. A study of thermal cycling and radiation effects on indium and solder bump bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Kwan et al.

    2001-12-11

    The BTeV hybrid pixel detector is constructed of readout chips and sensor arrays which are developed separately. The detector is assembled by flip-chip mating of the two parts. This method requires the availability of highly reliable, reasonably low cost fine-pitch flip-chip attachment technology. We have tested the quality of two bump-bonding technologies; indium bumps (by Advanced Interconnect Technology Ltd. (AIT) of Hong Kong) and fluxless solder bumps (by MCNC in North Carolina, USA). The results have been presented elsewhere [1]. In this paper we describe tests we performed to further evaluate these technologies. We subjected 15 indium bump-bonded and 15 fluxless solder bump-bonded dummy detectors through a thermal cycle and then a dose of radiation to observe the effects of cooling, heating and radiation on bump-bonds. We also exercised the processes of HDI mounting and wire bonding to some of the dummy detectors to see the effect of these processes on bump bonds.

  16. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Blank, T.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Husemann, U.; Kudella, S.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes.

  17. Design rule of indium bump in infrared focal plane array for longer cycling life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Yanqiu; Si, Junjie; Meng, Qingduan

    2016-05-01

    In light of the proposed equivalent method, a three-dimensional structural modeling of InSb infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) is created, and the simulated strain distribution is identical to the deformation distribution on the top surface of InSb IRFPAs. After comparing the deformation features at different regions with the structural characteristics of IRFPAs, we infer that the flatness of InSb IRFPAs will be improved with a thinner indium bump array, and this inference is verified by subsequent simulation results. That is, when the diameter of indium bump is smaller than 20 μm, the simulated Z-components of strain on the whole top surface of InSb IRFPAs is uniform, and the deformation amplitude is small. When the diameter of indium bump is larger than 28 μm, the simulated Z-components of strain increases rapidly with the thicker indium bump, and the flatness of InSb IRFPAs is worsened rapidly. According to the changing trend of deformation amplitude with diameters of indium bump, and employing element pitches normalization method, a design rule of indium bump is proposed. That is, when the diameter of indium bump is shorter than 0.4 times the element pitch, the flatness of InSb IRFPAs is in an acceptable range. This design rule was supported by different IRFPAs with different formats delivered by several main research groups for achieving a longer cycling life.

  18. Thermal Stress of Surface Oxide Layer on Micro Solder Bumps During Reflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key Chung, C.; Zhu, Z. X.; Kao, C. R.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-bumps are now being developed with diameters smaller than 10 μm. At these dimensions, only very small amounts of solder are used to form the interconnections. Surface oxidation of such small micro-bumps is a critical issue. The key question is whether the oxide film on the solder bumps acts as a barrier to formation of solder joints. In this work, the mechanical stability of the oxide layer on solder bumps was investigated. Solder bumps with 35- μm radii were heated for different times. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layer on the solder bumps. Solder bumps with known oxide layer thicknesses were then heated in a low-oxygen environment (<50 ppm) until they melted. The mechanical stability of the oxide layer was observed by use of a high-speed camera. Results showed that a 14-nm-thick oxide layer on a solder bump of radius 35 μm was able to withstand the molten solder without cracking, leading to a non-wetting solder joint. A thermal stress model of the surface oxide layer revealed that the stress varied substantially with bump size and temperature, and increased almost linearly with temperature. Upon melting, the thermal stress on the oxide increased abruptly, because of the higher thermal expansion of molten solder compared with its solid state. On the basis of the experimental results and the thermal stress model of the oxide film, the maximum oxide thickness that can be tolerated to form a solder joint was determined, e.g. 14 nm oxide can support liquid solder, and thus lead to a non-wetting condition. This work provided a new method of determination of the maximum stress of oxide film for solder joint formation.

  19. COMPARISON OF OFF-LINE IR BUMP AND ACTION-ANGLE KICK MINIMIZATION.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    The interaction region bump (IR bump) nonlinear correction method has been used for the sextupole and octupole field error on-line corrections in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) . Some differences were found for the sextupole and octupole corrector strengths between the on-line IR bump correction and the predictions from the action-angle kick minimization. In this article, we compare the corrector strengths from these two methods based on the RHIC Blue ring lattice with the IR nonlinear modeling. The comparison confirms the differences between resulting corrector strengths. And the reason for the differences is found and discussed.

  20. Preparation of Sn—Ag—In ternary solder bumps by electroplating in sequence and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongliang, Wang; Yuan, Yuan; Le, Luo

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes a technique that can obtain ternary Sn—Ag—In solder bumps with fine pitch and homogenous composition distribution. The mainfeature of this process is that tin-silver and indium are electroplated on copper under bump metallization (UBM) in sequence. After an accurate reflow process, Sn1.8Ag9.4In solder bumps are obtained. It is found that the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) between Sn—Ag—In solder and Cu grow with the reflow time, which results in an increase in Ag concentration in the solder area. So during solidification, more Ag2In nucleates and strengthens the solder.

  1. Optimization of indium bump preparation in infrared focal plane array fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhijin; Si, Junjie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haizhen; Wang, Liwen

    2014-11-01

    Optimization of indium bump preparation in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) fabrication is presented. Reasons of bringing defective pixels during conventional lift-off and cleanout process in fabrication of indium bump are discussed. IRFPAs are characterized by IRFPA test-bench. Results show that defective pixels of InSb IRFPA are owing to indium bumps connecting through indium residue on the surface of wafer. The characteristic and configuration of defective pixels of InSb IRFPA are given and analyzed. A method of reducing defective pixels through optimizing liftoff and cleanout process in InSb IRFPA is proposed. Results prove that this method is effective.

  2. Evaluation of advanced microelectronic fluxless solder-bump contacts for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandal, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Technology for interconnecting monolithic integrated circuit chips with other components is investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the current flip-chip approach as compared to other interconnection methods are outlined. A fluxless solder-bump contact technology is evaluated. Multiple solder-bump contacts were formed on silicon integrated circuit chips. The solder-bumps, comprised of a rigid nickel under layer and a compliant solder overlayer, were electroformed onto gold device pads with the aid of thick dry film photomasks. Different solder alloys and the use of conductive epoxy for bonding were explored. Fluxless solder-bump bond quality and reliability were evaluated by measuring the effects of centrifuge, thermal cycling, and high temperature storage on bond visual characteristics, bond electrical continuity, and bond shear tests. The applicability and suitability of this technology for hybrid microelectronic packaging is discussed.

  3. Pictorial essay: USG of lumps and bumps of the foot and ankle

    PubMed Central

    Botchu, Rajesh; Khan, Aman; Bhatt, Raj

    2010-01-01

    USG is a cost-effective and dynamic way to interrogate superficial lumps and bumps. We present a pictorial review of the USG findings in various “lumps and bumps” of the foot and ankle. PMID:20607019

  4. The study of selective heating of indium bump in MCT infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Cao, Lan; Zhuang, Fulong; Hu, Xiaoning; Gong, Haimei

    2012-10-01

    Generally the electrical interconnectivity between The Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) device and circuit takes the flip chip technology using indium bump as a connection medium. In order to improve the reliability of the interconnectivity indium melting is a common packaging technique at present. This technique is called reflow soldering. The heating is transferred to the indium bump by heating the device and circuit. This heating process will persist about 10 minutes resulting in the MCT material going through a 10 minutes high temperature baking course. This baking process will strongly degenerate the characteristic of the MCT device. Under this circumstance this article gives a new heating technique for indium bump which is call induction heating melting technique. This method realizes the selective heating. While the indium bump is melted by the conduction heating the semiconductor material such as MCT can't be heated.

  5. Indium bump array fabrication on small CMOS circuit for flip-chip bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuyang, Huang; Yuxiang, Zhang; Zhizhen, Yin; Guoxin, Cui; C, Liu H.; Lifeng, Bian; Hui, Yang; Yaohui, Zhang

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for indium bump fabrication on a small CMOS circuit chip that is to be flip-chip bonded with a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well spatial light modulator. A chip holder with a via hole is used to coat the photoresist for indium bump lift-off. The 1000 μm-wide photoresist edge bead around the circuit chip can be reduced to less than 500 μm, which ensures the integrity of the indium bump array. 64 × 64 indium arrays with 20 μm-high, 30 μm-diameter bumps are successfully formed on a 5 × 6.5 mm2 CMOS chip.

  6. Multi-bump solutions for the nonlinear Schroedinger-Poisson system

    SciTech Connect

    Li Gongbao; Peng Shuangjie; Wang Chunhua

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear Schroedinger-Poisson system with a parameter {epsilon}. For any positive integer m, we prove that there exists {epsilon}(m) > 0 such that, for 0 < {epsilon} < {epsilon}(m), the equation has an m-bump positive solution under some suitable conditions. As a consequence, the equation has more and more multi-bump positive solutions as {epsilon}{yields} 0.

  7. Computer evaluation of bump hazards associated with coal mining under competent roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Karfakis, M.G.; Wu, Xiolin

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a Windows-based software CBPEP which provide mining engineers with a tool for quantitative assessment of coal bump potential associated with longwall and room-and-pillar retreating mining under competent roofs. CBPEP implements eight single- and double-layer roof models and analytical solutions. The program can be used to analyze roof caveability, strain energy accumulated around the working faces, and bump possibility caused by delayed caving of the strong roofs.

  8. Development of Indium bump bonding for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, G.; Andreazza, A.; Corda, G.; Darbo, G.; Di Gioia, S.; Fiorello, A.; Gariano, G.; Gemme, C.; Meroni, C.; Rovani, A.; Ruscino, E.

    2013-01-01

    About half of the ATLAS pixel modules have been assembled with the Selex indium bump bonding process. The requirements of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) detector ask for larger and thinner chips, two critical parameters for bonding processes. We report on the research and development carried on with Selex to produce modules with 100 μm thick and 18.8 × 20.2 mm2 area read out chips bonded with indium bumps.

  9. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. PMID:25684283

  10. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking.

  11. Multi-bump solutions in a neural field model with external inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Flora; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Bicho, Estela

    2016-07-01

    We study the conditions for the formation of multiple regions of high activity or "bumps" in a one-dimensional, homogeneous neural field with localized inputs. Stable multi-bump solutions of the integro-differential equation have been proposed as a model of a neural population representation of remembered external stimuli. We apply a class of oscillatory coupling functions and first derive criteria to the input width and distance, which relate to the synaptic couplings that guarantee the existence and stability of one and two regions of high activity. These input-induced patterns are attracted by the corresponding stable one-bump and two-bump solutions when the input is removed. We then extend our analytical and numerical investigation to N-bump solutions showing that the constraints on the input shape derived for the two-bump case can be exploited to generate a memory of N > 2 localized inputs. We discuss the pattern formation process when either the conditions on the input shape are violated or when the spatial ranges of the excitatory and inhibitory connections are changed. An important aspect for applications is that the theoretical findings allow us to determine for a given coupling function the maximum number of localized inputs that can be stored in a given finite interval.

  12. Traveling bumps and their collisions in a two-dimensional neural field.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Sato, Yuzuru; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2011-05-01

    A neural field is a continuous version of a neural network model accounting for dynamical pattern forming from populational firing activities in neural tissues. These patterns include standing bumps, moving bumps, traveling waves, target waves, breathers, and spiral waves, many of them observed in various brain areas. They can be categorized into two types: a wave-like activity spreading over the field and a particle-like localized activity. We show through numerical experiments that localized traveling excitation patterns (traveling bumps), which behave like particles, exist in a two-dimensional neural field with excitation and inhibition mechanisms. The traveling bumps do not require any geometric restriction (boundary) to prevent them from propagating away, a fact that might shed light on how neurons in the brain are functionally organized. Collisions of traveling bumps exhibit rich phenomena; they might reveal the manner of information processing in the cortex and be useful in various applications. The trajectories of traveling bumps can be controlled by external inputs.

  13. Stability of bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with nonlinear adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-06-01

    We study the linear stability of stationary bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with local negative feedback in the form of synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Discontinuities in the adaptation variable associated with a bump solution means that bump stability cannot be analyzed by constructing the Evans function for a network with a sigmoidal gain function and then taking the high-gain limit. In the case of synaptic depression, we show that linear stability can be formulated in terms of solutions to a system of pseudo-linear equations. We thus establish that sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a bump that is stable in the absence of depression. These instabilities are dominated by shift perturbations that evolve into traveling pulses. In the case of spike frequency adaptation, we show that for a wide class of perturbations the activity and adaptation variables decouple in the linear regime, thus allowing us to explicitly determine stability in terms of the spectrum of a smooth linear operator. We find that bumps are always unstable with respect to this class of perturbations, and destabilization of a bump can result in either a traveling pulse or a spatially localized breather.

  14. The effect of dilution and the use of a post-extraction nucleic acid purification column on the accuracy, precision, and inhibition of environmental DNA samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mckee, Anna M.; Spear, Stephen F.; Pierson, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly common method for detecting presence and assessing relative abundance of rare or elusive species in aquatic systems via the isolation of DNA from environmental samples and the amplification of species-specific sequences using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Co-extracted substances that inhibit qPCR can lead to inaccurate results and subsequent misinterpretation about a species’ status in the tested system. We tested three treatments (5-fold and 10-fold dilutions, and spin-column purification) for reducing qPCR inhibition from 21 partially and fully inhibited eDNA samples collected from coastal plain wetlands and mountain headwater streams in the southeastern USA. All treatments reduced the concentration of DNA in the samples. However, column purified samples retained the greatest sensitivity. For stream samples, all three treatments effectively reduced qPCR inhibition. However, for wetland samples, the 5-fold dilution was less effective than other treatments. Quantitative PCR results for column purified samples were more precise than the 5-fold and 10-fold dilutions by 2.2× and 3.7×, respectively. Column purified samples consistently underestimated qPCR-based DNA concentrations by approximately 25%, whereas the directional bias in qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed between stream and wetland samples for both dilution treatments. While the directional bias of qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed among treatments and locations, the magnitude of inaccuracy did not. Our results suggest that 10-fold dilution and column purification effectively reduce qPCR inhibition in mountain headwater stream and coastal plain wetland eDNA samples, and if applied to all samples in a study, column purification may provide the most accurate relative qPCR-based DNA concentrations estimates while retaining the greatest assay sensitivity.

  15. RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP BRIGHTNESS AND NUMBER COUNTS IN 72 GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, {Delta}Y {approx} +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  16. Red Giant Branch Bump Brightness and Number Counts in 72 Galactic Globular Clusters Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, ΔY ~ +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  17. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  18. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broennimann, Ch.; Glaus, F.; Gobrecht, J.; Heising, S.; Horisberger, M.; Horisberger, R.; Kästli, H. C.; Lehmann, J.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.

    2006-09-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100 μm, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006.

  19. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul; Hasz, Wayne Charles; Johnson, Robert Alan; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  20. KELT-8b: A Highly Inflated Transiting Hot Jupiter and a New Technique for Extracting High-precision Radial Velocities from Noisy Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Collins, Karen A.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Penev, Kaloyan; Howard, Andrew W.; Baranec, Christoph; Corfini, Giorgio; Eastman, Jason D.; Gregorio, Joao; Law, Nicholas M.; Lund, Michael B.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Penny, Matthew T.; Riddle, Reed; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Zambelli, Roberto; Ziegler, Carl; Bieryla, Allyson; D'Ago, Giuseppe; DePoy, Darren L.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kielkopf, John F.; Latham, David W.; Manner, Mark; Marshall, Jennifer; McLeod, Kim K.; Reed, Phillip A.

    2015-09-01

    We announce the discovery of a highly inflated transiting hot Jupiter by the KELT-North survey. A global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.8 host star (HD 343246) is a mildly evolved, G dwarf with {T}{eff}={5754}-55+54 K, {log} g={4.078}-0.054+0.049, [{Fe}/{{H}}]=0.272+/- 0.038, an inferred mass {M}*={1.211}-0.066+0.078 {M}⊙ , and radius {R}*={1.67}-0.12+0.14 {R}⊙ . The planetary companion has a mass {M}{{P}}={0.867}-0.061+0.065 MJ, radius {R}{{P}}={1.86}-0.16+0.18 RJ, surface gravity {log} {g}{{P}}={2.793}-0.075+0.072, and density {ρ }{{P}}={0.167}-0.038+0.047 g cm-3. The planet is on a roughly circular orbit with semimajor axis a={0.04571}-0.00084+0.00096 AU and eccentricity e={0.035}-0.025+0.050. The best-fit linear ephemeris is {T}0=2456883.4803+/- 0.0007 {{BJD}}{TDB} and P=3.24406+/- 0.00016 days. This planet is one of the most inflated of all known transiting exoplanets, making it one of the few members of a class of extremely low density, highly irradiated gas giants. The low stellar {log} g and large implied radius are supported by stellar density constraints from follow-up light curves, as well as an evolutionary and space motion analysis. We also develop a new technique to extract high-precision radial velocities from noisy spectra that reduces the observing time needed to confirm transiting planet candidates. This planet boasts deep transits of a bright star, a large inferred atmospheric scale height, and a high equilibrium temperature of {T}{eq}={1675}-55+61 K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution, making it one of the best targets for future atmospheric characterization studies.

  1. On the Application of Contour Bumps for Transonic Drag Reduction(Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milholen, William E., II; Owens, Lewis R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of discrete contour bumps on reducing the transonic drag at off-design conditions on an airfoil have been examined. The research focused on fully-turbulent flow conditions, at a realistic flight chord Reynolds number of 30 million. State-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics methods were used to design a new baseline airfoil, and a family of fixed contour bumps. The new configurations were experimentally evaluated in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research center, which utilizes an adaptive wall test section to minimize wall interference. The computational study showed that transonic drag reduction, on the order of 12% - 15%, was possible using a surface contour bump to spread a normal shock wave. The computational study also indicated that the divergence drag Mach number was increased for the contour bump applications. Preliminary analysis of the experimental data showed a similar contour bump effect, but this data needed to be further analyzed for residual wall interference corrections.

  2. Life scripts for emotionally charged autobiographical memories: A cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shamsul; Hasking, Penelope A

    2010-10-01

    Two studies examined the ability of the life script account to explain the reminiscence bump for emotionally charged autobiographical memories among Malaysian participants. In Study 1 volunteers, aged 50-90 years, participated in a two-phased task. In the first phase, participants estimated the timing of 11 life events (both positive and negative) that may occur in a prototypical life course within their own culture. Two weeks later the participants retrieved the same set of events from their lives and reported how old they were when those events occurred. In the second study 92 undergraduate students produced life scripts for the same 11 events. The findings revealed reminiscence bumps in both life script and retrieval curves for the memories judged happiest, most important, most in love, and most jealous. A reminiscence bump was also noted for success, although this was later in the lifespan than other reminiscence bumps. It was suggested that the life scripts can be used as an alternative account for the reminiscence bump, for highly positive and occasionally for negative autobiographical memories. PMID:20803371

  3. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Guo, Fan

    2013-04-10

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R{sub Sun} at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  4. Autoassociative memory retrieval and spontaneous activity bumps in small-world networks of integrate-and-fire neurons.

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, Anastasia; Treves, Alessandro

    2006-10-01

    The metric structure of synaptic connections is obviously an important factor in shaping the properties of neural networks, in particular the capacity to retrieve memories, with which are endowed autoassociative nets operating via attractor dynamics. Qualitatively, some real networks in the brain could be characterized as 'small worlds', in the sense that the structure of their connections is intermediate between the extremes of an orderly geometric arrangement and of a geometry-independent random mesh. Small worlds can be defined more precisely in terms of their mean path length and clustering coefficient; but is such a precise description useful for a better understanding of how the type of connectivity affects memory retrieval? We have simulated an autoassociative memory network of integrate-and-fire units, positioned on a ring, with the network connectivity varied parametrically between ordered and random. We find that the network retrieves previously stored memory patterns when the connectivity is close to random, and displays the characteristic behavior of ordered nets (localized 'bumps' of activity) when the connectivity is close to ordered. Recent analytical work shows that these two behaviors can coexist in a network of simple threshold-linear units, leading to localized retrieval states. We find that they tend to be mutually exclusive behaviors, however, with our integrate-and-fire units. Moreover, the transition between the two occurs for values of the connectivity parameter which are not simply related to the notion of small worlds.

  5. A 90 GHz Amplifier Assembled Using a Bump-Bonded InP-Based HEMT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsukanjana, Paul R.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Smith, R. Peter; Ksendzov, Alexander; Fitzsimmons, Michael J.; Martin, Suzanne C.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the performance of a novel W-band amplifier fabricated utilizing very compact bump bonds. We bump-bonded a high-speed, low-noise InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) onto a separately fabricated passive circuit having a GaAs substrate. The compact bumps and small chip size were used for efficient coupling and maximum circuit design flexibility. This new quasi-monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (Q-MMIC) amplifier exhibits a peak gain of 5.8 dB at approx. 90 GHz and a 3 dB bandwidth of greater than 25%. To our knowledge, this is the highest frequency amplifier assembled using bump-bonded technology. Our bump-bonding technique is a useful alternative to the high cost of monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC's). Effects of the bumps on the circuit appear to be minimal. We used the simple matching circuit for demonstrating the technology - future circuits would have all of the elements (resistors, via holes, bias lines, etc.) included 'in conventional MMIC's. Our design in different from other investigators' efforts in that the bumps are only 8 microns thick by 15 microns wide. The bump sizes were sufficiently small that the devices, originally designed for W-band hybrid circuits, could be bonded without alteration. Figure 3 shows the measured and simulated magnitude of S-parameters from 85-120 GHz, of the InP HEMT bump-bonded to the low noise amplifier (LNA) passive. The maximum gain is 5.8 dB at approx. 90 GHz, and gain extends to 117 GHz. Measurement of a single device (without matching networks) shows approx. 1 dB of gain at 90 GHz. The measured gain of the amplifier agrees well with the design in the center of the measurement band, and the agreement falls off at the band edges. Since no accommodation for the bump-bonding parasitics was made in the design, the result implies that the parasitic elements associated with the bonding itself do not dominate the performance of the LNA circuit. It should be noted that this

  6. The Interstellar Polarization Feature Associated with the 2175 Angstrom Extinction Bump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Wolff, Michael J.; Kim, S. H.; Martin, P. G.; Anderson, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    The most successful model at fitting the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction consists of two populations of bare silicate and graphite grains (Mathis, Rumpl & Nordsieck, (MRN)). The graphite grains are needed to fit the strong 2175 A extinction bump, with the silicates providing most of the smooth extinction seen at other wavelengths. From observations of the IR silicate absorption features, it was inferred that the silicate grains, non-spherical and aligned to the Galactic magnetic field, were responsible for the interstellar polarization. Aligned silicate grains make a very good fit to the smooth featureless UV polarization curves that comprise most of the observed sample. The lines of sight showing a UV polarization feature require something different, perhaps a second population of grains as do the fits to the extinction curve. The polarization wavelength dependence of HD 197770 can be fit by a MRN-like mixture of aligned bare silicate and graphite grains. However, none of the popular grain models including MRN envisaged an aligned bump grain population. It has been suggested that the extinction bump is not due to graphite but rather to a population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). If the observed UV polarization features could be associated with the 2175 A bump then it would strengthen the argument that the bump must be due to grains rather than PAHs which are not likely to be aligned to the Galactic Magnetic field. The reality of ultraviolet polarization features has been confirmed by observations with ASTRO-2. The original detection toward HD 197770 has been confirmed and a new feature has been detected toward HD 147933-4. Both features have centroids lying close to 2175 A the location of the UV extinction bump. Two possibilities are considered for the source of the polarization bump, alignment of graphite grains responsible for the extinction bump or changes in the size distribution of the aligned silicate grains responsible for the

  7. Trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability and electrostatic harmonic excitation in earth's foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, Alexander J.

    1990-01-01

    The Vlasov simulation is used to examine the trapping saturation of the bump-on-tail instability both with and without mode-mode coupling and subsequent harmonic excitation. It is found that adding the pumped harmonic modes leads to a significant difference in the behavior of the phase-space distribution function near the unstable bump at the saturation time of the instability. The pumped modes permit rapid plateau formation on the space-averaged velocity distribution, in effect preventing the onset of the quasi-linear velocity-diffusion saturation mechanism.

  8. Reducing pathogen transmission in a hospital setting. Handshake versus fist bump: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, P A; Bourlai, T; Dutton, W; McClellan, W T

    2013-12-01

    Handshaking is a known vector for bacterial transmission between individuals. Handwashing has become a major initiative throughout healthcare systems to reduce transmission rates, but as many as 80% of individuals retain some disease-causing bacteria after washing. The fist bump is an alternative to the handshake that has become popular. We have determined that implementing the fist bump in the healthcare setting may further reduce bacterial transmission between healthcare providers by reducing contact time and total surface area exposed when compared with the standard handshake. PMID:24144553

  9. Method to Improve Indium Bump Bonding via Indium Oxide Removal Using a Multi-Step Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. Frank (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Dickie, Matthew R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for removing indium oxide from indium bumps in a flip-chip structure to reduce contact resistance, by a multi-step plasma treatment. A first plasma treatment of the indium bumps with an argon, methane and hydrogen plasma reduces indium oxide, and a second plasma treatment with an argon and hydrogen plasma removes residual organics. The multi-step plasma process for removing indium oxide from the indium bumps is more effective in reducing the oxide, and yet does not require the use of halogens, does not change the bump morphology, does not attack the bond pad material or under-bump metallization layers, and creates no new mechanisms for open circuits.

  10. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  11. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  12. Photogrammetric 3d Acquisition and Analysis of Medicamentous Induced Pilomotor Reflex ("goose Bumps")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Hecht, A.

    2016-06-01

    In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps). Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost) photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE) of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  13. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XX - The ultraviolet extinction bump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, B. D.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet extinction bumps are investigated in the interstellar extinction curves between 1800 and 3600 A for 36 stars which have (B-V) excesses ranging from 0.03 to 0.55 and are mostly confined to the brighter OB associations distributed along the galactic plane. Each extinction curve is found to have a broad bump which peaks near 2175 A and whose position and profile appear to be constant among all the stars. It is shown that the bump is probably interstellar in origin and that the constancy of its position and shape places such severe restrictions on grain geometrical parameters that classical scattering theory cannot be used to explain the feature unless the dust grains in widely separated regions of space and with very different physical conditions are assumed to have nearly identical size and shape distributions. Three extinction curves which extend to 1100 A are examined and found to have the same general characteristics as the others. Several extinction curves are analyzed for fine structure, but no convincing evidence is found in the present interval. Some processes are discussed which may be responsible for the bumps.

  14. Precise Extraction of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from Quasi-elastic 3He(pol)(e(pol),e') at Q^2 = 0.1-0.6 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Jens-ole Hansen; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jiang-Ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G Corrado; Christopher Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Dipangkar Dutta; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; Jacek Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Piotr Zolnierczuk; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; Cathleen Jones; Mark Jones; R Kahl; H Kamada; A Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John LeRose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Jeffery Martin; Kathy McCormick; Robert McKeown; Kevin McIlhany; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Greg Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; Emanuele Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; David Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Giovanni Salme; Michael Schnee; Charles Seely; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; M Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; John Watson; Claude Williamson; H Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Feng Xiong; Wang Xu; Jen-chuan Yeh

    2006-05-05

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} in the quasi-elastic {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e') process with high precision at Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} was extracted at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} using a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e'). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} based on Plane Wave Impulse Approximation calculations.

  15. Design, modeling and test of a novel speed bump energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todaria, Prakhar; Wang, Lirong; Pandey, Abhishek; O'Connor, James; McAvoy, David; Harrigan, Terence; Chernow, Barbara; Zuo, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Speed bumps are commonly used to control the traffic speed and to ensure the safety of pedestrians. This paper proposes a novel speed bump energy harvester (SBEH), which can generate large-scale electrical energy up to several hundred watts when the vehicle drives on it. A unique design of the motion mechanism allows the up-and-down pulse motion to drive the generator into unidirectional rotation, yielding time times more energy than the traditional design. Along with the validation of energy harvesting, this paper also addresses the advantages of this motion mechanism over the traditional design, using physical modeling and simulation. Up to 200 watts electrical peak power in one phase of three-phase generator during in-field test can be regenerated when a sedan passage car passes through the SBEH prototype at 2 km/h.

  16. Light curves for bump Cepheids computed with a dynamically zoned pulsation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T. F.; Castor, J. I.; Davis, C. G.

    1980-05-01

    The dynamically zoned pulsation code developed by Castor, Davis, and Davison was used to recalculate the Goddard model and to calculate three other Cepheid models with the same period (9.8 days). This family of models shows how the bumps and other features of the light and velocity curves change as the mass is varied at constant period. The use of a code that is capable of producing reliable light curves demonstrates that the light and velocity curves for 9.8 day Cepheid models with standard homogeneous compositions do not show bumps like those that are observed unless the mass is significantly lower than the 'evolutionary mass.' The light and velocity curves for the Goddard model presented here are similar to those computed independently by Fischel, Sparks, and Karp. They should be useful as standards for future investigators.

  17. Light curves for bump Cepheids computed with a dynamically zoned pulsation code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, T. F.; Castor, J. I.; Davis, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamically zoned pulsation code developed by Castor, Davis, and Davison was used to recalculate the Goddard model and to calculate three other Cepheid models with the same period (9.8 days). This family of models shows how the bumps and other features of the light and velocity curves change as the mass is varied at constant period. The use of a code that is capable of producing reliable light curves demonstrates that the light and velocity curves for 9.8 day Cepheid models with standard homogeneous compositions do not show bumps like those that are observed unless the mass is significantly lower than the 'evolutionary mass.' The light and velocity curves for the Goddard model presented here are similar to those computed independently by Fischel, Sparks, and Karp. They should be useful as standards for future investigators.

  18. CFD-Predicted Tile Heating Bump Factors Due to Tile Overlay Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Victor R.

    2006-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics investigation of the Orbiter's Tile Overlay Repair (TOR) is performed to assess the aeroheating Damage Assessment Team's (DAT) existing heating correlation method for protuberance interference heating on the surrounding thermal protection system. Aerothermodynamic heating analyses are performed for TORs at the design reference damage locations body points 1800 and 1075 for a Mach 17.9 and a=39deg STS-107 flight trajectory point with laminar flow. Six different cases are considered. The computed peak heating bump factor on the surrounding tiles are below the DAT's heating bump factor values for smooth tile cases. However, for the uneven tiles cases the peak interference heating is shown to be considerably higher than the existing correlation prediction.

  19. The relocation bump: Memories of middle adulthood are organized around residential moves.

    PubMed

    Enz, Karalyn F; Pillemer, David B; Johnson, Kenneth M

    2016-08-01

    The lifetime temporal distribution of older adults' autobiographical memories peaks during the transitional period of late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon known as the reminiscence bump. This age-specific memory enhancement suggests that transitions may provide a more general organizing structure for autobiographical memory. To test this hypothesis, we examined how older adults' memories of events that occurred between the ages of 40 and 60 were distributed around residential relocations occurring within this same time frame. The temporal distribution of memories showed a marked relocation bump around the age of the most important residential move. Although previous research has focused on the negative effects of relocation, the current findings suggest that transitions could have a positive effect on autobiographical memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454038

  20. Room-Temperature Cu Microjoining with Ultrasonic Bonding of Cone-Shaped Bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lijing; Ikeda, Akihiro; Noda, Kazuhiro; Nakai, Seiya; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-04-01

    Room-temperature Cu-Cu bonding was realized by applying ultrasonic vibration together with compression force to the bonding of a cone-shaped bump. The size of the bump was about 10 µm. The connection pitch was 20 µm. Mechanical characterization showed that the bonding strength increases with vibration amplitude and depends on the thickness of the counter electrode made of Cu. The thickness dependence of the bonding strength was found to be caused by an increase in the surface roughness of the counter electrode. It was shown that the bonding strength meets the requirement from application to products. Electrical characterization using a daisy-chain connection test demonstrated that more than 10,000 pins on a chip can be connected with a sufficiently low resistance.

  1. Precise determination of the deuteron spin structure at low to moderate Q2 with CLAS and extraction of the neutron contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Guler, N.; Fersch, R. G.; Kuhn, S. E.; Bosted, P.; Griffioen, K. A.; Keith, C.; Minehart, R.; Prok, Y.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-11-02

    In this study, we present the final results for the deuteron spin structure functions obtained from the full data set collected with Jefferson Lab's CLAS in 2000-2001. Polarized electrons with energies of 1.6, 2.5, 4.2 and 5.8 GeV were scattered from deuteron (15ND3) targets, dynamically polarized along the beam direction, and detected with CLAS. From the measured double spin asymmetry, the virtual photon absorption asymmetry Ad1 and the polarized structure function gd1 were extracted over a wide kinematic range (0.05 GeV2 < Q2 < 5 GeV2 and 0.9 GeV < W < 3 GeV). We use an unfolding procedure and a parametrization of the corresponding proton results to extract from these data the polarized structure functions An1 and g1n of the (bound) neutron, which are so far unknown in the resonance region, W < 2 GeV. We compare our final results, including several moments of the deuteron and neutron spin structure functions, with various theoretical models and expectations as well as parametrizations of the world data. The unprecedented precision and dense kinematic coverage of these data can aid in future extractions of polarized parton distributions, tests of perturbative QCD predictions for the quark polarization at large x, a better understanding of quark-hadron duality, and more precise values for higher-twist matrix elements in the framework of the Operator Product Expansion.

  2. Effect of overshooting mixing below the base of the convective envelope on the RGB bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan

    2015-08-01

    When a low mass star evolves up along the red giant branch (RGB), it will develop much more extensive convection in its envelope. Such envelope convection penetrates rapidly inward into the stellar interior, and finally results in a composition discontinuity when it develops into the chemical gradient region. Subsequently, when the out-moving hydrogen burning-shell encounters the newly-formed composition discontinuity, the star will develops the so-called RGB bump on the HR diagram. Therefore, comparisons of characteristics of the RGB bump are crucial for the overshooting mixing below the base of the stellar convective envelope.In order to treat overshooting convection below the base of the convective envelope, we used the k-omega model of Li (2012) in RGB models of a 1Msun star. We solved equations of the k-omega model in the stellar envelope, and then found that the turbulent kinetic energy and the frequency of turbulence decay in the overshooting region according approximately to power laws of pressure. The decaying indices are found to be sensitive to the parameters of the k-omega model. We adopted a modified overshooting mixing model of Zhang (2013) to investigate the overshooting mixing below the base of the convection zone. We found that the RGB bump appears at a significantly lower luminosity when using the k-omega model than when using the standard mixing-length theory, and its duration is also considerably reduced. Due to extra dredge-up effect of the overshooting mixing, we obtained a little hotter red giant branch using the k-omega model than the one using the standard MLT. We found that the position and duration of the RGB bump sensitively depend on the decaying law of turbulence in the overshooting region. These predictions could be good candidates for asteroseismology of RGB stars.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Verification of Fatigue Life Estimation for Solder Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Takashi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Iwasaki, Ken; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Shibuya, Toshikazu

    Fatigue life estimation of solder bumps is one of the most critical technologies for the development of ball grid array packages. In this study, mechanical fatigue tests were carried out using Sn63-Pb37 solder bump specimens. The cracks were initiated along the entire circumference in the vicinity of the interface. The fatigue life estimation of the solder bumps was performed based on the elastic-creep finite element method (FEM) analysis. It was clear that the strain concentration region coincides with the crack initiation site. The estimation result for the crack initiation was in good agreement with the experimental results. The results reconfirmed that it was desirable to employ the equivalent creep strain range occurring at a distance of 50 μm from the singularity point. The life ratio, which provides the quantitative correlation between the crack initiation and the ultimate fracture, was determined from the experimental results. The number of cycles to the fatal failure can be roughly estimated by multiplying the analytical estimation results for the crack initiation by this life ratio. This simple estimation of fatal failure may well be of practical use in actual ball grid array (BGA) design for thermal load conditions.

  4. Transonic moist air flow around a circular arc blade with bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2009-12-01

    The unsteady phenomena in the transonic flow around airfoils are observed in the flow field of fan, compressor blades and butterfly valves, and this causes often serious problems such as aeroacoustic noise and the vibration. In recent years, the effect of bump wall on the flow field around an airfoil has been investigated experimentally and as a result, it was observed that the bump wall is effective for the control of shock wave on the airfoil. In the transonic or supersonic flow field, a rapid expansion of moist air or steam gives rise to non-equilibrium condensation. In the present study, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation of moist air on the self-excited shock wave oscillation around a circular arc blade with or without a bump on the blade was investigated numerically. The results showed that the non-equilibrium condensation significantly reduced the flow field unsteadiness such as root mean of pressure oscillation and frequency compared to the case without the non-equilibrium condensation.

  5. BUMP: a FORTRAN program for identifying dose-response curves subject to downturns.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D G; Dallal, G E

    1989-02-01

    BUMP is a FORTRAN implementation of a modified Jonckheere-Terpstra test, proposed by Simpson and Margolin, to test nonparametrically for a dose-response curve when a downturn is possible at high doses. The Jonckheere-Terpstra statistic is commonly used to test for increasing or decreasing trends in dose-response relationships. In many experimental settings, however, a test agent has more than one effect, and a "bump"-shaped dose-response can occur. For instance, increasing the concentration of a certain nutrient on a petri dish may increase the growth rate at low doses yet decrease the growth rate at high doses because of toxicity. The modified test allows one to assess the significance of the initial increase in the dose-response curve and yet to minimize the effect on the conclusions of any downturn at higher doses. A complete system which operates directly on SYSTAT/MYSTAT files is available for the IBM-PC and compatibles; it includes a utility which converts ASCII data files to the SYSTAT/MYSTAT format. The FORTRAN 77 source code is available for those who would like to run BUMP on other machines.

  6. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-06-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  7. Experiments to measure ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov growth of Gaussian bumps in plastic capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Eric; Batha, Steve; Sedillo, Tom; Evans, Scott; Sorce, Chuck; Landen, Otto; Braun, Dave

    2010-06-02

    Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF) due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities have been of primary concern to the ICF program since its inception. To achieve thermonuclear ignition at Megajoule class laser systems such as the NIF, targets must be designed for high implosion velocities, which requires higher in-flight aspect ratios (IFAR) and diminished shell stability. Controlling capsule perturbations is thus of the utmost importance. Recent simulations have shown that features on the outer surface of an ICF capsule as small as 10 microns wide and 100's of nanometers tall such as bumps, divots, or even dust particles can profoundly impact capsule performance by leading to material jetting or mix into the hotspot. Recent x-ray images of implosions on the NIF may be evidence of such mixing. Unfortunately, our ability to accurately predict these effects is uncertain due to disagreement between equation of state (EOS) models. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (Gaussian bumps) due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov in CH capsules to validate these models. The platform that has been developed uses halfraums with radiation temperatures near 75 eV (Rev. 4 foot-level) driven by 15-20 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY), which sends a ~2.5 Mbar shock into a planar CH foil. Gaussian-shaped bumps (20 microns wide, 4-7 microns tall) are deposited onto the ablation side of the target. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα - 2.8 keV) backlighter is used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements will also be made with Omega's active shock breakout (ASBO) and streaked optical pyrometery (SOP) diagnostics in conjunction with filtered x-ray photodiode arrays (DANTE) to determine drive conditions in the target. These data will be used to discriminate between EOS models so

  8. Development of a reliable analytical method for the precise extractive spectrophotometric determination of osmium(VIII) with 2-nitrobenzaldehydethiocarbohydrazone: Analysis of alloys and real sample.

    PubMed

    Zanje, Sunil B; Kokare, Arjun N; Suryavanshi, Vishal J; Waghmode, Duryodhan P; Joshi, Sunil S; Anuse, Mansing A

    2016-12-01

    The proposed method demonstrates that the osmium(VIII) forms complex with 2-NBATCH from 0.8molL(-1) HCl at room temperature. The complex formed was extracted in 10mL of chloroform with a 5min equilibration time. The absorbance of the red colored complex was measured at 440nm against the reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25μgmL(-1), the optimum concentration range was 10-20μgmL(-1) of osmium(VIII) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex in chloroform is 8.94×10(3)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.021μgcm(-2), respectively. The composition of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex was 1:2 investigated from Job's method of continuous variation, Mole ratio method and slope ratio method. The interference of diverse ions was studied and masking agents were used wherever necessary. The present method was successfully applied for determination of osmium(VIII) from binary, ternary and synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloys and real samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by finding the relative standard deviation for five determinations which was 0.29%.

  9. First Measurement of the Ratio sigma_(t-tbar) / sigma_(Z/\\gamma*->ll) and Precise Extraction of the t-tbar Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-04-01

    We report a measurement of the ratio of the t{bar t} to Z/{gamma}* production cross sections in {radical}s = 1.96 TeV p{bar p} collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6 fb{sup -1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The t{bar t} cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/{gamma}* {yields} ll cross section predicted by the standard model, the extracted t{bar t} cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.70 {+-} 0.52 pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. Development of a reliable analytical method for the precise extractive spectrophotometric determination of osmium(VIII) with 2-nitrobenzaldehydethiocarbohydrazone: Analysis of alloys and real sample.

    PubMed

    Zanje, Sunil B; Kokare, Arjun N; Suryavanshi, Vishal J; Waghmode, Duryodhan P; Joshi, Sunil S; Anuse, Mansing A

    2016-12-01

    The proposed method demonstrates that the osmium(VIII) forms complex with 2-NBATCH from 0.8molL(-1) HCl at room temperature. The complex formed was extracted in 10mL of chloroform with a 5min equilibration time. The absorbance of the red colored complex was measured at 440nm against the reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25μgmL(-1), the optimum concentration range was 10-20μgmL(-1) of osmium(VIII) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex in chloroform is 8.94×10(3)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.021μgcm(-2), respectively. The composition of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex was 1:2 investigated from Job's method of continuous variation, Mole ratio method and slope ratio method. The interference of diverse ions was studied and masking agents were used wherever necessary. The present method was successfully applied for determination of osmium(VIII) from binary, ternary and synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloys and real samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by finding the relative standard deviation for five determinations which was 0.29%. PMID:27380306

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MORPHOLOGIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES. II. BUMP SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Lotz, J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Eisenhardt, P.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.; Weedman, D.

    2011-05-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 with extremely red R - [24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call 'bump DOGs', have star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-4000 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission-a sign of vigorous ongoing star formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), submillimeter-selected galaxies, and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 {+-} 2.7 kpc versus 5.5 {+-} 2.3 kpc) and exhibit more diffuse and irregular morphologies (median M{sub 20} of -1.08 {+-} 0.05 versus -1.48 {+-} 0.05). These trends are qualitatively consistent with expectations from simulations of major mergers in which merging systems during the peak SFR period evolve from M{sub 20} = -1.0 to M{sub 20} = -1.7. Less-obscured ULIRGs (i.e., non-DOGs) tend to have more regular, centrally peaked, single-object morphologies rather than diffuse and irregular morphologies. This distinction in morphologies may imply that less-obscured ULIRGs sample the merger near the end of the peak SFR period. Alternatively, it may indicate that the intense star formation in these less-obscured ULIRGs is not the result of a recent major merger.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Morphologies of z ~ 2 Dust-obscured Galaxies. II. Bump Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Lotz, J.; Armus, L.; Brown, M. J. I.; Desai, V.; Eisenhardt, P.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Weedman, D.

    2011-05-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ≈ 2 with extremely red R - [24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6 μm associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call "bump DOGs," have star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-4000 M sun yr-1 and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission—a sign of vigorous ongoing star formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), submillimeter-selected galaxies, and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 ± 2.7 kpc versus 5.5 ± 2.3 kpc) and exhibit more diffuse and irregular morphologies (median M 20 of -1.08 ± 0.05 versus -1.48 ± 0.05). These trends are qualitatively consistent with expectations from simulations of major mergers in which merging systems during the peak SFR period evolve from M 20 = -1.0 to M 20 = -1.7. Less-obscured ULIRGs (i.e., non-DOGs) tend to have more regular, centrally peaked, single-object morphologies rather than diffuse and irregular morphologies. This distinction in morphologies may imply that less-obscured ULIRGs sample the merger near the end of the peak SFR period. Alternatively, it may indicate that the intense star formation in these less-obscured ULIRGs is not the result of a recent major merger.

  13. Enigmatic Extinction: An Investigation of the 2175Å Extinction Bump in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danowski, Meredith E.; Cook, Timothy; Gordon, Karl D.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Lawton, Brandon L.; Misselt, Karl A.

    2014-06-01

    Evidence from studies of starburst galaxies indicates that active formation of high mass stars modifies the UV dust extinction curve as seen by a lack of the characteristic 2175Å bump. For over 45 years, the source of the 2175Å extinction feature has yet to be positively identified. Small aromatic/PAH grains are suggested as a leading contender in dust grain models. The face-on spiral galaxy M101 is an ideal laboratory for the study of dust, with many well-studied HII regions and a steep metallicity and ionization gradient.The Interstellar Medium Absorption Gradient Experiment Rocket (IMAGER) probes the correlation between dust extinction, and the metallicity and radiation environment in M101 at ultraviolet wavelengths. IMAGER simultaneously images M101 in three 400Å-wide bandpasses, measuring the apparent strength of the 2175Å bump and the UV continuum.Combining data from IMAGER with high S/N far- and near- UV observations from the MAMA detectors on the Hubble STIS instrument, we examine the apparent strength of the 2175Å bump in HII regions of M101. With additional infrared data from Spitzer, the DIRTY radiative transfer model, and stellar evolution models, we probe the correlation between the 2175Å feature and the aromatic/PAH features across HII regions of varying metallicity and radiation field hardness. The results of this experiment will directly impact our understanding of the nature of dust and our ability to accurately account for the effects of dust on observations at all redshifts.

  14. Eyelid bump

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause trouble with your vision. If you have blepharitis (see eye redness ), you are more likely to ... you are prone to getting styes or have blepharitis, it may help to carefully clean off excess ...

  15. Viscoplasticity Behavior of a Solder Joint on a Drilled Cu Pillar Bump Under Thermal Cycling Using FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong-Hyuk; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRACT Although the copper (Cu) pillar bump (CPB) was developed in accordance with recent trends of miniaturized, multifunctional, and high-performance technology, its thermomechanical reliability remains in question. Accordingly, a hole was drilled into a CPB to increase its thermomechanical reliability, and the viscoplasticity behaviors of the two structures were subsequently compared through finite element analysis. In particular, this study applied the Anand model, which addresses both plastic strain and creep strain, as well as a submodeling technique to increase the accuracy of the analysis and decrease the analysis time. In addition, this study confirmed the superiority of the thermomechanical reliability of drilled Cu pillar bump through a hysteresis loop, which showed the equivalent stress versus equivalent inelastic strain of the solder joint interfaces. Moreover, the study compared the inelastic strain energy density values. The results demonstrated that the drilled copper pillar bump does indeed have a smaller inelastic range and a lower inelastic strain energy density.

  16. Characterization of Multi-Domain Bumps of Organic Resists in Color Filters for Wide-Viewing-Angle Liquid Crystal Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Chen, Mi; Yang, Sheng-Hung; Kawai, Tomoji

    2008-06-01

    Negative-type multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) photoresists have technically been fabricated and integrated in color filter processing for the application of wide-viewing-angle liquid crystal displays. The expectable results including excellent light transmittance, stability and uniformity of protrudent bumps in shape, superior reliability in material characteristics and wider gamut have extensively been achieved. The superior brightness (GY) of negative-type photo resists used in color filters to positive-type photoresists is attended with the result of excellent transmittances. The transmittances of positive-type and negative-type protrudent bumps photoresists in color filters are 70 and 100%, respectively. NTSC ratio of the color-filter sample with negative-type photoresist in MVA protrudent bumps is improved from 61.9 to 62.8% and higher. Comparisons in characteristics between negative-type (NPR) photoresist and positive-type (PPR) photoresist materials have eventually been analyzed and demonstrated as well.

  17. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  18. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-27

    We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.

  19. The effects of phase decorrelation on the dynamics of the bump-on-tail instability

    SciTech Connect

    Tholerus, E. Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.

    2015-08-15

    The dynamics of the bump-on-tail instability has been studied. The novelty of the work is the analysis of how the bump-on-tail dynamics is affected by an extrinsic stochastisation of the phase of the wave-particle interaction; here referred to as phase decorrelation. For this purpose, a nonlinear Monte Carlo model has been developed. When the characteristic time scale for macroscopic phase decorrelation becomes shorter than time scales of nonlinear wave-particle dynamics, the system may be described quasilinearly, with the phase decorrelation being replaced by a quasilinear diffusion coefficient in particle energy. A purely quasilinear Monte Carlo model, which is typically less computationally demanding than the fully nonlinear description due to the reduced dimensionality of phase space, has been developed for comparison. In this paper, parameter regimes, where the nonlinear and the quasilinear descriptions quantitatively agree on a macroscopic level, have been investigated, using combined theoretical and numerical analyses. Qualitative effects on the macroscopic dynamics by the presence of phase decorrelation and/or by structures of the energy distribution function in the proximity of the wave-particle resonance are also studied.

  20. Vertical cavity surface emitting laser-based smart pixels with coplanar bump-bonded contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurrat, Randy; Pu, Rui; Hayes, Eric M.; Pulver, Daryl; Feld, Stewart A.; Wilmsen, Carl W.

    1996-11-01

    Integration of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) onto a prefabricated smart pixel chip introduces fabrication problems since they can not be grown on foundry fabricated Si CMOS or GaAs MESFET circuit. This paper presents an approach to flip-chip bump-bonding VCSEL-arrays to a pixel chip in which each VCSEL is bonding directly to the appropriate pixel circuit. Thus, no added area is required and the interconnect capacitance is held to a minimum. The technique requires contacting both the n- and p-mirror of the VCSEL on the same side of the VCSEL chip and in the same plane. This allows bump bonding both contacts to the pixel chip and subsequent removal of the VCSEL chip substrate. The steps required to accomplish the VCSEL coplanar bonding include reactive ion etching of mesas and device separation in BCL3/Cl, electroplating a 4.5 micrometers high gold coplanar contact post, In/Sn alloy solder deposition, bonding to the smart pixel chip, and accurate alignment of the VCSEL and pixel chips, epoxy underfill and at last substrate removal.

  1. Miniaturization of Micro-Solder Bumps and Effect of IMC on Stress Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Soud Farhan; Ladani, Leila

    2016-07-01

    As the joints become smaller in more advanced packages and devices, intermetallic (IMCs) volume ratio increases, which significantly impacts the overall mechanical behavior of joints. The existence of only a few grains of Sn (Tin) and IMC materials results in anisotropic elastic and plastic behavior which is not detectable using conventional finite element (FE) simulation with average properties for polycrystalline material. In this study, crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulation is used to model the whole joint including copper, Sn solder and Cu6Sn5 IMC material. Experimental lap-shear test results for solder joints from the literature were used to validate the models. A comparative analysis between traditional FE, CPFE and experiments was conducted. The CPFE model was able to correlate the experiments more closely compared to traditional FE analysis because of its ability to capture micro-mechanical anisotropic behavior. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of IMC thickness on stress distribution in micro-bumps using a systematic numerical experiment with IMC thickness ranging from 0% to 80%. The analysis was conducted on micro-bumps with single crystal Sn and bicrystal Sn. The overall stress distribution and shear deformation changes as the IMC thickness increases. The model with higher IMC thickness shows a stiffer shear response, and provides a higher shear yield strength.

  2. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamiri, M.; Klein, B.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Myers, S.; Dahiya, V.; Cavallo, F.; Krishna, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present an approach to realize antimonide superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN superlattices are grown on top of a 60 nm Al0.6Ga0.4Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxial-lift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt, and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  3. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on a silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamiri, M.; Klein, B.; Schuler, T.; Myers, S.; Cavallo, F.; Krishna, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present an approach to realize antimonide based superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN based superlattice detectors are grown on top of a 60 nm Al0.6Ga0.4Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxiallift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  4. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.

  5. 3D integration technology for sensor application using less than 5μm-pitch gold cone-bump connpdfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyoshi, M.; Miyoshi, T.; Ikebec, M.; Arai, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) technology is an effective solution to reduce the manufacturing costs of advanced two-dimensional (2D) large-scale integration (LSI) while ensuring equivalent device performance and functionalities. This technology allows a new device architecture using stacked detector/sensor devices with a small dead sensor area and high-speed operation that facilitates hyper-parallel data processing. In pixel detectors or focal-plane sensor devices, each pixel area must accommodate many transistors without increasing the pixel size. Consequently, many methods to realize 3D-LSI devices have been developed to meet this requirement by focusing on the unit processes of 3D-IC technology, such as through-silicon via formation and electrical and mechanical bonding between tiers of the stack. The bonding process consists of several unit processes such as bump or metal contact formation, chip/wafer alignment, chip/wafer bonding, and underfill formation; many process combinations have been reported. Our research focuses on a versatile bonding technology for silicon LSI, compound semiconductor, and microelectromechanical system devices at temperatures of less than 200oC for heterogeneous integration. A gold (Au) cone bump formed by nanoparticle deposition is one of the promising candidates for this purpose. This paper presents the experimental result of a fabricated prototype with 3-μm-diameter Au cone-bump connections with adhesive injection, and compares it with that of an indium microbump (μ-bump). The resistance of the 3-μm-diameter Au cone bump is approximately 6 Ω. We also investigated the influence of stress caused by the bump junction on the MOS characteristics.

  6. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  7. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  8. Recent versus Remote: Flashbulb Memory for 9/11 and Self-Selected Events from the Reminiscence Bump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver, Jenny Y.; Lane, Sean M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    In two related studies, we examined flashbulb memories acquired from different points in the lifespan in younger and older adults. When asked to remember flashbulb memories from their lives, older adults were most likely to recall events from the reminiscence bump (Study 1A). In Study 1B, younger and older adults recalled 9/11 and a personal…

  9. Solderjet bumping technique used to manufacture a compact and robust green solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes, P.; Burkhardt, T.; Hornaff, M.; Kousar, S.; Burkhardt, D.; Beckert, E.; Gilaberte, M.; Guilhot, D.; Montes, D.; Galan, M.; Ferrando, S.; Laudisio, M.; Belenguer, T.; Ibarmia, S.; Gallego, P.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-06-01

    Solder-joining using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glasses, ceramics and optical crystals due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. The Solderjet Bumping technique is used to assemble a miniaturized laser resonator in order to obtain higher robustness, wider thermal conductivity performance, higher vacuum and radiation compatibility, and better heat and long term stability compared with identical glued devices. The resulting assembled compact and robust green diode-pumped solid-state laser is part of the future Raman Laser Spectrometer designed for the Exomars European Space Agency (ESA) space mission 2018.

  10. Nonuniqueness and multi-bump solutions in parabolic problems with the p-Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Jiří; Girg, Petr; Kotrla, Lukáš; Takáč, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the weak and strong comparison principles for degenerate parabolic partial differential equations with the p-Laplace operator Δp is investigated for p > 2. This problem is reduced to the comparison of the trivial solution (≡0, by hypothesis) with a nontrivial nonnegative solution u (x, t). The problem is closely related also to the question of uniqueness of a nonnegative solution via the weak comparison principle. In this article, realistic counterexamples to the uniqueness of a nonnegative solution, the weak comparison principle, and the strong maximum principle are constructed with a nonsmooth reaction function that satisfies neither a Lipschitz nor an Osgood standard "uniqueness" condition. Nonnegative multi-bump solutions with spatially disconnected compact supports and zero initial data are constructed between sub- and supersolutions that have supports of the same type.

  11. Electronic scattering of pseudo-magnetic field induced by local bump in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Cui, Yan; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the electronic scattering properties of a local bump strain in graphene sheet in frame of Born approximation. The differential scattering cross section is a function of outgoing and incident angles and has the six-fold rotational symmetry with respect to both angles. The incident plane wave is scattered into two backward fan-waves in different directions in low energy limit and is split into two branches spanning the angle reversely proportional to the incident wavevector k in high energy limit. The total scattering cross section depends on incident wavevector by the form k5 in the former limit, while it is independent of k and sensitive to the incident orientation in the latter limit. We explained these features using the symmetry of the strain-induced pseudo-magnetic field.

  12. Low-loss ultra-subwavelength hybrid plasmonic waveguide based on metallic bump structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyaeefar, Babak; Khoshsima, Habib

    2014-03-01

    Sharp metal edges (like wedge or triangular geometries) have been widely studied as low-loss surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguiding structures. However, fabrication difficulties lead to round-shaped tips which have larger mode size and shorter propagation length. As a solution, here we present an easy to realize structure for turning an edge-less bump metallic geometry (whose fabrication is less troublesome) into a hybrid one. Through investigating the geometrical dispersion, propagation lengths of up to half a millimetre and effective mode areas as small as λ2/330 are obtained for the 1.55 µm telecommunication wavelength. Gain-assisted SPP propagation is also considered by introducing gain in the InGaAsP material, for which critical gain as low as 11 cm-1 is calculated. Finally, obtained results suggest that the designed waveguide can find various applications in nanoscale waveguiding.

  13. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-27

    We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The methodmore » consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.« less

  14. Iron Opacity Bump Changes the Stability and Structure of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Davis, Shane W.; Stone, James M.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be larger than the electron scattering opacity due to the large number of bound–bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity “bump” on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disks, utilizing three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a 5 × 108 solar mass black hole with ˜3% of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than 10 thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free–free opacity are included as in the standard thin disk model, the disk collapses on the thermal timescale. The difference is caused by a combination of (1) an anti-correlation between the total optical depth and the midplane pressure, and (2) enhanced vertical advective energy transport. These results suggest that the iron opacity bump may have a strong impact on the stability and structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disks, and may contribute to a dependence of AGN properties on metallicity. Since this opacity is relevant primarily in UV emitting regions of the flow, it may help to explain discrepancies between observation and theory that are unique to AGNs.

  15. Strongly interacting bumps for the Schrödinger-Newton equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Juncheng; Winter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We study concentrated bound states of the Schrödinger-Newton equations h2Δψ-E(x)ψ+Uψ=0, ψ >0, x εR3; ΔU +1/2|ψ|2=0, x εR3; ψ(x )→0, U(x )→0 as |x|→∞. Moroz et al. ["An analytical approach to the Schrödinger-Newton equations," Nonlinearity 12, 201 (1999)] proved the existence and uniqueness of ground states of Δψ -ψ+Uψ=0, ψ >0, x εR3; ΔU +1/2|ψ|2=0, x εR3; ψ(x )→0, U(x )→0 as |x|→∞. We first prove that the linearized operator around the unique ground state radial solution (ψ0,U0) with ψ0(r)=(Ae-r/r)(1+o(1)) as r =|x|→∞, U0(r)=(B /r)(1+o(1)) as r =|x|→∞ for some A,B>0 has a kernel whose dimension is exactly 3 (corresponding to the translational modes). Using this result we further show that if for some positive integer K the points PiεR3, i =1,2…,K, with Pi≠Pj for i ≠j are all local minimum or local maximum or nondegenerate critical points of E(P ), then for h small enough there exist solutions of the Schrödinger-Newton equations with K bumps which concentrate at Pi. We also prove that given a local maximum point P0 of E(P ) there exists a solution with K bumps which all concentrate at P0 and whose distances to P0 are at least O(h1/3).

  16. Iron Opacity Bump Changes the Stability and Structure of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Davis, Shane W.; Stone, James M.

    2016-08-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be larger than the electron scattering opacity due to the large number of bound-bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity “bump” on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disks, utilizing three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a 5 × 108 solar mass black hole with ˜3% of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than 10 thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free-free opacity are included as in the standard thin disk model, the disk collapses on the thermal timescale. The difference is caused by a combination of (1) an anti-correlation between the total optical depth and the midplane pressure, and (2) enhanced vertical advective energy transport. These results suggest that the iron opacity bump may have a strong impact on the stability and structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disks, and may contribute to a dependence of AGN properties on metallicity. Since this opacity is relevant primarily in UV emitting regions of the flow, it may help to explain discrepancies between observation and theory that are unique to AGNs.

  17. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  18. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ye; Tang, Jingyu; Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×104 protons per cycle or 5×105 protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  19. Bumps of the wave structure function in non-Kolmogorov turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Chunhong; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Haitao; Huang, Honghua; Fan, Chengyu

    2015-10-01

    The analytical expressions for wave structure function of plane and spherical waves are derived both in the viscous dissipation and inertial range. Due to previously research, there is a discrepancy between theoretical results and the experimental datum in viscous dissipation range. In this paper, only considering the inertial range, taking plane waves for example, we give a comparison of results of WSF calculated by the analytical formula obtained in this paper and the numerical calculations of the definition at the fixed parameter (i.e., the generalized exponent α), it can be seen that the two results are in agreement with each other exactly. Based on non-Kolmogorov power spectrum, new characteristics for wave structure function (WSF) have been found for plane and spherical wave models when the different ratio of inner scale l0 and outer scale of turbulence L0 is obtained. In outer scale assumed finite case (i.e., L0 =1m), WSF obtains the maximum when α approximates to 3.3 both for plane and spherical wave models. In outer scale assumed infinite case (i.e., L0 = ∞), the WSF can be sorted into three parts, including two rapid-rising regions (i.e., 3.0 < α < 3.3 and 3.8 < α < 4.0 ) and one gently rising region (i.e., 3.3 < α < 3.8 ).Further, the changes of scaled WSF versus the ratio of separation distance and inner scale ( p/ l0 ) are investigated under mentioned above conditions for two models. In L0 = 1m case, both for plane and spherical waves, the value of α determines the bump position of WSF. In L0 = ∞ case, the bump of scaled WSF disappears when the generalized exponent has large values. The changings of scaled WSF monotonically increase as α increased when the generalized exponent is larger than11/3 for two models. Besides, the properties of spherical waves are similar to plane waves, except which the values of WSF and the scaled WSF are smaller than plane ones.

  20. CH4/Ar/H2/SF6 Plasma Etching for Surface Oxide Removal of Indium Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue; Lin, Chun; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Liao, Qing-Jun; Ding, Rui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Plasma etching for surface indium oxide removal by methane/argon/hydrogen/sulfur hexafluoride (CH4/Ar/H2/SF6) mixture has been implemented. The morphology of the indium bumps was not deteriorated after the plasma etching. High-resolution O 1 s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that the In-O component decreased from 44.5% for the nonetched sample to 10.8% for the sample after plasma etching. The surface modification of the indium bumps might be in the form of doped fluorine according to the XPS results. The zero-bias resistance derived from current-voltage ( I- V) measurements for plasma-etched infrared detectors was comparable to that for nonetched ones, indicating that such plasma treatment is suitable for processing sensitive materials such as mercury cadmium telluride.

  1. High-order integral equation methods for problems of scattering by bumps and cavities on half-planes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Bruno, Oscar P

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents high-order integral equation methods for the evaluation of electromagnetic wave scattering by dielectric bumps and dielectric cavities on perfectly conducting or dielectric half-planes. In detail, the algorithms introduced in this paper apply to eight classical scattering problems, namely, scattering by a dielectric bump on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane, and scattering by a filled, overfilled, or void dielectric cavity on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane. In all cases field representations based on single-layer potentials for appropriately chosen Green functions are used. The numerical far fields and near fields exhibit excellent convergence as discretizations are refined-even at and around points where singular fields and infinite currents exist.

  2. Precision performance lamp technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  3. Dependence of purple membrane bump curvature on pH and ionic strength analyzed using atomic force microscopy combined with solvent exchange.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yasunori; Yamada, Kosuke; Higashi, Yosuke; Ozaki, Satoshi; Wang, Haorang; Koito, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoya; Sonoyama, Masashi; Mitaku, Shigeki

    2014-08-01

    Purple membrane (PM), which is a membrane patch formed by the self-assembly of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) with archaeal lipids, is a good subject for studying the mechanism for the supramolecular structural formation of membrane proteins. Several studies have suggested that PM is not simply planar but that it has a curvature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies also indicate the presence of dome-like structures (bumps) on the cytoplasmic surface of PM. PM must have a curvature to form the bump structures; therefore, bump formations will be related to a mechanism for supramolecular structural formation via self-assembly. To elucidate the effect of an asymmetric distribution of charged residues between two aqueous domains on the bump curvature, AFM topography of identical PM sheets were examined with variation of the solvent ionic strength and pH using a newly constructed solvent circulation system. The radius and height distributions of the bumps on the identical PM sheets indicated a linear correlation. The bump curvature, which was simply estimated by the slope of the distribution, became smaller with increasing KCl concentration, which suggests that tension at the cytoplasmic surface caused by electrostatic repulsive force between negatively charged amino acid residues becomes weaker by the electrostatic shielding effect. AFM observations revealed that the bump curvature remained even at high KCl concentration where the Debye length is within a few Angstroms; therefore, the contribution of the intrinsic difference between the domain sizes of bR between two sides was confirmed. Interestingly, the bump curvature was significantly increased by the addition of CaCl2 and then decreased with a similar dependency to KCl at higher CaCl2 concentration. The effect of pH on the bump curvature was also examined, where the curvature increased and reached a maximum at pH 9, while it decreased above pH 10, at which point the two-dimensional crystalline

  4. Blue supergiant model for ultra-long gamma-ray burst with superluminous-supernova-like bump

    SciTech Connect

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Suwa, Yudai

    2013-11-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ∼30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ∼10{sup 4} s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are ≲ 10 times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of durations that are too long and SN-like bumps that are too bright. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ∼20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  5. A TALE OF TWO MYSTERIES IN INTERSTELLAR ASTROPHYSICS: THE 2175 A EXTINCTION BUMP AND DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, F. Y.; Zhong, J. X.; Li Aigen E-mail: lia@missouri.edu

    2011-06-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are ubiquitous absorption spectral features arising from the tenuous material in the space between stars-the interstellar medium (ISM). Since their first detection nearly nine decades ago, over 400 DIBs have been observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range in both the Milky Way and external galaxies, both nearby and distant. However, the identity of the species responsible for these bands remains as one of the most enigmatic mysteries in astrophysics. An equally mysterious interstellar spectral signature is the 2175 A extinction bump, the strongest absorption feature observed in the ISM. Its carrier also remains unclear since its first detection 46 years ago. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have long been proposed as a candidate for DIBs as their electronic transitions occur in the wavelength range where DIBs are often found. In recent years, the 2175 A extinction bump is also often attributed to the {pi}-{pi}* transition in PAHs. If PAHs are indeed responsible for both the 2175 A extinction feature and DIBs, their strengths may correlate. We perform an extensive literature search for lines of sight for which both the 2175 A extinction feature and DIBs have been measured. Unfortunately, we found no correlation between the strength of the 2175 A feature and the equivalent widths of the strongest DIBs. A possible explanation might be that DIBs are produced by small free gas-phase PAH molecules and ions, while the 2175 A bump is mainly from large PAHs or PAH clusters in condensed phase so that there is no tight correlation between DIBs and the 2175 A bump.

  6. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness. PMID:26275069

  7. GRB 110530A: Peculiar Broad Bump and Delayed Plateau in Early Optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shu-Qing; Xin, Li-Ping; Liang, En-Wei; Wei, Jian-Yan; Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kui-Yun; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Can-Min; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    We report our very early optical observations of GRB 110530A and investigate its jet properties together with its X-ray afterglow data. A peculiar broad onset bump followed by a plateau is observed in its early R band afterglow light curve. The optical data in the other bands and the X-ray data are well consistent with the temporal feature of the R band light curve. Our joint spectral fits of the optical and X-ray data show that they are in the same regime, with a photon index of ∼1.70. The optical and X-ray afterglow light curves are well fitted with the standard external shock model by considering a delayed energy injection component. Based on our modeling results, we find that the radiative efficiency of the gamma-ray burst jet is ∼ 1 % and the magnetization parameter of the afterglow jet is \\lt 0.04 with a derived extremely low {ε }B (the ratio of shock energy to the magnetic field) of (1.64+/- 0.25)× {10}-6. These results indicate that the jet may be matter dominated. A discussion on delayed energy injection from the accretion of the late fall-back material of its pre-supernova star is also presented.

  8. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  9. Gulf Stream-related warm filaments inshore of the Charleston Bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seim, Harvey; Edwards, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    As the Gulf Stream flows along the shelfbreak of the southeast US it is prone to frontal instabilities. Warm filaments often form along the shelfbreak, extending equatorward from the onshore crests of meanders. Moored current profiler observations, shipboard towed body and current profiler observations, and glider observations collected over the first few months of 2012 are used to describe the structure of energetic warm filaments off the coast of northern South Carolina, USA, inshore of the deflection region of the Gulf Stream known as the Charleston Bump. These filaments were found to extend to more than 100m depth, translate southwestward, and produce strong SW currents (>0.6 m/s at the surface), in contrast to previous studies which documented shallower, non-translating, filaments with weaker currents to the northeast of the study area. Filaments strongly influence the mass field on the outer shelf and upper slope, causing a depression of isosurfaces, possibly enhancing near-bottom offshore flow in frictional boundary layers. A simple geostrophic representation of the near-surface properties of a filament is compared to the observations.

  10. Using a shock control bump to improve the performance of an axial compressor blade section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, K.; Khatibirad, S.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we use numerical analysis to study the effects of a shock control bump (SCB) on the performance of a transonic axial compressor blade section and to optimize its shape and location to improve the compressor performance. A section of the NASA rotor 67 blade is used for this study. Two Bézier curves, each consisting of seven control points, are used to model the suction and pressure surfaces of the blade section. The SCB is modeled with the Hicks-Henne function and, using five design parameters, is added to the suction side. The total pressure loss through a cascade of blade sections is selected as the cost function. A continuous adjoint optimization method is used along with a RANS solver to find a new blade section shape. A grid independence study is performed, and all optimization and flow solver algorithms are validated. Two single-point optimizations are performed in the design condition and in an off-design condition. It is shown that both optimized shapes have overall better performance for both on-design and off-design conditions. An analysis is given regarding how the SCB has changed the wave structure between blade sections resulting in a more favorable flow pattern.

  11. The Influential Effect of Blending, Bump, Changing Period, and Eclipsing Cepheids on the Leavitt Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Varela, A.; Muñoz, J. R.; Sabogal, B. E.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Martínez, J.

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the nonlinearity of the Leavitt law (LL) is a topic that began more than seven decades ago, when some of the studies in this field found that the LL has a break at about 10 days. The goal of this work is to investigate a possible statistical cause of this nonlinearity. By applying linear regressions to OGLE-II and OGLE-IV data, we find that to obtain the LL by using linear regression, robust techniques to deal with influential points and/or outliers are needed instead of the ordinary least-squares regression traditionally used. In particular, by using M- and MM-regressions we establish firmly and without doubt the linearity of the LL in the Large Magellanic Cloud, without rejecting or excluding Cepheid data from the analysis. This implies that light curves of Cepheids suggesting blending, bumps, eclipses, or period changes do not affect the LL for this galaxy. For the Small Magellanic Cloud, when including Cepheids of this kind, it is not possible to find an adequate model, probably because of the geometry of the galaxy. In that case, a possible influence of these stars could exist.

  12. An analysis of reservoir storage contents for the proposed enlargement of Bumping Lake in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartells, John H.

    1981-01-01

    Monthend contents of the proposed Bumping Lake enlargement in Washington were determined for the period 1917-73 by using the historic streamflow record as a basis for inflow to the reservoir and imposing certain operational requirements on reservoir releases. The operational requirements used were those set forth in the Environmental Statement that was prepared for the project by the U.S. Water and Power Resources Service (formerly the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation). The computations show that after starting with an empty reservoir on October 1, 1917, the 458,000 acre-feet capacity of the enlarged lake could be nearly full (384,000 acre-feet) on November 30, 1925, which is the starting scenario given in the Environmental Statement. From 1925 to 1973 the computations compare favorably with those shown in the Environmental Statement, with minor differences due to releases of fish enhancement water. In all cases studied, all fishwater requirements and all existing irrigation requirements were met, and generally from 30,000 to 90,000 acre-feet of extra irrigation water could be available in most years. (USGS)

  13. Improving Touschek lifetime in ultralow-emittance lattices through systematic application of successive closed vertical dispersion bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunlin, J.; Leemann, S. C.; Andersson, Å.

    2016-06-01

    In present ultralow-emittance storage ring designs the emittance coupling required for the production of vertically diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation in the hard x-ray regime is achieved and in many cases surpassed by a correction of the orbit and the linear optics alone. However, operating with a vertical emittance lower than required is disadvantageous, since it decreases Touschek lifetime and reduces brightness due to the transverse emittance increase from intrabeam scattering. In this paper we present a scheme consisting of closed vertical dispersion bumps successively excited in each arc of the storage ring by skew quadrupoles that couple horizontal dispersion into the vertical plane to a desired level and thereby raise the vertical emittance in a controlled fashion. A systematic approach to vertical dispersion bumps has been developed that suppresses dispersion and betatron coupling in the straight sections in order to maintain a small projected emittance for insertion devices. In this way, beam lifetime can be significantly increased without negatively impacting insertion device source properties and hence brightness. Using simulation results for the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring including magnet and alignment imperfections we demonstrate that Touschek lifetime can be increased by more than a factor 2 by adjusting the vertical emittance from 1.3 pm rad (after orbit correction) to 8 pm rad (after application of dispersion bumps) using two to three independent skew quadrupole families all the while ensuring deviations from design optics are restrained to a minimum.

  14. Precision volume measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, P.A.

    1984-11-01

    An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constant-temperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01%), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.

  15. Control of flow separation on a contour bump by jets in a Mach 1.9 free-stream: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Kin Hing; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    Flow separation control over a three-dimensional contour bump using jet in a Mach 1.9 supersonic free-stream has been experimentally investigated using a transonic/supersonic wind tunnel. Jet total pressure in the range of 0-4 bar was blowing at the valley of the contour bump. Schlieren photography, surface oil flow visualisation and particle image velocimetry measurements were employed for flow visualisation and diagnostics. Experimental results show that blowing jet at the valley of the contour bump can hinder the formation and distort the spanwise vortices. The blowing jet can also reduce the extent of flow separation appears downstream of the bump crest. It was observed that this approach of flow control is more effective when high jet total pressure is employed. It is believed that a pressure gradient is generated as a result of the interaction between the flow downstream of the bump crest and the jet induced shock leads to the downwards flow motion around the bump valley.

  16. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  17. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  18. Precision enhancement of pavement roughness localization with connected vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, R.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Deng, F.

    2016-02-01

    Transportation agencies rely on the accurate localization and reporting of roadway anomalies that could pose serious hazards to the traveling public. However, the cost and technical limitations of present methods prevent their scaling to all roadways. Connected vehicles with on-board accelerometers and conventional geospatial position receivers offer an attractive alternative because of their potential to monitor all roadways in real-time. The conventional global positioning system is ubiquitous and essentially free to use but it produces impractically large position errors. This study evaluated the improvement in precision achievable by augmenting the conventional geo-fence system with a standard speed bump or an existing anomaly at a pre-determined position to establish a reference inertial marker. The speed sensor subsequently generates position tags for the remaining inertial samples by computing their path distances relative to the reference position. The error model and a case study using smartphones to emulate connected vehicles revealed that the precision in localization improves from tens of metres to sub-centimetre levels, and the accuracy of measuring localized roughness more than doubles. The research results demonstrate that transportation agencies will benefit from using the connected vehicle method to achieve precision and accuracy levels that are comparable to existing laser-based inertial profilers.

  19. Precision Teaching: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Precision teaching is introduced as a method of helping students develop fluency or automaticity in the performance of academic skills. Precision teaching involves being aware of the relationship between teaching and learning, measuring student performance regularly and frequently, and analyzing the measurements to develop instructional and…

  20. Precision Optics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert L.; And Others

    This guide outlines the competency-based, two-year precision optics curriculum that the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association has proposed to fill the void that it suggests will soon exist as many of the master opticians currently employed retire. The model, which closely resembles the old European apprenticeship model, calls for 300…

  1. Evaluation of potential and consequences of steam bump in high heat waste tanks and assessment and validation of GOTH computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-15

    This report describes the thermal hydraulic analysis performed using the GOTH computer code to evaluate the potential and consequences of steam bumps in high heat waste tanks. The analysis was performed for three different sludge volumes that correspond to the current sludge volume in tank AZ-101, combined sludge volumes of tank AZ-101 and tank AZ-102 and the projected consolidated sludge volume of tank C-106 and tank AY-102. For each case, the steam bump potential was evaluated starting the simulation with a realistic best estimate initial temperature distribution as well as with a conservative potentially possible axial temperature distribution in the sludge. To include further conservatism in estimating the consequent release of radioactive material, steam bump analyses were also performed suppressing steam condensation with subcooled liquid in waste. In addition,calculations were performed with in leakage flow paths corresponding to open risers and pump and sluice pit cover blocks as well as with normal in leakage flow paths due to drain pipes and infiltration paths. Therefore, the report presents the steam bump evaluations encompassing from an extremely conservative case of initiating a steam bump with local saturation temperature throughout the sludge with condensation suppressed and open risers to a realistic potential case with loss of cooling of initiating at steam bump with only the bottom layer with local saturation temperature with condensation included considering only the normal in leakage flow paths. The results show that in all cases the consequences from an energetic bump may not be acceptable, and the safe operation should include keeping peak sludge temperatures below local saturation values. The report also includes a brief description of the capability and validation of models used in the GOTH computer code.

  2. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  3. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  4. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  5. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  6. Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antelius, Mikael; Fischer, Andreas C.; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10-10 mbarL s-1, in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

  7. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-08-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/sqrt{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/sqrt{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  8. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  9. How Physics Got Precise

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppner, Daniel

    2005-01-19

    Although the ancients knew the length of the year to about ten parts per million, it was not until the end of the 19th century that precision measurements came to play a defining role in physics. Eventually such measurements made it possible to replace human-made artifacts for the standards of length and time with natural standards. For a new generation of atomic clocks, time keeping could be so precise that the effects of the local gravitational potentials on the clock rates would be important. This would force us to re-introduce an artifact into the definition of the second - the location of the primary clock. I will describe some of the events in the history of precision measurements that have led us to this pleasing conundrum, and some of the unexpected uses of atomic clocks today.

  10. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  11. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts. PMID:27376837

  12. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts.

  13. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  14. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Malcolm J.; Bellman, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  15. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, M.J.; Bellman, R.A.

    1982-09-27

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  16. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  17. Precision Nova operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.B.; Miller, J.L.; Saunders, R.L.; Thompson, C.E.; Weiland, T.L.; Laumann, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    To improve the symmetry of x-ray drive on indirectly driven ICF capsules, we have increased the accuracy of operating procedures and diagnostics on the Nova laser. Precision Nova operations includes routine precision power balance to within 10% rms in the ``foot`` and 5% nns in the peak of shaped pulses, beam synchronization to within 10 ps rms, and pointing of the beams onto targets to within 35 {mu}m rms. We have also added a ``fail-safe chirp`` system to avoid Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in optical components during high energy shots.

  18. Precision electron polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  19. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  20. Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves Encountering a Density Bump or Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  1. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  2. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  3. Precision physics at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1997-05-01

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered.

  4. Precision in Stereochemical Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Leroy G., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of relatively new terminology that has given multiple definitions often resulting in students learning principles that are actually false is presented with an example of the new term stereogenic atom introduced by Mislow and Siegel. The Mislow terminology would be useful in some cases if it were used precisely and correctly, but it is…

  5. High Precision Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam

    2012-10-01

    This |*|program |*|uses |*|the |*|enhanced |*|astrometric |*|precision |*|enabled |*|by |*|spatial |*|scanning |*|to |*|calibrate |*|remaining |*|obstacles |*|toreaching |*|<<40 |*|microarc|*|second |*|astrometry |*|{<1 |*|millipixel} |*|with |*|WFC3/UVIS |*|by |*|1} |*|improving |*|geometric |*|distor-on |*|2} |*|calibratingthe |*|e|*|ect |*|of |*|breathing |*|on |*|astrometry|*|3} |*|calibrating |*|the |*|e|*|ect |*|of |*|CTE |*|on |*|astrometry, |*|4} |*|characterizing |*|the |*|boundaries |*|andorientations |*|of |*|the |*|WFC3 |*|lithograph |*|cells.

  6. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  7. A passion for precision

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  8. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A passion for precision

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-19

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  10. Towards precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Euan A

    2016-08-16

    There is great potential for genome sequencing to enhance patient care through improved diagnostic sensitivity and more precise therapeutic targeting. To maximize this potential, genomics strategies that have been developed for genetic discovery - including DNA-sequencing technologies and analysis algorithms - need to be adapted to fit clinical needs. This will require the optimization of alignment algorithms, attention to quality-coverage metrics, tailored solutions for paralogous or low-complexity areas of the genome, and the adoption of consensus standards for variant calling and interpretation. Global sharing of this more accurate genotypic and phenotypic data will accelerate the determination of causality for novel genes or variants. Thus, a deeper understanding of disease will be realized that will allow its targeting with much greater therapeutic precision. PMID:27528417

  11. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  12. Ultra-Precision Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEMATECH, Inc., the Silicon Valley Group, Inc. and Tinsley Laboratories, known as SVG-Tinsley, developed an Ultra-Precision Optics Manufacturing System for space and microlithographic applications. Continuing improvements in optics manufacture will be able to meet unique NASA requirements and the production needs of the lithography industry for many years to come.

  13. Precise clock synchronization protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luit, E. J.; Martin, J. M. M.

    1993-12-01

    A distributed clock synchronization protocol is presented which achieves a very high precision without the need for very frequent resynchronizations. The protocol tolerates failures of the clocks: clocks may be too slow or too fast, exhibit omission failures and report inconsistent values. Synchronization takes place in synchronization rounds as in many other synchronization protocols. At the end of each round, clock times are exchanged between the clocks. Each clock applies a convergence function (CF) to the values obtained. This function estimates the difference between its clock and an average clock and corrects its clock accordingly. Clocks are corrected for drift relative to this average clock during the next synchronization round. The protocol is based on the assumption that clock reading errors are small with respect to the required precision of synchronization. It is shown that the CF resynchronizes the clocks with high precision even when relatively large clock drifts are possible. It is also shown that the drift-corrected clocks remain synchronized until the end of the next synchronization round. The stability of the protocol is proven.

  14. Precision Experiments at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, W.

    2015-07-01

    The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while SUSY provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, SUSY removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and predicts the Higgs mechanism from radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a SM-like Higgs boson having a mass below 130 GeV in agreement with the Higgs boson discovery at the LHC. However, the predicted SUSY particles have not been found either because they are too heavy for the present LHC energy and luminosity or Nature has found alternative ways to circumvent the shortcomings of the SM.

  15. Precision Experiments at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Higgs mechanism from radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a SM-like Higgs boson having a mass below 130 GeV in agreement with the Higgs boson discovery at the LHC. However, the predicted SUSY particles have not been found either because they are too heavy for the present LHC energy and luminosity or Nature has found alternative ways to circumvent the shortcomings of the SM.

  16. Effect of Joint Scale and Processing on the Fracture of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints: Application to Micro-bumps in 3D Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebanpour, B.; Huang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) packages, a stack of dies is vertically connected to each other using through-silicon vias and very thin solder micro-bumps. The thinness of the micro-bumps results in joints with a very high volumetric proportion of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), rendering them much more brittle compared to conventional joints. Because of this, the reliability of micro-bumps, and the dependence thereof on the proportion of IMC in the joint, is of substantial concern. In this paper, the growth kinetics of IMCs in thin Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu joints attached to Cu substrates were analyzed, and empirical kinetic laws for the growth of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn in thin joints were obtained. Modified compact mixed mode fracture mechanics samples, with adhesive solder joints between massive Cu substrates, having similar thickness and IMC content as actual micro-bumps, were produced. The effects of IMC proportion and strain rate on fracture toughness and mechanisms were investigated. It was found that the fracture toughness G C decreased with decreasing joint thickness ( h Joint). In addition, the fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rate. Aging also promoted alternation of the crack path between the two joint-substrate interfaces, possibly proffering a mechanism to enhance fracture toughness.

  17. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock - The generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dum, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    Particle simulation experiments were used to study the basic physical ingredients needed for building a global model of foreshock wave phenomena. In particular, the generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution is analyzed. It is shown that, with appropriately designed simulations experiments, quasi-linear theory can be quantitatively verified for parameters corresponding to the electron foreshock.

  18. Feeling socially powerless makes you more prone to bumping into things on the right and induces leftward line bisection error.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; Guinote, Ana; Weick, Mario; Molinari, Rosanna; Graham, Kylee

    2010-12-01

    Social power affects the manner in which people view themselves and act toward others, a finding that has attracted broad interest from the social and political sciences. However, there has been little interest from those within cognitive neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate that the effects of power extend beyond social interaction and invoke elementary spatial biases in behavior consistent with preferential hemispheric activation. In particular, participants who felt relatively powerless, compared with those who felt more powerful, were more likely to bisect horizontal lines to the left of center, and bump into the right-hand (as opposed to the left-hand) side when walking through a narrow passage. These results suggest that power induces hemispheric differences in visuomotor behavior, indicating that this ubiquitous phenomenon affects not only how we interact with one another, but also how we interact with the physical world.

  19. Study of the thermal stress in a Pb-free half-bump solder joint under current stressing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B. Y.; Chan, Y. C.; Zhong, H. W.; Alam, M. O.; Lai, J. K. L.

    2007-06-04

    The thermal stress in a Sn3.5Ag1Cu half-bump solder joint under a 3.82x10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2} current stressing was analyzed using a coupled-field simulation. Substantial thermal stress accumulated around the Al-to-solder interface, especially in the Ni+(Ni,Cu){sub 3}Sn{sub 4} layer, where a maximal stress of 138 MPa was identified. The stress gradient in the Ni layer was about 1.67x10{sup 13} Pa/m, resulting in a stress migration force of 1.82x10{sup -16} N, which is comparable to the electromigration force, 2.82x10{sup -16} N. Dissolution of the Ni+(Ni,Cu){sub 3}Sn{sub 4} layer, void formation with cracks at the anode side, and extrusions at the cathode side were observed.

  20. Shock-tube experiments on Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth using an enlarged double-bump perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, D. A.; Smith, A. V.; Barton, C. J.; Youngs, D. L.

    2003-07-01

    This article reports on the latest experiments in the series of Richtmyer Meshkov instability (RMI) shock-tube experiments. Previous work described a double-bump experiment that evidenced some degree of unrepeatability. The present work features an enlarged perturbation introduced to improve repeatability. In common with the previous work, the experiments were conducted at shock Mach number 1.26 (70 kPa overpressure), using the Atomic Weapons Establishment 200 × 100 mm shock tube with a three-zone test cell arrangement of air/sulphur hexafluoride/air. The sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) was chosen for its high density (5.1 relative to air) providing an Atwood number of 0.67. Gas separation was by means of microfilm membranes, supported by fine wire meshes. A double-bump perturbation of two-dimensional geometry was superimposed on the downstream membrane representing a 0.6% addition to the dense gas volume. Visualization of the turbulent gas mixing was by laser sheet illumination of the seeded SF6 gas using a copper vapor laser pulsing at 12.5 kHz. Mie scattered light was recorded using a 35-mm rotating drum camera to capture a sequence of 50 images per experiment. Sample experimental results shown alongside corresponding three-dimensional hydrocode calculations highlight the problems in both analysis and comparison caused by multiple scattering arising from the necessary use of a high seeding concentration. Included is a demonstration of the effectiveness of introducing into the hydrocode a Monte Carlo-based simulation of the multiple scattering process. The results so derived yield greatly improved qualitative agreement with the experimental images. Quantitative analysis took the form of deriving relative intensity data from line-outs through experimental images and their code equivalents. A comparison revealed substantial agreement on major features.

  1. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  2. Precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} and {ital p{anti p}} colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct {ital m{sub t}} measurements. Using the world`s electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs` mass are discussed.

  3. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  4. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  5. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  6. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  7. Precision mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, M.; Borys, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass as a physical quantity and its measurement are described. After some historical remarks, a short summary of the concept of mass in classical and modern physics is given. Principles and methods of mass measurements, for example as energy measurement or as measurement of weight forces and forces caused by acceleration, are discussed. Precision mass measurement by comparing mass standards using balances is described in detail. Measurement of atomic masses related to 12C is briefly reviewed as well as experiments and recent discussions for a future new definition of the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

  8. The effect of intermetallic compound evolution on the fracture behavior of Au stud bumps joined with Sn-3.5Ag solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Kyu; Ko, Yong-Ho; Kim, Jun-Ki; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yoo, Sehoon

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and joint properties of Au stud bumps joined with Sn-3.5Ag solder were investigated as functions of flip chip bonding temperature and aging time. Au stud bumps were bonded on solder-onpad (SOP) at bonding temperature of 260°C and 300°C for 10 s, respectively. Aging treatment was carried out at 150°C for 100 h, 300 h, and 500 h, respectively. After flip chip bonding, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4 were formed at the interface between the Au stud bump and Sn-3.5Ag solder. At a bonding temperature of 300°C, AuSn2 IMC clusters, which were surrounded by AuSn4 IMCs, were observed in the Sn-3.5Ag solder bump. After flip chip bonding, bonding strength was approximately 220.5mN/bump. As aging time increased, the bonding strength decreased. After 100 h of aging treatment, the bonding strength of the joint bonded at 300°C was lower than that bonded at 260°C due to the fast growth rate of the AuSn2 IMCs. The main failure modes were interface fractures between the AuSn2 IMCs and AuSn4 IMCs, fractures through the AuSn2 IMCs and pad lift. Initial joint microstructures after flip chip bonding strongly affected the bonding strengths of aged samples.

  9. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  10. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  11. Precision Joining Center

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  12. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  13. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  14. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  15. Precision Joining Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a Precision Joining Center (PJC) is proposed. The PJC will be a cooperatively operated center with participation from U.S. private industry, the Colorado School of Mines, and various government agencies, including the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). The PJC's primary mission will be as a training center for advanced joining technologies. This will accomplish the following objectives: (1) it will provide an effective mechanism to transfer joining technology from the NWC to private industry; (2) it will provide a center for testing new joining processes for the NWC and private industry; and (3) it will provide highly trained personnel to support advance joining processes for the NWC and private industry.

  16. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  17. Precision laser cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Anglin, C.D.; Ramos, T.J.

    1990-01-19

    Many materials that are otherwise difficult to fabricate can be cut precisely with lasers. This presentation discusses the advantages and limitations of laser cutting for refractory metals, ceramics, and composites. Cutting in these materials was performed with a 400-W, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Important cutting parameters such as beam power, pulse waveforms, cutting gases, travel speed, and laser coupling are outlined. The effects of process parameters on cut quality are evaluated. Three variables are used to determine the cut quality: kerf width, slag adherence, and metallurgical characteristics of recast layers and heat-affected zones around the cuts. Results indicate that ductile materials with good coupling characteristics (such as stainless steel alloys and tantalum) cut well. Materials lacking one or both of these properties (such as tungsten and ceramics) are difficult to cut without proper part design, stress relief, or coupling aids. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Precision Spectroscopy of Tellurium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, J.; Furneaux, J. E.

    2013-06-01

    Tellurium (Te_2) is widely used as a frequency reference, largely due to the fact that it has an optical transition roughly every 2-3 GHz throughout a large portion of the visible spectrum. Although a standard atlas encompassing over 5200 cm^{-1} already exists [1], Doppler broadening present in that work buries a significant portion of the features [2]. More recent studies of Te_2 exist which do not exhibit Doppler broadening, such as Refs. [3-5], and each covers different parts of the spectrum. This work adds to that knowledge a few hundred transitions in the vicinity of 444 nm, measured with high precision in order to improve measurement of the spectroscopic constants of Te_2's excited states. Using a Fabry Perot cavity in a shock-absorbing, temperature and pressure regulated chamber, locked to a Zeeman stabilized HeNe laser, we measure changes in frequency of our diode laser to ˜1 MHz precision. This diode laser is scanned over 1000 GHz for use in a saturated-absorption spectroscopy cell filled with Te_2 vapor. Details of the cavity and its short and long-term stability are discussed, as well as spectroscopic properties of Te_2. References: J. Cariou, and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule de tellure, Laboratoire Aime-Cotton (1980). J. Coker et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {28}, 2934 (2011). J. Verges et al., Physica Scripta {25}, 338 (1982). Ph. Courteille et al., Appl. Phys. B {59}, 187 (1994) T.J. Scholl et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {22}, 1128 (2005).

  19. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, K.; Artuso, M.; van Beveren, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; van der Heijden, B.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; Hsu, D.; John, M.; Koffeman, E.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Longstaff, I.; Morton, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M. M.; Rodríguez Perez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Wysokiński, M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  20. High-precision optomechanical lens system for space applications assembled by a local soldering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleguezuelo, Pol Ribes; Koechlin, Charlie; Hornaff, Marcel; Kamm, Andreas; Beckert, Erik; Fiault, Guillaume; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Soldering using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glass, ceramics, and optical crystals. This is due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. Solderjet bumping technology has been used to assemble a lens mount breadboard using specifications and requirements found for the optical beam expander for the European Space Agency EarthCare Mission. The silica lens and a titanium barrel have been designed and assembled with this technology in order to withstand the stringent mission demands of handling high mechanical and thermal loads without losing the optical performance. Finally, a high-precision optomechanical lens mount has been assembled with minimal localized stress (<1 MPa) showing outstanding performance in terms of wave-front error and beam depolarization ratio before and after environmental tests.

  1. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental efforts of the last few decades have brought. a golden age to mankind's endeavor to understand tine physical properties of the Universe throughout its history. Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong confirmation of the standard big bang paradigm, as well as introducing new mysteries, to unexplained by current physical models. In the following decades. even more ambitious scientific endeavours will begin to shed light on the new physics by looking at the detailed structure of the Universe both at very early and recent times. Modern data has allowed us to begins to test inflationary models of the early Universe, and the near future will bring higher precision data and much stronger tests. Cracking the codes hidden in these cosmological observables is a difficult and computationally intensive problem. The challenges will continue to increase as future experiments bring larger and more precise data sets. Because of the complexity of the problem, we are forced to use approximate techniques and make simplifying assumptions to ease the computational workload. While this has been reasonably sufficient until now, hints of the limitations of our techniques have begun to come to light. For example, the likelihood approximation used for analysis of CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) satellite was shown to have short falls, leading to pre-emptive conclusions drawn about current cosmological theories. Also it can he shown that an approximate method used by all current analysis codes to describe the recombination history of the Universe will not be sufficiently accurate for future experiments. With a new CMB satellite scheduled for launch in the coming months, it is vital that we develop techniques to improve the analysis of cosmological data. This work develops a novel technique of both avoiding the use of approximate computational codes as well as allowing the application of new, more precise analysis

  2. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  3. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  4. Environment Assisted Precision Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellaro, P.; Goldstein, G.; Maze, J. R.; Jiang, L.; Hodges, J. S.; Sorensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of magnetometry and achieve nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement using a novel class of entangled states. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas strongly coupled to the sensor qubit, it does not depend on the exact values of the couplings (allowing to use disordered systems), and is resilient to decoherence. As a specific example we consider electronic spins in the solid-state, where the ancillary system is associated with the surrounding spin bath. The conventional approach has been to consider these spins only as a source of decoherence and to adopt decoupling scheme to mitigate their effects. Here we describe novel control techniques that transform the environment spins into a resource used to amplify the sensor spin response to weak external perturbations, while maintaining the beneficial effects of dynamical decoupling sequences. We discuss specific applications to improve magnetic sensing with diamond nano-crystals, using one Nitrogen-Vacancy center spin coupled to Nitrogen electronic spins.

  5. The red giant branch phase transition: Implications for the RGB luminosity function bump and detections of Li-rich red clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, Santi; Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of the evolution of the luminosity of He-ignition stage and of the red giant branch bump luminosity during the red giant branch phase transition for various metallicities. To this purpose we calculated a grid of stellar models that sample the mass range of the transition with a fine mass step equal to 0.01 M⊙. We find that for a stellar population with a given initial chemical composition, there is a critical age (of 1.1-1.2 Gyr) around which a decrease in age of just 20-30 million years causes a drastic drop in the red giant branch tip brightness. We also find a narrow age range (a few 107 yr) around the transition, characterized by the luminosity of the red giant branch bump being brighter than the luminosity of He ignition. We discuss a possible link between this occurrence and observations of Li-rich core He-burning stars.

  6. Precision medicine in myasthenia graves: begin from the data precision

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Xie, Yanchen; Hao, Hong-Jun; Sun, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with overt clinical and immunological heterogeneity. The data of MG is far from individually precise now, partially due to the rarity and heterogeneity of this disease. In this review, we provide the basic insights of MG data precision, including onset age, presenting symptoms, generalization, thymus status, pathogenic autoantibodies, muscle involvement, severity and response to treatment based on references and our previous studies. Subgroups and quantitative traits of MG are discussed in the sense of data precision. The role of disease registries and scientific bases of precise analysis are also discussed to ensure better collection and analysis of MG data. PMID:27127759

  7. Precise Truss Assembly using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    We describe an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly of commodity parts with low-precision bonding. We present preliminary experiments in 2D that are motivated by the problem of assembling a space telescope optical bench on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local assembly site in place while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (in this case, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. We report the challenges of designing the IPJR hardware and software, analyze the error in assembly, document the test results over several experiments including a large-scale ring structure, and describe future work to implement the IPJR in 3D and with micron precision.

  8. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  9. Electrostatic solitary waves and hole structures generated by bump-on-tail instability in electron-positron plasmas.

    PubMed

    Jao, C-S; Hau, L-N

    2014-05-01

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and solitons are widely present in the solar system plasma environment. Many theoretical and numerical studies have been carried out to address the formation and structure of ESWs and solitons in electron-ion plasmas. Due to the inertia symmetry, the issue of whether solitons can exist in pair plasmas has been raised and has been discussed in a number of papers. Recently, we have shown that interlacing electron and positron holes in phase space associated with periodic positive and negative potentials may be generated by current-free electron and positron beams streaming in stationary electron-positron background plasmas [Jao and Hau, Phys. Rev. E 86, 056401 (2012)]. The question remains of whether pure electron or positron holes with positive or negative polarity may exist in neutral electron-positron plasmas. In this paper, we show the formation of electron (positron) holes associated with ESWs of positive (negative) potential based on the particle-in-cell simulations of bump-on-tail streaming instability in pair plasmas. The fluid theory shows that the coexistence of two unstable modes with different wavelengths is the essential condition for the generation of electrostatic solitons and hole structures in an electron-positron plasma. PMID:25353901

  10. Effect of Current Density and Plating Time on Cu Electroplating in TSV and Low Alpha Solder Bumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Do-Hyun; Sharma, Ashutosh; Kim, Keong-Heum; Choo, Yong-Chul; Jung, Jae-Pil

    2015-03-01

    In this study, copper filling in through-silicon via (TSV) by pulse periodic reverse electroplating and low alpha solder bumping on Cu-filled TSVs was investigated. The via diameter and depth of TSV were 60 and 120 µm, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the thickness of electrodeposited copper layer increased with increasing cathodic current density and plating time. The electroplated Cu in TSV showed a typical bottom-up filling. A defectless, complete, and fast 100% Cu-filled TSV was achieved at cathodic and anodic current densities of -8 and 16 mA/cm2 for a plating time of 4 h, respectively. A sound low alpha solder ball, Sn-1.0 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Cu (SAC 105) with a diameter of 83 µm and height of 66 µm was reflow processed at 245 °C on Cu-filled TSV. The Cu/solder joint interface was subjected to high temperature aging at 85 °C for 150 h, which showed an excellent bonding characteristic with minimum Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds growth.

  11. The application of the gradient-based adjoint multi-point optimization of single and double shock control bumps for transonic airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, K.; Nejati, A.; Chaharlang Kiani, K.; Taheri, R.

    2016-07-01

    A shock control bump (SCB) is a flow control method that uses local small deformations in a flexible wing surface to considerably reduce the strength of shock waves and the resulting wave drag in transonic flows. Most of the reported research is devoted to optimization in a single flow condition. Here, we have used a multi-point adjoint optimization scheme to optimize shape and location of the SCB. Practically, this introduces transonic airfoils equipped with the SCB that are simultaneously optimized for different off-design transonic flight conditions. Here, we use this optimization algorithm to enhance and optimize the performance of SCBs in two benchmark airfoils, i.e., RAE-2822 and NACA-64-A010, over a wide range of off-design Mach numbers. All results are compared with the usual single-point optimization. We use numerical simulation of the turbulent viscous flow and a gradient-based adjoint algorithm to find the optimum location and shape of the SCB. We show that the application of SCBs may increase the aerodynamic performance of an RAE-2822 airfoil by 21.9 and by 22.8 % for a NACA-64-A010 airfoil compared to the no-bump design in a particular flight condition. We have also investigated the simultaneous usage of two bumps for the upper and the lower surfaces of the airfoil. This has resulted in a 26.1 % improvement for the RAE-2822 compared to the clean airfoil in one flight condition.

  12. IS THE LATE NEAR-INFRARED BUMP IN SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B DUE TO THE LI-PACZYNSKI KILONOVA?

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming; Xu, Dong; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2013-09-20

    Short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be produced by the merger of two binary compact objects, specifically by two neutron stars or by a neutron star orbiting a black hole. According to the Li-Paczynski kilonova model, the merger would launch sub-relativistic ejecta and a near-infrared/optical transient would then occur, lasting up to days, which is powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in the ejecta. The detection of a late bump using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the near-infrared afterglow light curve of the short-hard GRB 130603B is indeed consistent with such a model. However, as shown in this Letter, the limited HST near-infrared light curve behavior can also be interpreted as the synchrotron radiation of the external shock driven by a wide mildly relativistic outflow. In such a scenario, the radio emission is expected to peak with a flux of ∼100 μJy, which is detectable for current radio arrays. Hence, the radio afterglow data can provide complementary evidence on the nature of the bump in GRB 130603B. It is worth noting that good spectroscopy during the bump phase in short-hard bursts can test the validity of either model above, analogous to spectroscopy of broad-lined Type Ic supernova in long-soft GRBs.

  13. USING THE 1.6 {mu}m BUMP TO STUDY REST-FRAME NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sorba, Robert; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-10-01

    We explore the feasibility and limitations of using the 1.6 {mu}m bump as a photometric redshift indicator and selection technique, and use it to study the rest-frame H-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions (SMFs) at redshift z {approx} 2. We use publicly available Spitzer/IRAC images in the GOODS fields and find that color selection in the IRAC bandpasses alone is comparable in completeness and contamination to BzK selection. We find that the shape of the 1.6 {mu}m bump is robust, and photometric redshifts are not greatly affected by choice of model parameters. Comparison with spectroscopic redshifts shows photometric redshifts to be reliable. We create a rest-frame NIR-selected catalog of galaxies at z {approx} 2 and construct a galaxy SMF. Comparisons with other SMFs at approximately the same redshift but determined using shorter wavelengths show good agreement. This agreement suggests that selection at bluer wavelengths does not miss a significant amount of stellar mass in passive galaxies. Comparison with SMFs at other redshifts shows evidence for the downsizing scenario of galaxy evolution. We conclude by pointing out the potential for using the 1.6 {mu}m bump technique to select high-redshift galaxies with the JWST, whose {lambda}>0.6 {mu}m coverage will not be well suited to selecting galaxies using techniques that require imaging at shorter wavelengths.

  14. Laser generation of elliptical nanometre and sub-nanometre bump arrays on NiP/Al data storage disks and their effect on stiction performance.

    PubMed

    Pena, A A; Wang, Z B; Zhang, J; Wu, N E; Li, L

    2011-09-01

    Elliptical nano-bumps on nickel-phosphorus coated aluminium (NiP/Al) hard disks were fabricated by a laser texturing system (maximum power 8 W, maximum frequency 300 kHz). By carefully selecting the level of laser power attenuation and defocus offset distance, bump height can be controlled below 6 nm and down to the sub-nanometre scale. This type of laser-induced texture (elliptical shape) on a disk surface is expected to provide better control of the stiction force along with the smallest separation distance between the head slider and the disk. Quantitative modelling based on the classical Hertzian theory for elliptic contacts has been carried out with the purpose of predicting the stiction behaviour of the presented elliptical shaped sub-10 nm bumps. It has been found that an elliptical shape not only reduces the overall stiction performance of the laser texturing zone (LZT) compared to the conventional circular shape but also extends the occurrence of the 'stiction wall' towards the sub-10 nm regime for ultra-low-glide applications. PMID:21836329

  15. Precision measurements of linear scattering density using muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, E.; Bonomi, G.; Calliari, I.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Donzella, A.; Faraci, E.; Forsberg, F.; Gonella, F.; Hu, X.; Klinger, J.; Sundqvist Ökvist, L.; Pagano, D.; Rigoni, A.; Ramous, E.; Urbani, M.; Vanini, S.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that muon tomography can be used to precisely measure the properties of various materials. The materials which have been considered have been extracted from an experimental blast furnace, including carbon (coke) and iron oxides, for which measurements of the linear scattering density relative to the mass density have been performed with an absolute precision of 10%. We report the procedures that are used in order to obtain such precision, and a discussion is presented to address the expected performance of the technique when applied to heavier materials. The results we obtain do not depend on the specific type of material considered and therefore they can be extended to any application.

  16. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  17. More Questions on Precision Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Precision teaching can accelerate basic skills progress of special needs children. Issues discussed include using probes as performance tests, charting daily progress, using the charted data to modify teaching methods, determining appropriate age levels, assessing the number of students to be precision taught, and carefully allocating time. (JDD)

  18. Precision Teaching: Discoveries and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines precision teaching; describes its monitoring methods by displaying a standard celeration chart and explaining charting conventions; points out precision teaching's roots in laboratory free-operant conditioning; discusses its learning tactics and performance principles; and describes its effectiveness in producing learning gains.…

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  20. Precision Measurements at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.K.; /SLAC

    2006-12-06

    With relatively low backgrounds and a well-determined initial state, the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) would provide a precision complement to the LHC experiments at the energy frontier. Completely and precisely exploring the discoveries of the LHC with such a machine will be critical in understanding the nature of those discoveries and what, if any, new physics they represent. The unique ability to form a complete picture of the Higgs sector is a prime example of the probative power of the ILC and represents a new era in precision physics.

  1. Watch the Children: Precision Referring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltbrunner, Curtis L.; Vasa, Stanley F.

    1974-01-01

    The Precision Referral Form (PRF) is described as a quick, accurate and easy instrument that enables teachers to communicate learning and behavior problems of students to resource or ancillary personnel and to pinpoint students' behaviors. (GW)

  2. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  3. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Based on the research, the area of precise ephemerides for GPS satellites, the following observations can be made pertaining to the status and future work needed regarding orbit accuracy. There are several aspects which need to be addressed in discussing determination of precise orbits, such as force models, kinematic models, measurement models, data reduction/estimation methods, etc. Although each one of these aspects was studied at CSR in research efforts, only points pertaining to the force modeling aspect are addressed.

  4. Study of Intermetallic Growth and Kinetics in Fine-Pitch Lead-Free Solder Bumps for Next-Generation Flip-Chip Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Chow, Justin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yi Ping; Sitaraman, Suresh K.

    2013-02-01

    With continued advances in microelectronics, it is anticipated that next-generation microelectronic assemblies will require a reduction of the flip-chip solder bump pitch to 100 μm or less from the current industrial practice of 130 μm to 150 μm. With this reduction in pitch size, and thus in bump height and diameter, the interaction between die pad metallurgy and substrate pad metallurgy becomes more critical due to the shorter diffusion path and greater stress. Existing literature has not addressed such metallurgical interaction in actual fine-pitch flip-chip assemblies. This work studies intermetallic growth and kinetics in fine-pitch lead-free solder bumps through thermal aging of flip-chip assemblies. Based on this study, it is seen that Ni from the die pad diffuses to the substrate pad region and Cu from the substrate pad diffuses to the die pad region, thus the resulting intermetallic compounds at the die and substrate pad regions are influenced by the other pad as well. Such cross-pad interaction is much stronger in fine-pitch solder bumps with smaller standoff height. It is seen that the die pad region contains Ni3P and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 after thermal aging, while the substrate pad region contains Cu3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. By digitally measuring the thickness of the interfacial phases, the kinetics parameters and the activation energy were calculated for the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 on the substrate side. The Cu diffusion coefficient through the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was found to be 0.03370 μm2/h, 0.1423 μm2/h, and 0.4463 μm2/h at 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C, respectively, and the apparent activation energy for the growth of compound layers was 67.89 kJ/mol.

  5. Erratum: Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, Charles; Bothun, G.

    2000-05-01

    In the paper ``Precision Velocity Fields in Spiral Galaxies. I. Noncircular Motions and rms Noise in Disks'' by Charles Beauvais and G. Bothun (ApJS, 125, 99) the abstract was incorrect. The corrected abstract is as follows: Imaging Fabry-Perot data have been acquired for a sample of spiral galaxies from which two-dimensional velocity fields have been constructed on a subkiloparsec resolution scale. These velocity fields are then examined for evidence of noncircular motions. Individual spectra are extracted and the resultant line profiles are fitted with Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian functions. Gaussians are shown to provide a better model for simultaneously fitting a large number of line profiles, successfully fitting a higher fraction. The kinematic disk (i.e., tilted ring) modeling procedure is studied in detail and is shown to accurately recover the underlying rotational structure of galactic disks. The process of obtaining rotation curves from full two-dimensional velocity data is examined. Small-scale ``bumps and wiggles'' on the rotation curves are shown to be due to the inclusion of noncircular motions. Use of the rotation curve estimate returned by the modeling procedure rather than deprojection of the velocity field is recommended to avoid their inclusion. Investigation of the symmetry of the major- and minor-axis rotation curves reveal strong evidence of nonconcentric gas orbits with the maximum center shift of ~300 pc. Comparisons between kinematic and photometric structure (e.g., position angles, inclinations, centers) show considerable noise on small scales. Although large-scale averages are in agreement, this noise is a matter of some concern in the application of the Tully-Fisher method to disk galaxies. Moreover, cases of significant misalignment in position angle between the inner and outer disks are seen in two of the sample galaxies and may indicate the transition between luminous and dark-matter-dominated regions (i.e., where the maximum disk

  6. High-precision opto-mechanical lens system for space applications assembled by innovative local soldering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes, P.; Koechlin, C.; Burkhardt, T.; Hornaff, M.; Burkhardt, D.; Kamm, A.; Gramens, S.; Beckert, E.; Fiault, G.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.

    2016-02-01

    Solder joining using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glasses, ceramics and optical crystals. This is due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. Solderjet bumping technology has been used to assemble a lens mount breadboard taking as input specifications the requirements found for the optical beam expander for the European Space Agency (ESA) EarthCare Mission. The silica lens and a titanium barrel have been designed and assembled with this technology in order to withstand the stringent mission demands; handling high mechanical and thermal loads without losing its optical performances. Finally a high-precision opto-mechanical lens mount has been assembled with a minimal localized stress (<1 MPa) showing outstanding performances in terms of wave-front error measurements and beam depolarization ratio before and after environmental tests.

  7. Razor Bumps (Pseudofolliculitis Barbae)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a mild cleanser, such as Cetaphil® Moisturizing Lotion, then rinse. Massage the beard area gently in ... water and apply a mild moisturizing after shave lotion, such as Cetaphil lotion. When you resume shaving, ...

  8. Tank bump consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Board, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    Radiological and toxicological consequence calculations based on work performed by Sathyanarayana using the GOTH thermal hydraulics computer code. Mitigative effects of cover blocks are also calculated.

  9. Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Gao, P.; Bottom, M.; Davison, C.; Mills, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Brinkworth, C.; Tanner, A. M.; Beichman, C. A.; Catanzarite, J.; Crawford, S.; Wallace, J.; Mennesson, B.; Johnson, J. A.; White, R. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; von Braun, K.; Walp, B.; Vasisht, G.; Kane, S. R.; Prato, L. A.; NIRRVs

    2014-01-01

    We present precise radial velocity time-series from a 2.3 micron pilot survey to detect exoplanets around red, low mass, and young stars. We use the CSHELL spectrograph with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility. We present an overview of our Nelder-Mead simplex optimization pipeline for extracting radial velocities. We will also present first light data at 1.6 microns from a near-infrared fiber scrambler used in tandem with our gas cell and CSHELL at IRTF. The fiber scrambler makes use of non-circular core fibers to stabilize the illumination of the slit and echelle grating against changes in seeing, focus, guiding and other sources of systematic radial velocity noise, complementing the wavelength calibration of a gas cell.

  10. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory. Previously announced in STAR as N82-32733

  11. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory.

  12. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  13. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  14. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  15. Precision Multiband Photometry with a DSLR Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Csubry, Z.; Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HAT Network of Telescopes (HATNet), and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDS, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a DSLR camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in three colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation of 4.6 mmag per 180 s exposure when the DSLR color channels are combined, and 1000 stars are measured to better than 10 mmag (1%). Also, we achieve 10 mmag or better photometry in the individual colors. This is good enough to detect transiting hot Jupiters. We performed a candidate search on all stars and found four candidates, one of which is KELT-3b, the only known transiting hot Jupiter in our selected field. We conclude that the Canon 60D is a cheap, lightweight device capable of useful photometry in multiple colors.

  16. Precision processing of earth image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Stierhoff, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    Precise corrections of Landsat data are useful for generating land-use maps, detecting various crops and determining their acreage, and detecting changes. The paper discusses computer processing and visualization techniques for Landsat data so that users can get more information from the imagery. The elementary unit of data in each band of each scene is the integrated value of intensity of reflected light detected in the field of view by each sensor. To develop the basic mathematical approach for precision correction of the data, differences between positions of ground control points on the reference map and the observed control points in the scene are used to evaluate the coefficients of cubic time functions of roll, pitch, and yaw, and a linear time function of altitude deviation from normal height above local earth's surface. The resultant equation, termed a mapping function, corrects the warped data image into one that approximates the reference map. Applications are discussed relative to shade prints, extraction of road features, and atlas of cities.

  17. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  18. ELECTROWEAK PHYSICS AND PRECISION STUDIES.

    SciTech Connect

    MARCIANO, W.

    2005-10-24

    The utility of precision electroweak measurements for predicting the Standard Model Higgs mass via quantum loop effects is discussed. Current values of m{sub W}, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}(m{sub Z}){sub {ovr MS}} and m{sub t} imply a relatively light Higgs which is below the direct experimental bound but possibly consistent with Supersymmetry expectations. The existence of Supersymmetry is further suggested by a 2{sigma} discrepancy between experiment and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Constraints from precision studies on other types of ''New Physics'' are also briefly described.

  19. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  20. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Christopher J.; Prato, L.; Mahmud, Naved I.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Beichman, Charles A. E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2011-07-10

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s{sup -1} precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M{sub JUP} exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  1. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  2. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  3. Formation of solid-solution Cu-to-Cu joints using Ga solder and Pt under bump metallurgy for three-dimensional integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-kang; Chang, Hao-miao; Cho, Cheng-liang; Liu, Yu-chen; Kuo, Yi-kai

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (ICs) are the most important packaging technology for next-generation semiconductors. Cu-to-Cu throughsilicon via interconnections with micro-bumps are key components in the fabrication of 3D ICs. However, significant reliability concerns have been raised due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds in the entire 3D IC joints. This study proposes a Ga-based Cu-to-Cu bonding technology with Pt under bump metallurgy (UBM). A systematic analysis of reactive wetting between Ga solders and polycrystalline, single-crystalline, and Ptcoated Cu substrates was conducted. Pt UBM as a wetting layer was identified to be a key component for Ga-based Cu-to-Cu bonding. Pt-coated Cu substrates were bonded using Ga solders with various Ga-to-Pt ratios ( n) at 300℃. When n ≥ 4, the Cu/Pt/Ga/Pt/Cu interface evolves to Cu/facecentered cubic (fcc)/γ1-Cu9Ga4/fcc/Cu, Cu/fcc/γ1-Cu9Ga4 + Ga7Pt3/fcc/Cu, and finally Cu/fcc + Ga7Pt3/Cu structures. The desired ductile solid solution joint formed with discrete Ga7Pt3 precipitates. When n ≤ 1, a Cu/Ga7Pt3/Cu joint formed without Cu actively participating in the reactions. The reaction mechanism and microstructure evolution were elaborated with the aid of CALPHAD thermodynamic modeling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Characterization of transmission lines with through-silicon-vias and bump joints on high-resistivity Si interposers for RF three-dimensional modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwang-Seong; Eom, Yong-Sung; Bae, Hyun-Cheol; Moon, Seok Hwan; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-06-01

    Microstrip lines and coplanar waveguides (CPWs) for RF three-dimensional (3D) modules were characterized on high-resistivity Si interposers: 2,000 Ω·cm. The diameter and thickness of through-silicon-vias (TSVs) in Si interposers were 50 and 250 µm, respectively. A signal TSV around five ground TSVs, and a signal solder bump around five ground solder bumps were designed to obtain the vertical transitions with low electrical loss between the transmission lines. For the 3D interconnections between Si interposers, a fluxing underfill material was developed and used as a preapplied underfill during the thermocompression bonding. The S-parameters of transmission lines and stacked transmission lines were measured from 0.5 to 10 GHz using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and de-embedded so that their electrical losses were obtained and compared. By comparing with the electrical loss of the transmission line on low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC), we found that both transmission lines were sufficiently good for applications in RF 3D modules.

  5. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  6. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  7. Sensor fusion for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information-based management of crop production systems known as precision agriculture relies on different sensor technologies aimed at characterization of spatial heterogeneity of a cropping environment. Remote and proximal sensing systems have been deployed to obtain high-resolution data pertainin...

  8. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  9. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  10. Precision Tests of Electroweak Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Akhundov, Arif

    2008-04-21

    The status of the precision tests of the electroweak interactions is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is put on the Standard Model analysis based on measurements at LEP/SLC and the Tevatron. The results of the measurements of the electroweak mixing angle in the NuTeV experiment and the future prospects are discussed.

  11. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for ``new physics`` is described.

  12. Precision measurement with atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Development of atom interferometry and its application in precision measurement are reviewed in this paper. The principle, features and the implementation of atom interferometers are introduced, the recent progress of precision measurement with atom interferometry, including determination of gravitational constant and fine structure constant, measurement of gravity, gravity gradient and rotation, test of weak equivalence principle, proposal of gravitational wave detection, and measurement of quadratic Zeeman shift are reviewed in detail. Determination of gravitational redshift, new definition of kilogram, and measurement of weak force with atom interferometry are also briefly introduced. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB832805) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11227803).

  13. Precision and accuracy in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek K

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews some of the key factors influencing the accuracy and precision of quantitative metrics derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data. It focuses on the study pipeline beginning at the choice of imaging protocol, through preprocessing and model fitting up to the point of extracting quantitative estimates for subsequent analysis. The aim was to provide the newcomers to the field with sufficient knowledge of how their decisions at each stage along this process might impact on precision and accuracy, to design their study/approach, and to use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging in the clinic. More specifically, emphasis is placed on improving accuracy and precision. I illustrate how careful choices along the way can substantially affect the sample size needed to make an inference from the data.

  14. Method for grinding precision components

    DOEpatents

    Ramanath, Srinivasan; Kuo, Shih Yee; Williston, William H.; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav

    2000-01-01

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19-380 cm.sup.3 /min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  15. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  16. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, Jens

    2006-11-17

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC.

  17. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  18. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  19. High precision triangular waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1983-01-01

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  20. Origin and history of the Charleston Bump - Geological formations, currents, bottom conditions, and their relationship to wreckfish habitats on the Blake Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, P.; Manheim, F. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Charleston Bump is a structural and topographic high on the northern Blake Plateau that overlies a seaward offset of the edge of continental crust. The feature causes the bottom to shoal and deflects the Gulf Stream offshore, causing an intensification of bottom currents. The area has been swept by strong currents since late Cretaceous time, but the strongest currents have occurred in the Neogene (last ???25 million years). Nondepositional conditions prevail at present, but erosion of the bottom is checked where the bottom is armored by a hard surficial layer of phosphorite pavement. The phosphorite pavements were formed by re-cementation of eroded residues of phosphorite-rich sediments of early-Neogene age. In some places there are multiple pavements separated by poorly lithified sediments. Submersible observations indicate that the south, or current-facing flank of the Charleston Bump has several deep (>100 m) scour depressions, the southern flanks of which form cliffs characterized by ledges and overhangs. In other areas discrete layers of older Paleogene rocks have been partly eroded away, leaving cliff-like steps of 5 m or more relief. Conglomeratic phosphorite pavement layers up to 1 m thick armor most of the bottom. Where breached by scour, these pavements form both low-relief ledges and rock piles. These features form a reef-like environment of caves and overhangs utilized by wreckfish Polyprion americanus and barrelfish Hyperoglyphe perciformis as shelter from the current and as staging areas to prey on passing schools of squid. Wreckfish and other large fish were often localized in rugged bottom habitat, including caves and other shelter areas. We observed wreckfish darting from shelters to feed on passing schools of squid. Present and past observations, are consistent with the concept that impingement of the Gulf Stream at the Charleston Bump compresses midwater fauna from much thicker water layers, providing food for a flourishing big-fish fauna

  1. A Precise Lunar Photometric Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.

    1996-03-01

    The Clementine multispectral dataset will enable compositional mapping of the entire lunar surface at a resolution of ~100-200 m, but a highly accurate photometric normalization is needed to achieve challenging scientific objectives such as mapping petrographic or elemental compositions. The goal of this work is to normalize the Clementine data to an accuracy of 1% for the UVVIS images (0.415, 0.75, 0.9, 0.95, and 1.0 micrometers) and 2% for NIR images (1.1, 1.25, 1.5, 2.0, 2.6, and 2.78 micrometers), consistent with radiometric calibration goals. The data will be normalized to R30, the reflectance expected at an incidence angle (i) and phase angle (alpha) of 30 degrees and emission angle (e) of 0 degree, matching the photometric geometry of lunar samples measured at the reflectance laboratory (RELAB) at Brown University The focus here is on the precision of the normalization, not the putative physical significance of the photometric function parameters. The 2% precision achieved is significantly better than the ~10% precision of a previous normalization.

  2. UV irradiated hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) materials as a carrier candidate of the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadallah, K. A. K.; Mutschke, H.; Jäger, C.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) materials have been considered as a laboratory analog of cosmic carbonaceous nanoparticles in the interstellar medium (ISM). In the diffuse ISM, UV radiation can modify the electronic and atomic structure of HAC materials. Aims: Studying structural and optical properties of HAC materials in correlation with UV processing is very important to understand more clearly the effect of the UV radiation on carbonaceous dust grains in the diffuse ISM. This scenario can explain some astronomical spectral features such as the interstellar UV bump at 4.6 μm-1. Methods: Laser ablation has been used to produce nano-sized HAC materials which are subsequently irradiated by strong UV doses in a high vacuum. Transmission electron microscope images and spectroscopic analyses show the evolution of the internal structure of the material with the UV irradiation. Results: It is found that hydrogen content and the sp3/sp2 hybridization ratio decrease with the UV irradiation. The graphene layers become longer in processed materials. Also, graphitic fibers are observed in modified materials. The variation in the internal structure leads to dramatic changes in the spectral properties in the FUV-VIS range. The UV irradiation of HAC materials, coresponding to 21-33% of the average dose of the UV radiation in diffuse ISM, has produced a new band centered at 4.6 μm-1 (217.5 nm). Conclusions: Consequently, these results confirm for the first time the suggestion by Mennella et al. (1996) that irradiated HAC materials might be considered the carrier of the interstellar UV bump at 4.6 μm-1. However, so far the amount of carbon needed to produce the interstellar 4.6 μm-1 band is higher than that available for interstellar carbon dust grains. So the ideal structure of irradiated HAC materials that would produce a band of sufficient strength is not yet clear for the interstellar dust.

  3. Late Time Multi-wavelength Observations of Swift J1644+5734: A Luminous Optical/IR Bump and Quiescent X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Brown, G. C.; Metzger, B. D.; Page, K. L.; Cenko, S. B.; O'Brien, P. T.; Lyman, J. D.; Wiersema, K.; Stanway, E. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Perley, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present late time multi-wavelength observations of Swift J1644+57, suggested to be a relativistic tidal disruption flare (TDF). Our observations extend to >4 years from discovery and show that 1.4 years after outburst the relativistic jet switched off on a timescale less than tens of days, corresponding to a power-law decay faster than t-70. Beyond this point weak X-rays continue to be detected at an approximately constant luminosity of LX ˜ 5 × 1042 erg s-1 and are marginally inconsistent with a continuing decay of t-5/3, similar to that seen prior to the switch-off. Host photometry enables us to infer a black hole mass of MBH = 3 × 106 M⊙, consistent with the late time X-ray luminosity arising from sub-Eddington accretion onto the black hole in the form of either an unusually optically faint active galactic nucleus or a slowly varying phase of the transient. Optical/IR observations show a clear bump in the light curve at timescales of 30-50 days, with a peak magnitude (corrected for host galaxy extinction) of MR ˜ -22 to -23. The luminosity of the bump is significantly higher than seen in other, non-relativistic TDFs and does not match any re-brightening seen at X-ray or radio wavelengths. Its luminosity, light curve shape, and spectrum are broadly similar to those seen in superluminous supervnovae, although subject to large uncertainties in the correction of the significant host extinction. We discuss these observations in the context of both TDF and massive star origins for Swift J1644+5734 and other candidate relativistic tidal flares.

  4. Axion Bounds from Precision Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, G. G.; Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Wong, Y. Y. Y.

    2010-08-30

    Depending on their mass, axions produced in the early universe can leave different imprints in cosmic structures. If axions have masses in the eV-range, they contribute a hot dark matter fraction, allowing one to constrain m{sub a} in analogy to neutrinos. In the more favored scenario where axions play the role of cold dark matter and if reheating after inflation does not restore the Peccei-Quinn symmetry, the axion field provides isocurvature fluctuations that are severely constrained by precision cosmology. There remains a small sliver in parameter space where isocurvature fluctuations could still show up in future probes.

  5. An Arbitrary Precision Computation Package

    2003-06-14

    This package permits a scientist to perform computations using an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision (the equivalent of hundreds or even thousands of digits), by making only minor changes to conventional C++ or Fortran-90 soruce code. This software takes advantage of certain properties of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, together with advanced numeric algorithms, custom data types and operator overloading. Also included in this package is the "Experimental Mathematician's Toolkit", which incorporates many of these facilitiesmore » into an easy-to-use interactive program.« less

  6. Precision ozone vapor pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Mauersberger, K.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure above liquid ozone has been measured with a high accuracy over a temperature range of 85 to 95 K. At the boiling point of liquid argon (87.3 K) an ozone vapor pressure of 0.0403 Torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 0.7 percent. A least square fit of the data provided the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for liquid ozone; a latent heat of 82.7 cal/g was calculated. High-precision vapor pressure data are expected to aid research in atmospheric ozone measurements and in many laboratory ozone studies such as measurements of cross sections and reaction rates.

  7. Precision-Guaranteed Quantum Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Takanori; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2013-10-01

    Quantum state tomography is currently the standard tool for verifying that a state prepared in the lab is close to an ideal target state, but up to now there have been no rigorous methods for evaluating the precision of the state preparation in tomographic experiments. We propose a new estimator for quantum state tomography, and prove that the (always physical) estimates will be close to the true prepared state with a high probability. We derive an explicit formula for evaluating how high the probability is for an arbitrary finite-dimensional system and explicitly give the one- and two-qubit cases as examples. This formula applies for any informationally complete sets of measurements, arbitrary finite number of data sets, and general loss functions including the infidelity, the Hilbert-Schmidt, and the trace distances. Using the formula, we can evaluate not only the difference between the estimated and prepared states, but also the difference between the prepared and target states. This is the first result directly applicable to the problem of evaluating the precision of estimation and preparation in quantum tomographic experiments.

  8. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  9. Precision experiments in electroweak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, M.L.

    1990-03-01

    The electroweak theory of Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) has become one of the twin pillars upon which our understanding of all particle physics phenomena rests. It is a brilliant achievement that qualitatively and quantitatively describes all of the vast quantity of experimental data that have been accumulated over some forty years. Note that the word quantitatively must be qualified. The low energy limiting cases of the GWS theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and the V-A Theory of Weak Interactions, have withstood rigorous testing. The high energy synthesis of these ideas, the GWS theory, has not yet been subjected to comparably precise scrutiny. The recent operation of a new generation of proton-antiproton (p{bar p}) and electron-positron (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) colliders has made it possible to produce and study large samples of the electroweak gauge bosons W{sup {plus minus}} and Z{sup 0}. We expect that these facilities will enable very precise tests of the GWS theory to be performed in the near future. In keeping with the theme of this Institute, Physics at the 100 GeV Mass Scale, these lectures will explore the current status and the near-future prospects of these experiments.

  10. Antihydrogen production and precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The study of CPT invariance with the highest achievable precision in all particle sectors is of fundamental importance for physics. Equally important is the question of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. In recent years, impressive progress has been achieved in capturing antiprotons in specially designed Penning traps, in cooling them to energies of a few milli-electron volts, and in storing them for hours in a small volume of space. Positrons have been accumulated in large numbers in similar traps, and low energy positron or positronium beams have been generated. Finally, steady progress has been made in trapping and cooling neutral atoms. Thus the ingredients to form antihydrogen at rest are at hand. Once antihydrogen atoms have been captured at low energy, spectroscopic methods can be applied to interrogate their atomic structure with extremely high precision and compare it to its normal matter counterpart, the hydrogen atom. Especially the 1S-2S transition, with a lifetime of the excited state of 122 msec and thereby a natural linewidth of 5 parts in 10{sup 16}, offers in principle the possibility to directly compare matter and antimatter properties at a level of 1 part in 10{sup 16}.

  11. Precision Mass Measurements at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascar, D.; van Schelt, J.; Savard, G.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Sternberg, M.; Sun, T.; Zabransky, B. J.; Segel, R.; Sharma, K.

    2010-02-01

    Neutron separation energies (Sn) are essential inputs to models of explosive r-process nucleosynthesis. However, for nuclei farther from stability, the precision of Sn decreases as production decreases and observation of those nuclei become more difficult. Many of the most critical inputs to the models are based on extrapolations from measurements of masses closer to stability than the predicted r-process path. Measuring masses that approach and lie on the predicted r-process path will further constrain the systematic uncertainties in these extrapolated values. The Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer (CPT) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has measured the masses of more than 160 nuclei to high precision. A recent move to the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) at ANL has given the CPT unique access to weakly produced nuclei that cannot be easily reached via proton induced fission of ^238U. CARIBU will eventually use a 1 Ci source of ^252Cf to produce these nuclei. Installation of the CPT at CARIBU as well as the first CPT mass measurements of neutron rich nuclei at CARIBU will be discussed. )

  12. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  13. High-precision photometry for K2 Campaign 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Domsa, I.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2015-12-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission promises and has delivered new discoveries in the stellar and exoplanet fields. However, due to the loss of accurate pointing, it also brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. In this paper, we describe a new reduction pipeline for extracting high-precision photometry from the K2 data set, and present public light curves for the K2 Campaign 1 target pixel data set. Key to our reduction is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps, from which accurate centroids are passed on for high-precision photometry extraction. We extract target light curves for sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue - this includes not only primary targets of the K2 campaign 1, but also any other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. We provide the raw light curves, and the products of various detrending processes aimed at removing different types of systematics. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ˜0.127 arcsec. For bright stars, our best 6.5 h precision for raw light curves is ˜20 parts per million (ppm). For our detrended light curves, the best 6.5 h precision achieved is ˜15 ppm. We show that our detrended light curves have fewer systematic effects (or trends, or red-noise) than light curves produced by other groups from the same observations. Example light curves of transiting planets and a Cepheid variable candidate, are also presented. We make all light curves public, including the raw and detrended photometry, at http://k2.hatsurveys.org.

  14. Precision Measurement of Large Scale Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to develop and to start to apply new precision methods for measuring the power spectrum and redshift distortions from the anticipated new generation of large redshift surveys. A highlight of work completed during the award period was the application of the new methods developed by the PI to measure the real space power spectrum and redshift distortions of the IRAS PSCz survey, published in January 2000. New features of the measurement include: (1) measurement of power over an unprecedentedly broad range of scales, 4.5 decades in wavenumber, from 0.01 to 300 h/Mpc; (2) at linear scales, not one but three power spectra are measured, the galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-velocity, and velocity-velocity power spectra; (3) at linear scales each of the three power spectra is decorrelated within itself, and disentangled from the other two power spectra (the situation is analogous to disentangling scalar and tensor modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background); and (4) at nonlinear scales the measurement extracts not only the real space power spectrum, but also the full line-of-sight pairwise velocity distribution in redshift space.

  15. Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, Frederick Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a precise, diffraction- limited, ultra-lightweight, composite- material (matrix/fiber) paraboloidal telescope mirror has been devised. Unlike the traditional process of fabrication of heavier glass-based mirrors, this process involves a minimum of manual steps and subjective judgment. Instead, this process involves objectively controllable, repeatable steps; hence, this process is better suited for mass production. Other processes that have been investigated for fabrication of precise composite-material lightweight mirrors have resulted in print-through of fiber patterns onto reflecting surfaces, and have not provided adequate structural support for maintenance of stable, diffraction-limited surface figures. In contrast, this process does not result in print-through of the fiber pattern onto the reflecting surface and does provide a lightweight, rigid structure capable of maintaining a diffraction-limited surface figure in the face of changing temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The process consists mainly of the following steps: 1. A precise glass mandrel is fabricated by conventional optical grinding and polishing. 2. The mandrel is coated with a release agent and covered with layers of a carbon- fiber composite material. 3. The outer surface of the outer layer of the carbon-fiber composite material is coated with a surfactant chosen to provide for the proper flow of an epoxy resin to be applied subsequently. 4. The mandrel as thus covered is mounted on a temperature-controlled spin table. 5. The table is heated to a suitable temperature and spun at a suitable speed as the epoxy resin is poured onto the coated carbon-fiber composite material. 6. The surface figure of the optic is monitored and adjusted by use of traditional Ronchi, Focault, and interferometric optical measurement techniques while the speed of rotation and the temperature are adjusted to obtain the desired figure. The proper selection of surfactant, speed or rotation

  16. The Precision Field Lysimeter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding and interpretation of leaching processes have improved significantly during the past decades. Unlike laboratory experiments, which are mostly performed under very controlled conditions (e.g. homogeneous, uniform packing of pre-treated test material, saturated steady-state flow conditions, and controlled uniform hydraulic conditions), lysimeter experiments generally simulate actual field conditions. Lysimeters may be classified according to different criteria such as type of soil block used (monolithic or reconstructed), drainage (drainage by gravity or vacuum or a water table may be maintained), or weighing or non-weighing lysimeters. In 2004 experimental investigations have been set up to assess the impact of different farming systems on groundwater quality of the shallow floodplain aquifer of the river Mur in Wagna (Styria, Austria). The sediment is characterized by a thin layer (30 - 100 cm) of sandy Dystric Cambisol and underlying gravel and sand. Three precisely weighing equilibrium tension block lysimeters have been installed in agricultural test fields to compare water flow and solute transport under (i) organic farming, (ii) conventional low input farming and (iii) extensification by mulching grass. Specific monitoring equipment is used to reduce the well known shortcomings of lysimeter investigations: The lysimeter core is excavated as an undisturbed monolithic block (circular, 1 m2 surface area, 2 m depth) to prevent destruction of the natural soil structure, and pore system. Tracing experiments have been achieved to investigate the occurrence of artificial preferential flow and transport along the walls of the lysimeters. The results show that such effects can be neglected. Precisely weighing load cells are used to constantly determine the weight loss of the lysimeter due to evaporation and transpiration and to measure different forms of precipitation. The accuracy of the weighing apparatus is 0.05 kg, or 0.05 mm water equivalent

  17. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  18. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  19. Precision and Recall for Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgo, Luis; Ribeiro, Rita

    Cost sensitive prediction is a key task in many real world applications. Most existing research in this area deals with classification problems. This paper addresses a related regression problem: the prediction of rare extreme values of a continuous variable. These values are often regarded as outliers and removed from posterior analysis. However, for many applications (e.g. in finance, meteorology, biology, etc.) these are the key values that we want to accurately predict. Any learning method obtains models by optimizing some preference criteria. In this paper we propose new evaluation criteria that are more adequate for these applications. We describe a generalization for regression of the concepts of precision and recall often used in classification. Using these new evaluation metrics we are able to focus the evaluation of predictive models on the cases that really matter for these applications. Our experiments indicate the advantages of the use of these new measures when comparing predictive models in the context of our target applications.

  20. Precision orbit determination for Topex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Ries, J. C.; Shum, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of radar altimeters to measure the distance from a satellite to the ocean surface with a precision of the order of 2 cm imposes unique requirements for the orbit determination accuracy. The orbit accuracy requirements will be especially demanding for the joint NASA/CNES Ocean Topography Experiment (Topex/Poseidon). For this mission, a radial orbit accuracy of 13 centimeters will be required for a mission period of three to five years. This is an order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy achieved during any previous satellite mission. This investigation considers the factors which limit the orbit accuracy for the Topex mission. Particular error sources which are considered include the geopotential, the radiation pressure and the atmospheric drag model.

  1. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  2. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  3. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  4. Study of Abnormal Vertical Emittance Growth in ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Alabau, M.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Le Meur, G.; Rimbault, C.; Touze, F.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.K.; Appleby, R.; Scarfe, A.; Kuroda, S.; White, G.R.; Woodley, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Since several years, the vertical beam emittance measured in the Extraction Line (EXT) of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK, that will transport the electron beam from the ATF Damping Ring (DR) to the future ATF2 Final Focus beam line, is significantly larger than the emittance measured in the DR itself, and there are indications that it grows rapidly with increasing beam intensity. This longstanding problem has motivated studies of possible sources of this anomalous emittance growth. One possible contribution is non-linear magnetic fields in the extraction region experimented by the beam while passing off-axis through magnets of the DR during the extraction process. In this paper, simulations of the emittance growth are presented and compared to observations. These simulations include the effects of predicted non-linear field errors in the shared DR magnets and orbit displacements from the reference orbit in the extraction region. Results of recent measurements using closed orbit bumps to probe the relation between the extraction trajectory and the anomalous emittance growth are also presented.

  5. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  7. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  8. Extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Dente, M.; Porcari, G.; Robinson, L. F.

    1985-08-06

    Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from oil shale and other solids containing organic matter by passing a liquid organic solvent downwardly through an extraction zone in contact with said solids at an elevated pressure sufficient to maintain said solvent in the liquid phase and at a temperature below about 900/sup 0/ F., preferably between about 650/sup 0/ F. and about 900/sup 0/ F., in order to extract hydrocarbons from the solids into the solvent. The extracted hydrocarbons are then recovered from the solvent by fractionation. Normally, heat is supplied to the extraction zone by passing a hot, nonoxidizing gas, preferably an oxygen-free gas generated within the process, downwardly through the extraction zone in cocurrent flow with the liquid organic solvent.

  9. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  10. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  11. Scoring of precision spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Budinski, K.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.

  12. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  13. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  14. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  15. Cleanliness of small precision swabs

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1992-02-01

    Small swabs are often dampened with a solvent when used to clean surfaces. Cotton swabs of the type sold in drug stores contain stearic acid, probably used as a lubricant during manufacture of the swab. Such swabs, dampened with a solvent and used to clean a surface, will leave a film of stearic acid on the surface. Several kinds of swabs are sold for industrial use, and some are described as suitable for use in clean room manufacturing. Nine different swabs, some cotton and some urethane foam, were extracted with isopropyl alcohol, CFC 113 (Freon TF or Genesolv D), or mixture of CFC 113 and methyl alcohol. After evaporation of the solvent, from 0.5 to 3.8 mg of an oil or grease remained. For critical applications, swabs should be washed with solvent before use.

  16. Things that go bump in the night: diagnosing sleep-related movement disorders without a sleep laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reading, P

    2014-01-01

    It is common for general physicians to experience diagnostic doubt and trepidation whenever faced with patients who exhibit abnormal nocturnal behaviours or excessive movements at night. There is also a perception that expensive and often poorly available overnight tests are usually required for diagnostic precision. In fact, the majority of conditions, whether they be parasomnias or, more rarely, nocturnal seizures, can be reliably diagnosed from a directed history, if available. Although the evidence base for treating parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders remains minimal, accurate recognition is important for a variety of reasons. This review covers the diagnostic features of the full range of parasomnias and movement disorders that might present to a multidisciplinary adult sleep clinic. Throughout, it will be argued that the recognition of key or salient features obtained from a good history is the most important diagnostic tool. Indeed, when diagnostic doubt remains after a thorough sleep history, it is relatively rare for detailed tests to add much in the way of useful information. PMID:24995451

  17. Research on high-precision hole measurement based on robot vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Qin, Ming-cui; Li, Zong-yan; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao

    2014-09-01

    A high-precision vision detection and measurement system using mobile robot is established for the industry field detection of motorcycle frame hole and its diameter measurement. The robot path planning method is researched, and the non-contact measurement method with high precision based on visual digital image edge extraction and hole spatial circle fitting is presented. The Canny operator is used to extract the edge of captured image, the Lagrange interpolation algorithm is utilized to determine the missing image edge points and calculate the centroid, and the least squares fitting method is adopted to fit the image edge points. Experimental results show that the system can be used for the high-precision real-time measurement of hole on motorcycle frame. The absolute standard deviation of the proposed method is 0.026 7 mm. The proposed method can not only improve the measurement speed and precision, but also reduce the measurement error.

  18. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    PubMed

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  19. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  20. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    PubMed Central

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  1. Metrology with μCT: precision challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppes, Alexander; Neuser, Eberhard

    2008-08-01

    Over the last years computed tomography (CT) with conventional x-ray sources has evolved from imaging method in medicine to a well established technology for industrial applications in the field of material science, microelectronics, geology, etc. By using modern microfocus and nanofocus® X-ray tubes, parts can be scanned with sub-micrometer resolutions. Currently, micro-CT is used more and more as a technology for metrological applications. Especially if complex parts with hidden or difficult accessible surfaces have to be measured, CT offers big advantages comparing with conventional tactile or optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs): high density of measurement points and fast capturing of the complete sample's geometry. When using this modern technology the question arises how precise a CT based CMM can measure in comparison to conventional CMMs? To characterize the metrological capabilities of a tactile or optical CMM, internationally standardized characteristics like length measurement error and probing error are used. To increase the acceptance of CT as a metrological method, the definition and usage of these parameters is important. In this paper, an overview of the process chain in CT based metrology will be given and metrological characteristics will be described. With the help of a special material standard designed and calibrated by PTB-National Metrology Institute of Germany-the influence of methods for beam hardening correction and for surface extraction on the metrological characteristics will be analyzed. It will be shown that with modern micro-CT systems length measurement error of less than 1μm for an object diameter of 20 mm can be reached.

  2. Shuttle orbit IMU alignment. Single-precision computation error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The source of computational error in the inertial measurement unit (IMU) onorbit alignment software was investigated. Simulation runs were made on the IBM 360/70 computer with the IMU orbit alignment software coded in hal/s. The results indicate that for small IMU misalignment angles (less than 600 arc seconds), single precision computations in combination with the arc cosine method of eigen rotation angle extraction introduces an additional misalignment error of up to 230 arc seconds per axis. Use of the arc sine method, however, produced negligible misalignment error. As a result of this study, the arc sine method was recommended for use in the IMU onorbit alignment software.

  3. Disentangling perturbative and power corrections in precision tau decay analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, D.S.; Pivovarov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Hadronic tau decay precision data are analyzed with account of both perturbative and power corrections of high orders within QCD. It is found that contributions of high order power corrections are essential for extracting a numerical value for the strange quark mass from the data on Cabibbo suppressed tau decays. We show that with inclusion of new five-loop perturbative corrections in the analysis the convergence of perturbation theory remains acceptable only for few low order moments. We obtain m{sub s}(M{sub {tau}})=130{+-}27 MeV in agreement with previous estimates.

  4. A new approach to high precision phase measurement interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, N.; Debell, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a phase measuring interferometer system which represents a unique approach to the extraction and analysis of wavefront data from the interferometer output. In contrast to fringe pattern analysis systems, the digitally based instrument described is a direct phase measuring interferometer system which is capable of providing a graphical representation of both the sign and magnitude of the phase distribution across the test wavefront. Attention is given to basic theory, the instrument measurement head, the 8080-based computer used as a processor, system performance specifications, measurement precision and accuracy, and measurement capabilities.

  5. Precision Neutron Decay Studies with the Nab and UCNB Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprow, Aaron; Nab Collaboration; UCNB Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Precision neutron decay correlation experiments are a sensitive means to study the standard model and probe for beyond the standard model physics. Nab and UCNB are two such experiments that will measure the neutrino-electron correlation term, a, and the neutrino asymmetry, B, respectively. Thick, highly-segmented silicon detectors will be used to directly measure the proton and electron from each decay event in coincidence, leading to the extraction of these angular correlations. Preliminary work to understand the systematic uncertainties associated with these experiments, as well as the early analysis of data taken from the 2015-2016 beam time at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be presented.

  6. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 {+-} 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7{sigma} smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these "electronic" determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup -4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  7. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, Mehdi; Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 ± 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7σ smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup −4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  8. Weak soft X-ray excesses need not result from the high-frequency tail of the optical/ultraviolet bump in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerny, Bozena; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    The broad-band ROSAT/EXOSAT X-ray spectra of six Seyfert 1 galaxies are fitted by a model consisting of a direct power law and a component due to reflection/reprocessing from a partially ionized, optically thick medium. The reflected spectrum contains emission features from various elements in the soft X-ray range. In all objects but one (Mrk 335), the fit is satisfactory, and no additional soft X-ray excess is required by the data. This means that in most sources there is no need for the thermal 'big blue bumps' to extend into soft X-rays, and the soft X-ray excesses reported previously can be explained by reflection/reprocessing. Satisfactory fits are obtained for a medium ionized by a source radiating at less than or approximately 15% of the Eddington rate. The fits require that the reflection is enhanced relative to an isotropically emitting source above a flat disk. The necessary high effectiveness of reflection in the soft X-ray band requires strong soft thermal flux dominating over hard X-rays.

  9. In situ heating transmission electron microscopy observation of nanoeutectic lamellar structure in Sn-Ag-Cu alloy on Au under-bump metallization.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Won; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Chang, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kon-Bae; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Fleury, Eric; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of Sn(96.4)Ag(2.8)Cu(0.8) solder through in situ heating transmission electron microscopy observations. As-soldered bump consisted of seven layers, containing the nanoeutectic lamella structure of AuSn and Au₅Sn phases, and the polygonal grains of AuSn₂ and AuSn₄, on Au-plated Cu bond pads. Here, we found that there are two nanoeutectic lamellar layers with lamella spacing of 40 and 250 nm. By in situ heating above 140°C, the nanoeutectic lamella of AuSn and Au₅Sn was decomposed with structural degradation by sphering and coarsening processes of the lamellar interface. At the third layer neighboring to the lamella layer, on the other hand, Au₅Sn particles with a zig-zag shape in AuSn matrix became spherical and were finally dissipated in order to minimize the interface energy between two phases. In the other layers except both lamella layers, polycrystal grains of AuSn₂ and AuSn₄ grew by normal grain growth during in situ heating. The high interface energy of nanoeutectic lamella and polygonal nanograins, which are formed by rapid solidification, acted as a principal driving force on the microstructural change during the in situ heating. PMID:23920173

  10. In situ heating transmission electron microscopy observation of nanoeutectic lamellar structure in Sn-Ag-Cu alloy on Au under-bump metallization.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Won; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Chang, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kon-Bae; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Fleury, Eric; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of Sn(96.4)Ag(2.8)Cu(0.8) solder through in situ heating transmission electron microscopy observations. As-soldered bump consisted of seven layers, containing the nanoeutectic lamella structure of AuSn and Au₅Sn phases, and the polygonal grains of AuSn₂ and AuSn₄, on Au-plated Cu bond pads. Here, we found that there are two nanoeutectic lamellar layers with lamella spacing of 40 and 250 nm. By in situ heating above 140°C, the nanoeutectic lamella of AuSn and Au₅Sn was decomposed with structural degradation by sphering and coarsening processes of the lamellar interface. At the third layer neighboring to the lamella layer, on the other hand, Au₅Sn particles with a zig-zag shape in AuSn matrix became spherical and were finally dissipated in order to minimize the interface energy between two phases. In the other layers except both lamella layers, polycrystal grains of AuSn₂ and AuSn₄ grew by normal grain growth during in situ heating. The high interface energy of nanoeutectic lamella and polygonal nanograins, which are formed by rapid solidification, acted as a principal driving force on the microstructural change during the in situ heating.

  11. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come.

  12. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. PMID:26902518

  13. Interactions between science and precision engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. P.; McClure, E. R.; Saito, T. T.

    1987-11-01

    The history of scientific progress is intertwined intimately with precision engineering. Precision engineering and science have synergistically interacted in stimulating each other to significant advances. Furthermore, tangible benefits to the quality of human life, through often unexpected industrial applications, occur. High energy lasers, astrophysical telescopes, and anamorphic optics, along with developments in ultraprecision machining and measurement, are discussed as examples of evolution in science and precision engineering. Possibilities for ultimate by-products for mankind's welfare are explored.

  14. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  15. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  16. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  17. Precise patterning of silk microstructures using photolithography.

    PubMed

    Kurland, Nicholas E; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2013-11-20

    Photolithography is used in conjunction with a "silk fibroin photoresist" to form precise protein microstructures directly and rapidly on a variety of substrates. High-resolution features in two and three dimensions with line widths down to one micrometer are formed. Photo-crosslinked protein structures guide cell adhesion, providing precise spatial control of cells without requiring adhesive ligands.

  18. Precision Teaching: By Teachers for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1990-01-01

    The founding policies of precision teaching are discussed: monitor frequency daily, use self-recording, use standard charts to display major changes, and accept that the child knows best how he or she learns. Contributions of teachers that have furthered the development of precision teaching are documented. (JDD)

  19. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  20. A Computer Aided Implementation of Precision Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A computer implementation of precision teaching for severely mentally handicapped students is described. Computer technology reduces staff time during a typical precision teaching routine: design of suitable teaching programs, a series of timed short drills using these programs, conversion of results into numeric quantities, and design of improved…

  1. Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  2. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  3. Precise Phase Comparator for Nearly Equal Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Adams, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    New circuit precisely compares phases of two RF signals nearly equal in frequency, such as two hydrogen-maser frequency standards. Measuring circuit minimizes interactions between two sources. Also stabilized against thermal effects and against noise that could produce erroneous readings. Heat sinking, buffer amplifiers, and low-noise zero-crossing detector make picosecond precision possible.

  4. Precision monitoring of relative beam intensity for Mu2e

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, N.J.; Kopp, S.E.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    For future experiments at the intensity frontier, precise and accurate knowledge of beam time structure will be critical to understanding backgrounds. The proposed Mu2e experiment will utilize {approx}200 ns (FW) bunches of 3 x 10{sup 7} protons at 8 GeV with a bunch-to-bunch period of 1695 ns. The out-of-bunch beam must be suppressed by a factor of 10{sup -10} relative to in-bunch beam and continuously monitored. I propose a Cerenkov-based particle telescope to measure secondary production from beam interactions in a several tens of microns thick foil. Correlating timing information with beam passage will allow the determination of relative beam intensity to arbitrary precision given a sufficiently long integration time. The goal is to verify out-of-bunch extinction to the level 10{sup -6} in the span of several seconds. This will allow near real-time monitoring of the initial extinction of the beam resonantly extracted from Fermilabs Debuncher before a system of AC dipoles and collimators, which will provide the final extinction. The effect on beam emittance is minimal, allowing the necessary continuous measurement. I will present the detector design and some concerns about bunch growth during the resonant extraction.

  5. An aberrant precision account of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. A recent and thought-provoking article presented a normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation—namely, predictive coding—many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision) within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013). Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings—that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms—are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs. PMID:24860482

  6. Improve Radial Velocity Precision with Better Data Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuesong Wang, Sharon; Wright, Jason; Zhao, Ming

    2015-12-01

    The synergy between Kepler and the ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys have made numerous discoveries of low-mass exoplanets, opening the age of Earth analogs. However, Earth analogs such as Kepler 452-b require a much higher RV precision ( ~ 10 cm/s) than the achievable with current instruments (~ 1 m/s) and understanding of stellar photosphere. This presentation will cover some of the instrumental and data issues that are currently hindering us from achieving the sub 1 m/s precision, as well as remedies and ways forward with future RV instruments. Highlights of our work include: (1) how telluric contamination affects RV precision and how to "telluric-proof" a Doppler pipeline; (2) how errors in the deconvolved stellar reference spectrum can mimic the signal of a super-Earth on a ~1 year orbit; (3) the battle with imperfections in the iodine reference spectra and how an ultra-high resolution (R ~ 500,000) echelle spectrum can help; (4) and a new RV extraction code in Python which incorporates MCMC and Gaussian Processes. This research is based on radial velocity data taken with iodine cell calibrators using Keck/HIRES and HET/HRS.

  7. Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System - precision control flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; Roy, T.; Gasdaska, C.; Young, J.; Connolly, W.; McCormick, R.; Gasdaska, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.

  8. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  9. Uncertainties on near-core mixing in red-clump stars: effects on the period spacing and on the luminosity of the AGB bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, Diego; Miglio, Andrea; Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Montalbán, Josefina; Bressan, Alessandro; Noels, Arlette; Cassisi, Santi; Girardi, Léo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Low-mass stars in the He-core-burning (HeCB) phase play a major role in stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics. The ability to predict accurately the properties of these stars, however, depends on our understanding of convection, which remains one of the key open questions in stellar modelling. We argue that the combination of the luminosity of the AGB bump (AGBb) and the period spacing of gravity modes (ΔΠ1) during the HeCB phase provides us with a decisive test to discriminate between competing models of these stars. We use the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), a Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones (BaSTI), and PAdova & TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) stellar evolution codes to model a typical giant star observed by Kepler. We explore how various near-core-mixing scenarios affect the predictions of the above-mentioned constraints, and we find that ΔΠ1 depends strongly on the prescription adopted. Moreover we show that the detailed behaviour of ΔΠ1 shows the signature of sharp variations in the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, which could potentially give additional information about near-core features. We find evidence for the AGBb among Kepler targets, and a first comparison with observations shows that, even if standard models are able to reproduce the luminosity distribution, no standard model can account for satisfactorily the period spacing of HeCB stars. Our analysis allows us to outline a candidate model to describe simultaneously the two observed distributions: a model with a moderate overshooting region characterized by an adiabatic thermal stratification. This prescription will be tested in the future on cluster stars, to limit possible observational biases.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of the Bumped Kinase Inhibitor 1294 in the Related Cyst-Forming Apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Pablo; Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rahman, Mahbubur; Balmer, Vreni; Manser, Vera; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Ojo, Kayode K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    We report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (BKI-1294) in cultures of virulent Neospora caninum isolates Nc-Liverpool (Nc-Liv) and Nc-Spain7 and in two strains of Toxoplasma gondii (RH and ME49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. In these parasites, BKI-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 20 nM (T. gondii RH) to 360 nM (N. caninum Nc-Liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzoites, resulting in the formation of multinucleated complexes similar to complexes previously observed in BKI-1294-treated N. caninum beta-galactosidase-expressing parasites. However, such complexes were not seen in a transgenic T. gondii strain that expressed CDPK1 harboring a mutation (G to M) in the gatekeeper residue. In T. gondii ME49 and N. caninum Nc-Liv, exposure of cultures to BKI-1294 resulted in the elevated expression of mRNA coding for the bradyzoite marker BAG1. Unlike in bradyzoites, SAG1 expression was not repressed. Immunofluorescence also showed that these multinucleated complexes expressed SAG1 and BAG1 and the monoclonal antibody CC2, which binds to a yet unidentified bradyzoite antigen, also exhibited increased labeling. In a pregnant mouse model, BKI-1294 efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with one of the two virulent isolates Nc-Liv or Nc-Spain7, demonstrating proof of concept that this compound protected offspring from vertical transmission and disease. The observed deregulated antigen expression effect may enhance the immune response during BKI-1294 therapy and will be the subject of future studies.

  11. A single mutation in the gatekeeper residue in TgMAPKL-1 restores the inhibitory effect of a bumped kinase inhibitor on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen for Toxoplasmosis. Bumped kinase inhibitor 1NM-PP1 inhibits the growth of T. gondii by targeting TgCDPK1. However, we recently reported that resistance to 1NM-PP1 can be acquired via a mutation in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase like 1 (TgMAPKL-1). Further characterization of how this TgMAPKL-1 mutation restores the inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 would shed further light on the function of TgMAPKL-1 in the parasite life cycle. Therefore, we made parasite clones with TgMAPKL-1 mutated at the gatekeeper residue Ser 191, which is critical for 1NM-PP1 susceptibility. Host cell lysis of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A was completely inhibited at 250 nM 1NM-PP1, whereas that of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y was not. By comparing 1NM-PP1-sensitive (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A) and -resistant (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y) clones, we observed that inhibition of TgMAPKL-1 blocked cell cycle progression after DNA duplication. Morphological analysis revealed that TgMAPKL-1 inhibition caused enlarged parasite cells with many daughter cell scaffolds and imcomplete cytokinesis. We conclude that the mutation in TgMAPKL-1 restored the cell cycle-arresting effect of 1NM-PP1 on T. gondii endodyogeny. Given that endodyogeny is the primary mechanism of cell division for both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of this parasite, TgMAPKL-1 may be a promising target for drug development. Exploration of the signals that regulate TgMAPKL-1 will provide further insights into the unique mode of T. gondii cell division. PMID:25941623

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of the Bumped Kinase Inhibitor 1294 in the Related Cyst-Forming Apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Pablo; Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rahman, Mahbubur; Balmer, Vreni; Manser, Vera; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Ojo, Kayode K.; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (BKI-1294) in cultures of virulent Neospora caninum isolates Nc-Liverpool (Nc-Liv) and Nc-Spain7 and in two strains of Toxoplasma gondii (RH and ME49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. In these parasites, BKI-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 20 nM (T. gondii RH) to 360 nM (N. caninum Nc-Liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzoites, resulting in the formation of multinucleated complexes similar to complexes previously observed in BKI-1294-treated N. caninum beta-galactosidase-expressing parasites. However, such complexes were not seen in a transgenic T. gondii strain that expressed CDPK1 harboring a mutation (G to M) in the gatekeeper residue. In T. gondii ME49 and N. caninum Nc-Liv, exposure of cultures to BKI-1294 resulted in the elevated expression of mRNA coding for the bradyzoite marker BAG1. Unlike in bradyzoites, SAG1 expression was not repressed. Immunofluorescence also showed that these multinucleated complexes expressed SAG1 and BAG1 and the monoclonal antibody CC2, which binds to a yet unidentified bradyzoite antigen, also exhibited increased labeling. In a pregnant mouse model, BKI-1294 efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with one of the two virulent isolates Nc-Liv or Nc-Spain7, demonstrating proof of concept that this compound protected offspring from vertical transmission and disease. The observed deregulated antigen expression effect may enhance the immune response during BKI-1294 therapy and will be the subject of future studies. PMID:26248379

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of the Bumped Kinase Inhibitor 1294 in the Related Cyst-Forming Apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Pablo; Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rahman, Mahbubur; Balmer, Vreni; Manser, Vera; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Ojo, Kayode K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    We report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (BKI-1294) in cultures of virulent Neospora caninum isolates Nc-Liverpool (Nc-Liv) and Nc-Spain7 and in two strains of Toxoplasma gondii (RH and ME49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. In these parasites, BKI-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 20 nM (T. gondii RH) to 360 nM (N. caninum Nc-Liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzoites, resulting in the formation of multinucleated complexes similar to complexes previously observed in BKI-1294-treated N. caninum beta-galactosidase-expressing parasites. However, such complexes were not seen in a transgenic T. gondii strain that expressed CDPK1 harboring a mutation (G to M) in the gatekeeper residue. In T. gondii ME49 and N. caninum Nc-Liv, exposure of cultures to BKI-1294 resulted in the elevated expression of mRNA coding for the bradyzoite marker BAG1. Unlike in bradyzoites, SAG1 expression was not repressed. Immunofluorescence also showed that these multinucleated complexes expressed SAG1 and BAG1 and the monoclonal antibody CC2, which binds to a yet unidentified bradyzoite antigen, also exhibited increased labeling. In a pregnant mouse model, BKI-1294 efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with one of the two virulent isolates Nc-Liv or Nc-Spain7, demonstrating proof of concept that this compound protected offspring from vertical transmission and disease. The observed deregulated antigen expression effect may enhance the immune response during BKI-1294 therapy and will be the subject of future studies. PMID:26248379

  14. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  15. Accuracy and precision of manual baseline determination.

    PubMed

    Jirasek, A; Schulze, G; Yu, M M L; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2004-12-01

    Vibrational spectra often require baseline removal before further data analysis can be performed. Manual (i.e., user) baseline determination and removal is a common technique used to perform this operation. Currently, little data exists that details the accuracy and precision that can be expected with manual baseline removal techniques. This study addresses this current lack of data. One hundred spectra of varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal-to-baseline ratio (SBR), baseline slope, and spectral congestion were constructed and baselines were subtracted by 16 volunteers who were categorized as being either experienced or inexperienced in baseline determination. In total, 285 baseline determinations were performed. The general level of accuracy and precision that can be expected for manually determined baselines from spectra of varying SNR, SBR, baseline slope, and spectral congestion is established. Furthermore, the effects of user experience on the accuracy and precision of baseline determination is estimated. The interactions between the above factors in affecting the accuracy and precision of baseline determination is highlighted. Where possible, the functional relationships between accuracy, precision, and the given spectral characteristic are detailed. The results provide users of manual baseline determination useful guidelines in establishing limits of accuracy and precision when performing manual baseline determination, as well as highlighting conditions that confound the accuracy and precision of manual baseline determination.

  16. Precision half-life measurement of 17F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, M.; Nicoloff, C.; Ahn, T.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becchetti, F. D.; Gupta, Y. K.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Hu, J.; Kelly, J. M.; Kolata, J. J.; Long, J.; O'Malley, P.; Schultz, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    Background: The precise determination of f t values for superallowed mixed transitions between mirror nuclide are gaining attention as they could provide an avenue to test the theoretical corrections used to extract the Vu d matrix element from superallowed pure Fermi transitions. The 17F decay is particularly interesting as it proceeds completely to the ground state of 17O, removing the need for branching ratio measurements. The dominant uncertainty on the f t value of the 17F mirror transition stems from a number of conflicting half-life measurements. Purpose: A precision half-life measurement of 17F was performed and compared to previous results. Methods: The life-time was determined from the β counting of implanted 17F on a Ta foil that was removed from the beam for counting. The 17F beam was produced by transfers reaction and separated by the TwinSol facility of the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. Results: The measured value of t1/2 new=64.402 (42) s is in agreement with several past measurements and represents one of the most precise measurements to date. In anticipation of future measurements of the correlation parameters for the decay and using the new world average t1/2 world=64.398 (61) s, we present a new estimate of the mixing ratio ρ for the mixed transition as well as the correlation parameters based on assuming Standard Model validity. Conclusions: The relative uncertainty on the new world average for the half-life is dominated by the large χ2=31 of the existing measurements. More precision measurements with different systematics are needed to remedy to the situation.

  17. Increased Localization Precision by Interference Fringe Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Carl G.; Meiri, Amihai; Martineau, Jason; Zalevsky, Zeev; Gerton, Jordan M.; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel optical single-emitter-localization methodology that uses the phase induced by path length differences in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to improve localization precision. Using information theory, we demonstrate that the localization capability of a modified Fourier domain signal generated by photon interference enables a more precise localization compared to a standard Gaussian intensity distribution of the corresponding point spread function. The calculations were verified by numerical simulations and an exemplary experiment, where the centers of metal nanoparticles were localized to a precision of 3 nm. PMID:25999093

  18. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  19. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. PMID:27514468

  20. Feedback precision and postfeedback interval duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Precision of feedback gain was manipulated in a simple positioning task. An optimum was found; an increase in precision past that optimum produced deleterious effects upon rate of acquisition. In a second study, increasing postfeedback interval removed that optimum. The feedback precision effects were then replicated in a timing task. The combined results of the 3 studies were interpreted as supportive of an information-processing approach to the study of postfeedback interval events for simple motor skills. The findings additionally supported specific predictions by Bilodeau and deductions from Adams' 1971 theory of motor learning.

  1. Methods for high precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Graven, H D; Guilderson, T P; Keeling, R F

    2006-10-18

    Development of {sup 14}C analysis with precision better than 2{per_thousand} has the potential to expand the utility of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements for carbon cycle investigations as atmospheric gradients currently approach traditional measurement precision of 2-5{per_thousand}. The AMS facility at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, produces high and stable beam currents that enable efficient acquisition times for large numbers of {sup 14}C counts. One million {sup 14}C atoms can be detected in approximately 25 minutes, suggesting that near 1{per_thousand} counting precision is economically feasible at LLNL. The overall uncertainty in measured values is ultimately determined by the variation between measured ratios in several sputtering periods of the same sample and by the reproducibility of replicate samples. Experiments on the collection of one million counts on replicate samples of CO{sub 2} extracted from a whole air cylinder show a standard deviation of 1.7{per_thousand} in 36 samples measured over several wheels. This precision may be limited by the reproducibility of Oxalic Acid I standard samples, which is considerably poorer. We outline the procedures for high-precision sample handling and analysis that have enabled reproducibility in the cylinder extraction samples at the <2{per_thousand} level and describe future directions to continue increasing measurement precision at LLNL.

  2. Toward precision medicine in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lin; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-03-01

    Technological development has paved the way for accelerated genomic discovery and is bringing precision medicine into view. The goal of precision medicine is to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions tailored to an individual's molecular drivers of disease. Neurological diseases are promisingly suited models for precision medicine because of the rapidly expanding genetic knowledge base, phenotypic classification, the development of biomarkers and the potential modifying treatments. Moving forward, it is crucial that through these integrated research platforms to provide analysis both for accurate personal genome analysis and gene and drug discovery. Here we describe our vision of how precision medicine can bring greater clarity to the clinical and biological complexity of neurological diseases. PMID:27127757

  3. Precision Engineering within the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J S; Carlisle, K; Klingmann, J L; Geraghty, P; Saito, T T; Montesanti, R C

    2010-02-17

    In this very brief talk, we'll discuss how precision engineering impacts 4 key areas of NIF: (1) Diamond turning of KDP crystals; (2) Mitigation of laser damage on optics; (3) Alignment of lasers, targets, diagnostics; (4) Target fabrication.

  4. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A... or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry...

  6. Nickel solution prepared for precision electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Lightweight, precision optical reflectors are made by electroforming nickel onto masters. Steps for the plating bath preparation, process control testing, and bath composition adjustments are prescribed to avoid internal stresses and maintain dimensional accuracy of the electrodeposited metal.

  7. High-torque precision stepping drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspareck, W. E.

    1968-01-01

    Stepping drive has been designed for precise incremental angular positioning of scale models of spacecraft about a horizontal axis in order to accurately measure antenna receiving and transmitting characteristics. Positioning is insured by spring-loaded, self-locking plungers.

  8. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Carl E.

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry...

  10. The role of precise time in IFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of precise time to the identification of friend or foe (IFF) problem is discussed. The simple concept of knowing when to expect each signal is exploited in a variety of ways to achieve an IFF system which is hard to detect, minimally exploitable and difficult to jam. Precise clocks are the backbone of the concept and the various candidates for this role are discussed. The compact rubidium-controlled oscillator is the only practical candidate.

  11. Precision Genomic Medicine in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    The successful application of precision genomic medicine requires an understanding of how a person's genome can influence his or her disease phenotype and how medical therapies can provide personalized therapy to one's genotype. In this review, we highlight advances in precision genomic medicine in cystic fibrosis (CF), a classic autosomal recessive genetic disorder. We discuss genotype-phenotype correlations in CF, genetic and environmental modifiers of disease, and pharmacogenetic therapies that target specific genetic mutations thereby addressing the primary defect of cystic fibrosis.

  12. High-precision arithmetic in mathematical physics

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2015-05-12

    For many scientific calculations, particularly those involving empirical data, IEEE 32-bit floating-point arithmetic produces results of sufficient accuracy, while for other applications IEEE 64-bit floating-point is more appropriate. But for some very demanding applications, even higher levels of precision are often required. Furthermore, this article discusses the challenge of high-precision computation, in the context of mathematical physics, and highlights what facilities are required to support future computation, in light of emerging developments in computer architecture.

  13. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  14. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing.

  15. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Mission Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strovers, Brian K.; Lee, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system-interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  16. Extraction of SUSY Parameters from Collider Data

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwas, Dirk

    2008-11-23

    The extraction of the parameters of the supersymmetric Lagrangian is discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the rigorous treatment of experimental and theoretical errors. While the LHC can provide a valuable first estimate of the parameters, the combination of LHC and ILC will be necessary to determine with high precision the parameters of the MSSM.

  17. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  18. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  19. Say No to Speed Bumps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Sian

    2010-01-01

    No matter how cutting edge (and nicely funded) one's library is, there is always something cooler and more efficient on the horizon. Granted, not all new technology may be necessary in the library. But chances are one is going to want to get something--RFID (radio frequency identification), text reference, downloadable content, gaming,…

  20. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  1. Precision distances with spiral galaxy apparent diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Spiral galaxy diameters offer the oldest extragalactic distance indicator known. Although outdated and hitherto imprecise, two spiral diameter-based distance indicators applied in the 1980s can be tested, calibrated, and re-established for precision era use, based on abundant redshift-independent distances data available in NED-D. Indicator one employs the largest Giant Spiral Galaxies, which have an absolute isophotal major diameter of ~70 +/- 10 kpc, offering standard ruler-based distances with <10% precision. Indicator two employs the diameter-magnitude relation for spirals in general, as a secondary indicator, offering ~20% precision. The ruler-based indicator is the only indicator with <10% precision able to independently calibrate type Ia supernovae-based distances at cosmological distances. The secondary-based indicator is the only indicator with 20% precision applicable to more galaxies than in current Tully-Fisher surveys. The primary indicator gives researchers a new tool to confirm or refute if, as currently believed, universal expansion is accelerating. The secondary indicator gives researchers a new path toward acquiring a more complete 3D picture of the local universe and potentially, because the majority of galaxies in the universe are spirals, the distant universe.

  2. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Dragon, Ernest P.; Warner, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialogroaphic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.

  3. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  4. Stability precision dynamic testing system on artillery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyan; Li, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic feature of Weapon equipments is one of important performance index for evaluating the performance of the whole weapon system. The construction of target range in our country in fire control dynamic testing is relatively backward; therefore, it has greatly influenced the evaluation on the fire control system. In order to solve this problem, it's urgent to develop a new testing instrument so as to adjust to the armament research process and promote weapon system working more efficiently and thereby meeting the needs of modernization in national defense. This paper proposes a new measure which is used to test the stability precision of the fire control system, and it is installed on the moving base. Using the method, we develop a testing system which can test the stability precision of the fire control system and achieve a high precision results after testing. The innovation of the system is we can receive the image not only by CCD, but our eyes. It also adopts digital image-forming and image processing technique for real-time measurement and storing of the target information; it simultaneously adopts the method adjusting the platform and the corresponding fixture mounted on a sample to measure the stable precision and the precision of corner of stabilizator. In this paper, we make a description on the construction of the system and the idea of the designing of the optical system. Finally, we introduce the actual application of the system and testing results.

  5. Precise timing when hitting falling balls

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  6. Attentional priority determines working memory precision.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

    2014-12-01

    Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information.

  7. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball.

  8. Attentional priority determines working memory precision.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

    2014-12-01

    Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information. PMID:25240420

  9. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a general and accurate method for determining lattice phase shifts and mixing angles, which is applicable to arbitrary, non-cubic lattices. Our method combines angular momentum projection, spherical wall boundaries and an adjustable auxiliary potential. This allows us to construct radial lattice wave functions and to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energies. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance. We benchmark our method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component. We are able to extract phase shifts and mixing angles for all angular momenta and energies, with precision greater than that of extant methods. We discuss a wide range of applications from nuclear lattice simulations to optical lattice experiments.

  10. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  12. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969

  13. Precision control of high temperature furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.G.

    1994-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to provide precision control of high temperature furnaces. It is another object of the present invention to combine the power of two power supplies of greatly differing output capacities in a single furnace. This invention combines two power supplies to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. Further, this invention comprises a means for high speed measurement of temperature of the process by the method of measuring the amount of current flow in a deliberately induced charged particle current.

  14. Isara 400 ultra-precision CMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaan, H. A. M.; Widdershoven, I.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of the Isara 400 ultra-precision 3D coordinate measuring machine, which features a measuring volume of 400 × 400 × 100 mm and a traceable measurement uncertainty better than 50 nm. In order to achieve these challenging specifications, specific calibration strategies need to be applied, such as the calibration of the system's mirror table. In addition, a newly developed ultra-precision tactile probe system is described, featuring a probe tip radius of 35 μm results of the 3D sensitivity calibration of this probe are presented. Finally, results are presented measuring a full hemisphere in 3D of a SiN ultra precision master ball, resulting in a repeatability of 7.9 nm rms.

  15. Precision of a Mammalian Circadian Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Sharma, Vijay; Chandrashekaran, Maroli K.

    This paper reports study of day-to-day instability in the locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal field mouse Mus booduga. The free-running period (τ) of this rhythm was estimated in constant darkness in n=347 adult male mice. The "onset" and "offset" of locomotor activity rhythm were used as phase markers of the circadian clock. The precision of the onset of locomotor activity was observed to be a non-linear function of τ, with maximal precision at τ close to 24h. The precision of the offset of locomotor activity was found to increase with increasing τ. These results suggest that the homeostasis of τ is tighter when τ is close to 24h.

  16. High bandwidth control of precision motion instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Douglas A.; Dong, Jingyan; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Ferreira, Placid; Salapaka, Srinivas

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a high-bandwidth control design suitable for precision motion instrumentation. Iterative learning control (ILC), a feedforward technique that uses previous iterations of the desired trajectory, is used to leverage the repetition that occurs in many tasks, such as raster scanning in microscopy. Two ILC designs are presented. The first design uses the motion system dynamic model to maximize bandwidth. The second design uses a time-varying bandwidth that is particularly useful for nonsmooth trajectories such as raster scanning. Both designs are applied to a multiaxis piezoelectric-actuated flexure system and evaluated on a nonsmooth trajectory. The ILC designs demonstrate significant bandwidth and precision improvements over the feedback controller, and the ability to achieve precision motion control at frequencies higher than multiple system resonances.

  17. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  18. Precision Measurements with Matter-wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Christopher; Christensen, Dan; Washburn, Matthew; Archibald, James; van Zjill, Marshall; Birrell, Jeremiah; Burdett, Adam; Durfee, Dallin

    2007-06-01

    We will discuss progress on a neutral-calcium beam interferometer which is nearing completion. We will also present a proposal to measure electric and magnetic fields with extreme precision using a slow ion interferometer. The calcium interferometer utilizes a thermal beam for simplicity and high atom flux. Doppler shifts will be reduced using a novel alignment scheme for the Ramsey beams using precision prisms. The ion interferometer will utilize a slow beam of strontium-87 ions created by photon-ionizing a slow atomic beam. The ions will interact with three sets of laser beams which will drive stimulated Raman transitions. The proposed device will be used to search for variations from Coulomb's inverse-square law and a possible photon rest mass with a precision which is several orders of magnitude better than previous laboratory experiments.

  19. Iterative Precise Conductivity Measurement with IDEs.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-05-22

    The paper presents a new approach in the field of precise electrolytic conductivity measurements with planar thin- and thick-film electrodes. This novel measuring method was developed for measurement with comb-like electrodes called interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). Correction characteristics over a wide range of specific conductivities were determined from an interface impedance characterization of the thick-film IDEs. The local maximum of the capacitive part of the interface impedance is used for corrections to get linear responses. The measuring frequency was determined at a wide range of measured conductivity. An iteration mode of measurements was suggested to precisely measure the conductivity at the right frequency in order to achieve a highly accurate response. The method takes precise conductivity measurements in concentration ranges from 10(-6) to 1 M without electrode cell replacement.

  20. Precision Optics Optimization for GMp Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Allada, Kalyan; Averett, Todd; Christy, Eric; Gu, Chao; Huang, Min; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; GMp Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GMp experiment aims to improve the precision on the elastic e-p cross section measurement to 2%; up to a factor of 5 better than previous measurements, with four-momentum transfer up to 14 GeV2 using the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) of Hall A at Jefferson Lab. These measurements will be an important benchmark for many other cross section measurements in hadron physics. To reach this goal, it is necessary to improve the precision of many instrument systems. Knowledge of the magnetic optics of HRS is critically important for precision reconstruction of the momentum and coordinates of the scattered particles at the interaction vertex. In this talk, an improved optimization method for optics will be presented in detail and the results of a study based on recent commissioning data in 2014 will be discussed.

  1. High precision Woelter optic calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, R.I.; Remington, B.A.; Schwinn, T.

    1994-05-02

    We have developed an off-line facility for very precise characterization of the reflectance and spatial resolution of the grazing incidence Woelter Type 1 x-ray optics used at Nova. The primary component of the facility is a high brightness, ``point`` x-ray source consisting of a focussed DC electron beam incident onto a precision manipulated target/pinhole array. The data are recorded with a selection of detectors. For imaging measurements we use direct exposure x-ray film modules or an x-ray CCD camera. For energy-resolved reflectance measurements, we use lithium drifted silicon detectors and a proportional counter. An in situ laser alignment system allows precise location and rapid periodic alignment verification of the x-ray point source, the statically mounted Woelter optic, and the chosen detector.

  2. Toward precision medicine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Yun; Che, Chun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an innovative approach that uses emerging biomedical technologies to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions, customized to the molecular drivers of an individual’s disease. This approach is only just beginning to be considered for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The clinical and biological complexities of ALS have hindered development of effective therapeutic strategies. In this review we consider applying the key elements of precision medicine to ALS: phenotypic classification, comprehensive risk assessment, presymptomatic period detection, potential molecular pathways, disease model development, biomarker discovery and molecularly tailored interventions. Together, these would embody a precision medicine approach, which may provide strategies for optimal targeting and timing of efforts to prevent, stop or slow progression of ALS. PMID:26889480

  3. High precision laser forming for microactuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkersma, Ger K. G. P.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Brouwer, D. M.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    For assembly of micro-devices, such as photonic devices, the precision alignment of components is often critical for their performance. Laser forming, also known as laser-adjusting, can be used to create an integrated microactuator to align the components with sub-micron precision after bonding. In this paper a so-called three-bridge planar manipulator was used to study the laser-material interaction and thermal and mechanical behavior of the laser forming mechanism. A 3-D Finite Element Method (FEM) model and experiments are used to identify the optimal parameter settings for a high precision actuator. The goal in this paper is to investigate how precise the maximum occurring temperature and the resulting displacement are predicted by a 3-D FEM model by comparing with experimental results. A secondary goal is to investigate the resolution of the mechanism and the range of motion. With the experimental setup we measure the displacement and surface temperature in real-time. The time-dependent heat transfer FEM models match closely with experimental results, however the structural model can deviate more than 100% in absolute displacement. Experimentally, a positioning resolution of 0.1μm was achieved, with a total stroke exceeding 20μm. A spread of 10% in the temperature cycles between several experiments was found, which was attributed to a spread in the surface absorptivity. Combined with geometric tolerances, the spread in displacement can be as large as 20%. This implies that feedback control of the laser power, in combination with iterative learning during positioning, is required for high precision alignment. Even though the FEM models deviate substantially from the experiments, the 3-D FEM model predicts the trend in deformation sufficiently accurate to use it for design optimization of high precision 3-D actuators using laser adjusting.

  4. Precision top-quark mass measurement at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-10-12

    We present a precision measurement of the top-quark mass using the full sample of Tevatron √s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb(-1). Using a sample of tt¯ candidate events decaying into the lepton+jets channel, we obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of two jets from the W boson decays from data. We then compare these distributions to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. The likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the single most-precise measurement of the top-quark mass, M(top)=172.85±0.71(stat)±0.85(syst) GeV/c(2).

  5. Precision Top-Quark Mass Measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-07-01

    We present a precision measurement of the top-quark mass using the full sample of Tevatron {radical}s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb{sup -1}. Using a sample of t{bar t} candidate events decaying into the lepton+jets channel, we obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of two jets from the W boson decays from data. We then compare these distributions to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. The likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the single most-precise measurement of the top-quark mass, mtop = 172.85 {+-} 0.71 (stat) {+-} 0.85 (syst) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  6. Precision medicine: what's all the fuss about?

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is now recognized globally as a major new era in medicine. It is being driven by advances in genomics and other 'omics' but also by the desire on the part of both health systems and governments to offer more targeted and cost-effective care. However, it faces a number of challenges, from the economics of developing more expensive companion diagnostics to the need to educate patients and the public on the advantages for them. New models of both R&D and care delivery are needed to capture the scientific, clinical and economic benefits of precision medicine.

  7. Computing periodic orbits with arbitrary precision.

    PubMed

    Abad, Alberto; Barrio, Roberto; Dena, Angeles

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the computation of periodic orbits of dynamical systems up to any arbitrary precision. These very high requirements are useful, for example, in the studies of complex pole location in many physical systems. The algorithm is based on an optimized shooting method combined with a numerical ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver, tides, that uses a Taylor-series method. Nowadays, this methodology is the only one capable of reaching precision up to thousands of digits for ODEs. The method is shown to be quadratically convergent. Some numerical tests for the paradigmatic Lorenz model and the Hénon-Heiles Hamiltonian are presented, giving periodic orbits up to 1000 digits.

  8. Precise Applications Of The Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1992-01-01

    Report represents overview of Global Positioning System (GPS). Emphasizes those aspects of theory, history, and status of GPS pertaining to potential utility for highly precise scientific measurements. Current and anticipated applications include measurements of crustal motions in seismically active regions of Earth, measurements of rate of rotation of Earth and orientation of poles, tracking of non-GPS spacecraft in orbit around Earth, surveying, measurements of radio-signal-propagation delays, determinations of coordinates of ground stations, and transfer of precise time signals worldwide.

  9. PRECISION ELECTROWEAK MEASUREMENTS AND THE HIGGS MASS.

    SciTech Connect

    MARCIANO, W.J.

    2004-08-02

    The utility of precision electroweak measurements for predicting the Standard Model Higgs mass via quantum loop effects is discussed. Current constraints from m{sub w} and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} (m{sub z}){sub {ovr MS}} imply a relatively light Higgs {approx}< 154 GeV which is consistent with Supersymmetry expectations. The existence of Supersymmetry is further suggested by a discrepancy between experiment and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Constraints from precision studies on other types of ''New Physics'' are also briefly described.

  10. Fundamental Limits of Scintillation Detector Timing Precision

    PubMed Central

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm Lu2SiO5:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A−1/2 more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA−1/2. An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons/ns. A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10,000 photoelectrons/ns. PMID:24874216

  11. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2016-07-12

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal’s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  12. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue.

  13. Precision Editing of Large Animal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenfang (Spring); Carlson, Daniel F.; Walton, Mark W.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

  14. Fundamental limits of scintillation detector timing precision.

    PubMed

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm Lu2SiO5:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A(-1/2) more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA(-1/2). An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons ns(-1). A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10,000 photoelectrons ns(-1).

  15. Precision pointing mechanism for intersatellite optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, T.; O'Sullivan, B.; Russell, J.; Scholl, L.

    1989-09-01

    The SILEX project is an experimental communication system aimed at demonstrating, in orbit, the feasibility of intersatellite optical communications using semiconductor lasers. As part of this project, a precision mechanism has been developed to point the transmitted beam ahead of the current receiving satellite position. This is necessary due to the relative motion of the satellites, the narrow beam, and the finite velocity of light. The design and construction of a prototype of this device is discussed along with measurements of performance. The technique as described can be used in many applications requiring precision beam steering or rotation control.

  16. Precision medicine: what's all the fuss about?

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is now recognized globally as a major new era in medicine. It is being driven by advances in genomics and other 'omics' but also by the desire on the part of both health systems and governments to offer more targeted and cost-effective care. However, it faces a number of challenges, from the economics of developing more expensive companion diagnostics to the need to educate patients and the public on the advantages for them. New models of both R&D and care delivery are needed to capture the scientific, clinical and economic benefits of precision medicine. PMID:27542001

  17. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue. PMID:27514461

  18. NCI and the Precision Medicine Initiative®

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's activities related to precision medicine focuses on new and expanded precision medicine clinical trials; mechanisms to overcome drug resistance to cancer treatments; and developing a shared digital repository of precision medicine trials data.

  19. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  20. 76 FR 35024 - Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics Corporation, Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... FR 51848). At the request of the company, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of... Employment and Training Administration Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics Corporation, Also Known as the St. John Companies, Valencia, CA; Amended Certification Regarding...

  1. Automated Inspection And Precise Grinding Of Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frint, Harold; Glasow, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Method of precise grinding of spiral bevel gears involves automated inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize differences between actual and nominal surfaces. Similar to method described in "Computerized Inspection of Gear-Tooth Surfaces" (LEW-15736). Yields gears of higher quality, with significant reduction in manufacturing and inspection time.

  2. Precision controllability of the YF-17 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Mataeny, N. W.

    1980-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on the YF-17 airplane permitted assessment of its precision controllability in the transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. The precision controllability (tailchase tracking) study was conducted in constant-g and windup turn tracking maneuvers with the command augmentation system (CAS) on, automatic maneuver flaps, and the caged pipper gunsight depressed 70 mils. This study showed that the YF-17 airplane tracks essentially as well at 7 g's to 8 g's as earlier fighters did at 4 g's to 5 g's before they encountered wing rock. The pilots considered the YF-17 airplane one of the best tracking airplanes they had flown. Wing rock at the higher angles of attack degraded tracking precision, and lack of control harmony made precision controllability more difficult. The revised automatic maneuver flap schedule incorporated in the airplane at the time of the tests did not appear to be optimum. The largest tracking errors and greatest pilot workload occurred at high normal load factors at low angles of attack. The pilots reported that the high-g maneuvers caused some tunnel vision and that they found it difficult to think clearly after repeated maneuvers.

  3. Fundamental constants: The teamwork of precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Edmund G.

    2014-02-01

    A new value for the atomic mass of the electron is a link in a chain of measurements that will enable a test of the standard model of particle physics with better than part-per-trillion precision. See Letter p.467

  4. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  5. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2005-03-08

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  6. Precise Electrochemical Drilling of Repeated Deep Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincheloe, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Tooling enables maintenance of close tolerances. Tooling includes guide that holds electrochemical drilling electrodes in proper relative alinement and guide-positioning fixture clamps directly on reference surfaces of strut. High precision achieved by positioning tooling anew on each strut before drilling: Tolerances of (0.008 mm) maintained in some details.

  7. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  8. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2007-03-20

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  9. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  10. Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement. PMID:27044032

  11. Precision Teaching in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordecai, James F.; And Others

    Precision teaching is a way of maintaining accountability in a classroom, through letting children work on individually prescribed objectives without losing track of each child's needs and rate of progress. This goal is accomplished through taking a timed test of each student's performance daily, and recording the scores on logarithmic charts. The…

  12. Calculus: The Importance of Precise Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahavier, William S.; Mahavier, W. Ted

    2008-01-01

    The careful use of notation and language in the statement of both the definitions and problems of calculus can begin the process of making students mathematically literate while allowing them to enjoy working on challenging problems and applications without the aid of numerous examples. Engaging the students to participate in the precise use of…

  13. Precision CW laser automatic tracking system investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. T.; Lucy, R. F.; Mcgann, E. J.; Peters, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Precision laser tracker capable of tracking a low acceleration target to an accuracy of about 20 microradians rms is being constructed and tested. This laser tracking has the advantage of discriminating against other optical sources and the capability of simultaneously measuring range.

  14. Precision plastics and LCD display backlighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitkind, Neil; Jacobson, Benjamin A.; Scipione, Fred J.; Gengelbach, Robert D.; Emmons, Robert M.; Holman, Robert L.

    1995-08-01

    A precisely molded acrylic lightpipe is combined with micro-structured films, reflective films, adhesives, and other mechanical components in the construction of a thin, high performance LCD backlight. We focus here on the manufacturing issues associated with the injection molded lightpipe.

  15. High Precision Pressure Measurement with a Funnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Arias, T.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental device for high precision differential pressure measurements is presented. Its working mechanism recalls that of a hydraulic press, where pressure is supplied by insufflating air under a funnel. As an application, we measure air pressure inside a soap bubble. The soap bubble is inflated and connected to a funnel which is…

  16. Precision Metal Fabrication. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for precision metal fabrication. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  17. Sensing technologies for precision specialty crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the advances in electronic and information technologies, various sensing systems have been developed for specialty crop production around the world. Accurate information concerning the spatial variability within fields is very important for precision farming of specialty crops. However, this va...

  18. Precise Fabrication of Electromagnetic-Levitation Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E.; Curreri, P.; Theiss, J.; Abbaschian, G.

    1985-01-01

    Winding copper tubing on jig ensures reproducible performance. Sequence of steps insures consistent fabrication of levitation-and-melting coils. New method enables technician to produce eight coils per day, 95 percent of them acceptable. Method employs precise step-by-step procedure on specially designed wrapping and winding jig.

  19. Precision segmented reflector figure control system architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-09-01

    This paper describes an advanced technology figure control system for a generic class of large space based segmented reflector telescopes. Major technology and design motivations for selection of sensing, actuation, and mechanism approaches result from the high precision and very low mass and power goals for the reflector system.

  20. High precision measurements in crustal dynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, F.; Berger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of high-precision instrumentation for monitoring benchmark stability and evaluating coseismic strain and tilt signals is reviewed. Laser strainmeter and tilt observations are presented. Examples of coseismic deformation in several geographic locations are given. Evidence suggests that the Earth undergoes elastic response to abrupt faulting.

  1. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  2. Precision agriculture: Data to knowledge decision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From the development of the first viable variable-rate fertilizer systems in the upper Midwest USA, precision agriculture is now about two decades old. In that time, new technologies have come into play, but the overall goal of using spatial data to create actionable knowledge that can then be used ...

  3. Precise Sealing of Fused-Quartz Ampoules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnan, W. J. J.; Clark, I. O.

    1982-01-01

    New technique rapidly evacuates and seals fused-quartz ampoule with precise clearance over contents without appreciably thinning ampoule walls. Quartz plug is lowered into working section of ampoule after ampoule has been evacuated. Plug is then fused to ampoule walls, forming vacuum seal. New technique maintains wall strength and pumping speed.

  4. Precision Machining Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in precision machining technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and…

  5. Proposal for a CLEO precision vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Fermilab experiment E691 and CERN experiment NA32 have demonstrated the enormous power of precision vertexing for studying heavy quark physics. Nearly all collider experiments now have or are installing precision vertex detectors. This is a proposal for a precision vertex detector for CLEO, which will be the pre-eminent heavy quark experiment for at least the next 5 years. The purpose of a precision vertex detector for CLEO is to enhance the capabilities for isolating B, charm, and tau decays and to make it possible to measure the decay time. The precision vertex detector will also significantly improve strange particle identification and help with the tracking. The installation and use of this detector at CLEO is an important step in developing a vertex detector for an asymmetric B factory and therefore in observing CP violation in B decays. The CLEO environment imposes a number of unique conditions and challenges. The machine will be operating near the {gamma} (4S) in energy. This means that B's are produced with a very small velocity and travel a distance about {1/2} that of the expected vertex position resolution. As a consequence B decay time information will not be useful for most physics. On the other hand, the charm products of B decays have a higher velocity. For the long lived D{sup +} in particular, vertex information can be used to isolate the charm particle on an event-by-event basis. This helps significantly in reconstructing B's. The vertex resolution for D's from B's is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering of the necessarily rather low momentum tracks. As a consequence it is essential to minimize the material, as measured in radiation lengths, in the beam pip and the vertex detector itself. It is also essential to build the beam pipe and detector with the smallest possible radius.

  6. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  7. Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

  8. Precision orbit determination of altimetric satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, C. K.; Ries, John C.; Tapley, Byron D.

    1994-11-01

    The ability to determine accurate global sea level variations is important to both detection and understanding of changes in climate patterns. Sea level variability occurs over a wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, and precise global measurements are only recently possible with the advent of spaceborne satellite radar altimetry missions. One of the inherent requirements for accurate determination of absolute sea surface topography is that the altimetric satellite orbits be computed with sub-decimeter accuracy within a well defined terrestrial reference frame. SLR tracking in support of precision orbit determination of altimetric satellites is significant. Recent examples are the use of SLR as the primary tracking systems for TOPEX/Poseidon and for ERS-1 precision orbit determination. The current radial orbit accuracy for TOPEX/Poseidon is estimated to be around 3-4 cm, with geographically correlated orbit errors around 2 cm. The significance of the SLR tracking system is its ability to allow altimetric satellites to obtain absolute sea level measurements and thereby provide a link to other altimetry measurement systems for long-term sea level studies. SLR tracking allows the production of precise orbits which are well centered in an accurate terrestrial reference frame. With proper calibration of the radar altimeter, these precise orbits, along with the altimeter measurements, provide long term absolute sea level measurements. The U.S. Navy's Geosat mission is equipped with only Doppler beacons and lacks laser retroreflectors. However, its orbits, and even the Geosat orbits computed using the available full 40-station Tranet tracking network, yield orbits with significant north-south shifts with respect to the IERS terrestrial reference frame. The resulting Geosat sea surface topography will be tilted accordingly, making interpretation of long-term sea level variability studies difficult.

  9. Precise radial velocities in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Stephen L.

    Since the first detection of a planet outside our Solar System byWolszczan & Frail (1992), over 500 exoplanets have been found to date2, none of which resemble the Earth. Most of these planets were discovered by measuring the radial velocity (hereafter, RV) of the host star, which wobbles under the gravitational influence of any existing planetary companions. However, this method has yet to achieve the sub-m/s precision necessary to detect an Earth-mass planet in the Habitable Zone (the region around a star that can support liquid water; hereafter, HZ) (Kasting et al. 1993) around a Solar-type star. Even though Kepler (Borucki et al. 2010) has announced several Earth-sized HZ candidates, these targets will be exceptionally difficult to confirm with current astrophysical spectrographs (Borucki et al. 2011). The fastest way to discover and confirm potentiallyhabitable Earth-mass planets is to observe stars with lower masses - in particular, late M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are readily abundant, comprising some 70% of the local stellar population, their low optical luminosity presents a formidable challenge to current optical RV instruments. By observing in the near-infrared (hereafter, NIR), where the flux from M dwarfs peaks, we can potentially reach low RV precisions with significantly less telescope time than would be required by a comparable optical instrument. However, NIR precision RV measurements are a relatively new idea and replete with challenges: IR arrays, unlike CCDs, are sensitive to the thermal background; modal noise is a bigger issue in the NIR than in the optical; and the NIR currently lacks the calibration sources like the very successful thorium-argon (hereafter, ThAr) hollow-cathode lamp and Iodine gas cell of the optical. The PSU Pathfinder (hereafter, Pathfinder) was designed to explore these technical issues with the intention of mitigating these problems for future NIR high-resolution spectrographs, such as the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HZPF

  10. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.

  11. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  12. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  13. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  14. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, Thomas C.; Morgan, John P.; Marchant, Norman J.; Bolton, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  15. Precision active pharmaceutical ingredients are the goal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Understanding and exploiting molecular mechanisms in biology is central to chemical biology. Chemical biology studies of biological macromolecules are now in a perfect continuum with molecular level and nanomolecular level mechanistic studies involving whole organisms. The potential opportunity presented by such studies is the design and creation of genuine precision active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs; including DNA, siRNA, smaller-molecule bioactives) that demonstrate exceptional levels of disease target specificity and selectivity. This article covers the best of my personal and collaborative academic research work using an organic chemistry and chemical biology approach towards understanding biological molecular recognition processes, work that appears to be leading to the generation of novel precision APIs with genuine potential for the treatments of major chronic diseases that afflict globally. PMID:27476703

  16. Backward smoothing for precise GNSS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaclavovic, Pavel; Dousa, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The Extended Kalman filter is widely used for its robustness and simple implementation. Parameters estimated for solving dynamical systems usually require certain time to converge and need to be smoothed by a dedicated algorithms. The purpose of our study was to implement smoothing algorithms for processing both code and carrier phase observations with Precise Point Positioning method. We implemented and used the well known Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother (RTS). It has been found out that the RTS suffer from significant numerical instability in smoothed state covariance matrix determination. We improved the processing with algorithms based on Singular Value Decomposition, which was more robust. Observations from many permanent stations have been processed with final orbits and clocks provided by the International GNSS service (IGS), and the smoothing improved stability and precision in every cases. Moreover, (re)convergence of the parameters were always successfully eliminated.

  17. Radiotherapy in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yard, Brian; Chie, Eui Kyu; Adams, Drew J; Peacock, Craig; Abazeed, Mohamed E

    2015-10-01

    Current predictors of radiation response are largely limited to clinical and histopathologic parameters, and extensive systematic analyses of the correlation between radiation sensitivity and genomic parameters remain lacking. In the era of precision medicine, the lack of -omic determinants of radiation response has hindered the personalization of radiation delivery to the unique characteristics of each patient׳s cancer and impeded the discovery of new therapies that can be administered concurrently with radiation therapy. The cataloging of the -omic determinants of radiation sensitivity of cancer has great potential in enhancing efficacy and limiting toxicity in the context of a new approach to precision radiotherapy. Herein, we review concepts and data that contribute to the delineation of the radiogenomic landscape of cancer.

  18. Development of a portable precision landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    A portable, tactical approach guidance (PTAG) system, based on a novel, X-band, precision approach concept, was developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-the-art X-band technology and digital processing techniques. The PTAG airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small microprocessor installed in conjunction with the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, PTAG pulses and outputs ILS compatible localizer and glide slope signals. The ground stations are inexpensive, portable units, each weighing less than 85 lb, including battery, that can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that PTAG has a significant potential for providing tactical aircraft with low cost, portable, precision instrument approach capability.

  19. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann; R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  20. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.