Science.gov

Sample records for bunker fuel oil

  1. Bunker C. fuel oil reduces mallard egg hatchability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Bunker C fuel oil on artificially-incubated mallard eggs. Eggshell applications of 5-50 ul of Bunker C fuel oil were made on day 8 of incubation; measured hatching success.

  2. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  3. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  4. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  5. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... of aircraft turbine fuel to be used within 30 days of such withdrawal as supplies on aircraft...

  6. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... of aircraft turbine fuel to be used within 30 days of such withdrawal as supplies on aircraft...

  7. Chemical fate of Bunker C fuel oil in a subtropical marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.L.; Van Vleet, E.S.

    1996-12-31

    On August 10, 1993, a major oil spill occurred when approximately 1.2 million liters of Bunker C (No. 6) fuel oil spilled from the fuel tanker Bouchard 155 after it collided with the phosphate freighter Balsa 37 in a shipping channel at the entrance to Tampa Bay, Florida. Although early hydrodynamic conditions with ebbing tides caused most of the oil to be carried several kilometers out of Tampa Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico, subsequent onshore winds and spring tides caused significant quantities of the oil to be deposited on nearby beaches and in mangrove, seagrass and estuarine habitats north of the mouth of Tampa Bay.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  9. Risk based corrective action: An application to closure of a fuel oil bunker site

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahi, B.K.; Acharya, B.P.

    1999-07-01

    An evaluation of the potential risk of adversely impacting the site ground water was conducted at a food processing facility in California. The facility stored fuel oil in a 50,000-gallon concrete bunker in addition to gasoline and kerosene tanks onsite. In response to an environmental impact assessment, a site remediation plan was implemented which consisted of removal of the concrete bunker and majority of the impacted soils to a depth of about 45 ft (13.72 m) below ground surface (bgs). Some of the soil samples collected at depths between 45 and 50 ft (13.72 and 15.24 m) indicated TPH levels as high as 5,275 mg/kg. A risk evaluation was conducted for a worst case scenario to document the fate and transport of the residual compounds reaching the shallow ground water flow system. It was demonstrated that the residual fuel oil present in the overlying soil did not impact the ground water at the time of investigation, and is not likely to have adverse impact on the shallow ground water beneath the site. Therefore, no further corrective action was needed and the site was closed.

  10. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  12. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  13. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  14. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie A; Aldridge, Brian M; Lasley, Bill L; Snyder, Paul W; Stott, Jeff L; Mohr, F Charles

    2004-10-15

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants. PMID:15476867

  15. Immunophenotypic and functional effects of bunker C fuel oil on the immune system of American mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie A; Aldridge, Brian M; Stott, Jeff L; Mohr, F Charles

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and immunotoxicity in vulnerable marine species is unknown. In this study, we used American mink (Mustela vision) as a surrogate species for the sea otter to examine the immunotoxic effects of chronic exposure to a low concentration of bunker C fuel oil (500 ppm admixed in the feed for 113-118 days). The mink immune system was monitored over time by flow cytometric analysis for alterations in the immunophenotype of blood lymphocytes and monocytes and by mitogen-stimulated proliferation assays for changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell function. Fuel oil exposure caused a mild, yet significant (P < 0.05) increase in the absolute numbers of specific peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T cells) and monocytes, an increase in the level of expression of functionally significant cell surface proteins (MHC II, CD18), and an increase in mitogen-induced mononuclear cell proliferative responses. This heightened state of cellular activation along with the increase in specific cell surface protein expression on both the innate and adaptive immune cells is similar to the pro-inflammatory or "adjuvant-like" effect described in laboratory models of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in other species. These results show the benefits of using a controlled laboratory model for detecting and characterizing subtle petroleum oil-induced perturbations in immune responses. In addition this study establishes a framework for studying the effects of environmental petroleum oil exposure on the immune system of free-ranging marine mammals. Expansion of these studies to address biolgical significance is warranted.

  16. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

  17. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  18. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  19. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  20. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  1. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil using tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiong; Lin, Song; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Sujun; Xiong, Jun-Ru

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the ultrasonic assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil with TBHP/MoO3 system. The operational parameters for the desulfurization procedure such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic wave amplitude, catalyst initial concentration and oxidation agent initial concentration were studied. The experimental results show that the present oxidation system was very efficient for the desulfurization of bunker-C oil and ~35% sulfur was removed which was dependent on operational parameters. The application of ultrasonic irradiation allowed sulfur removal in a shorter time. The stronger the solvent polarity is, the higher the sulfur removal rate, but the recovery rate of oil is lower. The sulfur compounds in bunker-C oil reacted with TBHP to produce corresponding sulfoxide, and further oxidation produced the corresponding sulfone. PMID:23538118

  3. Effects of Bunkers C oil on juvenile horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Brenowitz, A.H.

    1981-06-01

    Newly hatched horseshow crabs (Limulus polyphemus) were exposed to autoclaved Bunker C oil for 8 weeks. Autoclaving served to prevent bacterial degradation of stored oil and to drive off the volatile fraction of the oil. The oil was introduced in the form of a whole oil suspension. Minimum lethal dose was shown to be 2.25 mg per l. Concentrations greater than 0.25 mg per l caused a delay in molting.

  4. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

  5. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS Case... include purchases of marine fuel, oil, and refueling-related items using the Ships Bunkers Easy... the purchase of marine fuel using the Ships' bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card in lieu of the...

  6. Biodesulfurization of model compounds and de-asphalted bunker oil by mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Yang, Senlin; Li, Wangling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, complicated model sulfur compounds in bunker oil and de-asphalted bunker oil were biodesulfurized in a batch process by microbial consortium enriched from oil sludge. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]thiophene (BNT1) were selected as model sulfur compounds. The results show that the mixed culture was able to grow by utilizing DBT and BNT1 as the sole sulfur source, while the cell density was higher using DBT than BNT1 as the sulfur source. GC-MS analysis of their desulfurized metabolites indicates that both DBT and BNT1 could be desulfurized through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds. When DBT and BNT1 coexisted, the biodesulfurization efficiency of BNT1 decreased significantly as the DBT concentrations increased (>0.1 mmol/L). BNT1 desulfurization efficiency also decreased along with the increase of 2-hydroxybiphenyl as the end product of DBT desulfurization. For real bunker oil, only 2.8 % of sulfur was removed without de-asphalting after 7 days of biotreatment. After de-asphalting, the biodesulfurization efficiency was significantly improved (26.2-36.5 %), which is mainly attributed to fully mixing of the oil and water due to the decreased viscosity of bunker oil. PMID:24046256

  7. Potent Phototoxicity of Marine Bunker Oil to Translucent Herring Embryos after Prolonged Weathering

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Vines, Carol A.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Myers, Mark S.; Sloan, Catherine A.; Anulacion, Bernadita F.; Boyd, Daryle; Collier, Tracy K.; Morgan, Steven; Cherr, Gary N.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi) spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes) before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity) with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network. PMID:22312421

  8. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Vines, Carol A; Linbo, Tiffany L; Myers, Mark S; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boyd, Daryle; Collier, Tracy K; Morgan, Steven; Cherr, Gary N; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi) spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes) before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity) with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  9. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Vines, Carol A; Linbo, Tiffany L; Myers, Mark S; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boyd, Daryle; Collier, Tracy K; Morgan, Steven; Cherr, Gary N; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi) spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes) before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity) with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network. PMID:22312421

  10. When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Al Awadi, Mohammed; Cowie, William; Mardlin, David; Pollard, Simon; Cunningham, Colin; Risdon, Graeme; Arthur, Paul; Semple, Kirk T; Paton, Graeme I

    2010-10-01

    A six month field scale study was carried out to compare windrow turning and biopile techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with bunker C fuel oil. End-point clean-up targets were defined by human risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches. Replicate windrows and biopiles were amended with either nutrients and inocula, nutrients alone or no amendment. In addition to fractionated hydrocarbon analysis, culturable microbial characterisation and soil ecotoxicological assays were performed. This particular soil, heavy in texture and historically contaminated with bunker fuel was more effectively remediated by windrowing, but coarser textures may be more amendable to biopiling. This trial reveals the benefit of developing risk and hazard based approaches in defining end-point bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons when engineered biopile or windrow are proposed as treatment option.

  11. Coal bunker repairs

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, M.H.; Hoffman, M.G. )

    1992-01-01

    Detroit Edison's St. Clair Power Plant (STCPP) Units 1 through 4 are 1950's vintage fossil fueled units with an average capacity of 163 megawatt per unit. Each unit had identical 2190 ton bunkers. The Unit No. 1 bunker had been experiencing noticeable exterior deterioration at the lower level internal support system. An internal bunker inspection revealed large deflections in the network of beams supporting the bunker side walls. A complete collapse of the internal support beams was imminent. Failure of these beams would have transferred the coal pressure loads to the bunker skin and external stiffeners which were not capable of sustaining the load and were also showing signs of distress. This paper presents the temporary repair installed immediately after inspection, the redesign of the lower internal support system and construction procedures involved in bringing the bunker back into operating condition.

  12. 75 FR 38487 - Order Finding That the Fuel Oil-180 Singapore Swap Contract Traded on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... product to the port of Singapore, as well as the cost of loading the fuel oil onto the cargo ship (this...-Pacific region. \\12\\ Bunker fuel gets its name from the containers on ships and in ports that it is stored.... In this regard, international fuel oil prices are compared with those in the trader's home port...

  13. Used oil as a fuel oil alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Beker, U.G.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the possibility of using used frying oil as a fuel oil alternative has been investigated. The fuel oil analysis tests applied to the reference fuel oil, used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil, were done according to standard test methods. The experimental results indicated that used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for fuel oil.

  14. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  15. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  16. Solid fuel oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutter, P.R.; Veal, C.J.

    1984-11-27

    Fuel composition comprises 15 to 60% be weight, preferably 40 to 55%, of a friable solid fuel, e.g. coal, a stabilizing additive composition and a fuel oil. The additive comprises the combination of a polymer containing functional groups, e.g., maleinized polybutadiene, and a surfactant. The composition is suitable for use as a liquid fuel for industrial burners.

  17. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  19. Fuel oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Substances called hydrocarbons are the harmful ingredients in fuel oil. ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. ...

  20. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  1. Crude oil and fuel oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.D.; Andrews, R.F.; Ayres, S.J.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a wax containing oil composition. It comprises crude oil or fuel oil and a wax crystal modifying amount of at least one polycarbonate having a number average molecular weight from about 300 to about 3000.

  2. 46 CFR 27.211 - What are the specifications for fuel systems on towing vessels whose construction was contracted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference in § 27.102). (3) 33 CFR chapter I, subchapter S (Boating Safety). ... restrictions. Neither you nor the master or person in charge may use fuel other than bunker C or diesel, except... uses bunker C, heavy fuel oil (HFO), or any fuel that requires pre-heating, must comply with...

  3. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  4. Fuels and Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bronshtein, L.A.; Kalinina, E.V.; Shekter, Y.N.; Shkol'nikov, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    This article describes procedures which can be used to calculate the quantity of information obtained in laboratory and test-stand evaluations of fuels and oils by various methods. The evaluation of the protective properties of oils by means of the methods of GOST 9.054-75 is compared to a system for the coordinated investigation of the protective properties (CIPP) of the oils. According to GOST 9.054-75, the protective properties of oils are determined by the percentage of corrosion-damaged surface on metal panels that have been coated with a film of the oil, after a certain test time under various conditions. In tests on oils by the CIPP system, each index is evaluated on a rating scale containing three classes: ''good,'' ''satisfactory,'' and ''poor.'' According to GOST 9.054-75, the protective properties of oils are evaluated by 5 methods: in a humidity cabinet, in a salt fog cabinet, in a sulfur dioxide cabinet, in sea water, and in a test for hydrobromic acid displacement. It is demonstrated that the tests by the CIPP system using the desirability scale give the highest level of informativity. The informativity of the methods, along with the repeatability and reproducibility of the results, can serve as quantitative characterization of the quality of the test methods. Includes 2 tables.

  5. Acute Toxicity of Water-Accommodated Fraction and Chemically Enhanced WAF of Bunker C Oil and Dispersant to a Microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele.

    PubMed

    Santander-Avanceña, Sheryll S; Sadaba, Resurreccion B; Taberna, Hilario S; Tayo, Gilma T; Koyama, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30% and 2.40%, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0% and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0% while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant.

  6. Acute Toxicity of Water-Accommodated Fraction and Chemically Enhanced WAF of Bunker C Oil and Dispersant to a Microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele.

    PubMed

    Santander-Avanceña, Sheryll S; Sadaba, Resurreccion B; Taberna, Hilario S; Tayo, Gilma T; Koyama, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30% and 2.40%, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0% and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0% while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant. PMID:26585645

  7. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  8. Processing sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, L.F.; Jacobsen, L.; Olson, C.

    1982-05-01

    Research on processing of sunflower seed for oil was initiated to evaluate the equipment that might adapt best to on-farm or small factory production facilities. The first devices identified for evaluation were auger press expeller units, primary oil cleaning equipment, and final filters. A series of standard finishing filtration tests were carried out on sunflower oil and sunflower oil - diesel fuel blends using sunflower oil from four different sources.

  9. Desalting method of fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, K.; Nagatomo, K.; Nomura, S.; Shibata, F.; Yoshinaga, S.

    1982-07-13

    The present invention provides a method for the desalting of fuel oil by mixing the fuel oil and clean water, thereby separating and eliminating sodium salts and potassium salts contained in the fuel oil. The method comprises separating a heavy portion including salt containing water from the fuel oil which is a light portion. This heavy portion is separated from the fuel oil and separated into water and a residue by an evaporator. The water is reused as a washing water and the residue is burnt to use the generated heat as a heat source for the evaporator, whereby the residue is decreased in volume and solidified to be made easy in the handling.

  10. Oil and related toxicant effects on mallard immune defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, T.M.; Hinsdill, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    A crude oil, a petroleum distillate, and chemically dispersed oil were tested for their effects on resistance to bacterial infection and the immune response in waterfowl. Sublethal oral doses for mallards were determined for South Louisiana crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil a dispersant-Corexit 9527, and oil/Corexit combinations by gizzard intubation. Resistance to bacterial challange (Pasteurella multocida) was significantly lowered in mallards receiving 2.5 or 4.0 ml/kg of Bunker C fuel oil, 4.0 ml/kg of South Louisiana crude oil, and 4.0 ml/kg of a 50:1 Bunker C fuel oil/Corexit mixture daily for 28 days. Ingestion of oil or oil/Corexit mixtures had no effect on mallard antibody-producing capability as measured by the direct spleen plaque-forming assay.

  11. Inflammatory markers following acute fuel oil exposure or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly A; Tell, Lisa A; Mohr, F Charles

    2012-12-01

    Adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were orally dosed with bunker C fuel oil for 5 days, and five different inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin, ceruloplasmin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and plasma iron) were measured in blood plasma prior to and 8, 24, 48, and 72 hr following exposure. In order to contrast the response to fuel oil with that of a systemic inflammatory response, an additional five ducks were injected intramuscularly with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oil-treated birds had an inflammatory marker profile that was significantly different from control and LPS-treated birds, showing decreases in mannan-binding lectin-dependent hemolysis and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, but no changes in any of the other inflammatory markers. Birds treated with oil also exhibited increased liver weights, decreased body and splenic weights, and decreased packed cell volume.

  12. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  13. Crude oil of fuel oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.D.; Lewtas, K.

    1989-11-21

    This patent describes a crude oil composition or a fuel oil composition. It comprises: a major proportion by weight of a crude oil or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor proportion by weight of a polymer containing more than one amide group. The amide being an amide of a secondary mono amine and wherein the amide group of the polymer contains a hydrogen- and carbon- containing group of at least 14 carbon atoms, provided that if the polymer is derived from the polymerization of an aliphatic olefin and maleic anhydride. The polymer must have both an amide group and an ester group each of which contains a hydrogen- and carbon-containing group of at least 14 carbon atoms.

  14. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  15. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  16. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Heakin, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions. (Refs. 11).

  17. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  18. [Microbial denitrogenation of fuel oil].

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-shan; Ma, Ting; Li, Guo-qiang; Liang, Feng-lai; Liu, Ru-lin

    2006-12-01

    The amount of organic nitrides contained in fuel oil is smaller than the one of organic sulfur compounds, but the existence of them is enough to affect the invariability of oil product greatly , and has a big effect on the color of oil. They also contribute to catalyst poisoning during the refining of crude oil, thus reducing the catalyzing rate of the catalyst and increasing process costs. Further more, some nitrogen organic compounds possess mutagenic and toxic activities. The combustion of these contaminants form nitrogen oxides (NOx), releasing of which to the air will cause the formation of acid rain and hence to air pollution. The classical hydroprocessing methods of nitrogen removal are costly and complicated, so the scientists are more and more interested in microbial denitrogenation. The aspects as follows are introduced, including the aromatic nitrogen compounds of fuel oil, the varieties of denitrogenation techincs, the classes of microbial denitrogenation and its biochemical pathways, molecular genetics developments of carbazole-degradative genes, and our opinion of the research direction in the future.

  19. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures... processing in the amount of 10 metric tons (11 short tons); (b) Bilge water containing oily mixtures in the... average, whichever quantity is greater; (c) Ballast water containing oily mixtures in the amount of 30%...

  20. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  1. Fuel oil and kerosene sales, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-22

    Despite the rise in petroleum products prices, a colder-than-normal winter in the latter part of 1989 spurred an increase in demand for distillate fuel oils. The shipping and electric utilities industries contributed to a significant rise in demand for both distillate and residual fuels oils in 1989. A total of 72.9 billion gallons of fuel oil and kerosene were sold to consumers in 1989, an increase of 3.0 percent over 1988 sales volumes. Of all fuel oil sold during 1989, distillate fuel oil accounted for 68.3 percent, which was an increase over 1988 when distillate fuel oil accounted for 67.2 percent of all fuel oil products sold in the United States. Residual fuel oil's share of total fuel oil sold fell slightly to 29.9 percent from 30.7 percent in 1988. Kerosene followed with a 1.8 percent share, also falling from the previous year when it accounted for a 2.1 percent share of total fuel oil sold. 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  3. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  4. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  5. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  6. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  7. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  8. Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

  9. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design fuel and oil loads. 25.343 Section... Design fuel and oil loads. (a) The disposable load combinations must include each fuel and oil load in the range from zero fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil load. A structural reserve...

  10. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  11. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  12. ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This publication contains the 1995 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the seventh year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the product supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). 24 tabs.

  14. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-03

    This publication contains the 1993 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene, Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the fifth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1993 edition marks the 10th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA).

  15. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    This publication contains the 1992 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the fourth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1992 edition marks the ninth annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA).

  16. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  17. Rapeseed and safflower oils as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Haines, H.; Chase, C.

    1993-12-31

    During the past decade the US has become increasingly dependent upon imported oil to meet our energy demands. Nearly 50 percent of our US consumption of petroleum is imported. Research has shown that agricultural crops can be used to reduce this dependence. Vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has been under study at the Univ. of Idaho since 1979. Since then the Idaho research team has pioneered the use of rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Idaho`s interdisciplinary team includes plant breeding, plant modification, process development and scale-up, engine testing, and economics. Researchers in Montana have studied safflower oil as a potential diesel fuel replacement since 1983. This project, aimed for use of safflower oil in railroad engines, involves genetics, agronomics, economics and contract engine testing.

  18. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  19. Sunflower oil methyl ester as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Hasan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methyl ester formation represents one approach to overcome the problems associated with the relatively high viscosity of sunflower oil when used as a diesel fuel replacement. Sunflower oil methyl ester is being prepared at the University of North Dakota Engieering Experiment Station. Physical and chemical properties of this material at varying levels of refinement and purity will be used to define fuel properties. Engine testing is being carried out to determine if the fouling characteristics of methyl ester are significantly less than those of sunflower oil. 1 figure, 1 table.

  20. Oil-fueled equipment research: program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the basis for a US Department of Energy (DOE) program for oil-fueled equipment research. The needs for an benefits of the technical research are explained, and a research plan is presented. This program was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with assistance from Steven Winters Associates and input from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and many representatives of the heating-oil and oil-fueled equipment industries. The private sector input was extensive, obtained through a series of workshops and formal and informal surveys. The planning effort was directed by the Building Equipment Division of the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems. The objective of the oil-fueled equipment research program is to develop the technological basis for new equipment and operating strategies based on improved understanding of oil-burning fundamentals. The program will provide the oil-fueled equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, high-tech generation of equipment, and the oil distributors and equipment installers and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install and operate such equipment.

  1. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  2. Composition of jet fuels from tar oil

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.; Miller, D.J.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Ruud, A. )

    1987-04-01

    Concerns About World Oil Problems are Growing is the title of a recent C and E News article. It notes how the present low oil prices are again resulting in the US increasing its oil imports from 25% to 29% of refinery inputs in the first six months of 1986 compared to 1985, and the October 10 Wall Street Journal estimates that imports could reach 50% by 1990. At the same time, petroleum crudes are becoming heavier. However, heavier crude will not provide the quantity of quality fuels such as aviation turbine fuel by simply taking a distillation cut. The more it becomes necessary to process and upgrade heavy resids to obtain quality fuels, the more competitive fuel from non-petroleum sources will become. In spite of the fact that the technology exists to produce synthetic turbine fuels, the US, with its documented coal and oil shale reserves, has no commercial liquefaction plants. Quite simply, the process economics driven by crude petroleum costs make a grass roots liquefaction plant not competitive. There does exist, however, a coal gasification plant in the US, the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) at Beulah, North Dakota, which produces quantities of coal liquid by-products during its daily production of 137 MM SCF of synthetic natural gas. The value of these liquids is presently that of a plant fuel. Successful demonstration that coal liquids from GPGP can be processed into jet fuels at a competitive cost may finally result in establishing coal liquids as a viable source for liquid fuel and would also add significant plant revenues. This paper reports on initial work at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center to upgrade the tar oil, with an ultimate goal of producing aviation turbine fuel.

  3. Consider Upgrading Pyrolysis Oils Into Renewale Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, J.; Marinangeli, R.; Nair, P.; Elliott, D.; Bain, R.

    2008-09-01

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. An alternate route being pursued involves using a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  4. Transesterification of vegetable oils for fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kusy, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous procedure was developed and tested, in a stepwise manner, for the transesterification of soybean and sunflower oils using ethanol. Good yields of ethyl soyate and sunflowerate were achieved, and the products made agreed very closely with those made by a direct esterification of the acids of vegetable oils and ethanol. The viscosity of the esters was considerably less than that of the oils and more nearly like that of diesel fuel. Because the ethyl soyate and sunflowerate have many components which solidify at relatively high temperatures, cloud points of the fuels are about 8 to 12/sup 0/C, which indicates they would not be readily usable at or below that temperature without dilution with No. 1 or No. 2 diesel fuel and/or the addition of additives. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60...

  10. Fuel oil and kerosene sales, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    Sales data is presented for kerosene and fuel oils. This is the second year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be... double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally... intervals not to exceed five years. (b) Integral non-double-bottom fuel oil tanks need not be cleaned...

  12. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be... double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally... intervals not to exceed five years. (b) Integral non-double-bottom fuel oil tanks need not be cleaned...

  13. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be... double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally... intervals not to exceed five years. (b) Integral non-double-bottom fuel oil tanks need not be cleaned...

  14. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be... double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally... intervals not to exceed five years. (b) Integral non-double-bottom fuel oil tanks need not be cleaned...

  15. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be... double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally... intervals not to exceed five years. (b) Integral non-double-bottom fuel oil tanks need not be cleaned...

  16. 1. Context view showing Bunker 103 on right and road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Context view showing Bunker 103 on right and road leading south to Bunker 104. Camera pointed SW. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  18. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  19. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  20. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  1. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  2. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  3. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the range from zero fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil load. A structural reserve fuel... applicable, may be selected. (b) If a structural reserve fuel condition is selected, it must be used as the... condition of paragraph (b)(1) of this section; and (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration...

  4. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the range from zero fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil load. A structural reserve fuel... applicable, may be selected. (b) If a structural reserve fuel condition is selected, it must be used as the... condition of paragraph (b)(1) of this section; and (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration...

  5. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the range from zero fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil load. A structural reserve fuel... applicable, may be selected. (b) If a structural reserve fuel condition is selected, it must be used as the... condition of paragraph (b)(1) of this section; and (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration...

  6. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  7. Mixed fuel composition. [fuel oil, coal powder, and polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-07-13

    A mixed fuel composition comprises (A) a fuel oil, (B) a coal powder having an (H)/(C) ratio according to the coalification band method in the range of 0.4-0.75 and an (O)/(C) ratio in the range of 0.09-0.18 and (C) a partially amidated copolymer obtained by reacting a copolymer of a polymerizable, unsaturated hydrocarbon and maleic anhydride with an aliphatic amine of 2-36 carbon-atoms or a salt thereof as a stabilizer.

  8. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  9. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  10. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  11. Effect of sunflower oil on a diesel fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Schunk, S.; Pratt, G.

    1982-05-01

    A typical farm tractor diesel fuel system (injection pump, fuel lines, filters and injectors) was tested on a test stand at various temperatures using sunflower oil, diesel fuel, and mixtures of the two as fuels. Measurements taken included fuel volume delivered by the injector line pressure at the injector, pressure drop across the filter, transfer pump pressure, and fuel injection timing. Results indicate that low percentages of sunflower oil may be used successfully in the system under summer conditions. Design changes to the system may be necessary for higher percentages of sunflower oil and cold conditions.

  12. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    lead to job creation in rural areas of the country and help stimulate the agricultural economy. Moreover, production of soybean with enhanced oil quality for biodiesel may increase the attractiveness of this renewable, environmentally friendly fuel.

  13. Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-75 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 78.17-75 Section 78.17-75..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-75 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board, stating...

  15. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received...

  16. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received...

  17. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received...

  18. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on...

  19. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received...

  20. 46 CFR 78.17-75 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 78.17-75 Section 78.17-75..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-75 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board, stating...

  1. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on...

  2. 46 CFR 78.17-75 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 78.17-75 Section 78.17-75..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-75 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board, stating...

  3. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received...

  4. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on...

  5. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on...

  6. 46 CFR 78.17-75 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 78.17-75 Section 78.17-75..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-75 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board, stating...

  7. 46 CFR 196.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 196.15-55 Section 196.15-55... Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on...

  8. 46 CFR 78.17-75 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 78.17-75 Section 78.17-75..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-75 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board, stating...

  9. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

  10. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on common eider eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An oil spill near a breeding colony could result in the transfer of oil from the plumage and feet of incubating birds to their eggs. Microlitre amounts of No. 2 fuel oil were applied externally to common eider eggs in an island breeding colony in Maine. Clutches of eggs treated with 20 ?l of fuel oil had significantly greater embryonic mortality than the control clutches when they were examined 7 days after treatment. The results are similar to those of an earlier study of artificially incubated common eider eggs and indicate that nest site conditions do not affect embryotoxicity of No. 2 fuel oil.

  11. Thermal stabilized vegetable oil extended diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, W.M.; Lachowicz, D.R.

    1986-03-11

    A middle distillate fuel composition is described comprising: (a) a major portion of a middle distillate containing a hydrocarbon boiling in the middle distillate boiling range; (b) an extending portion of a vegetable oil; and (c) an effective thermal-stabilizing amount of a nitrogen-containing polymer prepared by reacting an ethylene/propylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, thereby forming a succinic anhydride, reacting the succinic anhydride, with an alcohol, thereby forming a succinate ester while leaving a portion of the succinic anhydride unreacted, and, reacting the succinate ester and the unreacted succinic anhydride with dimethylaminopropylamine, thereby forming a nitrogen-containing polymer.

  12. Comparing liquid-fuel costs: grain alcohol versus sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reining, R.C.; Tyner, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale production of fuel grade grain alcohol with sunflower oil. Three scales of ethanol and sunflower oil production are modeled, and sensitivity analysis is conducted for various operating conditions and costs. The general conclusion is that sunflower oil costs lass to produce than 'Lcohol. Government subsidies for alcohol, but not sunflower oil, could cause adoption of more expensive alcohol in place of cheaper sunflower oil. However, neither sunflower oil nor alcohol are competitive with diesel fuel. 7 references, 6 tables

  13. Alternative to heavy fuel oil firing - emulsified hydrocarbon fuel conversion considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, A.J.; Wiggins, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    With numerous emulsified hydrocarbon fuel-based conversion projects completed in the past five years and an even greater number being considered in the near future, this bitumen-based fuel is gaining world-wide popularity. The emergence of this fuel in the international market place holds promise for restoring heavy fuel oil-based boiler units to economic service. This paper will discuss the design modifications and considerations necessary to convert heavy fuel oil fired/co-fired boiler units to emulsified hydrocarbon fuel. Included will be a discussion on the boiler, fuels handling and emission/environmental control systems. An overview of the current use/application of emulsified fuel will be provided along with a comparative listing of the emulsified hydrocarbon fuel`s chemical and physical characteristics relative to that of heavy fuel oil.

  14. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.361 Classification of other fuel oil sales. (a) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as...

  15. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.361 Classification of other fuel oil sales. (a) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as...

  16. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.361 Classification of other fuel oil sales. (a) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as...

  17. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.361 Classification of other fuel oil sales. (a) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as...

  18. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design fuel and oil loads. 25.343 Section 25.343 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.343 Design fuel and oil loads. (a)...

  19. 77 FR 39745 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Power Supplies.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in..., entitled, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  20. Report on the Procurement and Delivery of Fuel Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William M.; Baacke, Clifford M.

    Annual use of fuel oil for heating schools and other facilities of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools, Montgomery County Government, and Montgomery College exceeds four-million gallons. This report examines the processes by which purchases and distributions of fuel oil are made, makes recommendations based on the examination, and…

  1. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section 57.6309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section 57.6309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section 57.6309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section 57.6309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. 57.6309 Section 57.6309 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6309 Fuel oil requirements for ANFO. (a) Liquid hydrocarbon...

  6. Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-01

    This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

  7. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  8. 40 CFR 279.72 - On-specification used oil fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-specification used oil fuel. 279.72... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.72 On-specification used oil fuel. (a) Analysis of used oil fuel. A generator, transporter, processor/re-refiner,...

  9. 40 CFR 279.72 - On-specification used oil fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false On-specification used oil fuel. 279.72... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.72 On-specification used oil fuel. (a) Analysis of used oil fuel. A generator, transporter, processor/re-refiner,...

  10. 46 CFR 125.115 - Oil fuel tank protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Not a tankship as defined in 46 CFR 30.10-67; and (2) In the service of oil exploitation. ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil fuel tank protection. 125.115 Section 125.115... Oil fuel tank protection. (a) An OSV of at least 6,000 GT ITC (500 GRT if GT ITC is not assigned)...

  11. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  12. Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

    1999-08-01

    A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

  13. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricants. (2) For 2-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture ratio must be that which is recommended by the..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial...

  14. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  15. 31 CFR 542.524 - Bunkering and emergency repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transporting passengers or goods to or from Syria are permissible if they are: (1) Bunkers or bunkering... from the Government of Syria or any other person whose property and interests in property are...

  16. 3. Perspective view of north end of Bunker 103 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of north end of Bunker 103 showing north set of steel doors. Camera pointed NW. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 5. Detail showing north set of doors of Bunker 104. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail showing north set of doors of Bunker 104. Padlock is hidden behind cylindrical casing. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, South of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 2. Elevation view of north end of Bunker 104 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevation view of north end of Bunker 104 showing steps and slope of earthen roof. Camera pointed W. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, South of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 50 CFR 300.216 - Transshipping, bunkering and net sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on the WCPFC Interim Register of Non-Member Carrier and Bunker Vessels; or (D) The transshipment... WCPFC Interim Register of Non-Member Carrier and Bunker Vessels. (4) Emergency transshipments....

  1. 50 CFR 300.216 - Transshipping, bunkering and net sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on the WCPFC Interim Register of Non-Member Carrier and Bunker Vessels; or (D) The transshipment... WCPFC Interim Register of Non-Member Carrier and Bunker Vessels. (4) Emergency transshipments....

  2. Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kiovsky, T.E.; Yates, N.C.; Bales, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on comparable 5W-30 formulations based on either hydrogenated mineral oil, or hydrocracked or poly alpha olefin basestocks. These blends clearly demonstrate the effect of improved volatility on oil consumption and oxidation stability in a range of bench engine tests. Equivalent engine test performance is observed for the hydrocracked and polyalphaolefin blends. Both exhibit performance superior to that attained by the hydrogenated mineral oil-based blend. Predicted Sequence VI fuel savings for these blends show additional fuel efficiency benefits for hydrocracked vs. hydrogenated mineral oil-based blends. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-48a - Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL. 30.10-48a Section 30.10-48a...-48a Oil fuel unit—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel unit means the equipment used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oil fired boiler, the equipment used for the preparation of heated oil fuel...

  5. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  6. 1. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM GROUND ELEVATION. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM GROUND ELEVATION. CAMERA FACING NORTH. VIEW SHOWS PROFILE OF BUNKER IN RELATION TO NATURAL GROUND ELEVATION. TOP OF BUNKER HAS APPROXIMATELY THREE FEET OF EARTH COVER. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 3. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY 150 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY 150 FEET EAST OF BUNKER DOOR. CAMERA FACING WEST. VIEW SHOWS EARTH MOUND COVERING CONTROL BUNKER AND REMAINS OF CABLE CHASE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 2. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM GROUND ELEVATION FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM GROUND ELEVATION FACING ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING EAST. EQUIPMENT INSIDE BUNKER IS RELATED TO CLEAN-UP PRIOR TO DEMOLITION. NOTE DRAIN COVER ON CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT OF VIEW. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Direct oxidation of jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil in a solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Gallo, C.; Pague, M. B.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    A Cu-ceria solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is shown to generate electric power using jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil through direct oxidation of the fuels. The liquid fuels contained up to 910 ppm of sulfur and were injected into the anode compartment either with or without N 2 dilution. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 30 h for jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil without N 2 dilution whereas N 2 dilution prolonged the stable power generation up to 100 h for jet fuel and up to 80 h for Pennsylvania crude oil. The generated power density was about 0.1 W cm -2 for both fuels.

  10. Extensible telescopic coal bunker for subsurface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, R.; Sander, G.

    1980-12-02

    A subsurface coal bunker operating to receive and discharge coal is structured with an assemblage of nested telescopic container members including one stationary member and a plurality of movable members, with the container members being formed in size in a graduated series with each container member being sized to fit into a next larger container member adjacent thereto. The movable members are telescopically extensible and contractible in order to vary the volume of the assemblage and the bunker assembly is provided with a first belt conveyor for feeding material into the assemblage and a second belt conveyor for transporting material therefrom. A reversible drive mechanism, consisting of hydraulic cylinder devices actuating a system of drive chains and pulleys, is mounted on a support frame of the bunker and operates to drive the movable members between the extended and contracted positions.

  11. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  12. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  13. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  14. Effects of engine oil viscosity and composition on fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, J.E.; Carlson, D.C.; Kleiser, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    A 2.3l engine dynamometer test procedure that measures the effects of engine oils on fuel efficiency has been developed that a) generally agrees with the ASTM five-car test, b) has good test repeatability and c) is capable of detecting small differences among test oils with high statistical confidence. Factors in a lubricant affecting fuel efficiency such as SAE viscosity grade, VI improver, detergent-inhibitor (DI) package and friction modifier selection were investigated in the 2.3l engine dynamometer test. A general trend of improved fuel efficiency was found with reduction in single-grade and multigrade oil viscosity. VI improver selection was found to have a significant effect on the fuel efficiency of multigrade oils. In some cases the difference in fuel efficiency among multigrade oils containing different VI improvers was about the same as the gain in fuel efficiency from reducing SAE grade from an SAE 10w-40 to an SAE 5w-30. Results show that by careful selection of the VI improver and DI package it is possible to formulate multigrade oils that exceed the requirements of the current ASTM energy-conserving engine oil classification.

  15. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-02-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

  16. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of other fuel oil sales. 779.361 Section 779... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.361 Classification of other fuel oil sales. (a) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as...

  17. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z H; Sultana, M; Al-Mamun, M R; Hasan, M R

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330-490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  18. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z H; Sultana, M; Al-Mamun, M R; Hasan, M R

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330-490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  19. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  20. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. Determination of Sulfur in Fuel Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques are used in conjunction with a Parr oxygen combustion bomb to determine sulfur in fuel oils. Experimental procedures and results are discussed including an emphasis on safety considerations. (SK)

  3. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  4. XAFS SPECTROSCOPY RESULTS FOR PM SAMPLES FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy data were obtained from particulate samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil in a 732-kW fire-tube boiler at EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in North Carolina. Residual oil flyash (ROFA) from fo...

  5. Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, Mayo D

    1929-01-01

    In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  7. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  8. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  9. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  10. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  11. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  12. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Dentz, Jordan; Doty, Chris

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  13. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  14. National economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.S.; Griffin, R.C.; Lacewell, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    A regional field crop and national livestock econometric model (TECHSIM) was used to examine the impacts of diverting plant oils (cottonseed and soybeans) to use as a diesel fuel replacement. Two scenarios which represented a five and ten percent replacement of agriculture's diesel fuel use by plant oils were simulated. Producers shift into cotton and soybean production and out of corn, small grains and grain sorghum. Significant price shifts were estimated for cottonseed and soybean meal and oil, fed beef, pork and sheep. The annual reduction in social well being was estimated at about $.5 billion and over $1 billion for replacement of 5 and 10 percent, respectively of agricultural's diesel fuel use by plant oils. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Apparatus for reforming fuel oil wherein ultrasonic waves are utilized

    SciTech Connect

    Kunishio, M.; Shirai, K.; Takezi, H.

    1981-08-04

    An apparatus for reforming fuel oil wherein ultrasonic waves are utilized. The apparatus comprises a closed vessel, a rotary collector formed in a cylindrical shape, an inlet conduit for supplying fuel oil to be reformed into the vessel, an outlet conduit for delivering reformed oil from the vessel, and a ultrasonic irradiating device. The rotary collector has a layered mesh structure of a fine mesh, preferably of mesh size between 2 mu M and 20 mu m, mounted thereon so that sludge contained in the fuel oil to be reformed is collected on the layered mesh structure. One end of a horn connected to the ultrasonic wave irradiating device faces the layered mesh structure forming a small gap therebetween so that the sludge collected on the layered mesh structure is dissociated by the ultrasonic waves.

  16. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  17. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  18. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  19. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  20. A technique to measure fuel oil viscosity in a fuel power plant.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel Angel; Ibargüengoytia, Pablo H; García, Uriel A

    2016-01-01

    The viscosity measurement and control of fuel oil in power plants is very important for a proper combustion. However, the conventional viscometers are only reliable for a short period of time. This paper proposes an on-line analytic viscosity evaluation based on energy balance applied to a piece of tube entering the fuel oil main heater and a new control strategy for temperature control. This analytic evaluation utilizes a set of temperature versus viscosity graphs were defined during years of analysis of fuel oil in Mexican power plants. Also the temperature set-point for the fuel oil main heater output is obtained by interpolating in the corresponding graph. Validation tests of the proposed analytic equations were carried out in the Tuxpan power plant in Veracruz, Mexico.

  1. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  2. Fuels and chemicals from novel seed oils

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.P.; Shultz, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A review with several refs. of oilseeds as fuel and chemical resources. Oilseeds offer the promise of supplementing and replacing exhaustible, nonrenewable resources for a variety of applications. However, they are not without their problems and, with few exceptions, they are not widely used for fuel and chemical feedstocks. Land-use issues, food-fuel trade-offs and economic issues loom as major barriers to widespread cultivation.

  3. Fuel quality issues in the oil heat industry

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of fuel oil plays an essential role in combustion performance and efficient operation of residential heating equipment. With the present concerns by the oil-heat industry of declining fuel-oil quality, a study was initiated to identify the factors that have brought about changes in the quality of distillate fuel. A background of information will be provided to the industry, which is necessary to deal with the problems relating to the fuel. The high needs for servicing heating equipment are usually the result of the poor handling characteristics of the fuel during cold weather, the buildup of dirt and water in storage tanks, and microbial growth. A discussion of how to deal with these problems is presented in this paper. The effectiveness of fuel additives to control these problems of quality is also covered to help users better understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Test data have been collected which measure and compare changes in the properties of fuel using selected additives.

  4. Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

  5. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  6. Diesel Fuel from Used Frying Oil

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2014-01-01

    New conversion technologies of used edible oils and waste animal fats into a biofuel appropriate for use in standard diesel engines have been developed, taking into consideration environmental requirements and improvement in the economics of current trans-esterification technologies. The variation in the properties of substrates made from used rape oil after treatment with mixed adsorbents (active carbon, magnesium silicate) was studied in this work. The obtained results are compared with the quality requirements for the substrates used in Vogel & Noot GmbH technology for transesterification of oils and fats. PMID:24574908

  7. Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshumayev, D.; Ots, A.; Parve, T.; Pihu, T.; Plamus, K.; Prikk, A.

    It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mineral matter. These thermal effects are calcite and dolomite decomposing, marcasite FeS2 oxidising, CaO sulphation and formation of the new minerals. The given paper deals with the experimental study of the influence of these thermal effects of oil shale fuel having different heating value on total amount of heat released during combustion in calorimetric bomb, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized-firing boiler (PFB). The large-scale (250 MWth) experiments were performed in the K11-1 CFB boiler of the Balti Power Plant. During experiments low heating value of a fuel varied within the range 8.5-11 MJ/kg. At the end some conclusions were drawn.

  8. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  9. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  10. Some physiochemical tests of sunflower oil and no. 2 diesel oil as fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdeen, P.; Backer, L.F.; Kaufman, K.R.; Kucera, H.L.; Moilanen, C.W.

    1982-05-01

    The suitability of sunflower oil as a fuel for diesel engines was evaluated by determining the physiochemical properties of sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel and blends of both. This evaluation was accomplished by determining the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity, cetane rating, heat of combustion, kinematic viscosity, pour point, cloud point, and water content of these fuels using methods specified by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) for diesel fuels. These tests for petroleum products are designed to standardize results so comparisons can be made from one laboratory to another.

  11. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  12. 78 FR 36278 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1282 on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period was extended until September 28, 2012 (77 FR 48177). Public comments were received... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner fuel-oil service systems. (a) All discharge piping from the fuel oil service pumps to burners must be...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner fuel-oil service systems. (a) All discharge piping from the fuel oil service pumps to burners must be...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner fuel-oil service systems. (a) All discharge piping from the fuel oil service pumps to burners must be...

  16. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner fuel-oil service systems. (a) All discharge piping from the fuel oil service pumps to burners must be...

  17. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kass, Michael D.; Janke, Christopher J.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Keiser, James R.; Gaston, Katherine

    2016-07-12

    Here we report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 °C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured.more » Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.« less

  18. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  19. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  20. Beating the bunker: the effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one of four groups; PETTLEP imagery, physical practice, PETTLEP + physical practice, or control. The PETTLEP imagery group imaged 15 bunker shots, their interventions incorporating PETTLEP components, such as physical, environment, and emotion, twice a week. The physical practice group physically performed their 15 bunker shots twice per week; the PETTLEP + physical practice group performed PETTLEP imagery once per week and physical practice once per week. Each group performed their respective tasks for 6 weeks. Pre- and posttests consisted of 15 bunker shots, with points awarded according to the ball proximity to the pin. All groups improved significantly (p < .01) from pre- to posttest, and the PETTLEP + physical practice group improved more (p < .05) than the PETTLEP and physical practice groups. However, there was no significant difference between the physical practice and PETTLEP groups (p > .05). Findings, therefore, support the effectiveness of PETTLEP in enhancing golf performance, especially when combined with physical practice. PMID:18816950

  1. View from southwest to northeast of fuel oil pump station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of fuel oil pump station, showing cooling towers to right. The tops of liquid nitrogen storage tanks A & B can be seen above the station roof. In the foreground, left to right, can be seen the covers for diesel fuel tanks no's 9 (structure #819), 8 (#818), 7 (#817), and 6 (#816). At right of center, next to the station, are no's 1 (#803) and 2 (#804). In the distant background are no's 3 (#806), 4 (#807), 5 (#808). No's 3 and 4 are 12,000-gallon tanks, the rest hold 50,000 gallons each - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fuel Oil Pump Station, In Limited Access Area between Service Roads A & D, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 4. Detail of inner side of northernmost door of Bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of inner side of northernmost door of Bunker 103 (seen from outside in photo WA-203-B-2). Stenciling on door includes warning: 'CAUTION: Do not drag or pull powder kegs over deck or other cans. Tanks must be lifted or carried.' - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Erosion Potential of Various Golf Course Bunker Sands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand bunkers are principal golf course features adding aesthetic beauty and challenge for golfers. Bunkers often require substantial resources for proper maintenance particularly where sand is installed on severe slopes in humid climates subject to occasional heavy rainfall. Numerous sands are comme...

  4. 2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTH. IN FOREGROUND, PLANT DRY, SLAG FUMING PLANT, BLAST FURNACE, SMELTER OFFICE, LEAD AND SILVER REFINERIES ARE VISIBLE, L. TO R. HIGH VELOCITY FLUE LEADS FROM LOWER PLANT TO BAG HOUSE AND STACKS AT TOP OF SMELTING FACILITY. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  5. 3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS NOTED IN ID-29-2 APPEAR, IN ADDITION TO DRY ORE PLANT AND BONNOT COAL PULVERIZING EQUIPMENT BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  6. 1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT AREA LOOKING SOUTH. PLANT DRY IS IN CENTER FOREGROUND, SLAG FUMING PLANT IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, AND BAG HOUSE IS IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VARIOUS PLANT STACKS ARE ALSO VISIBLE. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  7. 31 CFR 560.529 - Bunkering and emergency repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering and emergency repairs. 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.529 Bunkering and emergency repairs. Goods or services... emergency repairs; or (c) Supplied or performed under circumstances which could not be anticipated prior...

  8. Packing bunkers and piles to maximize forage preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage is a valuable commodity stored on dairy farms. Bunker and pile silos have increased in use due to increasing herd size. Losses in feed value in bunker and pile silos are frequently higher than they should be because producers are not packing them sufficiently to exclude oxygen during the stor...

  9. 74. VIEW OF IGLOO FIELDS TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUNKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. VIEW OF IGLOO FIELDS TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUNKER #255 LOOKING SOUTHWEST ALONG SERVICE ROADS SHOWING BUNKERS 284-276 PLUS BUILDING 260 AND GUARD TOWER. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  10. 1. Perspective view showing most of Bunker 104 with south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view showing most of Bunker 104 with south steps in foreground. Remainder of facade (east side) is shown in photo WA-203-C-2. Camera pointed NW. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, South of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 4. Elevation view of Bunker 104 with ultrawide angle lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation view of Bunker 104 with ultrawide angle lens shows about 70 percent of east facade including entire south end with steps and doors. View shows slope of south end and vegetation growing atop building. See also photo WA-203-C-3. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, South of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Transesterified sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Saydut, Abdurrahman; Duz, M Zahir; Kaya, Canan; Kafadar, Aylin Beycar; Hamamci, Candan

    2008-09-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil was extracted from the seeds of the sesame that grows in Diyarbakir, SE Anatolia of Turkey. Sesame seed oil was obtained in 58wt/wt%, by traditional solvent extraction. The methylester of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil. Transesterification shows improvement in fuel properties of sesame seed oil. This study supports the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel.

  13. Save Money with This Fuel Oil Spec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Irving

    1978-01-01

    As part of an overall energy management program, the central steam plant at the University of Connecticut at Storrs has a fuel contract method in which vendors bid on a specification based on heating value as opposed to just volume. (Author/MLF)

  14. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  15. Degradation of fuel oil in salt marsh soils affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F; Reigosa, Manuel J; Andrade, María Luisa

    2009-07-30

    We assessed natural degradation of fuel oil in three marshes from Galicia (Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill (Baldaio, Barizo, and Muxía). Soil samples collected from polluted and unpolluted areas on four different dates were used to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon content and fuel-oil components. Natural degradation was monitored by analysing changes in the proportion of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, asphaltenes and resins in the soils, and also by evaluating the degree of depletion of saturated hydrocarbons on each sampling date. We additionally assessed the phytoremediation potential of Lolium perenne, L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. All marsh soils exhibited natural degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons to between 85 and 95% in most cases. In contrast, asphaltenes and resins were degraded to a lesser extent (viz. 64-76% in Barizo 1, Muxía and Traba; 39-44% in Baldaio; and only 12% in Barizo 2, where flooding by the river continues to introduce balls of fuel oil into the soil). Monitoring analyses revealed natural degradation to be dependent on the thickness of the pollutant layer. Field plots sown with L. perenne L. exhibited no significant differences in fuel-oil degradation from untreated plots.

  16. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  17. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-48 - Oil fuel-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil fuel-TB/ALL. 30.10-48 Section 30.10-48 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48 Oil fuel—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel means oil used as fuel for machinery in the vessel in which it...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-48 - Oil fuel-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil fuel-TB/ALL. 30.10-48 Section 30.10-48 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48 Oil fuel—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel means oil used as fuel for machinery in the vessel in which it...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-48 - Oil fuel-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil fuel-TB/ALL. 30.10-48 Section 30.10-48 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48 Oil fuel—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel means oil used as fuel for machinery in the vessel in which it...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-48 - Oil fuel-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil fuel-TB/ALL. 30.10-48 Section 30.10-48 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48 Oil fuel—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel means oil used as fuel for machinery in the vessel in which it...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-48 - Oil fuel-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil fuel-TB/ALL. 30.10-48 Section 30.10-48 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48 Oil fuel—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel means oil used as fuel for machinery in the vessel in which it...

  3. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  4. Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-02-01

    Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

  5. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  6. Stochastic modeling of mine conveyor/bunker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Time studies have revealed that in longwall coal mining the outbye haulage and the face conveyor account for 22% and 27% of the total downtime respectively. The outbye haulage generally is a layout of belt conveyors, which are serially connected. Although bunkers can increase the conveyor system availability, they may not maximize exploitation of the production potential if either the volumes of the bunkers are inadequate or their locations in the system are inappropriate. The availability of the conveyor system in a function of the bunker volume and location. Therefore the determination of the optimum bunker volume and location is important. With the exception of a few studies in the Soviet Union, and the work on the buffer problem in industrial engineering, most mining researchers have used the simulation technique. Because these studies necessarily have unrealistic assumptions, they are of little practical value. The solution to this problem is made difficult because the determination of the system availability becomes complicated because of the presence of the bunker. Although the availability of a system of conveyors can be determined by modeling the system as an ordinary Markov Process, the inclusion of a bunker in the system destroys the Markov Property and precludes the use of conventional Markov Theory. However the supplementary variable technique can be used to model the conveyor/bunker system. Using this technique a formula for the availability of a conveyor/bunker system has been developed in this study. This formula has been used to determine the optimum locations and optimum capacities of one or more bunkers in conveyor systems.

  7. Reduction Processes for Manganese Nodules Using Fuel Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Thomas C.; Andreola, John J.; Galin, Walter E.

    1981-03-01

    Small-scale laboratory experiments were performed on the roasting and the smelting of manganese nodules at various temperatures using either coal or No. 6 fuel oil as the reductant. Using oil as the reductant yielded significantly higher extractions of copper, nickel, and cobalt in subsequent leaching of the roasted calcines or the metallic alloy produced by smelting. Better overall extractions of the above metals and better selectivity of reduction are obtained with oil because of the improved contact with the finely disseminated metal values of the porous nodules. Such improved contact assures a closer approach to thermodynamic equilibrium. The by-product residues from leaching the roasted calcines, or slags from smelting, are excellent materials for ferromanganese production since they are substantially free from all heavy metal contaminants.

  8. 40 CFR 279.72 - On-specification used oil fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false On-specification used oil fuel. 279.72 Section 279.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.72...

  9. 40 CFR 279.72 - On-specification used oil fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false On-specification used oil fuel. 279.72 Section 279.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.72...

  10. 40 CFR 279.72 - On-specification used oil fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false On-specification used oil fuel. 279.72 Section 279.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.72...

  11. No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, N.C.; Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Field study of the effects of No. 2 fuel oil applications to the eggs of great black-backed gulls on an island off the coast of Maine. Fuel oil applied in amounts of either 5 or 20 ul. All eggs opened 8 da later. Measured survival and estimated age of embryo at time of egg oiling.

  12. Experimental plan for the fuel-oil study

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy WAP Division and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Five studies form the evaluation. Major goals of the Fuel-Oil Study are to estimate the fuel oil saved by the WAP in the Northeast during the 1990 and 1991 program years, identify and quantify non-energy impacts of the WAP, assess the cost effectiveness of the WAP within this submarket, and assess factors which may cause savings and cost effectiveness to vary. The study will only analyze single-family houses in the nine states in the Northeast census region and will be carried out over two heating seasons (1990 and 1991 WAP program years). A split-winter, pre- and post-weatherization experimental design with a control group will be used. Houses will be monitored over one winter. Energy conservation measures will be installed in the weatherized houses in January of each winter by the local WAP subgrantee. One hundred twenty five weatherized houses and 75 control houses will be monitored over the 1990--1991 winter; a different set of 200 houses will be monitored over the 1991--1992 winter. The houses will be evenly distributed among 25 subgrantees. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature data will be collected for all houses. Fuel-oil delivery data will be collected for each house monitored over the 1990--1991 winter for at least a year before weatherization. The delivery data will be analyzed to determine if the accuracy of the study can be improved by collecting fuel-oil delivery data on a larger sample of houses over the 1991--1992 winter. Detailed survey information will be obtained on all the houses. This information includes descriptive details of the house and its mechanical systems, details on household size and other demographics, and occupant answers to questions regarding comfort, safety, and operation of their space-heating system and house.

  13. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  14. 32. DETAIL OF PRESSURE GAUGE INSTALLED ON BUNKER PERISCOPE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF PRESSURE GAUGE INSTALLED ON BUNKER PERISCOPE IN 1991 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. View of Bays 911 of east facade with Bunker and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Bays 9-11 of east facade with Bunker and Building 32 in foreground. View to west - Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Hanger No. 1, Cummins Avenue, Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, CA

  16. Long-term operation of a turbocharged diesel engine on soybean oil fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemke, M.C.; Peters, J.F.; Schroer, B.

    1983-08-01

    It has been known for more than 50 years that some diesel engines could be fueled for short periods with vegetable oils, either neat or with hydrocarbon fuel additives. World overproduction of soybean oil is increasing its potential as an economical diesel fuel extender. The subject test program was undertaken to determine long-term effects of this alternate fuel on a modern, high-speed diesel engine. The choice of a vegetable oil (soybean oil) as an alternative diesel engine fuel or fuel extender rather than the other major biomass motor fuel (ethanol) is related to the relative properties of these fuels. The common U.S. vegetable oils are much closer to hydrocarbon (No. 2D) diesel fuel than is ethanol in both cetane rating and volumetric energy content. Unlike ethanol, the vegetable oils can be blended 1:1 with No. 2D fuel to produce engine power and volumetric fuel consumption levels practically identical to those obtained with 100% No. 2D fuel. However, engine operation and laboratory bench tests demonstrated that some fuel blends were unsatisfactory for continuous use. The reasons for these difficulties were determined and a satisfactory fuel blend was proven through prolonged testing.

  17. On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

  18. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Division requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to help design and conduct an up-to-date assessment of the Program. The evaluation includes five separate studies; the fuel oil study is the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the fuel-oil study was to provide a region-wide estimate of the space-heating fuel oil saved by the Program in the Northeast during the 1991 and 1992 program years. Other goals include assessing the cost effectiveness of the Program within the fuel-oil submarket, and identifying factors which caused fuel-oil savings to vary. This paper reports only the highlights from the fuel-oil study`s final report.

  19. 4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE GOVERNMENT GULCH LOOKING TO THE EAST. IN THE RIGHT MID GROUND, CARPENTER SHOP BUILDINGS AND FRAMING SHEDS ARE VISIBLE. THE BACKGROUND FACILITIES VISIBLE FROM L. TO R. ARE: SMELTER OFFICE, REFINERIES, SLAG FUMING STACKS, HIGH VELOCITY FLUE, BAG HOUSE, 200-FOOT STACK, AND 715-FOOT STACK. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  20. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: an annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Bowden, J.N.; Giles, H.N.

    1980-02-01

    The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) of the Deopartment of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Fuels and Lubricants Research laboratory (AFLRL) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) have been working together on a support effort for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office (SPRO) of DOE. One task within this effort was a detailed literature survey of previous experiences in long-term storage of crude oil and finished fuels with an emphasis on underground storage. Based on the discussion presented in this review, in the limited number of cases reported, the refinability of crude oil was not significantly affected by prolonged storage. It was found that most crudes will deposit a sludge during storage which may interfere with withdrawal pumping. This sludge is probably composed of wax, sediment, water, and possibly asphaltenes. Emulsions of the water-oil interface have been reported after prolonged storage which have been attributed to action of centrifugal pumps used to remove accumulated seepage water. It is possible that these emulsions resulted from biological activity, such as the anaerobic activity reported, but no hydrogen sulfide production was observed.

  1. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  2. Performance of hybrid ball bearings in oil and jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Stephen M.; Pfaffenberger, Eugene E.

    1992-07-01

    A 308-size hybrid ball bearing, with ceramic balls and steel rings, was tested using a diester oil and gas turbine fuel as lubricants at several speeds and loads. Heat generation data from this test work was then correlated with the heat generation model from a widely used computer code. The ability of this hybrid split inner ring bearing design to endure thrust reversals, which are expected in many turbine applications, was demonstrated. Finally, the bearing was successfully endurance tested in JP-10 fuel for 25 hours at 7560 N axial load and 36,000 rpm. This work has successfully demonstrated the technology necessary to use fuel-lubricated hybrid bearings in limited-life gas turbine engine applications such as missiles, drones, and other unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In addition, it has provided guidance for use in designing such bearing systems. As a result, the benefits of removing the conventional oil lubricant system, i.e., design simplification and reduced maintenance, can be realized.

  3. Performance of hybrid ball bearings in oil and jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, S.M.; Pfaffenberger, E.E. )

    1992-07-01

    A 308-size hybrid ball bearing, with ceramic balls and steel rings, was tested using a diester oil and gas turbine fuel as lubricants at several speeds and loads. Heat generation data from this test work was then correlated with the heat generation model from a widely used computer code. The ability of this hybrid split inner ring bearing design to endure thrust reversals, which are expected in many turbine applications, was demonstrated. Finally, the bearing was successfully endurance tested in JP-10 fuel for 25 hours at 7560 N axial load and 36,000 rpm. This work has successfully demonstrated the technology necessary to use fuel-lubricated hybrid bearings in limited-life gas turbine engine applications such as missiles, drones, and other unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In addition, it has provided guidance for use in designing such bearing systems. As a result, the benefits of removing the conventional oil lubricant system, i.e., design simplification and reduced maintenance, can be realized. 6 refs.

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-48a - Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL. 30.10-48a Section 30.10-48a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48a Oil fuel unit—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel unit means the equipment used for the preparation of...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-48a - Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL. 30.10-48a Section 30.10-48a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48a Oil fuel unit—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel unit means the equipment used for the preparation of...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-48a - Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL. 30.10-48a Section 30.10-48a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48a Oil fuel unit—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel unit means the equipment used for the preparation of...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-48a - Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL. 30.10-48a Section 30.10-48a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48a Oil fuel unit—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel unit means the equipment used for the preparation of...

  8. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d.

  9. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  10. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. PMID:27389459

  11. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region.

  12. The prestige oil spill. I. Biodegradation of a heavy fuel oil under simulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Díez, Sergi; Sabatté, Jordi; Viñas, Marc; Bayona, Josep M; Solanas, Anna M; Albaigés, Joan

    2005-09-01

    In vitro biodegradation of the Prestige heavy fuel oil has been carried out using two microbial consortia obtained by enrichment in different substrates to simulate its environmental fate and potential utility for bioremediation. Different conditions, such as incubation time (i.e., 20 or 40 d), oil weathering, and addition of an oleophilic fertilizer (S200), were evaluated. Weathering slowed down the degradation of the fuel oil, probably because of the loss of lower and more labile components, but the addition of S200 enhanced significantly the extension of the biodegradation. n-Alkanes, alkylcyclohexanes, alkylbenzenes, and the two- to three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were degraded in 20 or 40 d of incubation of the original oil, whereas the biodegradation efficiency decreased for higher PAHs and with the increase of alkylation. Molecular markers were degraded according to the following sequence: Acyclic isoprenoids > diasteranes > C27-steranes > betabeta-steranes > homohopanes > monoaromatic steranes > triaromatic steranes. Isomeric selectivity was observed within the C1- and C2-phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes, providing source and weathering indices for the characterization of the heavy oil spill. Acyclic isoprenoids, C27-steranes, C1- and C2-naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and dibenzothiophenes were degraded completely when S200 was used. The ratios of the C2- and C3-alkyl homologues of fluoranthene/pyrene and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are proposed as source ratios in moderately degraded oils. The 4-methylpyrene and 3-methylchrysene were refractory enough to serve as conserved internal markers in assessing the degradation of the aromatic fraction in a manner similar to that of hopane, as used for the aliphatic fraction.

  13. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  14. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence fiber optic probe measurement of oil dilution by fuel

    DOEpatents

    Parks, II, James E [Knoxville, TN; Partridge, Jr., William P [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-23

    Apparatus for detecting fuel in oil includes an excitation light source in optical communication with an oil sample for exposing the oil sample to excitation light in order to excite the oil sample from a non-excited state to an excited state and a spectrally selective device in optical communication with the oil sample for detecting light emitted from the oil sample as the oil sample returns from the excited state to a non-excited state to produce spectral indicia that can be analyzed to determine the presence of fuel in the oil sample. A method of detecting fuel in oil includes the steps of exposing a oil sample to excitation light in order to excite the oil sample from a non-excited state to an excited state, as the oil sample returns from the excited state to a non-excited state, detecting light emitted from the oil sample to produce spectral indicia; and analyzing the spectral indicia to determine the presence of fuel in the oil sample.

  16. Catalytic transformation of waste polymers to fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Keane, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Waste not, want not: The increase in waste polymer generation, which continues to exceed recycle, represents a critical environmental burden. However, plastic waste may be viewed as a potential resource and, with the correct treatment, can serve as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil, as described in this Minireview.Effective waste management must address waste reduction, reuse, recovery, and recycle. The consumption of plastics continues to grow, and, while plastic recycle has seen a significant increase since the early 1990s, consumption still far exceeds recycle. However, waste plastic can be viewed as a potential resource and can serve, with the correct treatment, as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil. This Minireview considers the role of catalysis in waste polymer reprocessing and provides a critical overview of the existing waste plastic treatment technologies. Thermal pyrolysis results in a random scissioning of the polymer chains, generating products with varying molecular weights. Catalytic degradation provides control over the product composition/distribution and serves to lower significantly the degradation temperature. Incineration of waste PVC is very energy demanding and can result in the formation of toxic chloro emissions. The efficacy of a catalytic transformation of PVC is also discussed.

  17. Effects of chronic ingestion of No. 2 fuel oil on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Hensler, G.L.; Heinz, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil was fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings in concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0% of the diet from hatching to 18 wk of age to assess the effects of chronic oil ingestion during early development. Five growth parameters (body weight, wing length, ninth primary length, tarsal length, and bill length) were depressed in birds receiving a diet containing 5% fuel oil. There was no oil-related mortality. The 5% fuel oil diet impaired avoidance behavior of 9-d-old mallard ducklings compared with controls or ducklings fed 0.5% oil. Open-field activity was greatly increased in 16-wk-old ducklings fed 5.0% oil. Liver hypertrophy and splenic atrophy were gross evidences of pathological effects in birds on the 5.0% oil diet. More subtle effects included biochemical lesions that resulted in the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase activity.

  18. An FTIR method for the analysis of crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes to assist in oil fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Riley, Brenden J; Lennard, Chris; Fuller, Stephen; Spikmans, Val

    2016-09-01

    A proof-of-concept spectroscopic method for crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes was developed to complement existing methods for source determination of oil spills. Current methods rely on the analysis of the volatile fraction of oils by Gas Chromatography (GC), whilst the non-volatile fraction, including asphaltenes, is discarded. By discarding the non-volatile fraction, important oil fingerprinting information is potentially lost. Ten oil samples representing various geographical regions were used in this study. The asphaltene fraction was precipitated from the oils using excess n-pentane, and analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Based on visual interpretation of FTIR spectra along with peak height ratio comparisons, all ten oil samples could be differentiated from one another. Furthermore, ATR-FTIR was not able to differentiate a weathered crude oil sample from its source sample, demonstrating significant potential for the application of asphaltenes in oil fingerprinting.

  19. An FTIR method for the analysis of crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes to assist in oil fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Riley, Brenden J; Lennard, Chris; Fuller, Stephen; Spikmans, Val

    2016-09-01

    A proof-of-concept spectroscopic method for crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes was developed to complement existing methods for source determination of oil spills. Current methods rely on the analysis of the volatile fraction of oils by Gas Chromatography (GC), whilst the non-volatile fraction, including asphaltenes, is discarded. By discarding the non-volatile fraction, important oil fingerprinting information is potentially lost. Ten oil samples representing various geographical regions were used in this study. The asphaltene fraction was precipitated from the oils using excess n-pentane, and analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Based on visual interpretation of FTIR spectra along with peak height ratio comparisons, all ten oil samples could be differentiated from one another. Furthermore, ATR-FTIR was not able to differentiate a weathered crude oil sample from its source sample, demonstrating significant potential for the application of asphaltenes in oil fingerprinting. PMID:27518037

  20. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E.

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  1. Bunker Hill Superfund site: Ecological restoration program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Chaney, R.; Henry, C.L.; Compton, H.

    1998-12-31

    Bunker Hill ID was the site of mining and smelting activities for many decades. As a result of these activities, soils on the hillsides adjacent to the site became contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd. In addition to metal contamination, pH of the soils became highly acidic. Native vegetation has died off and the soils have become highly erosive. An application of municipal biosolids in combination with wood ash and log yard wood waste was made to test the potential of this remediation mixture to reduce erosion, correct soil pH, and support a self sustaining vegetative cover. Biosolids improve soil physical properties and provide macro and micro nutrients. Wood ash serves as a lime substitute and a source of nutrients. Log yard waste improves physical properties and has a high C:N ratio that reduces the potential for N leaching. Initial results are promising. A healthy stand of grasses and legumes has been established. In addition, the application mixture has proven itself to be highly resistant to erosion.

  2. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH BUILDING T8100 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH BUILDING T-8100 IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  4. Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

  5. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  6. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  7. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  8. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  9. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  10. Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

    PubMed Central

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come. PMID:24883211

  11. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    PubMed

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come. PMID:24883211

  12. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    PubMed

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  13. Performance, durability and low temperature evaluation of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Baranescu, R.A.; Lusco, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to evaluate performance and durability of direct injection turbocharged diesel engines using sunflower oil and blends thereof. Alcaline refined sunflower oil and three different blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel were comparatively tested against No. 2 diesel fuel for: physical and chemical characteristics, fuel injection system performance, short term engine performance, propensity to nozzle deposits buildup, limited durability operation and low temperature starting capability. Results are presented for the various phases of the project and correlations between the fuel characteristics and engine accept-ability are discussed. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  15. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  16. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility... bunkers are implemented to: (1) Check vessel stores for package integrity; (2) Prevent vessel stores...

  17. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  18. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  19. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  20. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  1. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers...

  2. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on hatchability of marine and estuarine bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Coon, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    Eggs of Louisiana herons, sandwich terns, and laughing gulls were oiled with either 0, 5, or 20 microliter of No. 2 fuel oil in the field and in the laboratory. After 5 days of natural incubation, field-oiled and control eggs were opened and embryonic mortality was determined. No. 2 fuel oil produced 61% mortality in Louisiana heron eggs, 56% in sandwich tern eggs, and 83% in laughing gull eggs. Hatching success of artificially incubated, oiled eggs appeared to be lower than in control eggs. However, stress during shipment to the laboratory and problems within the incubator probably contributed to reduced hatchability in both groups.

  3. Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

  4. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel from safflower oil using various reaction parameters.

    PubMed

    Meka, Pavan Kumar; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, R P

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gaining more and more importance because of the depletion and uncontrollable prices of fossil fuel resources. The use of vegetable oil and their derivatives as alternatives for diesel fuel is the best answer and as old as Diesel Engine. Chemically biodiesel fuel is the mono alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from renewable feed stocks like vegetable oils and animal fats. Safflower oil contains 75-80% of linoleic acid; the presence of this unsaturated fatty acid is useful in alleviating low temperature properties like pour point, cloud point and cold filter plugging point. In this paper we studied the effect of various parameters such as temperature, molar ratio (oil to alcohol), and concentration of catalyst on synthesis of biodiesel fuel from safflower oil. The better suitable conditions of 1:6 molar ratio (oil to alcohol), 60 degrees C temperature and catalyst concentration of 2% (by wt. of oil) were determined. The finally obtained biodiesel fuel was analyzed for fatty acid composition by GLC and some other properties such as flash point, specific gravity and acid value were also determined. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel fuel was with in the recommended standards of biodiesel fuel with 96.8% yield.

  5. Alcohol fuels tax incentives. A summary: alcohol fuels provisions of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document presents tax incentive information pertaining to alcohol fuels production as provided by the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act of 1980. Significant tax incentives for producers, blenders, marketers, and users of alcohol fuels are included. Discussed are: the 4% excise taxes exemption; income tax credits; energy investment tax credit for biomass; alcohol fuel plant operating permits; tax exempt bonds for alcohol fuel from solid wastes; state financing of renewable energy property; the study of imported alcohol; and annual reports on alcohol fuels.

  6. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  7. Feasibility study of utilization of degummed soybean oil as a substitute for diesel fuel. Biomass alternative fuels program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing a diesel oil substitute or extender from soybean oil. Existing technology was reviewed, to determine the minimum modification necessary for production of an acceptable fuel product. The information developed indicated that the degummed soybean oil produced by existing processing plants is theoretically suitable for use as a diesel fuel extender. This situation is very favorable to early commercialization of degummed soybean oil as a diesel fuel extender during the 1980's. Moreover, a large energy gain is realized when the soybean oil is utilized as fuel. Its heat of combustion is reported as 16,920 Btu per pound, or 130,000 Btu per gallon. Production of soybean oil consumes between 3000 and 5000 Btu per pound or 23,000 and 39,000 Btu per gallon. A resource availability study disclosed that the southeastern region of the United States produces approximately 260 million bushels of soybeans per year. In the same general area, fourteen extraction plants are operating, with a combined annual capacity of approximately 200 million bushels. Thus, regional production is sufficient to support the extraction capacity. Using an average figure of 1.5 gallons of oil per bushel of soybeans gives annual regional oil production of approximately 300 million gallons. An engine test plan was developed and implemented in this project. Data provide a preliminary indication that the blend containing one-third degummed soybean oil and two-thirds No. 2 diesel oil performed satisfactorily. Long term operation on the 50-50 blend is questionable. Detailed data and observations appear in the body of the report. The study also presents detailed engineering, financial, marketing, management and implementation plans for production of the proposed fuel blend, as well as a complete analysis of impacts. 4 references, 55 figures, 56 tables.

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF OBSERVATION BUNKERS TO THE EAST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF OBSERVATION BUNKERS TO THE EAST OF TEST STAND 1-A: IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING 8769, A TWO WINDOW DESIGN (NOT ON SITE PLAN); IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, BUILDING 8768, A ONE WINDOW DESIGN "OBSERVATION AND CAMERA BUILDING NO. 2" ON SITE PLAN; IN THE DISTANCE, AT FAR LEFT, BUILDING 8767, A FOUR WINDOW DESIGN "MASTER OBSERVATION AND CAMERA BUILDING NO. 1" ON SITE PLAN. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Low pressure loss burner for coal-water slurry or fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, G.D.; Eckhart, C.F.; Farthing, G.A. Jr.; Muckley, J.J.; Taylor, B.E.

    1985-05-28

    An apparatus for burning fuel oil or a fuel composed of a concentrated coal-water slurry has a circular air register with circumferentially overlapping vanes mounted concentrically to fuel supply means and larger diameter cylinders arranged to define triple annuli therebetween adjacent to a frusto-conical burner port.

  10. Long term performance of a sunflower oil/diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the effects of a 50 percent blend by volume of sunflower oil in No. 2 diesel fuel used in a diesel test engine of current design. Specifically, this investigation covered the effect of the fuel blend on engine durability and the functioning of the different fuels in the diesel engine injection system.

  11. Physicochemical characterizations of nano-palm oil fuel ash

    SciTech Connect

    Rajak, Mohd Azrul Abdul; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-07-22

    Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is known as a good supplementary cementing material due to its siliceous-rich content. The application of nanotechnology in the pozzolanic materials could invent new functions in the efficiency of physical and chemical properties of materials. Thus, the present study aims to generate nano-sized POFA and characterize the physicochemical properties of nano-palm oil fuel ash (nPOFA). The nPOFA was prepared by mechanically grinding micro POFA using a high intensity ball milling for 6 hours. The physicochemical properties of nPOFA were characterized via X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF), Scanning Emission microscopy- Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The particle size of nPOFA acquired from TEM analysis was in the range of 20 nm to 90 nm, while the average crystallite size calculated from XRD diffractogram was 61.5 nm. The resulting nPOFA has a BET surface area of 145.35 m{sup 2}/g, which is more than 85% increment in surface area compared to micro-sized POFA. The morphology and elemental studies showed the presence of spherical as well as irregularly shaped and fine nPOFA particles contains with high silicon content. The presence of α-quartz as the major phase of the nPOFA was identified through XRD analysis. The study concludes that nPOFA has the potential as a supplementary cementing material due to the high silica content, high surface area and the unique behaviors of nano-structured particles.

  12. Physicochemical characterizations of nano-palm oil fuel ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, Mohd Azrul Abdul; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is known as a good supplementary cementing material due to its siliceous-rich content. The application of nanotechnology in the pozzolanic materials could invent new functions in the efficiency of physical and chemical properties of materials. Thus, the present study aims to generate nano-sized POFA and characterize the physicochemical properties of nano-palm oil fuel ash (nPOFA). The nPOFA was prepared by mechanically grinding micro POFA using a high intensity ball milling for 6 hours. The physicochemical properties of nPOFA were characterized via X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF), Scanning Emission microscopy- Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The particle size of nPOFA acquired from TEM analysis was in the range of 20 nm to 90 nm, while the average crystallite size calculated from XRD diffractogram was 61.5 nm. The resulting nPOFA has a BET surface area of 145.35 m2/g, which is more than 85% increment in surface area compared to micro-sized POFA. The morphology and elemental studies showed the presence of spherical as well as irregularly shaped and fine nPOFA particles contains with high silicon content. The presence of α-quartz as the major phase of the nPOFA was identified through XRD analysis. The study concludes that nPOFA has the potential as a supplementary cementing material due to the high silica content, high surface area and the unique behaviors of nano-structured particles.

  13. Breakup mechanisms of electrostatic atomization of corn oil and diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, G.; Yarin, A. L.; Mashayek, F.

    2010-09-01

    High-viscosity organic oils may be considered as an alternative to the ordinary diesel fuel. These organic oils and the diesel fuel are all Newtonian liquids; however, viscosity values of the organic oils are more than 20 times higher than that of the diesel fuel. In the present work, the electrostatic atomization of corn oil jets is studied and compared to the electrostatic atomization of diesel fuel jets. The experimental data revealed that in addition to the varicose breakup of straight jets, bending modes set in and grow in conjunction with the varicose undulations. Bending instability, kindred to the aerodynamically-driven bending instability of high-speed liquid jets moving in air, and to the electrically-driven bending instability of polymer jets in electrospinning, is significantly more pronounced in the case of the highly-viscous corn oil jets than in diesel jets. The experimental results are interpreted using the theory of bending instability developed previously for electrospinning.

  14. Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyard, S.; Hawkins, L.; Renoll, E.S.; Bunt, R.C.; Goodling, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used in a multicylinder engine. Thermophysical property data were gathered on pure and blended fuels and are reported. A spray parameter, epsilon, was found which would predict the necessary change in valve opening pressure to render the atomization of the new fuel similar to that for which the injection system was designed. Engine testing showed that fuel consumption was substantially reduced upon setting the injectors at the new VOP. 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  16. Biodiesel from rapeseed oil of Turkish origin as an alternative fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Akdag, A.; Cigizoglu, K.B.

    1996-12-01

    The crude rapeseed oil was transesterified using methanol and using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst, and the varieties affecting the monoester yield were investigated. The methyl ester fuel called Biodiesel, produced under the determined optimum reaction conditions, was tested according to the standard methods for its fuel properties. Biodiesel fuel properties were found to be very close to those of Grade No. 2-D diesel fuel. 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. 13. CLOSEUP OF FRONT OF BUNKER SHOWING DOOR, TANK, GENERATOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CLOSE-UP OF FRONT OF BUNKER SHOWING DOOR, TANK, GENERATOR, LIGHT FIXTURE OVER DOOR. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6174, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING EAST. TANK COVER AND FRAME TO THE REAR OF VIEW. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6170, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ARVFS TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ARVFS TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE CHASE, FRAME, AND SHIELDING TANK. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6171, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 18. INTERIOR VIEW INSIDE BUNKER DURING PREPARATIONS FOR TEST. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW INSIDE BUNKER DURING PREPARATIONS FOR TEST. SHOWS TWO OPERATORS, INCLUDING ONE AIR FORCE MAN, INSTRUMENT PANEL, EQUIPMENT, MONITORING SCREENS, AND OTHER EQUIPMENT, SOME OF IT NAMED (IE, 'GALVANOMETER,' 'HONEYWELL,' 'KODAC.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6180, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 31 CFR 560.529 - Bunkering and emergency repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.529 Bunkering and emergency... States to a non-Iranian carrier transporting passengers or goods to or from Iran are permissible if they... services in connection with the transport of any goods to or from the Government of Iran, an...

  2. Bunker Hill Community College: A Common Experience for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutek, Malinda M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and assessment of the general education program at Bunker Hill Community College, in Boston, Massachusetts. Indicates that the program is designed to serve as an academic commons where students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds can come together and share common intellectual experiences. (MAB)

  3. 29. PLAN OF THE ARVFS FIELD TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. PLAN OF THE ARVFS FIELD TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE CHASE, SHIELDING TANK AND FRAME ASSEMBLY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-1. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 851 151970. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium and its application to gas-turbine fuel-oils.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Sinha, B P; Dutta, R K

    1975-08-01

    A very sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of vanadium in furnace oils is described. The intense indigo-blue colour developed by the reaction of vanadium with tannin and thioglycollic acid is measured at a wavelength of 600 nm at pH 4 and obeys Beer's law between 0.5 and 5 ppm vanadium. The method is applicable to gas-turbine fuel-oil and special navy fuel-oils. The common mineral constituents usually present in such oils do not interfere.

  5. Adelphi-Goddard emulsified fuel project. [using water/oil emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Thermal efficiency and particle emissions were studied using water/oil emulsions. These studies were done using number 2 and number 6 fuel oil. The number 6 oil had a sulfur content greater than one percent and experiments were conducted to remove the sulfur dioxide from the stack gases. Test findings include: (1) emulsion effected a reduction in soot at a low excess air levels; (2) a steam atomizing system will produce a water/oil emulsion. The fuel in the study was emulsified in the steam atomization process, hence, pre-emulsification did not yield a dramatic reduction in soot or an increase in thermal efficiency.

  6. Chronic toxicity of heavy fuel oils to fish embryos using multiple exposure scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan D; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Brown, R Stephen; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-03-01

    The chronic toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos of heavy fuel oil (HFO) 6303, weathered HFO 6303, HFO 7102, and medium South American (MESA) crude oil was assessed by different exposure regimes. These included water accommodated fractions (WAF; water in contact with floating oil), chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF; oil dispersed with Corexit 9500), and effluent from columns of gravel coated with stranded oil. Heavy fuel oil WAF was nontoxic and did not contain detectable concentrations of hydrocarbons, likely because the high density and viscosity of HFO prevented droplet formation. In contrast, chemically dispersed HFO and effluent from columns of stranded HFO contained measurable concentrations of alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), coincident with embryo toxicity. These exposure regimes enhanced the surface area of oil in contact with water, facilitating oil-water partitioning of hydrocarbons. Heavy fuel oil was consistently more toxic to fish than crude oil and the rank order of alkyl PAH concentrations in whole oil were sufficient to explain the rank order of toxicity, regardless of exposure method. Thus, the propensity of HFO to sink and strand in spawning shoals creates a long-term risk to developing fish because of the sustained release of PAHs from HFO to interstitial waters. Further, PAH monitoring is key to accurate risk assessment.

  7. Chemical composition of tall oil-based cetane enhancer for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Wong, A.; Monnier, J.

    1993-12-31

    Tall oil is a co-product of the manufacture of kraft softwood pulp. The principal constituents of tall oil are unsaturated C{sub 18} fatty acids, resin acids and unsaponifiables such as diterpenic alcohols/aldehydes. Tall oil has been shown to be an economical feedstock for the manufacture of cetane enhancer for diesel fuels, using the proprietary CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) technology. Under a joint R&D project between Arbokem Inc./BC Chemicals Ltd. and CANMET, pilot plant tests were conducted recently at the CANMET Energy Research Labs. in Ottawa. The results showed that tall oil could by hydroprocessed efficiently to yield a valuable fuel blending agent. When this product was mixed with conventional diesel fuel, the cetane number of the diesel fuel increased linearly with the addition of the product. Chemical analysis including chromatography-mass spectrometry has confirmed high conversion of tall oil components into straight-chain alkanes. A small amount of cyclic hydrocarbons and sulphur components were present in the tall oil-based diesel enhancer. Preliminary results indicate that this type of cetane enhancer would provide additional technical benefits. The low aromatics content of the tall oil-based cetane enhancer would significantly reduce aromatics in the final diesel fuel blend. Diesel engines operating on such fuel blends would have a lower propensity to form particulates and NO{sub x}.

  8. Incorporation of crude and fuel oil into salt-and freshwater ice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.; Perron, N.

    1995-02-01

    North Slope Crude, no. 2 fuel oil, and vegetable oil were each released under columnar freshwater and saltwater ice grown in a laboratory coldroom. Because the thermal conductivity of all the oils is lower than that of water or ice, thinner ice grew under the oil and resulted in a concave ice/water interface. Both the fresh and saline ice encapsulated the oils, but the saline ice did so more slowly. Thin sections of the ice blocks containing the crude and fuel oils show how the columnar ice crystals bend around and under the oil patches. The movement of the vegetable oil during melting was photographed, and spectral reflectance measurements of the ice surface were made to determine if the oil could be detected remotely. Although we could detect the presence of oil under 10 cm of ice, under field conditions the optical detectability of oil will depend upon the depth of the oil within the ice, the type of ice, and the contrast between the under-ice oil and the background against which it is being viewed.

  9. The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, L.D.; Birell, S.; Goering, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation of an alternative approach, the performance of saponified soybean oil/aqueous ethanol microcellular solutions were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The products of the pyrolytic distillation of crude soybean oil were mixed with 150 proof ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 by volume and saponified with anhydrous ammonia gas. This ''parent fuel'' was then diluted with 150 proof ethanol to obtain two test fuels, one with 30 percent ethanol concentration and the other with 40 percent ethanol concentration. The fuels were used in the engine under various loads at two speeds, and the performance was compared to the performance using No. 2-D commercial diesel fuel.

  10. Emulsions of crude glycerin from biodiesel processing with fuel oil for industrial heating.

    PubMed

    Mize, Hannah E; Lucio, Anthony J; Fhaner, Cassie J; Pratama, Fredy S; Robbins, Lanny A; Karpovich, David S

    2013-02-13

    There is considerable interest in using crude glycerin from biodiesel production as a heating fuel. In this work crude glycerin was emulsified into fuel oil to address difficulties with ignition and sustained combustion. Emulsions were prepared with several grades of glycerin and two grades of fuel oil using direct and phase inversion emulsification. Our findings reveal unique surfactant requirements for emulsifying glycerin into oil; these depend on the levels of several contaminants, including water, ash, and components in MONG (matter organic non-glycerin). A higher hydrophile-lipophile balance was required for a stable emulsion of crude glycerin in fuel oil compared to water in fuel oil. The high concentration of salts from biodiesel catalysts generally hindered emulsion stability. Geometric close-packing of micelles was carefully balanced to mechanically stabilize emulsions while also enabling low viscosity for pumping and fuel injection. Phase inversion emulsification produced more stable emulsions than direct emulsification. Emulsions were tested successfully as fuel for a waste oil burner.

  11. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this

  12. The toxicological effects of heavy fuel oil category substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Reitman, Fred; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell; Charlap, Jeffrey H; O'Neill, Thomas P; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky

    2014-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) category substances are used to manufacture HFO, a product used in industrial boilers and marine diesel engines. Commercial HFOs and blending stream components are substances of complex and variable composition, composed of C20 to >C50 hydrocarbons, although lower molecular weight material may be added to reduce viscosity and improve flow characteristics. An HFO blending stream (catalytically cracked clarified oil [CCCO]) was tested for target organ and developmental toxicity in rats following repeated dermal administration at doses of 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/d. In the repeated dose study, there was evidence of increased liver weights, reduced thymus weights, and reductions in hematological parameters with an overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/d. In the developmental toxicity test, there were significant reductions in fetal survival, significant increases in resorption frequency, and significantly reduced fetal weights with an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/d. These target organ and developmental effects are associated with the types and levels of aromatic constituents in these substances. Among HFO blending streams, CCCOs have the highest levels of aromatics and, because they produce the characteristic toxicological effects at the lowest levels, are considered as "reasonable worst-case examples" for this group of substances. Other HFO category members with lower levels of aromatics produce similar effects but have higher NOAELs. The potential for target organ and developmental effects of other HFO category members can be predicted from information on the types and levels of the aromatic constituents present in these substances.

  13. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  14. Lipase-catalysed production of biodiesel fuel from some Nigerian lauric oils.

    PubMed

    Abigor, R D; Uadia, P O; Foglia, T A; Haas, M J; Jones, K C; Okpefa, E; Obibuzor, J U; Bafor, M E

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acids esters were produced from two Nigerian lauric oils, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, by transesterification of the oils with different alcohols using PS30 lipase as a catalyst. In the conversion of palm kernel oil to alkyl esters (biodiesel), ethanol gave the highest conversion of 72%, t-butanol 62%, 1-butanol 42%, n-propanol 42% and iso-propanol 24%, while only 15% methyl ester was observed with methanol. With coconut oil, 1-butanol and iso-butanol achieved 40% conversion, 1-propanol 16% and ethanol 35%, while only traces of methyl esters were observed using methanol. Studies on some fuel properties of palm kernel oil and its biodiesel showed that palm kernel oil had a viscosity of 32.40 mm2/s, a cloud point of 28 degrees C and a pour point of 22 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 9.33 mm2/s, a cloud point of 12 degrees C and a pour point of 8 degrees C. Coconut oil had a viscosity of 28.58 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 27 degrees C and a pour point of 20 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 7.34 mm2/s, a cloud point of 5 degrees C and a pour point of -8 degrees C. Some of the fuel properties compared favourably with international biodiesel specifications.

  15. Feasibility study of utilization of degummed soybean oil as a substitute for diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing a diesel oil substitute or extender from soybean oil. Existing technology was reviewed, to determine the minimum modification necessary for production of an acceptable fuel product. Current methods of oil extraction and refining were considered, as well as the products of those processes. The information developed indicated that the degummed soybean oil produced by existing processing plants is theoretically suitable for use as a diesel fuel extender. No modification of process design or equipment is required. This situation is very favorable to early commercialization of degummed soybean oil as a diesel fuel extender during the 1980's. Moreover, a large energy gain is realized when the soybean oil is utilized as fuel. Its heat of combustion is reported as 16,920 Btu per pound, or 130,000 Btu per gallon. Production of soybean oil consumes between 3000 and 5000 Btu per pound or 23,000 and 39,000 Btu per gallon. A resource availability study disclosed that the southeastern region of the United States produces approximately 260 million bushels of soybeans per year. In the same general area, fourteen extraction plants are operating, with a combined annual capacity of approximately 200 million bushels. Thus, regional production is sufficient to support the extraction capacity. Using an average figure of 1.5 gallons of oil per bushel of soybeans gives annual regional oil production of approximately 300 million gallons.

  16. Lipase-catalysed production of biodiesel fuel from some Nigerian lauric oils.

    PubMed

    Abigor, R D; Uadia, P O; Foglia, T A; Haas, M J; Jones, K C; Okpefa, E; Obibuzor, J U; Bafor, M E

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acids esters were produced from two Nigerian lauric oils, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, by transesterification of the oils with different alcohols using PS30 lipase as a catalyst. In the conversion of palm kernel oil to alkyl esters (biodiesel), ethanol gave the highest conversion of 72%, t-butanol 62%, 1-butanol 42%, n-propanol 42% and iso-propanol 24%, while only 15% methyl ester was observed with methanol. With coconut oil, 1-butanol and iso-butanol achieved 40% conversion, 1-propanol 16% and ethanol 35%, while only traces of methyl esters were observed using methanol. Studies on some fuel properties of palm kernel oil and its biodiesel showed that palm kernel oil had a viscosity of 32.40 mm2/s, a cloud point of 28 degrees C and a pour point of 22 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 9.33 mm2/s, a cloud point of 12 degrees C and a pour point of 8 degrees C. Coconut oil had a viscosity of 28.58 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 27 degrees C and a pour point of 20 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 7.34 mm2/s, a cloud point of 5 degrees C and a pour point of -8 degrees C. Some of the fuel properties compared favourably with international biodiesel specifications. PMID:11171279

  17. Utilization of sunflower seed oil as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruwer, J.J.; van der Boshoff, B.; Hugo, F.J.C.; Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C.; van der Walt, A.N.; Engelbrecht, A.; du Plessis, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Research, using several makes of diesel engine, showed that sunflower seed oil, and particularly an ethyl ester mixture, has the potential to extend diesel fuel provided solutions are found for injector coking problems. (MHR)

  18. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  19. Conversion of crop seed oils to jet fuel and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Thompson, David N.

    2010-05-18

    Aspects of the invention include methods to produce jet fuel from biological oil sources. The method may be comprised of two steps: hydrocracking and reforming. The process may be self-sufficient in heat and hydrogen.

  20. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  1. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Maria; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Cappello, Simone; Russo, Daniela; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Modica, Alfonso; Smedile, Francesco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after 3 months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS) allowing the containment of sediments and their physical–chemical treatment, e.g., aeration. Aeration for 3 months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB), and after 1 month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus-, and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB. PMID:24782850

  2. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  3. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  4. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  5. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  6. Effects of external applications of fuel oil on hatchability of mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Wolfe, Douglas A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the toxicity of oil to incubating eggs. Number 2 fuel oil, a mixture of 9 paraffin compounds, and propylene glycol were applied to the surface of artificially incubated mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs. Embryonic mortality was significantly greater (P 0.01) from the control. Thus, the transfer of even small quantities of oil to the egg surface is sufficient to reduce hatchability.

  7. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  8. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cottonseed biodiesel while assessing the IDI engine multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the southeast of the USA every year and they contain oils that can be transesteri...

  9. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  10. Simple test for toxicity of number 2 fuel oil and oil dispersants to embryos of grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.S.; Foss, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    A simple test, using embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, was employed to determine the toxicity of two commercial oil dispersants (Corexit 7664 and Corexit 9527) and toxicity of the water soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil (WSF oil) prepared with and without the addition of the dispersants. Tests revealed P. pugio embryos were similar to previously measured life stages in their sensitivity to WSF oil prepared without dispersants. They were approximately ten times more sensitive to water soluble fractions of dispersed oil, which may have been due to the approximately ten-fold increases in total hydrocarbons measured analytically. Both temperatures and salinity of the sea water affected toxicity of WSF prepared with dispersants, the most obvious effect being earlier onset of mortalities at higher temperatures. (Copyright (c) 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd.)

  11. The Effects of Fuel and Cylinder Gas Densities on the Characteristics of Fuel Sprays for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of a general research on fuel-injection engines for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of fuel and cylinder gas densities with several characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. The start, growth, and cut-off of single fuel sprays produced by automatic injection valves were recorded on photographic film by means of special high-speed motion-picture apparatus. This equipment, which has been described in previous reports, is capable of taking twenty-five consecutive pictures of the moving spray at the rate of 4,000 per second. The penetrations of the fuel sprays increased and the cone angles and relative distributions decreased with increase in the specific gravity of the fuel. The density of the gas into which the fuel sprays were injected controlled their penetration. This was the only characteristic of the chamber gas that had a measurable effect upon the fuel sprays. Application of fuel-spray penetration data to the case of an engine, in which the pressure is rising during injection, indicated that fuel sprays may penetrate considerably farther than when injected into a gas at a density equal to that of the gas in an engine cylinder at top center.

  12. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. PMID:24572928

  13. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive.

  14. Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Feng, Y.; Hogan, E.

    1995-11-01

    The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

  15. NMR sensor for onboard ship detection of catalytic fines in marine fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Vinding, Mads S; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nesgaard, Tomas; Jensen, Ole; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2014-08-01

    A mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor for onboard, inline detection of catalytic fines in fuel oil in the shipping industry is presented as an alternative to onshore laboratory measurements. Catalytic fines (called cat fines) are aluminosilicate zeolite catalysts utilized in the oil cracking process at refineries. When present in fuel oil, cat fines cause abrasive wear of engine parts and may ultimately lead to engine breakdown with large economical consequences, thereby motivating methods for inline measurements. Here, we report on a robust, mobile, and low-cost (27)Al NMR sensor for continuous online measurement of the level of catalytic fines in fuel oil onboard ships. The sensor enables accurate measurements of aluminum (catalytic fines) in ppm concentrations in good agreement with commercial laboratory reference measurements.

  16. NMR sensor for onboard ship detection of catalytic fines in marine fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Vinding, Mads S; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nesgaard, Tomas; Jensen, Ole; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2014-08-01

    A mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor for onboard, inline detection of catalytic fines in fuel oil in the shipping industry is presented as an alternative to onshore laboratory measurements. Catalytic fines (called cat fines) are aluminosilicate zeolite catalysts utilized in the oil cracking process at refineries. When present in fuel oil, cat fines cause abrasive wear of engine parts and may ultimately lead to engine breakdown with large economical consequences, thereby motivating methods for inline measurements. Here, we report on a robust, mobile, and low-cost (27)Al NMR sensor for continuous online measurement of the level of catalytic fines in fuel oil onboard ships. The sensor enables accurate measurements of aluminum (catalytic fines) in ppm concentrations in good agreement with commercial laboratory reference measurements. PMID:24988044

  17. 29. VIEW OF 1959 KOLLMORGEN BUNKER PERISCOPE LOCATED IN NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 1959 KOLLMORGEN BUNKER PERISCOPE LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. NOTE SCHRADER VALVE ABOVE HANDLE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PERISCOPE. MONITOR LABELED '1-FLAMEBUCKET' IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT OF PERISCOPE. DIGITAL COUNTDOWN AND HOLD CLOCKS IMMEDIATELY ABOVE MONITOR. ANOTHER DIGITAL COUNTDOWN CLOCK AND THE MILITARY TIME CLOCK ON NORTH WALL BENEATH THE MONITOR. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Geology and paleoenvironment of Bunker gas field, Solano County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shariff, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Bunker gas fields is in Solano County, T6N, R1, 2E, MDBM, in the Sacramento Valley, the northern part of the Great Valley of California. Correlation, interpretation, and analysis of electric logs from more than 60 wells were used in the study of the Bunker gas field. Subsurface structure contour maps of the field indicate a northwest-trending, faulted, domal to anticlinal fold that plunges to the southeast. Paleotopographic maps of the Bunker gas field demonstrate that: (1) the direction of the paleofluvial valleys and paleoslope during the late Cretaceous was generally in a south-southwesterly direction, and the sediment source was in the north-northeast; and (2) the direction of the paleofluvial valleys and paleoslope during the late Paleocene was generally to the west, and the sediment source was to the east of the field. This paleotopography is inferred to have persisted during the early Eocene. Electric-log analysis, lithologic characteristics (e.g., grain size, sorting), and stratigraphic sequence illustrate that subsurface deposystems in the Bunker gas field were predominantly shelf facies. Both progradational and retrogradational suites of strata occur within the stratigraphic sequence. a shallow regressive and transgressive sea was the prominent paleogeographic feature within the study area. During the Late Cretaceous, the study area was covered by a shallow regressive sea and was characterized by deltaic conditions during the period that the Mokelumne sand and shale lithosome was deposited. During the early late Paleocene, the study area was covered by a shallow transgressive sea, and a mid-neritic environment prevailed during the period that the McCormick sandstone was deposited. During the latest Paleocene, the area was covered by a shallow regressive sea and exhibited a littoral environment at the time when the Martinez shale was deposited.

  19. Relative bioavailability and toxicity of fuel oils leaking from World War II shipwrecks.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Daling, Per; Altin, Dag; Dolva, Hilde; Fosbæk, Bjørn; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2015-05-15

    The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities. PMID:25840870

  20. Relative bioavailability and toxicity of fuel oils leaking from World War II shipwrecks.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Daling, Per; Altin, Dag; Dolva, Hilde; Fosbæk, Bjørn; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2015-05-15

    The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities.

  1. Coal bunker, B123 off starboard side of boiler room B3. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Coal bunker, B-123 off starboard side of boiler room B-3. Compartment B-19 looking fore to aft into bunker C-101; note construction details of hull framing and protective deck at top of photograph. Bunkers loaded with coal surrounded the boiler room and afforded protection in addition to the coffer dam and armored protective deck. Note watertight door at lower center right. This could be lowered to cut off the bunker in the event of hull penetration. (053) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be the low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subject to the provisions of this... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. (3) The diesel test fuel shall be the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for model years 2011 and later. (4) For model years 2007 through 2010...

  3. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be the low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subject to the provisions of this... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. (3) The diesel test fuel shall be the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for model years 2011 and later. (4) For model years 2007 through 2010...

  4. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be the low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subject to the provisions of this... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. (3) The diesel test fuel shall be the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for model years 2011 and later. (4) For model years 2007 through 2010...

  5. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be the low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subject to the provisions of this... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. (3) The diesel test fuel shall be the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for model years 2011 and later. (4) For model years 2007 through 2010...

  6. 40 CFR 89.330 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be the low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subject to the provisions of this... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. (3) The diesel test fuel shall be the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for model years 2011 and later. (4) For model years 2007 through 2010...

  7. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  8. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  9. Potential application of coal-fuel oil ash for the manufacture of building materials.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, R; Marroccoli, M; Sansone, L; Santoro, L

    2005-09-30

    In this paper coal-fuel oil ash has been characterized in terms of leaching behaviour and reactivity against lime and gypsum in hydratory systems for the manufacture of building materials. Its behaviour was also compared to that of coal ash. Metal release was measured in a dynamic leaching test with duration up to 16 days. The results have shown that coal-fuel oil ash behaves very similarly to coal ash. The reactivity of coal-fuel oil ash against lime and gypsum was measured in mixtures containing only lime and in mixtures containing both lime and gypsum. These systems were hydrated at 25 and 40 degrees C under 100% R.H. The results have shown that the main hydration products are the same as those that are usually formed in similar coal ash-based systems. That is, calcium silicate hydrate in coal-fuel oil ash/lime systems and calcium silicate hydrate plus calcium trisulphoaluminate hydrate in coal-fuel oil ash/lime/gypsum systems. From the quantitative point of view, hydration runs showed that the amounts of both chemically combined water and reacted lime measured in the case under investigation are very similar to those found in similar coal ash-based systems. Finally, the measurement of unconfined compressive strength proved that the systems have potentiality for the manufacture of pre-formed building blocks. PMID:15985327

  10. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  11. A spatially resolved fuel-based inventory of Utah and Colorado oil and natural gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorchov Negron, A.; McDonald, B. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    A fuel-based approach is presented for estimating emissions from US oil and natural gas production that utilizes state-level fuel surveys of oil and gas engine activity, well-level production data, and emission factors for oil and gas equipment. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are mapped on a 4 km x 4 km horizontal grid for 2013-14 in Utah and Colorado. Emission sources include combustion from exploration (e.g., drilling), production (e.g., heaters, dehydrators, and compressor engines), and natural gas processing plants, which comprise a large fraction of the local combustion activity in oil and gas basins. Fuel-based emission factors of NOx are from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and applied to spatially-resolved maps of CO2 emissions. Preliminary NOx emissions from this study are estimated for the Uintah Basin, Utah, to be ~5300 metric tons of NO2-equivalent in 2013. Our result compares well with an observations-based top-down emissions estimate of NOx derived from a previous study, ~4200 metric tons of NO2-equivalent. By contrast, the 2011 National Emissions Inventory estimates oil and gas emissions of NOx to be ~3 times higher than our study in the Uintah Basin. We intend to expand our fuel-based approach to map combustion-related emissions in other U.S. oil and natural gas basins and compare with additional observational datasets.

  12. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  13. Ways of solving environmental problems while transferring the boilers for burning water-bitumen mixture instead of fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, V. R.; Sosin, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    Information concerning a new kind (for Russia) of liquid fuel, i.e., water-bitumen mixture (orimulsion), is presented. The application of the new fuel instead of the fuel oil at a boiler of a power unit of 350-MW capacity makes it possible to decrease sufficiently the expenditures for fuel while keeping the main environmental indices.

  14. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  15. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  16. Effects of external applications of No. 2 fuel oil on common eider eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Albers, P.H.; Wolfe, Douglas A.

    1977-01-01

    Because eggs of marine birds may be exposed to oil adhering to the feathers of adult birds, a study was undertaken to determine the effects of oil contamination. Two hundred common eider eggs were divided into four experimental sets of 50 each. Two sets were treated with No. 2 fuel oil in amounts of 5 microliters to 20 microliters; a third with 20 microliters of propylene glycol, a neutral blocking agent. The fourth set served as a control. Hatching success was 96 percent for the eggs treated with 20 microliters propylene glycol, 96 percent for the controls and 92 percent for the eggs treated with 5 microliters oil hatched. Only 69 percent of the eggs treated with 20 microliters of oil survived - a significant reduction in hatchability (P 0.05). Mean Hatching weights for all sets were statistically equal. Thus, oil pollution may significantly increase embryonic mortality in marine birds.

  17. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a "Geothermic Fuel Cell" (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  18. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  19. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  20. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  1. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  2. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  3. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  4. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bunkers are implemented to: (1) Check vessel stores for package integrity; (2) Prevent vessel stores from... notification and the timing of deliveries and their documentation; and (5) Check vessel stores by the following... Plan (FSP); (2) Require advance notification of vessel stores or bunkers delivery, including a list...

  5. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bunkers are implemented to: (1) Check vessel stores for package integrity; (2) Prevent vessel stores from... notification and the timing of deliveries and their documentation; and (5) Check vessel stores by the following... Plan (FSP); (2) Require advance notification of vessel stores or bunkers delivery, including a list...

  6. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores...

  7. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores...

  8. The Utility of Silos and Bunkers in the Evolution of Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Silos and bunkers have been allies in the development of kinesiology for nearly 50 years. Silos of specialization allow us to go toe-to-toe with researchers in parent disciplines, compete for grants, and otherwise spread our academic wings. The bunkers of utility and generic movement provide an important degree of legitimacy for a subject matter…

  9. 21. VIEW OF BUNKER IN 1979 DURING INSPECTION OF NaK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF BUNKER IN 1979 DURING INSPECTION OF NaK. SHOWS BUNKER WITH DOOR REMOVED AND SIDE 'A' OF DUMPSTER INSIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 79-7160. PHOTOGRAPHER NOT NAMED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Production of a solid fuel using sewage sludge and spent cooking oil by immersion frying.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhanyong; Xie, Jian; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2012-12-01

    Sewage sludge and spent cooking oil are two main waste sources of modern Chinese cities. In this paper, the immersion frying method using spent cooking oil as the heating medium was applied to dry and convert wet sewage sludge into a solid fuel. The drying and oil uptake curves were plotted to demonstrate the fry-drying characteristics of the sewage sludge. Parametric studies were carried out to identify the governing parameters in the frying drying operation. It was found that at frying oil temperatures of 140-160°C, the wet sewage sludge could be dried completely in 6-9 min and converted into a solid fuel with a high calorific value of 21.55-24.08 MJ/kg. The fuel structure, chemical components, pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated and the experimental results showed the solid fuel had a porous internal structure and a low ignition temperature of 250°C due to presence of oil. The frying drying mechanism was also discussed.

  12. Power Satellites, Carbon Dioxide, Synthetic Fuel, Sequestering Carbon as Synthetic Oil and Fresh Water from Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith Henson, H.

    2010-05-01

    A small number of people have been working for the past year on ways to reduce the cost of power from space to the point that it could entirely displace fossil fuels and even put carbon dioxide back in empty oil fields as synthetic oil. The challenging part is reducing the cost of transport to GEO by a factor of ˜200 discussed in another paper in this volume. Given low cost power, synthetic fuels, carbon sequestration, and fresh water from seawater become economical.

  13. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  14. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  15. Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

  16. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  17. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-05-29

    Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, a C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ alcohol, water, and a surfactant comprising a lower trialkylamine. For enhanced water tolerance by the fuel, the amine is reacted with a longchain fatty acid for conversion to the corresponding trialkylammonium soap. Optionally, 1-butanol is incorporated into the system as a cosurfactant for the purpose of lowering both the viscosity and the solidification temperature.

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  19. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  20. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  1. Morphology of globules and cenospheres in heavy fuel oil burner experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kwack, E.Y.; Shakkottai, P.; Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H. )

    1992-04-01

    Number 6 fuel oil was heated, sprayed, and burned in an enclosure using a small commercial oil burner. Samples of residues that emerged from the flame were collected at various locations outside the flame and observed by a scanning electron microscope. Porous cenospheres, larger globules (of size 80 {mu}m to 200 {mu}m) that resemble soap bubbles formed from the very viscous liquid residue, and unburned oil drops were the types of particle collected. This paper reports on the qualitative relationships of the morphology of these particles to the temperature history to which they were subjected were made.

  2. Synthetic fuel oil effects on microbial activity and nitrogen transformations in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.H.; Saylor, G.S.; Luxmoore, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    The effects of a solvent refined coal oil (SRC-II) on microbial processes in a Captina silt loam soil were examined. The soil samples were maintained under environmental conditions favorable for most aerobic microbial activities. Soil was treated with four oil concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.6% (wt/wt). Oxygen uptake rates, total viable cell counts, numbers of nitrifying bacteria, and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were monitored before oil addition and at regular intervals for three months thereafter. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and soil pH were also measured before and after application of the oil. The SRC-II coal oil effected soil processes at all treatment levels. The lowest oil concentration (0.2%) decreased numbers of nitrifying bacteria while increasing total viable cell numbers and net nitrogen mineralization. The higher oil concentrations reduced oxygen uptake rates and total viable cells as well as nitrifier numbers. Soil treated with a 1.7% oil concentration showed significant increases in respiration rates and cell densities after two months, while no significant increases were observed at oil levels of 3.4 and 8.6%. The application of the coal oil to soil samples raised the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the soil. The sum of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in the oil-treated soils was never significantly lower than the control soil levels, indicating that nitrogen was not limiting to decomposition. However, the toxicity of the oil toward the nitrifying bacteria resulted in an accumulation of ammonium in treated soils. This may affect plant establishment on soils contaminated with a synthetic fuel oil. 104 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

  3. The spectral analysis of fuel oils using terahertz radiation and chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Honglei; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Hui; Li, Qian; Zhu, Shouming; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-10-01

    The combustion characteristics of fuel oils are closely related to both engine efficiency and pollutant emissions, and the analysis of oils and their additives is thus important. These oils and additives have been found to generate distinct responses to terahertz (THz) radiation as the result of various molecular vibrational modes. In the present work, THz spectroscopy was employed to identify a number of oils, including lubricants, gasoline and diesel, with different additives. The identities of dozens of these oils could be readily established using statistical models based on principal component analysis. The THz spectra of gasoline, diesel, sulfur and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were acquired and linear fittings were obtained. By using chemometric methods, including back propagation, artificial neural network and support vector machine techniques, typical concentrations of sulfur in gasoline (ppm-grade) could be detected, together with MMA in diesel below 0.5%. The absorption characteristics of the oil additives were also assessed using 2D correlation spectroscopy, and several hidden absorption peaks were discovered. The technique discussed herein should provide a useful new means of analyzing fuel oils with various additives and impurities in a non-destructive manner and therefore will be of benefit to the field of chemical detection and identification.

  4. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  5. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  6. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  7. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  8. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  9. Functional and ultrastructural cell pathology induced by fuel oil in cultured dolphin renal cells.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Sharova, L V; Gray, L

    2000-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate in a marine mammal renal cell culture system the toxicity and some of the mechanisms of cytopathology in a standardized preparation following exposure to No. 1 fuel oil. Cell survivability of a cultured SP1K renal cell line from the Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella plagiodon was reduced in a dose-dependent manner after a 12-h exposure to fuel oil. Early morphologic changes reflecting cytotoxicity, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, included enlarged rough endoplasmic reticula, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and degenerative cytoplasmic inclusions, but mitochondria remained resistant. Assessment of extracellular proton loss by microphysiometry of cultured cells revealed fuel oil-induced enhancement of proton loss that was dependent upon both protein kinase C and renal epithelial Na(+)/H(+) counter-transport functioning, as the specific inhibitors H-7 and amiloride reduced this stimulatory petroleum effect. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis (programmed cell death) were studied in dolphin renal cells exposed to fuel oil for 12, 24, and 48 hours. The toxicant increased the percentage of cells in GO/GI phase and decreased the percentage of cells in S phase starting after 24 hours. The number of cells undergoing early apoptosis was also increased after 24 hours. PMID:11023700

  10. 44. ARAIII Fuel oil tank ARA710. Camera facing west. Perimeter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. ARA-III Fuel oil tank ARA-710. Camera facing west. Perimeter fence at left side of view. Gable-roofed building beyond tank on right is ARA-622. Gable-roofed building beyond tank on left is ARA-610. Ineel photo no. 3-16. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  12. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW-rated fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bimodal PM size distribution (PSD) with over...

  13. Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.

    1983-08-01

    This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER PRODUCED BY COMBUSTION OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732-kW boiler. PM emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than (PM2.5) and greater (PM2.5+) that 2.5 micrometers in diameter. However, ex...

  15. Improvement of fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters with commercial additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability and oxidative stability of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) oil methyl esters (CSME) were improved with addition of commercial additives. Four commercial anti-gel additives: Technol® B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver, Gunk® Premium Diesel Fuel Anti-Gel, Heet® Dies...

  16. 76 FR 44506 - Petition Requesting Non-See-Through Packaging for Torch Fuel and Lamp Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ..., including torch fuel and lamp oil, as currently packaged, resemble juice. Petitioner notes that because young children enjoy the taste of juice and are accustomed to drinking it regularly, packaging petroleum distillates in clear plastic bottles causes needless danger, as children may mistake it for juice....

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine... condition of the tanks is satisfactory. (e) All double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or... of each vessel during an internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed five years....

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally... vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL....

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine... condition of the tanks is satisfactory. (e) All double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or... of each vessel during an internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed five years....

  20. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally... vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL....

  1. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally... vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL....

  2. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine... condition of the tanks is satisfactory. (e) All double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or... of each vessel during an internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed five years....

  3. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally... vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL....

  4. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels 10 years of age or older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally... vessels 15 years of age or older need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL....

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine... condition of the tanks is satisfactory. (e) All double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or... of each vessel during an internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed five years....

  6. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... older but less than 15 years of age need not be cleaned out and internally examined if the marine... condition of the tanks is satisfactory. (e) All double-bottom fuel oil tanks on vessels 15 years of age or... of each vessel during an internal structural examination at intervals not to exceed five years....

  7. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  8. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  9. Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youcheng; Woodin, Mark A; Smith, Thomas J; Herrick, Robert F; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C

    2005-09-01

    The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500 microg/m(3). As part of a larger occupational epidemiologic study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals, and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (referents) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Ash particles < 10 microm in diameter (PM(10), mg/m(3)) were sampled over full work shifts using a one-stage personal size selective sampler containing a polytetrafluoroethylene filter. Filters were digested using the Parr bomb method and analyzed for the metals vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) was measured with an Ogawa passive badge-type sampler and ozone (O(3)) with a personal active pump sampler.Time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for boilermakers than for utility workers for PM(10) (geometric mean: 0.47 vs. 0.13 mg/m(3)), V (8.9 vs. 1.4 microg/m(3)), Ni (7.4 vs. 1.8 microg/m(3)) and Fe (56.2 vs. 11.2 microg/m(3)). Exposures were affected by overhaul time periods, tasks, and work locations. No significant increases were found for O(3) or NO(2) for boilermakers or utility workers regardless of overhaul period or task group. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure to PM(10) and metals. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value.

  10. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  11. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  12. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... higher than 4.0 research octane numbers above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other fuels may be used for testing provided: (1) They are commercially...

  13. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... higher than 4.0 research octane numbers above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other fuels may be used for testing provided: (1) They are commercially...

  14. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... higher than 4.0 research octane numbers above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other fuels may be used for testing provided: (1) They are commercially...

  15. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... higher than 4.0 research octane numbers above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other fuels may be used for testing provided: (1) They are commercially...

  16. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... higher than 4.0 research octane numbers above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as research octane number minus motor octane number. (d) Other fuels may be used for testing provided: (1) They are commercially...

  17. Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

    The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·dξα=dUα+dLα+dQwα, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ξα=vcα/vc, vcα is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment α, Uα is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qwα is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and Lα is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ξα=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(α-αd)/(αP-αd) and A=(α-αd)/(αF-αd) ·αd-start of combustion angle ·αf-end of combustion angle ·αP-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

  18. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  19. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  20. Synthesis and analysis of jet fuel from shale oil and coal syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, J. P.; Collins, T. A.; Nelson, T. J.; Pedersen, M. J.; Robison, M. G.; Wisinski, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-two jet fuel samples of varying properties were produced from shale oil and coal syncrudes, and analyzed to assess their suitability for use. TOSCO II shale oil and H-COAL and COED syncrudes were used as starting materials. The processes used were among those commonly in use in petroleum processing-distillation, hydrogenation and catalytic hydrocracking. The processing conditions required to meet two levels of specifications regarding aromatic, hydrogen, sulfur and nitrogen contents at two yield levels were determined and found to be more demanding than normally required in petroleum processing. Analysis of the samples produced indicated that if the more stringent specifications of 13.5% hydrogen (min.) and 0.02% nitrogen (max.) were met, products similar in properties to conventional jet fuels were obtained. In general, shale oil was easier to process (catalyst deactivation was seen when processing coal syncrudes), consumed less hydrogen and yielded superior products. Based on these considerations, shale oil appears to be preferred to coal as a petroleum substitute for jet fuel production.

  1. Effects of Heavy Fuel Oil on the Bacterial Community Structure of a Pristine Microbial Mat▿

    PubMed Central

    Bordenave, Sylvain; Goñi-Urriza, María Soledad; Caumette, Pierre; Duran, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The effects of petroleum contamination on the bacterial community of a pristine microbial mat from Salins-de-Giraud (Camargue, France) have been investigated. Mats were maintained as microcosms and contaminated with no. 2 fuel oil from the wreck of the Erika. The evolution of the complex bacterial community was monitored by combining analyses based on 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses clearly showed the effects of the heavy fuel oil after 60 days of incubation. At the end of the experiment, the initial community structure was recovered, illustrating the resilience of this microbial ecosystem. In addition, the responses of the metabolically active bacterial community were evaluated by T-RFLP and clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA. Immediately after the heavy fuel oil was added to the microcosms, the structure of the active bacterial community was modified, indicating a rapid microbial mat response. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria were initially dominant in the contaminated microcosms. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were the main genera representative of this class. After 90 days of incubation, the Gammaproteobacteria were superseded by “Bacilli” and Alphaproteobacteria. This study shows the major changes that occur in the microbial mat community at different time periods following contamination. At the conclusion of the experiment, the RNA approach also demonstrated the resilience of the microbial mat community in resisting environmental stress resulting from oil pollution. PMID:17704271

  2. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. An Initial Look at a No. 6 Fuel Oil Spill: M/V Cosco Busan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemkau, K. L.; Peacock, E. E.; Nelson, R. K.; Ventura, G. T.; Kovecses, J.; Reddy, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    With increasing energy demand and rising prices, the use of cheaper and more pollutant-rich heavy fuel oil is expected to continue to increase. To date, the fate of these fuels in the environment has been rare, especially on a short-term basis (less than one month after the spill). On November 7, 2007 the M/V Cosco Busan struck the Bay Bridge in San Francisco, USA. Two port tanks containing fuel were ruptured in the allision resulting in the release of approximately 54,000 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil. To investigate the fate of the spill oiled, samples were collected from five impacted shorelines in and around the Bay Area weeks to months after the spill. Samples were analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). Additionally, several samples were examined in greater detail by two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). The effects of biodegradation, evaporation, water- washing, and photolysis were all observed. Although the extent of weathering was site specific, the most weathered were collected in an exposed location outside San Francisco Bay. Biodegradation was more frequently observed in samples that were collected from mid to low tide. These results provide new insights into the behavior of an understudied but important contaminant in the coastal ocean.

  4. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  5. Physiological responses of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. and Limonium carolinianum (Walt. ) Britt. to weathered fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of weathered fuel oil intoxication in two species of salt marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora Loisel. and Limonium carolinanum (Walt.) Britt. An objective was to determine why Limonium spp. are more tolerant to the effects of oil than Spartina spp. Comparative experiments were conducted on plasmalemma permeability, respiration and plasmolysis in roots. Histochemical studies were also done. The results indicate that W2F oil increased solute leakage from the roots of both species in a dose-dependent manner but greater leakage occurred with Spartina than Limonium roots. Respiration was also more inhibited by W2f oil in Spartina than in Limonium roots. A second objective was to obtain evidence that the membrane was a site of injury from oil treatment. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of W2F oil on solute permeation-with and without cation preincubation, ATPase activity, and microsomal membrane fluidity. The solute permeation experiments suggested that oil treatment injured cell membranes. They further suggested that injury did not directly involve ion transport mechanisms.

  6. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to green fuel oil over sodium based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T S; Zabeti, M; Lefferts, L; Brem, G; Seshan, K

    2013-08-01

    Upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors over 20 wt.% Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was studied in a lab-scale fix-bed reactor at 500°C. Characterization of the catalyst using SEM and XRD has shown that sodium carbonate is well-dispersed on the support γ-Al2O3. TGA and (23)Na MAS NMR suggested the formation of new hydrated sodium phase, which is likely responsible for the high activity of the catalyst. Catalytic oil has much lower oxygen content (12.3 wt.%) compared to non-catalytic oil (42.1 wt.%). This comes together with a tremendous increase in the energy density (37 compared to 19 MJ kg(-1)). Decarboxylation of carboxylic acids was favoured on the catalyst, resulting to an oil almost neutral (TAN=3.8mg KOH/g oil and pH=6.5). However, the mentioned decarboxylation resulted in the formation of carbonyls, which correlates to low stability of the oil. Catalytic pyrolysis results in a bio-oil which resembles a fossil fuel oil in its properties. PMID:23747447

  7. Beach morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, A M; Nuez de la Fuente, M; Rey, D; Rubio, B; Vilas, F; Medina, R; González, M E

    2006-10-01

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil contamination of the intertidal area of two beaches located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both beaches has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the beach. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the beach.

  8. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to green fuel oil over sodium based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T S; Zabeti, M; Lefferts, L; Brem, G; Seshan, K

    2013-08-01

    Upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors over 20 wt.% Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was studied in a lab-scale fix-bed reactor at 500°C. Characterization of the catalyst using SEM and XRD has shown that sodium carbonate is well-dispersed on the support γ-Al2O3. TGA and (23)Na MAS NMR suggested the formation of new hydrated sodium phase, which is likely responsible for the high activity of the catalyst. Catalytic oil has much lower oxygen content (12.3 wt.%) compared to non-catalytic oil (42.1 wt.%). This comes together with a tremendous increase in the energy density (37 compared to 19 MJ kg(-1)). Decarboxylation of carboxylic acids was favoured on the catalyst, resulting to an oil almost neutral (TAN=3.8mg KOH/g oil and pH=6.5). However, the mentioned decarboxylation resulted in the formation of carbonyls, which correlates to low stability of the oil. Catalytic pyrolysis results in a bio-oil which resembles a fossil fuel oil in its properties.

  9. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic. PMID:24375845

  10. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic.

  11. Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water.

    PubMed

    Lehr, William; Simecek-Beatty, Debra

    2004-02-27

    Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates are made of the spread rate and maximum slick size, burn rate, and duration; effective thermal radiation; and subsequent soot generation. PMID:15036638

  12. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  13. Economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

    1982-05-01

    The economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel in US agriculture, with particular emphasis on North Dakota, is examined. A study of the spot market prices indicates that crude sunflower oil has moved closer competitively with bulk diesel prices. On the question of energy efficiency, it is estimated, that using current production and processing estimates, there is a positive net energy ratio of 5.78 to 1. Processing can take place at the commercial leveL, in intermediate sized plants or on-farm. Costs were analyzed for three sizes of farm presses. (Refs. 6).

  14. Quantifying kinetic fractionation in Bunker Cave speleothems using Δ47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; Affek, Hagit P.

    2012-08-01

    Isotopic signals in speleothems are used for investigating paleoclimate variability on land and are useful to constrain the dating of prominent climate events. A quantitative use, however, is limited by an incomplete understanding of parameters contributing to the carbon and oxygen isotope signals. These include external and environmental parameters such as δ18O of cave drip waters as well as internal parameters associated with speleothem formation, such as the presence of non-equilibrium effects and especially the magnitude of their isotopic shifts. We explore the use of clumped isotopes as a new tool for investigating the kinetic isotope effect in speleothems. Holocene and modern speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany) as well as modern material from the adjacent Dechen Cave are all offset from the equilibrium relationship due to kinetic fractionation. This kinetic offset in clumped isotopes is observed in a stalagmite despite mostly negative Hendy tests, providing a sensitive indicator for kinetic fractionation in cave carbonates. The temperature dependence of the clumped isotope values (0.005‰ per °C) is low compared to the observed magnitude of kinetic offsets (between -0.021 and -0.075‰), so that the mean offsets in apparent temperatures due to kinetic isotope effects are on the order of 10 °C. As a result clumped isotopes are useful in identifying temporal variations in the kinetic fractionation in a stalagmite, when the temperatures during the speleothem growth period are either relatively constant (variations <2 °C) or can be independently constrained. The variations in the kinetic isotope fractionation in Bunker Cave are associated with changing drip water super saturation with periods of stronger prior calcite precipitation associated with lower kinetic offsets in the speleothem calcite. In contrast, stalagmite growth rates show no direct correlation with the degree of kinetic fractionation in the investigated range (13-1500 μm/a).

  15. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  16. 5. VIEW NORTH/NORTHEAST OBSERVATION BUNKER FOR POWER PLANT TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTH/NORTHEAST OBSERVATION BUNKER FOR POWER PLANT TEST STAND (LATER VERSION) INTERIOR AND PARTIAL EXTERIOR. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 31. DETAIL OF MANUFACTURER'S PLATE ON BUNKER PERISCOPE IN SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF MANUFACTURER'S PLATE ON BUNKER PERISCOPE IN SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  19. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  20. Radiation mapping inside the bunkers of medium energy accelerators using a robotic carrier.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, R; Bhaumik, T K; Bandyopadhyay, T; Purkait, M; Jena, S C; Mishra, S K; Sharma, S; Agashe, V; Datta, K; Sarkar, B; Datta, C; Sarkar, D; Pal, P K

    2013-10-01

    The knowledge of ambient and peak radiation levels prevailing inside the bunkers of the accelerator facilities is essential in assessing the accidental human exposure inside the bunkers and in protecting sensitive electronic equipments by minimizing the exposure to high intensity mixed radiation fields. Radiation field mapping dynamically, inside bunkers are rare, though generally dose-rate data are available in every particle accelerator facilities at specific locations. Taking into account of the fact that the existing neutron fields with a spread of energy from thermal up to the energy of the accelerated charged projectiles, prompt photons and other particles prevailing during cyclotron operation inside the bunkers, neutron and gamma survey meters with extended energy ranges attached to a robotic carrier have been used. The robotic carrier movement was controlled remotely from the control room with the help of multiple visible range optical cameras provided inside the bunkers and the wireless and wired protocols of communication helped its movement and data acquisition from the survey meters. Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata has positive ion accelerating facilities such as K-130 room Temperature Cyclotron, K-500 Super Conducting Cyclotron and a forthcoming 30 MeV Proton Medical Cyclotron with high beam current. The dose rates data for K-130 Room Temperature Cyclotron, VECC were collected for various energies of alpha and proton beams losing their total energy at different stages on different materials at various strategic locations of radiological importance inside the bunkers. The measurements established that radiation levels inside the machine bunker dynamically change depending upon the beam type, beam energy, machine operation parameters, deflector condition, slit placement and central region beam tuning. The obtained inference from the association of dose rates with the parameters like beam intensity, type and energy of projectiles, helped in

  1. 4. "ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLANELEVATIONSSECTIONS, OBSERVATION BUNKERS." Specifications No. ENG (NASA)04353631; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. "ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLAN-ELEVATIONS-SECTIONS, OBSERVATION BUNKERS." Specifications No. ENG (NASA)04-353-63-1; Drawing No. 60-09-34; sheet 325. Ref. No. A-13. D.O. SERIES 1597/87. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for

  3. Toxicity of fuel oil water accommodated fractions on two marine microalgae, Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min; Shen, Xinqiang; Lun, Fengxia; Shen, Anglv; Yuan, Qi

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, the acute toxicity of four fuel oils including F120, F180, F380 and No.-20 was evaluated by exposing the marine microalgae Chlorela spp. (Chlorophyta) and Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta) in the fuel oil water accommodated fractions (WAF). The bioassay showed that F180 WAF was the most toxic to both microalgae. The 96 h EC(50) value of F180 WAF for Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp. was 9.41 and 13.63 mg/L expressed in concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons, respectively. WAFs of F120, F180 and F380 were more toxic to Skeletonema costatum than to Chlorela spp. In contrast, No.-20 WAF did not show significant toxicity for both Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp. PMID:22349279

  4. The analysis of chlorine with other elements of interest in waste oil/fuels by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Tsourides, D.

    1998-12-31

    It has been said that there are more chemical analysis performed on oil/fuels than any other material. The sensitivity, linearity, multi-element capability, and relative freedom from matrix effects of ICP-AES makes it particularly suitable for elemental analysis of these samples. However, until recently the routine analysis of Chlorine had not been possible by ICP-AES. The addition of the Halogen elements, particularly Chlorine, to ICP-AES analysis is of importance to several industries that burn waste oil as fuel. The recycling and disposal of waste oil is closely regulated by metal and halogen content in all developed countries. In some countries, waste oil containing more than 1,000 ppm of Chlorine is considered hazardous waste. However, used oil may be burned as a fuel if it meets certain allowable limits. The paper describes the procedures for chlorine analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

  5. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  6. Evaluation of artificially-weathered standard fuel oil toxicity by marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Saco-Álvarez, Liliana; Nieto, Óscar; Bayona, Josep María; Albaigés, Joan; Beiras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    wWeathering of petroleum spilled in the marine environment may not only change its physical and chemical properties but also its effects on the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) obtained from a standard fuel oil following an environmentally realistic simulated weathering process for a period of 80 d. Experimental flasks with 40 g L(-1) of fuel oil were incubated at 18°C with a 14 h light:10 h dark photoperiod and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 70 μE m(-2) s(-1). Samples were taken at four weathering periods: 24 h, 7, 21 and 80 d. WAF toxicity was tested using the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) embryo-larval bioassays and the aromatic hydrocarbons levels (AH) in the WAF were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In contrast with the classic assumption of toxicity decrease with oil weathering, the present study shows a progressive increase in WAF toxicity with weathering, being the EC(50) after 80d eightfold lower than the EC(50) at day 1, whereas AH concentration slightly decreased. In the long term, inoculation of WAF with bacteria from a hydrocarbon chronically-polluted harbor slightly reduced toxicity. The differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered fuels could not be explained on the basis of the total AH content and the formation of oxidized derivatives is suggested to explain this toxicity increase.

  7. The analysis of the cases of aspired fuel oil and gasoline through siphonage method.

    PubMed

    Gonullu, Hayriye; Karadas, Sevdegü; Oncü, Mehmet Resit; Dulger, A Cumhur; Keskin, Siddik

    2013-03-01

    Accidental aspiration of petroleum products in children can also be witnessed in adults working with petroleum products by siphonage or swallowing fire for demonstration purposes. Ten cases admitted to Yuzuncu Yil University Emergency Service due to fuel oil and gasoline aspiration in a three-year period were retrospectively analysed. All cases were males and their average age was determined as 32,4 +/- 7.83 years. Three of the patients aspirated gasoline and 7 fuel oil. Blood gas values in all patients were at normal levels and their average white blood cell values were 16,590. The most frequent symptom for referral to our service was shortness of breath. Infiltration was confirmed in the chest X-ray of 2 patients with aspirated fuel oil and all cases of gasoline aspiration. All patients received methylprednisolone and IV proton-pump inhibitors for treatment. Eight patients were given antibiotics. All victims were discharged from the hospital after recovery. Aspiration of petroleum products which is normally rarely seen is witnessed more frequently in under developed countries. Since the findings determined by screening methods are often nonspecific, history is important for making a diagnosis.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  9. Feasibility of burning refuse derived fuel in institutional size oil-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.

  10. Alternative fuels: Parachute Creek shale oil project's economic and operational outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy awarded the Union Oil Company $400 million in price guarantees for synthetic crude oil produced by Parachute Creek shale oil project in Colorado. In 1985, Synthetic Fuels Corporation awarded an additional $500 million in price and loan guarantees to Union to modify the project's technology with a fluidized bed combustor. In December 1985, the Congress abolished SFC and transferred responsibility for the guarantees to the Treasury. GAO believes that because of the uncertainty of the project's economic and technical viability, it would not be in the government's best interest to expand an additional $500 million in financial assistance to install the combustor. If Union elects to proceed with the combustor, GAO recommends that Treasury use the analysis in this report to critically evaluate Union's proposal and explore the government's options for minimizing additional outlays on the project.

  11. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. PMID:27259188

  12. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  13. Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu

    2015-04-01

    To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340 °C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

  14. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where...

  15. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where...

  16. Experimental plan for the fuel-oil study. Weatherization Assistance Program: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy WAP Division and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Five studies form the evaluation. Major goals of the Fuel-Oil Study are to estimate the fuel oil saved by the WAP in the Northeast during the 1990 and 1991 program years, identify and quantify non-energy impacts of the WAP, assess the cost effectiveness of the WAP within this submarket, and assess factors which may cause savings and cost effectiveness to vary. The study will only analyze single-family houses in the nine states in the Northeast census region and will be carried out over two heating seasons (1990 and 1991 WAP program years). A split-winter, pre- and post-weatherization experimental design with a control group will be used. Houses will be monitored over one winter. Energy conservation measures will be installed in the weatherized houses in January of each winter by the local WAP subgrantee. One hundred twenty five weatherized houses and 75 control houses will be monitored over the 1990--1991 winter; a different set of 200 houses will be monitored over the 1991--1992 winter. The houses will be evenly distributed among 25 subgrantees. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature data will be collected for all houses. Fuel-oil delivery data will be collected for each house monitored over the 1990--1991 winter for at least a year before weatherization. The delivery data will be analyzed to determine if the accuracy of the study can be improved by collecting fuel-oil delivery data on a larger sample of houses over the 1991--1992 winter. Detailed survey information will be obtained on all the houses. This information includes descriptive details of the house and its mechanical systems, details on household size and other demographics, and occupant answers to questions regarding comfort, safety, and operation of their space-heating system and house.

  17. Conversion of atactic polypropylene waste to fuel oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, J.

    1981-04-01

    A stable, convenient thermal pyrolysis process was demonstrated on a large scale pilot plant. The process successfully converted high viscosity copolymer atactic polypropylene to predominantly liquid fuels which could be burned in commercial burners. Energy yield of the process was very high - in excess of 93% including gas phase heating value. Design and operating data were obtained to permit design of a commercial size atactic conversion plant. Atactic polypropylene can be cracked at temperatures around 850/sup 0/F and residence time of 5 minutes. The viscosity of the cracked product increases with decrease in time/temperature. A majority of the pyrolysis was carried out at a pressure of 50 psig. Thermal cracking of atactic polypropylene is seen to result in sigificant coke formation (0.4% to 0.8% on a weight of feed basis) although the coke levels were of an order of magnitude lower than those obtained during catalytic cracking. The discrepancy between batch and continuous test data can be atrributed to lowered heat transfer and diffusion rates. Oxidative pyrolysis is not seen as a viable commercial alternative due to a significant amount of water formation. However, introduction of controlled quantities of oxygen at lower temperatures to affect change in feedstock viscosity could be considered. It is essential to have a complete characterization of the polymer composition and structure in order to obtain useful and duplicable data because the pyrolysis products and probably the pyrolysis kinetics are affected by introduction of abnormalities into the polymer structure during polymerization. The polymer products from continuous testing contained an olefinic content of 80% or higher. This suggests that the pyrolysis products be investigated for use as olefinic raw materials. Catalytic cracking does not seem to result in any advantage over the Thermal Cracking process in terms of reaction rates or temperature of operation.

  18. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, Richard F.; Ryan, Daniel F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  19. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or astm no. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, R.F.; Ryan, D.F.

    1982-06-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  20. 77 FR 27451 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... page number). Follow directions--The agency may ask you to respond to specific questions or organize... and receiving public input will ensure that the guidance adequately addresses remaining questions... No. 517; EINECS 232-366-4; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 063501; Fuel oil No. 1; Fuels, kerosine;...

  1. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  2. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (p<0.001) higher and Cu concentration was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the control group than in the biodiesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the control group than in the diesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (p<0.001) lower in the D2 group than in the F2 group. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the control group than in the diesel groups. Lung Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Na, and Zn concentrations were different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Al concentration was different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Ca concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the control group than in the biodiesel groups. Serum and lung tissue bioelements concentrations were lower in diesel and biodiesel groups than in control group. Due to consumption for biochemical

  3. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns

  4. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  5. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels.

  6. Default operational intervention levels (OILs) for severe nuclear power plant or spent fuel pool emergencies.

    PubMed

    McKenna, T; Kutkov, V; Vilar Welter, P; Dodd, B; Buglova, E

    2013-05-01

    Experience and studies show that for an emergency at a nuclear power plant involving severe core damage or damage to the fuel in spent fuel pools, the following actions may need to be taken in order to prevent severe deterministic health effects and reduce stochastic health effects: (1) precautionary protective actions and other response actions for those near the facility (i.e., within the zones identified by the International Atomic Energy Agency) taken immediately upon detection of facility conditions indicating possible severe damage to the fuel in the core or in the spent fuel pool; and (2) protective actions and other response actions taken based on environmental monitoring and sampling results following a release. This paper addresses the second item by providing default operational intervention levels [OILs, which are similar to the U.S. derived response levels (DRLs)] for promptly assessing radioactive material deposition, as well as skin, food, milk and drinking water contamination, following a major release of fission products from the core or spent fuel pool of a light water reactor (LWR) or a high power channel reactor (RBMK), based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's guidance.

  7. The guava tree as bioindicator during the process of fuel replacement of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone F; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to verify whether the exchange of the fuel used in the boilers of a crude oil refinery located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) would result in alterations on gas exchange, growth and leaf injuries in saplings of Psidium guajava 'Paluma'. The purpose of the refinery was to reduce the SO2 emission, but using natural gas as fuel could increase the concentrations of O3 precursors in the atmosphere. Thus a biomonitoring was performed with a native species sensitive to O3. The plants were exposed in five areas (CM1, CM5, CEPEMA, Centro, and RP) at different distances to the refinery, both before and after the fuel exchange. We performed six exposures under environmental conditions, with length of ca. 90 days each. With the utilization of natural gas, the saplings presented reductions in carbon assimilation rate under saturating light conditions (Asat, μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) and the stomatal conductance (gs, molH2Om(-2)s(-1)), and increase in height, number of leaves, and dry mass of leaves and shoots. There were also reductions in root dry mass and in the root/shoot ratio. The saplings also presented O3-induced leaf injuries. The responses of P. guajava 'Paluma' were altered after the fuel exchange as a result of a new combination of pollutants in the atmosphere. The fuel exchange has not resulted in environmental benefit to the surrounding forest; it has only altered the contamination profile of the region.

  8. Effect of fuel properties on performance of a single aircraft turbojet combustor. [from coal and oil-shale derived syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NOx, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. At the simulated idle condition no significant differences in performance were observed. At cruise, liner temperatures and smoke increased sharply with decreasing hydrogen content of the fuel. No significant differences were observed in the performance of an oil-shale derived JP-5 and a petroleum-based Jet A fuel except for emissions of NOx which were higher with the oil-shale JP-5. The difference is attributed to the higher concentration of fuel-bound nitrogen in the oil-shale JP-5.

  9. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  10. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  11. Evaluating toxicity of heavy fuel oil fractions using complementary modeling and biomimetic extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Letinski, Daniel J; Manning, Ryan G; Adams, Julie E; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil (HFO) and 3 distillate fractions to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos was evaluated using the PETROTOX model and a biomimetic extraction technique that involved passive sampling of oil-contaminated test media with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Test solutions for toxicity testing were generated using a combination of dispersant and high-energy mixing. The resulting water accommodated fractions (WAF) provided complex exposure regimens that included both dissolved hydrocarbons and oil droplets. The toxicity of the various fractions differed by approximately 3 orders of magnitude when expressed on the basis of WAF dilution. Using detailed compositional data, the PETROTOX model predicted the speciation of hydrocarbons between dissolved and oil droplet phases and explained observed toxicity based on computed dissolved phase toxic units (TUs). A key finding from model calculations was that dissolved hydrocarbon exposures and associated TUs were a nonlinear function of WAF dilution, because dissolved hydrocarbons were largely controlled by the dissolution of oil droplets that were transferred in WAF dilutions. Hence, oil droplets served to "buffer" dissolved concentrations in WAF dilutions at loadings greater than 1 mg/L, resulting in higher dissolved concentrations and TUs than expected based on dilution. The TUs computed at each WAF dilution explained the observed toxicity among the HFO and fractions to within a factor of 3. Dissolved material measured by SPME showed a consistent relationship with model-predicted TUs, confirming the utility of this approach for providing an integrated measure of exposure to bioavailable hydrocarbons. These 2 approaches provide complementary tools for better defining bioavailability of complex petroleum substance.

  12. Maintenance and storage of fuel oil for residential heating systems: A guide for residential heating system maintenance personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of No. 2 fuel affects the performance of the heating system and is an important parameter in the proper and efficient operation of an oil-burning system. The physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel can affect the flow, atomization and combustion processes, all of which help to define and limit the overall performance of the heating system. The use of chemical additives by fuel oil marketershas become more common as a method of improving the quality of the fuel, especially for handling and storage. Numerous types of additives are available, but reliable information on their effectiveness and proper use is limited. This makes selecting an additive difficult in many situations. Common types of problems that contribute to poor fuel quality and how they affect residential heating equipment are identified inof this booklet. It covers the key items that are needed in an effective fuel quality monitoring program, such as what to look for when evaluating the quality of fuel as it is received from a supplier, or how to assess fuel problems associated with poor storage conditions. References to standard procedures and brief descriptions of the procedures also are given. Approaches for correcting a fuel-related problem, including the potential uses of chemical additives are discussed. Different types of additives are described to help users understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Tips on how to select andeffectively use additives also are included. Finally, the importance of preventative maintenance in any fuel monitoring program is emphasized.

  13. Considerable hazards produced by heavy fuel oil in operating thermal power plant in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-09-01

    Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year).

  14. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  15. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  16. Photo-assisted removal of fuel oil hydrocarbons from wood and concrete.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Kozliak, Evguenii I

    2008-08-01

    A novel photo-treatment to decontaminate building structural elements polluted with fuel oil hydrocarbons as a result of spillage and/or a catastrophic flood was examined. A proof-of-concept study evaluating the photocatalytic removal of hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and fuel oil #2) from contaminated wood (southern yellow pine) and concrete was conducted using scintillation counting (with (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane) and gas chromatography. Contaminated samples were irradiated by UV or fluorescent light in the absence or presence of a photocatalyst, TiO(2). As a result of the treatment, under various scenarios, up to 80-98% of the originally applied n-hexadecane was removed, within a wide range of contaminant concentrations (4-250 mg/g wood). The essential treatment time increased from 1-7 days for low concentrations to several weeks for high concentrations. Mass balance experiments showed that the only product formed from (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane in detectable amounts was (14)CO(2). For low amounts of applied hydrocarbon (4-20 mg/g wood), the overall process rate was limited by the contaminant transport/mobility whereas for high n-hexadecane concentrations (150-250 mg/g, corresponding to 50-80% filling of wood pores), the key factor was the photochemical reaction. Photodegradation experiments conducted with standard heating fuel oil #2 (a representative real-world contaminant) resulted in a significant (up to 80%) photochemical removal of mid-size hydrocarbons (C(13)-C(17)) in 3 weeks whereas heavier hydrocarbons (> C(17)) were not affected; light hydrocarbons (< C(12)) were removed by evaporation. These results point toward a promising technique to reclaim wooden and concrete structures contaminated with semi-volatile chemicals. PMID:18584429

  17. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and bioconcentration-retention studies with No. 2 fuel oil and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun

    SciTech Connect

    Melzian, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Adult male blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) were exposed in a flow-through system to five concentrations, nominally 0.0 (control), 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 ppm of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of No. 2 fuel oil. The 96-hour LC/sub 5//sup 0/ was 14.1 ppm. All crabs in the 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 ppm tanks exhibited abnormal behavior prior to death including periodic beating of the maxillipedal flagella, hyperactivity, ataxia, and equilibrium loss. The ability of adult male and female blue crabs to bioconcentrate and retain No. 2 fuel oil compounds was examined after crabs were exposed for two weeks or 30-35 days in flow-through systems to three sublethal No. 2 fuel oil WAF concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Trace amounts of fuel oil hydrocarbons were detected in gill and hepatopancreas at 0.01 ppm exposures. All tissues bioconcentrated fuel oil compounds during 1.0 ppm WAF exposure periods, and with the exception of the gills, little depuration or metabolism of the bioconcentrated compounds occurred during a period of 30 days in clean, running seawater.

  18. Accumulation and retention of No. 2 fuel-oil compounds in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus' rathbun

    SciTech Connect

    Melzian, B.D.; Lake, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can bioaccumulate and retain complex mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons, adult crabs were exposed for 14 days or 30-35 days in continuous flow-through seawater systems to three sublethal concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm (mg/liter), of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of Number (No.) 2 fuel oil. Crabs exposed for 14 days were subsequently exposed to clean running seawater for a 30 day depuration period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissue samples were collected from control, WAF exposed, and depurated crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography and/or gas chomatography-mass spectrometry. No. 2 fuel-oil compounds were not detected in any of the tissues of the control crabs. Trace amounts of fuel-oil compounds were detected in gill and hepatopancreas tissues collected from crabs exposed to the 0.01 ppm WAF and no fuel-oil compounds were detected in muscle tissues. All tissues of crabs exposed to the 1.0 ppm WAF accumulated No. 2 fuel-oil compounds and considerable amounts remained in hepatopancreas and gill tissues following depuration for 30 days in clean seawater.

  19. Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Hoppin, J A; Christiani, D C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed on the morning of the first day back to work after an average of 114 days away from work (range 36 hours to 1737 days). A lavage was performed after exposure on the morning three days after the baseline lavage. Exposure to respirable particulate matter of diameter < or = 10 microns (PM10) and respirable vanadium dust were estimated with daily work diaries and a personal sampling device for respirable particulates. These estimates were made for each subject on each workday during the three days between lavages. For each subject, the adjusted change in polymorphonuclear cells was calculated by dividing the change in polymorphonuclear cell counts by the average of the counts before and after exposure. The association between the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and exposure was assessed with multiple linear regression, adjusted for age and current smoking. RESULTS--Personal sampling (one to 10 hour time weighted average) showed a range of PM10 concentrations of 50 to 4510 micrograms/m3, and respirable vanadium dust concentration of 0.10 to 139 micrograms/m3. In smokers the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell count was not significantly different from zero (-0.1%, P > 0.5), but in nonsmokers it was significantly greater than zero (+50%, P < 0.05). In both non-smokers and smokers, there was considerable variability in adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and a dose-response relation between these adjusted cell counts and either PM10 or respirable vanadium dust exposure could not be found. CONCLUSION--A significant increase in polymorphonuclear cells in

  20. Binary Effect of Fly Ash and Palm Oil Fuel Ash on Heat of Hydration Aerated Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Mehmannavaz, Taha; Ismail, Mohammad; Radin Sumadi, Salihuddin; Rafique Bhutta, Muhammad Aamer; Samadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    The binary effect of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) on heat of hydration of aerated concrete was studied. Three aerated concrete mixes were prepared, namely, concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (control sample or Type I), binary concrete made from 50% POFA (Type II), and ternary concrete containing 30% POFA and 20% PFA (Type III). It is found that the temperature increases due to heat of hydration through all the concrete specimens especially in the control sample. However, the total temperature rises caused by the heat of hydration through both of the new binary and ternary concrete were significantly lower than the control sample. The obtained results reveal that the replacement of Portland cement with binary and ternary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass concrete where thermal cracking due to extreme heat rise is of great concern. PMID:24696646