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Sample records for buried coated objects

  1. Acoustic Detection of Buried Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivansson, S.; Jacobsen, N.; Levonen, M.; Nilsson, B.; Moren, P.

    2001-12-01

    The capability to detect objects buried in the sea bottom is important for many reasons. For example bottom mines as well as dumped chemical munitions can be expected to have been buried by the sedimentation. Standard sub-bottom profilers that are routinely used for mapping sediment structures do not have good enough resolutions to detect small buried objects. Parametric sonar, with a much smaller lobe, is much more appropriate. In the report, we show results from measurements with a parametric sonar, mounted on a ROV (remotely operated vehicle). The measurements were made in the archipelago of Stockholm with a test object buried in clay. Two techniques were used to improve the detection capability, image processing and FARIM analysis. Concerning image processing, median filtering turns out to provide the best results. Isolated noisy pings are effectively suppressed in this way. FARIM analysis can be used to estimate roughness and impedance of the bottom. Our experiments show that a buried object can often be detected by an anomaly in the impedance estimate. Among three tested center frequencies for the emitted pulse, 5, 10 and 20 kHz, the highest frequency (20 kHz) turns out to provide the best detection capability. This is true for the image processing results as well as for the FARIM results. We have tried bistatic techniques to characterize a detected buried object. Sound pulses are emitted towards the object from one direction and the scattered energy is studied at another direction. We show computational results from a recently developed numerical model. The scattered field turns out to be very sensitive to the properties of the object.

  2. Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.F.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

  3. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration test objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Heard, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technology solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1991. This document provides the test objectives against which the demonstrations will be tested during FY-93.

  4. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  5. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum.

  6. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  7. Analysis of electromagnetic field due to a buried coated PEMC circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Anjum; Ahmed, Shakeel; Naqvi, Q. A.

    2010-12-01

    An analytical solution for the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from a coated perfect electromagnetic conducting (PEMC) circular cylinder, buried in the dielectric half space, is presented. Scattering characteristics of a buried PEMC cylinder when coated by double-positive (DPS) or double-negative (DNG) materials is investigated. The cylinder as well as coating layer is of infinite length (2-D problem). Plane wave spectral representations of the fields have been used to solve the problem. Saddle point method is used to solve the integral arising in the analysis. All the multiple interactions between the buried geometry and the dielectric interface separating the two half spaces have been considered in the analysis. The derivation includes both TM and TE polarization cases. It is observed that the response of the coated PEMC cylinder can be used to detect the underground pipes and other buried objects having a cylindrical shape.

  8. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  9. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  10. Buried object detection in GPR images

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W; Chambers, David H; Bond, Steven W; Beer, W. Reginald

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  11. Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

  12. Retrieval of Shape Characteristics for Buried Objects with GPR Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.; Comite, D.; Galli, A.; Valerio, G.; Barone, P. M.; Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Pettinelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    Information retrieval on the location and the geometrical features (dimensions and shape) of buried objects is of fundamental importance in geosciences areas involving environmental protection, mine clearance, archaeological investigations, space and planetary exploration, and so forth. Among the different non-invasive sensing techniques usually employed to achieve this kind of information, those based on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) instruments are well-established and suitable to the mentioned purposes [1]. In this context, our interest in the present work is specifically focused on testing the potential performance of typical GPR instruments by means of appropriate data processing. It will be shown in particular to what extent the use of a suitable "microwave tomographic approach" [2] is able to furnish a shape estimation of the targets, possibly recognizing different kinds of canonical geometries, even having reduced cross sections and in critical conditions, where the scatterer size is comparable with resolution limits imposed by the usual measurement configurations. Our study starts by obtaining the typical "direct" information from the GPR techniques that is the scattered field in subsurface environments under the form of radargrams. In order to get a wide variety of scenarios for the operating conditions, this goal is achieved by means of two different and independent approaches [3]. One approach is based on direct measurements through an experimental laboratory setup: commercial GPR instruments (typically bistatic configurations operating around 1 GHz frequency range) are used to collect radargram profiles by investigating an artificial basin filled of liquid and/or granular materials (sand, etc.), in which targets (having different constitutive parameters, shape, and dimensions) can be buried. The other approach is based on numerical GPR simulations by means of a commercial CAD electromagnetic tool (CST), whose suitable implementation and data

  13. Computer vision and sensor fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.; Buhl, M.R.; Kane, R.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1992-10-01

    Given multiple images of the surface of the earth from dual-band infrared sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. Supervised learning pattern classifiers (including neural networks,) are used. We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing information from multiple sensor types. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  14. Reconstruction of buried objects embedded in circular opaque structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This contribution deals with the ground penetrating radar imaging of targets embedded in a visually opaque circular structure. The problem has practical relevance in civil engineering and archeological prospections, where structures of interest such as columns or pillars may have to be inspected in non-invasive way in order to detect the possible presence of anomalies (e.g. cracks, water infiltrations, and so on). In this framework, we investigate the possibility to inspect the circular region of interest thanks to a radar system composed by two antennas that are in contact with the structure and rotate simultaneously around it in order to illuminate and measure the field scattered by buried objects from multiple directions. Two different measurement strategies are examined. The first one is the multimonostatic configuration where the backscattered signal is collected by the transmitting antenna itself, as it moves along the circular observation line. The second acquisition strategy is the multibistatic one, with the transmitting and receiving antennas shifted by a constant angular offset of ninety degrees as they move around the column. From the mathematical viewpoint, the imaging problem is formulated as a linear inverse scattering one holding under Born approximation [1]. Furthermore, the Green's function of a homogeneous medium [2] is used to simplify the evaluation of the kernel of the integral equation. The inverse problem is then solved via the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition algorithm [3] in order to obtain a regularized solution. Tomographic reconstructions based on full-wave synthetic data generated by the Finite Difference Time Domain code GPRmax2D [4] are shown to assess the effectiveness of the reconstruction process. REFERENCES [1] W. C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media, IEEE Press, 1995. [2] R. F. Harrington, Time harmonic electromagnetic waves, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1961. [3] M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to

  15. Contribution to classification of buried objects based on acoustic impedance matching.

    PubMed

    Stepanić, J; Wüstenberg, H; Krstelj, V; Mrasek, H

    2003-03-01

    Determination of material the buried objects are made of could contribute significantly to their recognition, or classification. This is important in detecting buried antipersonnel landmines within the context of humanitarian demining, as well as in a variety of other applications. In this article the concept has been formulated of the approach to buried object's material determination starting with ultrasonic impulse propagation analysis in a particular testing set configuration. The impulse propagates through a characterized transfer material in such a way that a part of it, a reflected wave, carries the information about the buried object's surface material acoustic impedance. The limit of resolution capability is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated and the influencing factors described. Among these, the contact between clean surfaces of the transfer material and buried object is emphasized. PMID:12565075

  16. Buried Object Detection Method Using Optimum Frequency Range in Extremely Shallow Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Abe, Touma

    2011-07-01

    We propose a new detection method for buried objects using the optimum frequency response range of the corresponding vibration velocity. Flat speakers and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used for noncontact acoustic imaging in the extremely shallow underground. The exploration depth depends on the sound pressure, but it is usually less than 10 cm. Styrofoam, wood (silver fir), and acrylic boards of the same size, different size styrofoam boards, a hollow toy duck, a hollow plastic container, a plastic container filled with sand, a hollow steel can and an unglazed pot are used as buried objects which are buried in sand to about 2 cm depth. The imaging procedure of buried objects using the optimum frequency range is given below. First, the standardized difference from the average vibration velocity is calculated for all scan points. Next, using this result, underground images are made using a constant frequency width to search for the frequency response range of the buried object. After choosing an approximate frequency response range, the difference between the average vibration velocity for all points and that for several points that showed a clear response is calculated for the final confirmation of the optimum frequency range. Using this optimum frequency range, we can obtain the clearest image of the buried object. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method. In particular, a clear image of the buried object was obtained when the SLDV image was unclear.

  17. Detection and Classification of Buried Metallic Objects UX-1225

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Frank; Smith, Torquil; Becker, Alex; Gasperikova, Erika

    2005-03-31

    In summary the technical objectives of this project were: (1) To develop and demonstrate a methodology for the quantitative evaluation of existing active electromagnetic (AEM) systems and for the design of new systems. (2) To implement a new methodology for optimizing an AEM system for detecting and classifying UXO of a given class in a specified geologic setting and in a given noise environment. (3) To design and build a prototype of an active EM system for detecting and characterizing a metallic object in the ground.

  18. Physical Modelling on Detecting Buried Object Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of electrical resistivity method (ERM) for buried object detection and its relationship due to the different stiffness of material. In the past, the conventional method to detect the buried structure was face some limitation due to the time and cost. For example, previous approach related to the trial and error excavation has always expose to some risky outcome due to the uncertainties of the buried object location. Hence, this study introduced an alternative technique with particular reference to resistivity method to detect and evaluate the buried object with different strength of stiffness. The experiment was performed based on field miniature model (small scale study) using soil trial embankment made by lateritic soil and various concrete cube strengths (grade 20, 25 and 30) representing buried object with different conditions. 2D electrical resistivity test (electrical resistivity imaging) was perform using ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 during the data acquisition while the raw data was process using RES2DINV software. It was found that the electrical resistivity method was able to detect the buried concrete structures targeted based on the contrast of the electrical resistivity image produced. Moreover, three different strength of concrete cube were able to be differentiated based on the electrical resistivity values (ERV) obtained. This study found that the ERV of concrete cube for grade 20, 25 and 30 were 170 Ωm, 227 Ωm and 503 Ωm, respectively. Hence, this study shows that the ERV has a strong relationship with different stiffness of material thus applicable to be a useful alternative tool in underground structure detection.

  19. Buried object detection using handheld WEMI with task-driven extended functions of multiple instances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Matthew; Zare, Alina; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Many effective supervised discriminative dictionary learning methods have been developed in the literature. However, when training these algorithms, precise ground-truth of the training data is required to provide very accurate point-wise labels. Yet, in many applications, accurate labels are not always feasible. This is especially true in the case of buried object detection in which the size of the objects are not consistent. In this paper, a new multiple instance dictionary learning algorithm for detecting buried objects using a handheld WEMI sensor is detailed. The new algorithm, Task Driven Extended Functions of Multiple Instances, can overcome data that does not have very precise point-wise labels and still learn a highly discriminative dictionary. Results are presented and discussed on measured WEMI data.

  20. Comparison of broadband and hyperspectral thermal infrared imaging of buried threat objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve B.; Diaz, Alejandra U.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2013-06-01

    Previous research by many groups has shown that broad-band thermal infrared (TIR) imagers can detect buried explosive threat devices, such as unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Broad-band detection measures the apparent temperature - an average over the wave band of the product of the true soil surface temperature and the emissivity. Broad-band detection suffers from inconsistent performance (low signal, high clutter rates), due in part to diurnal variations, environmental and meteorological conditions, and soil surface effects. It has been suggested that hyperspectral TIR imaging might have improved performance since it can, in principle, allow extraction of the wavelength-dependent emissivity and the true soil surface temperature. This would allow the surface disturbance effects to be separated from the soil column (bulk) effects. A significant, and as yet unanswered, question is whether hyperspectral TIR images provide better detection capability (higher probability of detection and/or lower false alarm rate) than do broad-band thermal images. TIR hyperspectral image data of threat objects, buried and surface-laid in bare soil, were obtained in arid, desert-like conditions over full diurnal cycles for several days. Regions of interest containing threat objects and backgrounds were extracted throughout the time period. Simulated broad-band images were derived from the hyperspectral images. The diurnal variation of the images was studied. Hyperspectral was found to provide some advantage over broad-band imaging in detection of buried threat objects for the limited data set studied.

  1. Buried object detection by means of a Lp Banach-space inversion procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estatico, Claudio; Fedeli, Alessandro; Pastorino, Matteo; Randazzo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic inspection techniques are becoming powerful tools for buried object detection and subsurface prospection in several applicative fields, such as civil engineering and archeology. However, the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the underlying inverse problem make the development of efficient imaging techniques a very challenging task. In the present paper, an algorithm based on a regularizing approach in Lp Banach spaces is proposed for tackling such problems. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by means of numerical simulations in a noisy environment aimed at evaluating the reconstruction capabilities with respect to the choice of several model parameters. The reported results show that, for small targets, the use of Lp Banach spaces with 1 < p < 2 allows to obtain a better localization of different buried scatterers.

  2. Sequential feature selection for detecting buried objects using forward looking ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Darren; Stone, Kevin; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Luke, Robert H.; Burns, Brian P.

    2016-05-01

    Forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) has the benefit of detecting objects at a significant standoff distance. The FLGPR signal is radiated over a large surface area and the radar signal return is often weak. Improving detection, especially for buried in road targets, while maintaining an acceptable false alarm rate remains to be a challenging task. Various kinds of features have been developed over the years to increase the FLGPR detection performance. This paper focuses on investigating the use of as many features as possible for detecting buried targets and uses the sequential feature selection technique to automatically choose the features that contribute most for improving performance. Experimental results using data collected at a government test site are presented.

  3. A label propagation approach for detecting buried objects in handheld GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Graham; Frigui, Hichem

    2016-05-01

    Detection of buried landmines and other explosive objects using ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been investigated for almost two decades and several classifiers have been developed. Most of these methods are based on the supervised learning paradigm where labeled target and clutter signatures are needed to train a classifier to discriminate between the two classes. Typically, large and diverse labeled training samples are needed to improve the performance of the classifier by overcoming noise and adding robustness and generalization to unseen examples. Unfortunately, even though unlabeled GPR data may be abundant, labeled data are often available in small quantities as the labeling process is tedious and can be ambiguous for most of the data. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting landmines and buried objects that uses unlabeled data to help labeled data in the classification process. Our algorithm is graph-based and propagates the nodes labels to neighboring nodes according to their proximity in the feature space. For labeled data, we use a set of prototypes that are extracted from a small set of labeled training samples. For unlabeled data, we use a collection of signatures that are extracted from the vicinity of the alarm being tested. This choice is based on the assumption that many spatially close signatures are expected to have similar features and thus, unlabeled samples can create dense regions that link different regions of the labeled samples and propagate their labels to test samples. In other words, unlabeled samples are explored to create a context for each test alarm. To validate the proposed label propagation based classifier, we use it to detect buried explosive objects in GPR data collected by an experimental hand held demonstrator. We show that our approach is robust and computationally efficient to be used for both target discrimination and prescreening.

  4. A fisher vector representation of GPR data for detecting buried objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karem, Andrew; Khalifa, Amine B.; Frigui, Hichem

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method, based on the Fisher Vector (FV), for detecting buried explosive objects using ground- penetrating radar (GPR) data. First, low-level dense SIFT features are extracted from a grid covering a region of interest (ROIs). ROIs are identified as regions with high-energy along the (down-track, depth) dimensions of the 3-D GPR cube, or with high-energy along the (cross-track, depth) dimensions. Next, we model the training data (in the SIFT feature space) by a mixture of Gaussian components. Then, we construct FV descriptors based on the Fisher Kernel. The Fisher Kernel characterizes low-level features from an ROI by their deviation from a generative model. The deviation is the gradient of the ROI log-likelihood with respect to the generative model parameters. The vectorial representation of all the deviations is called the Fisher Vector. FV is a generalization of the standard Bag of Words (BoW) method, which provides a framework to map a set of local descriptors to a global feature vector. It is more efficient to compute than the BoW since it relies on a significantly smaller codebook. In addition, mapping a GPR signature into one global feature vector using this technique makes it more efficient to classify using simple and fast linear classifiers such as Support Vector Machines. The proposed approach is applied to detect buried explosive objects using GPR data. The selected data were accumulated across multiple dates and multiple test sites by a vehicle mounted mine detector (VMMD) using GPR sensor. This data consist of a diverse set of conventional landmines and other buried explosive objects consisting of varying shapes, metal content, and burial depths. The performance of the proposed approach is analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and is compared to other state-of-the-art feature representation methods.

  5. Detection of buried mines and explosive objects using dual-band thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepley, Jason J.; Averill, Michael T.

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate the development and use of novel image processing methods to combine dual-band (MWIR and LWIR) images from SELEX GALILEO's Condor II camera to extract characteristics of observed scenes comprising buried mines and explosive objects. We discuss the development of a statistical processing technique to extract the different characteristics of the two bands. We further present a statistical classifier used to detect targets on independently trained images with a high detection probability and low false negative rates and discuss methods to mitigate the impact of false positives through the selective processing of image regions and the contextual interpretation of the scene content.

  6. Two dimensional template matching method for buried object discrimination in GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2009-05-01

    In this study discrimination of two different metallic object classes were studied, utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Feature sets of both classes have almost the same information for both Metal Detector (MD) and GPR data. There were no evident features those are easily discriminate classes. Background removal has been applied to original B-Scan data and then a normalization process was performed. Image thresholding was applied to segment B-Scan GPR images. So, main hyperbolic shape of buried object reflection was extracted and then a morphological process was performed optionally. Templates of each class representatives have been obtained and they were searched whether they match with true class or not. Two data sets were examined experimentally. Actually they were obtained in different time and burial for the same objects. Considerably high discrimination performance was obtained which was not possible by using individual Metal Detector data.

  7. Image processing techniques for detection of buried objects with infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón-Correa, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the principles of infrared thermography and its application to humanitarian demining in the world as well as the factors influencing its application in a country like Colombia which suffers badly the problem posed by antipersonnel mines. The main factors that affect the images taken by different sensors are: day time, mine size and material, installation angle, object's burial depth, moisture, emissivity, wind, rain, as well as other objects in the proximity shadowing the images. Infrared image processing methods and results of tests done in different sites of the country such as Cartagena, Bogota, and Tolemaida are also shown. Finally, a method for the detection of the presence of a buried object is presented with its successful results.

  8. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lihong; Qin, Yao; Ren, Xiaozhen; Wang, Qifu

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA) system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results. PMID:26690146

  9. Estimating the impulse response of buried objects from ground-penetrating radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Roth, Friedrich; Verhaegen, Michel

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a novel deconvolution algorithm designed to estimate the impulse response of buried objects based on ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. The impulse response is a rich source of information about the buried object and therefore very useful for intelligent signal processing of GPR data. For example, it can be used in a target classification scheme to reduce the false alarm rate in demining operations. Estimating the target impulse response from the incident and scattered radar signals is a basic deconvolution problem. However, noise sensitivity and ground dispersion prevent the use of simple deconvolution methods like linear least squares deconvolution. Instead, a new deconvolution algorithm has been developed that computes estimates adhering to a physical impulse response model and that can be characterized by a limited number of parameters. It is shown that the new algorithm is robust with respect to noise and that it can deal with ground dispersion. The general performance of the algorithm has been tested on data generated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The results demonstrate that the algorithm can distinguish between different dielectric and metal targets, making it very suitable for use in a classification scheme. Moreover, since the estimated impulse responses have physical meaning they can be related to target characteristics such as size and material properties. A direct application of this is the estimation of the permittivity of a dielectric target from its impulse response and that of a calibration target.

  10. Three-dimensional imaging of buried objects in very lossy earth by inversion of VETEM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Aydiner, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    The very early time electromagnetic system (VETEM) is an efficient tool for the detection of buried objects in very lossy earth, which allows a deeper penetration depth compared to the ground-penetrating radar. In this paper, the inversion of VETEM data is investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) inverse scattering techniques, where multiple frequencies are applied in the frequency range from 0-5 MHz. For small and moderately sized problems, the Born approximation and/or the Born iterative method have been used with the aid of the singular value decomposition and/or the conjugate gradient method in solving the linearized integral equations. For large-scale problems, a localized 3-D inversion method based on the Born approximation has been proposed for the inversion of VETEM data over a large measurement domain. Ways to process and to calibrate the experimental VETEM data are discussed to capture the real physics of buried objects. Reconstruction examples using synthesized VETEM data and real-world VETEM data are given to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  11. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Lihong; Qin, Yao; Ren, Xiaozhen; Wang, Qifu

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA) system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results. PMID:26690146

  12. GPR Imaging for Deeply Buried Objects: A Comparative Study Based on FDTD Models and Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, roger; Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak; Sadjadpour, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Conventional use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is hampered by variations in background environmental conditions, such as water content in soil, resulting in poor repeatability of results over long periods of time when the radar pulse characteristics are kept the same. Target objects types might include voids, tunnels, unexploded ordinance, etc. The long-term objective of this work is to develop methods that would extend the use of GPR under various environmental and soil conditions provided an optimal set of radar parameters (such as frequency, bandwidth, and sensor configuration) are adaptively employed based on the ground conditions. Towards that objective, developing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) GPR models, verified by experimental results, would allow us to develop analytical and experimental techniques to control radar parameters to obtain consistent GPR images with changing ground conditions. Reported here is an attempt at developing 20 and 3D FDTD models of buried targets verified by two different radar systems capable of operating over different soil conditions. Experimental radar data employed were from a custom designed high-frequency (200 MHz) multi-static sensor platform capable of producing 3-D images, and longer wavelength (25 MHz) COTS radar (Pulse EKKO 100) capable of producing 2-D images. Our results indicate different types of radar can produce consistent images.

  13. Parameterisation of non-homogeneities in buried object detection by means of thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanić, Josip; Malinovec, Marina; Švaić, Srećko; Krstelj, Vjera

    2004-05-01

    Landmines and their natural environment form a system of complex dynamics with variable characteristics. A manifestation of that complexity within the context of thermography-based landmines detection is excessive noise in thermograms. That has severely suppressed application of thermography in landmines detection for the purposes of humanitarian demining. (To be differentiated from military demining and demining for military operations other than war [Land Mine Detection DOD's Research Program Needs a Comprehensive Evaluation Strategy, US GAO Report, GAO-01 239, 2001; International Mine Action Standards, Chapter 4.--Glossary. Available at: < http://www.mineactionstandards.org/IMAS_archive/Final/04.10.pdf>].) The discrepancy between the existing role and the actual potential of thermography in humanitarian demining motivated systematic approach to sources of noise in thermograms of buried objects. These sources are variations in mine orientation relative to soil normal, which modify the shape of mine signature on thermograms, as well as non-homogeneities in soil and vegetation layer above the mine, which modify the overall quality of thermograms. This paper analyses the influence of variable mines, and more generally the influence of axially symmetric buried object orientation on the quality of its signature on thermograms. The following two angles have been extracted to serve as parameters describing variation in orientation: (i) θ--angle between the local vertical axis and mine symmetry axis and (ii) ψ--angle between local vertical axis and soil surface normal. Their influence is compared to the influence of (iii) d--the object depth change, which serves as control parameter. The influences are quantified and ranked within a statistically planned experiment. The analysis has proved that among the parameters listed, the most influential one is statistical interaction dψ, followed with the statistical interaction dθ. According to statistical tests, these two

  14. Detection of shallow buried objects using an autoregressive model on the ground penetrating radar signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Daniel P.; Ho, K. C.

    2013-06-01

    The detection of shallow buried low-metal content objects using ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a challenging task. This is because these targets are right underneath the ground and the ground bounce reflection interferes with their detections. They do not create distinctive hyperbolic signatures as required by most existing GPR detection algorithms due to their special geometric shapes and low metal content. This paper proposes the use of the Autoregressive (AR) modeling method for the detection of these targets. We fit an A-scan of the GPR data to an AR model. It is found that the fitting error will be small when such a target is present and large when it is absent. The ratio of the energy in an Ascan before and after AR model fitting is used as the confidence value for detection. We also apply AR model fitting over scans and utilize the fitting residual energies over several scans to form a feature vector for improving the detections. Using the data collected from a government test site, the proposed method can improve the detection of this kind of targets by 30% compared to the pre-screener, at a false alarm rate of 0.002/m2.

  15. Detection of deeply buried non-metal objects by ground penetrating radar using non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Daniel; Ho, K. C.

    2015-05-01

    The ground penetrating radar (GPR) signal for a deeply buried non-metal object is weak and often does not have a hyperbolic signature, making it difficult to detect with high confidence. This paper takes a blind source separation approach by using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to improve the detection of deeply buried non-metal objects. The proposed approach interprets the GPR signal return as the sum of two independent components from two different sources, the background and the object. NMF enables the separation of the object signal component from the composite and thereby improves the detection performance. Preliminary results from a test site in the United States indicate that the probability of detecting these objects is improved by more than 20% compared to the pre-screener, at a false alarm rate of 0.003/m2.

  16. On the Analysis Methods for the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Response of a Buried Objects*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljak, Dragan; Šesnić, Silvestar; Cvetković, Mario

    2014-05-01

    There has been a continuous interest in the analysis of ground-penetrating radar systems and related applications in civil engineering [1]. Consequently, a deeper insight of scattering phenomena occurring in a lossy half-space, as well as the development of sophisticated numerical methods based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Method of Moments (MoM) and various hybrid methods, is required, e.g. [2], [3]. The present paper deals with certain techniques for time and frequency domain analysis, respectively, of buried conducting and dielectric objects. Time domain analysis is related to the assessment of a transient response of a horizontal straight thin wire buried in a lossy half-space using a rigorous antenna theory (AT) approach. The AT approach is based on the space-time integral equation of the Pocklington type (time domain electric field integral equation for thin wires). The influence of the earth-air interface is taken into account via the simplified reflection coefficient arising from the Modified Image Theory (MIT). The obtained results for the transient current induced along the electrode due to the transmitted plane wave excitation are compared to the numerical results calculated via an approximate transmission line (TL) approach and the AT approach based on the space-frequency variant of the Pocklington integro-differential approach, respectively. It is worth noting that the space-frequency Pocklington equation is numerically solved via the Galerkin-Bubnov variant of the Indirect Boundary Element Method (GB-IBEM) and the corresponding transient response is obtained by the aid of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The results calculated by means of different approaches agree satisfactorily. Frequency domain analysis is related to the assessment of frequency domain response of dielectric sphere using the full wave model based on the set of coupled electric field integral

  17. Cylindrical-wave approach for the electromagnetic scattering problem by buried two-dimensional objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.; Frezza, F.

    2009-04-01

    A spectral-domain method, for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane-wave scattering by a finite set of perfectly-conducting or dielectric cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space, has been developed. The scattered field is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves, and use is made of the plane-wave spectrum to take into account the reflection and transmission of such waves by the interface. The problem is solved for both the near- and the far-field regions, for TM and TE polarizations. In this work we briefly resume the theoretical basis of our approach. For configurations in which more obstacles are buried in the ground, and they are near to one another, we give details about the convergence rate of our method, and about the properties of our algorithms for the integration of cylindrical functions. With our technique it is possible to simulate two-dimensional buried obstacles of general shape, by means of a suitable set of circular-section cylinders: in this paper we show preliminary results of simulations carried out using arrays of same-radius circular cylinders, and of different-radius circular cylinders.

  18. Cloaking of arbitrarily shaped objects with homogeneous coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestiere, Carlo; Dal Negro, Luca; Miano, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    We present a theory for the cloaking of arbitrarily shaped objects and demonstrate electromagnetic scattering cancellation through designed homogeneous coatings. First, in the small-particle limit, we expand the dipole moment of a coated object in terms of its resonant modes. By zeroing the numerator of the resulting rational function, we accurately predict the permittivity values of the coating layer that abates the total scattered power. Then, we extend the applicability of the method beyond the small-particle limit, deriving the radiation corrections of the scattering-cancellation permittivity within a perturbation approach. Our method permits the design of invisibility cloaks for irregularly shaped devices such as complex sensors and detectors.

  19. Detection of Buried Objects by Means of a SAP Technique: Comparing MUSIC- and SVR-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, S.; Pajewski, L.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Schettini, G.

    2012-04-01

    This work is focused on the application of a Sub-Array Processing (SAP) technique to the detection of metallic cylindrical objects embedded in a dielectric half-space. The identification of buried cables, pipes, conduits, and other cylindrical utilities, is an important problem that has been extensively studied in the last years. Most commonly used approaches are based on the use of electromagnetic sensing: a set of antennas illuminates the ground and the collected echo is analyzed in order to extract information about the scenario and to localize the sought objects [1]. In a SAP approach, algorithms for the estimation of Directions of Arrival (DOAs) are employed [2]: they assume that the sources (in this paper, currents induced on buried targets) are in the far-field region of the receiving array, so that the received wavefront can be considered as planar, and the main angular direction of the field can be estimated. However, in electromagnetic sensing of buried objects, the scatterers are usually quite near to the antennas. Nevertheless, by dividing the whole receiving array in a suitable number of sub-arrays, and by finding a dominant DOA for each one, it is possible to localize objects that are in the far-field of the sub-array, although being in the near-field of the array. The DOAs found by the sub-arrays can be triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. In this work, the performances of two different DOA algorithms are compared. In particular, a MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-type method [3] and Support Vector Regression (SVR) based approach [4] are employed. The results of a Cylindrical-Wave Approach forward solver are used as input data of the detection procedure [5]. To process the crossing pattern, the region of interest is divided in small windows, and a Poisson model is adopted for the statistical distribution of intersections in the windows. Hypothesis testing procedures are used (imposing

  20. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Detection of Buried Objects Using Single Sided Backscattered Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Mary; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Wells, Kevin; Bradley, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Detection of buried improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a delicate task, leading to a need to develop sensitive stand-off detection technology. The shape, composition and size of the IEDs can be expected to be revised over time in an effort to overcome increasingly sophisticated detection methods. As an example, for the most part, landmines are found through metal detection which has led to increasing use of non-ferrous materials such as wood or plastic containers for chemical based explosives being developed. Methodology Monte Carlo simulations have been undertaken considering three different commercially available detector materials (hyperpure-Ge (HPGe), lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr) and thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)), applied at a stand-off distance of 50 cm from the surface and burial depths of 0, 5 and 10 cm, with sand as the obfuscating medium. Target materials representing medium density wood and mild steel have been considered. Each detector has been modelled as a 10 cm thick cylinder with a 20 cm diameter. Principal Findings It appears that HPGe represents the most promising detector for this application. Although it was not the highest density material studied, its excellent energy resolving capability leads to the highest quality spectra from which detection decisions can be inferred. Conclusions The simulation work undertaken here suggests that a vehicle-born threat detection system could be envisaged using a single betatron and a series of detectors operating in parallel observing the space directly in front of the vehicle path. Furthermore, results show that non-ferrous materials such as wood can be effectively discerned in such remote-operated detection system, with the potential to apply a signature analysis template matching technique for real-time analysis of such data. PMID:26348619

  1. Magnetic Gradient Horizontal Operator (MHGO) useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth: cultural heritage (Villa degli Antonini, Rota Rio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Several factors were taken into consideration in order to appropriately tailor the geophysical explorations at the cultural heritage. Given the fact that each site has been neglected for a long time and in recent times used as an illegal dumping area, we thoroughly evaluated for this investigation the advantages and limitations of each specific technique, and the general conditions and history of the site. We took into account the extension of the areas to be investigated and the need for rapid data acquisition and processing. Furthermore, the survey required instrumentation with sensitivity to small background contrasts and as little as possible affected by background noise sources. In order to ascertain the existence and location of underground buried walls, a magnetic gradiometer survey (MAG) was planned. The map of the magnetic anomalies is not computed to reduction at the pole (RTP), but with a magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO). The magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO) generates from a grid of vertical gradient a grid of steepest slopes (i.e. the magnitude of the gradient) at any point on the surface. The MHGO is reported as a number (rise over run) rather than degrees, and the direction is opposite to that of the slope. The MHGO is zero for a horizontal surface, and approaches infinity as the slope approaches the vertical. The gradient data are especially useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth. The map reveals some details of the anomalies of the geomagnetic field. Magnetic anomalies due to walls are more evident than in the total intensity map, whereas anomalies due to concentrations of debris are very weak. In this work we describe the results of an investigation obtained with magnetometry investigation for two archaeological sites: "Villa degli Antonini" (Genzano, Rome) and Rota Ria (Mugnano in Teverina, Viterbo). Since the main goal of the investigation was to understand the nature of magnetic anomalies with cost

  2. Method of coating the interior surface of hollow objects with a diffusion coating

    DOEpatents

    Knowles, Shawn D.; Senor, David J.; Forbes, Steven V.; Johnson, Roger N.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-03-15

    A method for forming a diffusion coating on the interior of surface of a hollow object wherein a filament, extending through a hollow object and adjacent to the interior surface of the object, is provided, with a coating material, in a vacuum. An electrical current is then applied to the filament to resistively heat the filament to a temperature sufficient to transfer the coating material from the filament to the interior surface of the object. The filament is electrically isolated from the object while the filament is being resistively heated. Preferably, the filament is provided as a tungsten filament or molybdenum filament. Preferably, the coating materials are selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni P, Pb, Pd, Pr, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Tl, Y, Yb, Zn, and combinations thereof. The invention additionally allows for the formation of nitrides, hydrides, or carbides of all the possible coating materials, where such compounds exist, by providing a partial pressure of nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or combination thereof, within the vacuum.

  3. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  4. Hunting for Buried Treasure: Prospecting for a Population of Compact Objects in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; DeWitt, C.; Gosling, A. J.; Blundell, K.; Blum, R.; Olsen, K.; Sarajedini, A.

    2010-03-01

    I describe the observational campaign we have undertaken to determine the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained to date includes a deep Chandra survey; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey; and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. Astrometric cross-correlation of our ISAAC imaging with the revised X-ray source position catalogs from Muno et al. (2003, 2006) results in a statistically significant excess in the number of candidate IR counterparts to the 130 X-ray sources encompassed within our 26 ISAAC fields. Cross-correlation of our ISPI imaging of the central 17' square around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 Chandra sources, with the X-ray catalog reveals 2214 candidate IR counterparts. We explore the likelihood of these astrometric matches being actual physical counterparts and find that, statistically, 443+/-56 are likely to be true counterparts. We categorize these matches by X-ray and IR characteristics (hardness, colour, magnitude). After statistical analysis, we find that by selecting carefully from the subset of X-ray hard, highly reddened candidate matches, we can identify 91 IR sources which have a 45% probability of being true physical counterparts. In both the ISAAC and ISPI data we find an over-abundance of relatively unextinguished, bright, blue candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources as compared to the IR field star population. It is likely that these matches are dominated by local, massive X-ray active stars. We will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to perform a spectroscopic survey of the identified candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 Galactic Center Survey will have a dramatic impact on our knowledge of the Galactic accreting binary

  5. A comparison of robust principal component analysis techniques for buried object detection in downward looking GPR sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Rice, Joseph; Masarik, Matthew; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards are a deadly threat in modern conflicts; hence, detecting them before they cause injury or death is of paramount importance. One method of buried explosive hazard discovery relies on data collected from ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensors. Threat detection with downward looking GPR is challenging due to large returns from non-target objects and clutter. This leads to a large number of false alarms (FAs), and since the responses of clutter and targets can form very similar signatures, classifier design is not trivial. One approach to combat these issues uses robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to enhance target signatures while suppressing clutter and background responses, though there are many versions of RPCA. This work applies some of these RPCA techniques to GPR sensor data and evaluates their merit using the peak signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the RPCA-processed B-scans. Experimental results on government furnished data show that while some of the RPCA methods yield similar results, there are indeed some methods that outperform others. Furthermore, we show that the computation time required by the different RPCA methods varies widely, and the selection of tuning parameters in the RPCA algorithms has a major effect on the peak SCR.

  6. A method of evolving novel feature extraction algorithms for detecting buried objects in FLIR imagery using genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paino, A.; Keller, J.; Popescu, M.; Stone, K.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach that uses Genetic Programming (GP) to evolve novel feature extraction algorithms for greyscale images. Our motivation is to create an automated method of building new feature extraction algorithms for images that are competitive with commonly used human-engineered features, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). The evolved feature extraction algorithms are functions defined over the image space, and each produces a real-valued feature vector of variable length. Each evolved feature extractor breaks up the given image into a set of cells centered on every pixel, performs evolved operations on each cell, and then combines the results of those operations for every cell using an evolved operator. Using this method, the algorithm is flexible enough to reproduce both LBP and HOG features. The dataset we use to train and test our approach consists of a large number of pre-segmented image "chips" taken from a Forward Looking Infrared Imagery (FLIR) camera mounted on the hood of a moving vehicle. The goal is to classify each image chip as either containing or not containing a buried object. To this end, we define the fitness of a candidate solution as the cross-fold validation accuracy of the features generated by said candidate solution when used in conjunction with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. In order to validate our approach, we compare the classification accuracy of an SVM trained using our evolved features with the accuracy of an SVM trained using mainstream feature extraction algorithms, including LBP and HOG.

  7. Directional location of buried objects using three-component magnetic borehole data demonstrated for the case of a drill string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, S.; Virgil, C.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main applications of magnetic field measurements in boreholes is the detection of unexploded ordnance or buried utility structures like pipes or tiebacks. Even though the advantage of fully oriented magnetic vector measurements have long been recognized and could significantly reduce costs and risks, the tools used for those purposes typically measure only the total magnetic field, the vertical and horizontal components or gradients thereof. The Göttingen Bohrloch Magnetometer uses three fibre optic gyros to record its orientation and thus enables us to compute high-quality three-component magnetic vector data regardless of borehole orientation. The measurements described in this paper were run in the scientific borehole Cuxhaven Lüdingworth 1/1A, which was drilled as a part of the `Coastal Aquifer Test field' project to study the dynamics of the saltwater/freshwater interface. As the drill string got stuck during drilling of the first borehole, a second hole was drilled in the immediate vicinity. The drill string lies at a depth between 80 and 114 m at a distance of only 2.5 m southeast of the borehole used for the measurements, making it an ideal target to demonstrate the benefits of vector magnetic surveys. Although the theories to calculate magnetic fields of objects with different shapes is well established and do not need to be tested, they almost exclusively include approximations of the geometry. It is not obvious whether these approximations are suited to describe real data, or whether additional effects or refinements have to be considered. We use both a simplified monopole model and a cylinder model to fit the data and are able to determine the position of the drill string within a statistical error of approximately 10 cm. Additionally, we show that the location of the drill string could not have been determined by measurements of the total field or its horizontal and vertical component alone and that those methods would require the drilling

  8. Effects of using inclined parametric echosounding on sub-bottom acoustic imaging and advances in buried object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Held, Philipp; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    This study reports an adaptation of a parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud, providing a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptions to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination (1-15°, 30°, 45° and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. Data were acquired at 18 m water depth at a study site characterized by a flat, muddy seafloor where a 0.1 m diameter power cable lies 1-2 m below the seafloor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud decreases strongly at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanishes beyond 5°. As a consequence, the backscatter pattern of the buried cable is very pronounced in acoustic images gathered at 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° incidence. The size of the cable echo pattern increases linearly with incidence. These effects are attributed to reflection loss from layered mud at larger incidence and to the scattering of the 0.1 m diameter buried cable. Data analyses support the visual impression of superior detection of the cable with an up to 2.6-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio at 40° incidence compared to the vertical incidence case.

  9. The Study of Indicatrices of Space Object Coatings in a Controlled Laboratory Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshkin, N.; Burlak, N.; Petrov, M.; Strakhova, S.

    The indicatrices of light scattering by radiation balance coatings used on space objects (SO) were determined in the laboratory experiment in a controlled condition. The laboratory device for the physical simulation of photometric observations of space objects in orbit, which was used in this case to study optical properties of coating samples, is described. The features of light reflection off plane coating samples, including multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, metal surfaces coated with several layers of enamel EP-140, special polyacrylate enamel AK-512 and matte finish Tp-CO-2, were determined. The indicated coatings are compound reflectors which exhibit both diffuse and specular reflections. The data obtained are to be used in the development of computer optical-geometric models of space objects or their fragments (space debris) to interpret the photometry results for real space objects.

  10. Preservation of anomalously high porosity in deeply buried sandstones by grain-coating chlorite: Examples from the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenberg, S.N. )

    1993-07-01

    Five Lower to Middle Jurassic sandstone reservoirs from the Norwegian sector provide examples of deep porosity preservation caused by grain-coating, authigenic chlorite. Wide porosity variations in clean sandstones correlate with an abundance of grain-coating chlorite and consequent inhibition of quarts cementation. Maximum porosities tend to decrease with increasing depth but generally are 10-15% higher than would be predicted from regional trends of mean porosity vs. depth. It is proposed in this paper that the high chlorite content of the porous zones reflects syndepositional concentration of Fe-rich marine clays analogous to minerals of the modern verdine facies. Fe-clay mineralization would have been localized where Fe-rich river water was discharged into the sea. The syndepositional clays were transformed during burial diagenesis into grain coatings of radially oriented chlorite crystals. Petrographic relationships indicate that these coatings grew mainly before the beginning of quartz cementation and feldspar grain dissolution (probably within the first 2 km of burial) but after grain contacts had become adjusted by mechanical compaction. The Norwegian examples demonstrate that a wide range of nearshore marine sand-body types is susceptible to chlorite mineralization. The distribution of anomalous porosity and the proportion of the net sand affected depend upon sedimentary facies architecture and the pattern of discharge of Fe-rich river water during sand deposition. This phenomenon can be critically important for hydrocarbon exploration because it can provide good reservoir quality at depths far below the [open quotes]economic basement[close quotes] originally defined on the basis of sandstones lacking chlorite coatings. 58 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fast method to compute scattering by a buried object under a randomly rough surface: PILE combined with FB-SA.

    PubMed

    Bourlier, Christophe; Kubické, Gildas; Déchamps, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    A fast, exact numerical method based on the method of moments (MM) is developed to calculate the scattering from an object below a randomly rough surface. Déchamps et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23, 359 (2006)] have recently developed the PILE (propagation-inside-layer expansion) method for a stack of two one-dimensional rough interfaces separating homogeneous media. From the inversion of the impedance matrix by block (in which two impedance matrices of each interface and two coupling matrices are involved), this method allows one to calculate separately and exactly the multiple-scattering contributions inside the layer in which the inverses of the impedance matrices of each interface are involved. Our purpose here is to apply this method for an object below a rough surface. In addition, to invert a matrix of large size, the forward-backward spectral acceleration (FB-SA) approach of complexity O(N) (N is the number of unknowns on the interface) proposed by Chou and Johnson [Radio Sci.33, 1277 (1998)] is applied. The new method, PILE combined with FB-SA, is tested on perfectly conducting circular and elliptic cylinders located below a dielectric rough interface obeying a Gaussian process with Gaussian and exponential height autocorrelation functions. PMID:18382488

  12. Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two circular features on the plains of northern Utopia. A common sight on the martian northern plains, these rings indicate the locations of buried impact craters.

    Location near: 65.1oN, 261.2oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  13. Role of time and space variability of moisture and density of sand for thermal detection of buried objects: modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Swiderski, Waldemar; Walczak, W. T.; Usowicz, B.

    1999-03-01

    In order to reduce a serious problem connected with the buried mines, various detection technologies are used. The main disadvantage of applying the IRT method is presence of plenty false indications in thermograms. A simple use of IRT equipment with better temperature resolution would not help in distinguishing the mines, since noise comes not from a camera, but from soil surface. Recognizing the role of time and space variability of moisture and density of sand and possibilities to express it quantitatively plays an important role. In our model of thermal properties of the soil the volumetric unit of the soil consists of mineral and organic particles, as well as water and air. All needed parameters can be calculated. Calculations of thermal signatures of the underground objects were made basing on 2D-heat equation for the sinus type heating of the three-layer model of cylindrical geometry and cooling by convection. Measurements were made for field and laboratory stand-ups, using methodologies typical for 'single- shot' measurements as well as analyses of transient processes based on sequence of thermograms. Results of simulations and measurements confirm expectation that high level of 'radiant noises' is caused mainly by differences in the moisture and sand density levels.

  14. Potential Release of Manufactured Nano Objects During Sanding of Nano-Coated Wood Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Bekker, Cindy; Tromp, Peter; Duis, Willem B

    2016-08-01

    Increasing production and applications of manufactured nano objects (MNOs) have become a source for human exposure and therefore raise concerns and questions about the possible health effects. In this study, the potential release of nano objects, their agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) as a result of sanding of hardwood treated with MNOs-containing coating was examined. Two types of MNO-containing coating were compared with untreated hardwood that allowed the evaluation of the influence of the chemical composition on the release of particles. Furthermore, the rotation speed of the sander and the grit size of the sanding paper were varied in order to assess their influence on the release of particles.Measurements were conducted in a gas-tight chamber with a volume of 19.5 m(3) in which ventilation was minimized during experiments. Particle size distributions were assessed by scanning mobility particle sizer , aerodynamic particle sizer, and electrical low pressure impactor. Furthermore, aerosol number concentrations (Nanotracer), active surface area (LQ1), and fractionated mass (Cascade Impactor) were measured before, during, and after sanding. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis was performed to adequately characterize the morphology, size, and chemical composition of released particles.SEM/EDX analysis indicated that sanding surfaces treated with MNO-containing coating did not release the designated MNO as free primary particles. In both coatings, clusters of MNO were perceived embedded in and attached to micro-sized wood and/or coating particles created by sanding the coated surface. Real-time measurements indicated a lower release of micro-sized particles from sanding of surfaces treated with Coating I than from sanding untreated surfaces or surfaces treated with Coating II. A substantial increase in nanosized and a slight increase in micro-sized particles was perceived as the rotation speed of the sander increased. However

  15. Potential Release of Manufactured Nano Objects During Sanding of Nano-Coated Wood Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Bekker, Cindy; Tromp, Peter; Duis, Willem B

    2016-08-01

    Increasing production and applications of manufactured nano objects (MNOs) have become a source for human exposure and therefore raise concerns and questions about the possible health effects. In this study, the potential release of nano objects, their agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) as a result of sanding of hardwood treated with MNOs-containing coating was examined. Two types of MNO-containing coating were compared with untreated hardwood that allowed the evaluation of the influence of the chemical composition on the release of particles. Furthermore, the rotation speed of the sander and the grit size of the sanding paper were varied in order to assess their influence on the release of particles.Measurements were conducted in a gas-tight chamber with a volume of 19.5 m(3) in which ventilation was minimized during experiments. Particle size distributions were assessed by scanning mobility particle sizer , aerodynamic particle sizer, and electrical low pressure impactor. Furthermore, aerosol number concentrations (Nanotracer), active surface area (LQ1), and fractionated mass (Cascade Impactor) were measured before, during, and after sanding. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis was performed to adequately characterize the morphology, size, and chemical composition of released particles.SEM/EDX analysis indicated that sanding surfaces treated with MNO-containing coating did not release the designated MNO as free primary particles. In both coatings, clusters of MNO were perceived embedded in and attached to micro-sized wood and/or coating particles created by sanding the coated surface. Real-time measurements indicated a lower release of micro-sized particles from sanding of surfaces treated with Coating I than from sanding untreated surfaces or surfaces treated with Coating II. A substantial increase in nanosized and a slight increase in micro-sized particles was perceived as the rotation speed of the sander increased. However

  16. Chlorite grain coats and preservation of primary porosity in deeply buried Springer Formation and lower Morrowan sandstones, southeastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.H.; Franks, P.C.; Larese, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Petrographic studies of Upper Mississippian Springer and Lower Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) sandstones in six cores from the southeastern Anadarko basin, Caddo and Grady Counties, Oklahoma, reveal a complex diagenetic history that led to the destruction of much primary intergranular porosity. The Springer and lower Morrowan sandstones form prolific oil and gas reservoirs, despite the fine-grained nature of the rocks, the growth of authigenic clays, extensive cementation by quartz overgrowths and carbonate minerals, and burial depths of 11,500-14,800 ft. More than any other factors, the diagenetic creation and preservation of porosity are the major geologic controls on hydrocarbon production from these sandstones. Thin-section petrography and scanning electron microscopy show that porous intervals were formed mainly by extensive dissolution and leaching of detrital grains and authigenic cements. Locally, however, appreciable primary porosity was preserved in Cunningham (Springer Formation) and Primrose (Morrowan) sandstones (as much as 20% in one sample of Primrose sandstone) by the formation of chlorite grain coats on detrital quartz during the early stages of burial and diagenesis. The chlorite grain coats inhibited the occlusion of pore space by preventing pervasive cementation of the rocks by quartz overgrowths. Cross-plots of porosity versus the abundance of authigenic quartz and grain-coating chlorite document the relationship in two of the cores.

  17. Imaging an object buried in the sediment bottom of a deep sea by linearized inversion of synthetic and experimental scattered acoustic wavefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermin, R.; Lasaygues, P.; Sessarego, J. P.; Wirgin, A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the reconstruction, from measured (synthetic and experimental) data, of a 2D penetrable fluid-like cylindrical object of arbitrary cross-section imbedded in a fluid-like (sediment) half-space separated by a plane interface from another fluid half-space (deep water) wherein propagates a plane acoustic interrogating wave. The Green theorem is used to provide (1) a domain integral representation (DIR) of the scattered field and (2) a domain integral equation (DIE) for the pressure field in a test region containing the object. Both the DIE and DIR are discretized by collocation, thereby leading to a linear system of equations for the discretized pressure in the test region and a linear transform for the discretized pressure outside the test region. This is the means adopted herein for generating synthetic scattered field data. The inverse problem is linearized by replacing the (unknown) field in the test region by the (known) field which is established in the water/sediment system in the absence of the object. Using this Born approximation and minimizing the discrepancy between the measured and model scattered fields gives rise to a linear system of equations for the (unknown) discretized index-of-refraction contrast function in the test region. Due to its ill conditioned nature, the linear system is solved by a singular value decomposition technique. Images of the index-of-refraction contrast representation of the object obtained by inversion of both simulated and experimentally measured scattered field data are presented and compared.

  18. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  19. Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouli, P.; Melessanaki, K.; Giakoumaki, A.; Argyropoulos, V.; Anglos, D.

    2005-08-01

    Depth profile analysis by means of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was investigated with respect to its potential to measure the thickness of different types of thin organic films used as protective coatings on historical and archaeological metal objects. For the materials examined, acrylic varnish and microcrystalline wax, the output from a nanosecond ArF excimer laser at 193 nm was found appropriate for performing a reliable profiling of the coating films leading to accurate determination of the coating thickness on the basis of the number of laser pulses required to penetrate the coating and on the ablation etch rate of the corresponding coating material under the same irradiation conditions. Nanosecond pulses at 248 nm proved inadequate to profile the coatings because of their weak absorption at the laser wavelength. In contrast, femtosecond irradiation at 248 nm yielded well-resolved profiles as a result of efficient ablation achieved through the increased non-linear absorption induced by the high power density of the ultrashort pulses.

  20. Buried Craters of Utopia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003

    Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  1. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  2. Buried pipe design

    SciTech Connect

    Mosler, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers basic information on proper, cost-effective design of buried-pipe systems for underground fluid transportation. Examines various pipe products available. Discusses soil engineering and piping mechanics. Specific topics include pipe-wall stresses and strains; design bases; rigid- and flexible-pipe analysis; soil pressure; and longitudinal, wheel, expansive-soil, and frost loading.

  3. Penoplasty for buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chuang, J H

    1995-09-01

    Buried penis is a congenitally abnormal arrangement of the foreskin relative to the penile shaft, which results in a pseudomicropenis in an otherwise healthy, nonobese child. The author proposes a penoplasty technique appropriate for correction of this disorder, based on experience with 21 patients.

  4. Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

  5. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.

  6. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  7. Subcritical scattering from buried elastic shells.

    PubMed

    Lucifredi, Irena; Schmidt, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    Buried objects have been largely undetectable by traditional high-frequency sonars due to their insignificant bottom penetration. Further, even a high grazing angle sonar approach is vastly limited by the coverage rate dictated by the finite water depth, making the detection and classification of buried objects using low frequency, subcritical sonar an interesting alternative. On the other hand, such a concept would require classification clues different from the traditional high-resolution imaging and shadows to maintain low false alarm rates. A potential alternative, even for buried targets, is classification based on the acoustic signatures of man-made elastic targets. However, the elastic responses of buried and proud targets are significantly different. The objective of this work is to identify, analyze, and explain some of the effects of the sediment and the proximity of the seabed interface on the scattering of sound from completely and partially buried elastic shells. The analysis was performed using focused array processing of data from the GOATS98 experiment carried out jointly by MIT and SACLANTCEN, and a new hybrid modeling capability combining a virtual source-or wave-field superposition-approach with an exact spectral integral representation of the Green's functions for a stratified ocean waveguide, incorporating all multiple scattering between the object and the seabed. Among the principal results is the demonstration of the significant role of structural circumferential waves in converting incident, evanescent waves into backscattered body waves, emanating to the receivers at supercritical grazing angles, in effect making the target appear closer to the sonar than predicted by traditional ray theory.

  8. UHF ground penetration measurements of buried and partially buried trihedrals

    SciTech Connect

    Blejer, D.; Frost, C.; Scarborough, S.

    1994-12-31

    The Lincoln Laboratory ground-based rail SAR was used to collect UHF band data on buried and partially buried trihedral corner reflectors in Yuma soil. The frequency range was 0.25 to 1 GHz in descrete steps. Both HH and VV polarization data were collected in the vicinity of the pseudo-Brewster angle. The partially buried trihedrals revealed two principal components for the returned signals: (1) a surface reflected component, and (2) a ground penetrated component. A model is described for partially buried trihedrals that accounts for these two components and the model is used in estimating ground penetration parameters.

  9. Resolution requirements for thermal detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soelberg, Pierre; Storm, Jesper; Stage, Bjarne; Sorensen, Helge B.

    2000-08-01

    The thermal properties and shape of a buried land mine can, by natural means such as diurnal cycles, result in a temperature profile on the ground surface. By exploiting the presence of this thermal signature, IR imaging has demonstrated the ability to detect buried mine-like objects. Of importance to the practical success of this technology is the ability to obtain a spatial resolution which allows discrimination of mine signatures from background clutter. This paper describes findings from a study conducted to establish the clutter statistics of natural occurring backgrounds. A novel approach is presented: the use of 2D autoregressive models to detect the unnatural variations in the background caused by buried miens. With this knowledge we have developed a process to estimate the camera resolution necessary to reliably detect and discriminate a thermal signature originating from a buried mine-like object in various terrain types.

  10. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  11. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  12. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology`s threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  13. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  14. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  15. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  16. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  17. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  18. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  20. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  1. Sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.

    1990-04-01

    We are investigation a sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines. Our primary approach is sensor intrafusion. Our dual-channel passive IR methodology decouples true (corrected) surface temperature variations of 0.2{degree}C from spatially dependent surface emissivity noise. It produces surface temperature maps showing patterns of conducted heat from buried objects which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Our methodology exploits Planck's radiation law. It produces separate maps of surface emissivity variations which allow us to reduce false alarms. Our secondary approach is sensor interfusion using other methodologies. For example, an active IR CO{sub 2} laser reflectance channel helps distinguish surface targets unrelated to buried land mines at night when photographic methods are ineffective. Also, the interfusion of ground penetrating radar provides depth information for confirming the site of buried objects. Together with EG G in Las Vegas, we flew a mission at Nellis AFB using the Daedalus dual-channel (5 and 10 micron) IR scanner mounted on a helicopter platform at an elevation of 60 m above the desert sand. We detected surface temperature patterns associated with buried (inert) land mines covered by as much as 10 cm of dry sand. The respective spatial, spectral, thermal, emissivity and temporal signatures associated with buried targets differed from those associated with surface vegetation, rocks and manmade objects. Our results were consistent with predictions based on the annual Temperature Wave Model.They were confirmed by field measurements. The dual-channel sensor fusion methodology is expected to enhance the capabilities of the military and industrial community for standoff mine detection. Other important potential applications are open skies, drug traffic control and environmental restoration at waste burial sites. 11 figs.

  2. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  3. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  5. Quantitative Chemically Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Reactions at Buried Interfaces with Few Nanometer Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R.; Porter, Christina L.; Gardner, Dennis F.; Mancini, Giulia F.; Karl, Robert M., Jr.; Tanksalvala, Michael D.; Bevis, Charles S.; Vartanian, Victor H.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Adams, Daniel E.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried interfaces, compared with all other approaches.

  6. Quantitative Chemically Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Reactions at Buried Interfaces with Few Nanometer Precision.

    PubMed

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Porter, Christina L; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate quantitative, chemically specific imaging of buried nanostructures, including oxidation and diffusion reactions at buried interfaces, using nondestructive tabletop extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither visible microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interface. Short wavelength high harmonic beams can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Quantitative analysis shows that the reflected EUV light is extremely sensitive to the formation of multiple oxide layers, as well as interdiffusion of materials occurring at the metal-metal and metal-insulator boundaries deep within the nanostructure with few nanometers precision. PMID:27447192

  7. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  8. Scattering by buried dielectric cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vico, M.; Frezza, F.; Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.

    2005-12-01

    An analytical-numerical technique for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane wave scattering by a finite set of dielectric circular cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space is presented. The problem is solved for both the near- and far-field regions, for transverse magnetic and transverse electric polarizations. The scattered field is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves, and use is made of the plane wave spectrum to take into account the reflection and transmission of such waves by the interface. The validity of the approach is confirmed by comparisons with results available in the literature, with very good agreement, and by self-consistency tests. Applications of the method to objects of arbitrary cross section simulated by suitable configurations of circular cylinders are shown.

  9. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  10. An optics & photonics program: buried

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    2007-06-01

    Buried in the Land Forces Technical Staff Program, a one-year program within Applied Military Science, AMS, at the Royal Military College of Canada, is a set of 27 lectures in optics and photonics. The lectures, spread over 1½ months, are organized and presented to 22 participants each year, Captains and Majors, to give an appreciation of: thermal imagers, image intensifiers, laser designators, atmospheric characteristics, and many of the basic concepts associated with the detection, identification, and recognition, of targets. Discussion is provided of the difficulties associated with this program.

  11. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  12. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  13. Buried Mid-Latitude Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-577, 17 December 2003

    This September 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows six circular features, three of which exhibit concentric, or 'bullseye,' patterns within them. Each circular feature is the remains of a partly-buried, partly-eroded, and partly-filled meteor impact crater. These occur in northeastern Arabia Terra. Areas such as this, located near the middle latitudes of Mars, commonly have a 'scabby' or roughened appearance. The cause of this 'terrain roughening' texture is unknown, although some scientists have speculated that it might result from the erosion and removal (by way of sublimation) of ground ice. This idea remains highly speculative. These features are located near 28.4oN, 317.5oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Nondestructive imaging of shallow buried objects using acoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Younis, Waheed A; Stergiopoulos, Stergios; Havelock, David; Grodski, Julius

    2002-05-01

    The nondestructive three-dimensional acoustic tomography concept of the present investigation combines computerized tomography image reconstruction algorithms using acoustic diffracting waves together with depth information to produce a three-dimensional (3D) image of an underground section. The approach illuminates the underground area of interest with acoustic plane waves of frequencies 200-3000 Hz. For each transmitted pulse, the reflected-refracted signals are received by a line array of acoustic sensors located at a diametrically opposite point from the acoustic source line array. For a stratified underground medium and for a given depth, which is represented by a time delay in the received signal, a horizontal tomographic 2D image is reconstructed from the received projections. Integration of the depth dependent sequence of cross-sectional reconstructed images provides a complete three-dimensional overview of the inspected terrain. The method has been tested with an experimental system that consists of a line array of four-acoustic sources, providing plane waves, and a receiving line array of 32-acoustic sensors. The results indicate both the potential and the challenges facing the new methodology. Suggestions are made for improved performance, including an adaptive noise cancellation scheme and a numerical interpolation technique.

  15. A DISCUS EMP simulator design for long narrow buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    van Lint, V.A.J.; Berger, R.A.; Crevier, W.; Dancz, J.; Naff, T.; Pettus, E.; Stettner, R.

    1982-12-01

    A Distributed Source Conducting Medium Underground System (DISCUS) Simulator concept to provide both fast rise time and late time EMP excitation is presented. An early time module has been constructed and tested. Calculations of the electric and magnetic fields for this single prototype are compared with experimental measurements.

  16. Nondestructive imaging of shallow buried objects using acoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Waheed A.; Stergiopoulos, Stergios; Havelock, David; Grodski, Julius

    2002-05-01

    The nondestructive three-dimensional acoustic tomography concept of the present investigation combines computerized tomography image reconstruction algorithms using acoustic diffracting waves together with depth information to produce a three-dimensional (3D) image of an underground section. The approach illuminates the underground area of interest with acoustic plane waves of frequencies 200-3000 Hz. For each transmitted pulse, the reflected-refracted signals are received by a line array of acoustic sensors located at a diametrically opposite point from the acoustic source line array. For a stratified underground medium and for a given depth, which is represented by a time delay in the received signal, a horizontal tomographic 2D image is reconstructed from the received projections. Integration of the depth dependent sequence of cross-sectional reconstructed images provides a complete three-dimensional overview of the inspected terrain. The method has been tested with an experimental system that consists of a line array of four-acoustic sources, providing plane waves, and a receiving line array of 32-acoustic sensors. The results indicate both the potential and the challenges facing the new methodology. Suggestions are made for improved performance, including an adaptive noise cancellation scheme and a numerical interpolation technique.

  17. Maintaining high-volume, low-pressure surface-coating regulatory compliance using the U.s. Environmental Protection Agency's data quality objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Peters, Scott; Olivas, Arthur C; Nelson, Tim M

    2005-03-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting specific requirements under the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facility's National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants rule, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for developing a scientifically defensible surface compliance monitoring program. By estimating the variability associated with the air cap pressure of high- volume, low-pressure (HVLP) surface-coating spray equipment, the number of monitoring samples necessary for an affected facility to claim compliance with a desired statistical confidence level was established. Using data taken from the pilot test facility, the DQO process indicated that the mean of at least 21 HVLP air cap pressure samples taken over the compliance period must be < or = 10 pounds per square inch (psig) gauge for the facility to claim regulatory compliance with 99.99% statistical confidence. Fewer compliance samples could be taken, but that decision would lead to a commensurate reduction in the compliance confidence level. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated HVLP surface-coating processes while still maintaining a high level of compliance assurance.

  18. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable....

  19. Compound semiconductor oxide antireflection coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, K. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Bertness, K. A.; Silverman, K. L.; Christensen, D. H.

    2000-05-01

    We report the development of high quality, broad-bandwidth, antireflection (AR) coatings using the low index provided by wet thermally oxidized Al0.98Ga0.02As. We address the design criteria, fabrication, and characterizations of AR coatings composed of surface and buried oxide layers on GaAs. We show, using native-oxide dispersion data, that surface oxide coatings can be designed to offer a nearly zero minimum of reflectance and a reflectance of <1% over bandwidths as large as 500 nm. Surface coatings having a reflectance minimum of 0.4% and a reflectance of <1% over >250 nm have been experimentally demonstrated at a design wavelength of 1 micrometer. Additionally, buried oxide coatings can be designed with an AlxGa1-xAs matching layer of any composition to exactly match the admittance of any substrate with effective index between 2.5 and 3.5. We have demonstrated buried oxide coatings, also designed for 1 micrometer, having a reflectance minimum of 0.4% and a reflectance of <1% over 21 nm. The calculated optical scattering loss from measured roughness data indicates that reflectance minima as low as 10-4 % are ultimately achievable with native-oxide antireflection coatings.

  20. Resonance vibrations of buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei N.; Donskoy, Dimitri M.; Ekimov, Alexander E.

    2004-09-01

    Resonance behavior of many types of landmines was first experimentally discovered in 2000 (Donskoy et al. in Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4394, pp. 575-582, 2001). Laboratory studies and field tests have shown that mine"s resonance response is a complex phenomenon dependent upon interaction between soil and mines and their respective properties. Although the resonance effect was successfully used by various research teams for detection of landmines, there were no thorough studies on various factors influencing buried mine's resonance response. This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental investigation of this problem including multi-modal structure of mine's vibration response, effect of burial depth and soil condition. In the modeling efforts we considered multiple modes of vibration of mine casing and represented them as oscillators with effective parameters. This approach allowed for simplification of analysis and expanding existing lump-element model to account for multiple vibration modes. The experimental tests were focused on studying the effects of burial depth and soil moisture content on resonance behavior of soil-mine system. The tests have shown that a resonance frequency initially decreases with burial depth, as expected. However, an anomalous resonance frequency increase was observed at greater depths; soil moisture even further increases the resonance frequency.

  1. Surgical treatment of buried penis.

    PubMed

    Lipszyc, E; Pfister, C; Liard, A; Mitrofanoff, P

    1997-10-01

    The buried penis is a rare congenital entity, whose treatment is surgical. There are few publications concerning this matter. The authors report on their experience in 10 cases (1990-1995). In this abnormality, the tip of the glans does not project from the pubic or scrotal skin. It is due to: 1) an excessive development of the penile fascia which retracts the penis; 2) insufficient attachment of the penile skin at the base of the penis; 3) often excessive prepubic fat worsens the appearance of the abnormality but does not by itself totally explain it; 4) a tight phimosis is often present. Surgical treatment is necessary because this aspect tends to persist even after puberty. One cannot indeed count on the development at the age of puberty, neither on the diminution of the fat, nor on the simple cure of the phimosis. One must above all ban circumcision which causes the risk of eliminating the skin necessary for reconstruction. The surgical procedure will comprise: 1) a longitudinal dorsal incision extended circumferentially; 2) resection of the thickened fascia penis; 3) anchoring of the deep face of the dermis to the proximal part of the fascia penis at the base of the penis. This surgical procedure has always brought a significant improvement to the appearance of the penis.

  2. Electromagnetic response of buried cylindrical structures for line current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    The Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA) rigorously solves, in the spectral domain, the electromagnetic forward scattering by a finite set of buried two-dimensional perfectly-conducting or dielectric objects [1]-[2]. In this technique, the field scattered by underground objects is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves. Use is made of the plane-wave spectrum [1] to take into account the interaction of such waves with the planar interface between air and soil, and between different layers eventually present in the ground [3]. Obstacles of general shape can be simulated through the CWA with good results, by using a suitable set of small circular-section cylinders [4]. Recently, we improved the CWA by facing the fundamental problem of losses in the ground [5]: this is of significant importance in remote-sensing applications, since real soils often have complex permittivity and conductivity, and sometimes also a complex permeability. While in previous works concerning the CWA a monochromatic or pulsed plane-wave incident field was considered, in the present work a different source of scattering is present: a cylindrical wave radiated by a line source. Such a source is more suitable to model the practical illumination field used in GPR surveys. The electric field radiated by the line current is expressed by means of a first-kind Hankel function of 0-th order. The theoretical solution to the scattering problem is developed for both dielectric and perfectly-conducting cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space. The approach is implemented in a Fortran code; an accurate numerical evaluation of the involved spectral integrals is performed, the highly-oscillating behavior of the homogeneous waves is correctly followed and evanescent contributions are taken into account. The electromagnetic field scattered in both air and ground can be obtained, in near- and far-field regions, for arbitrary radii and permittivity of the buried cylinders, as well as for

  3. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, R.E.; Hyde, R.A.; Engleman, V.S.; Evans, J.D.; Jackson, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management.

  4. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  5. A Buried Precambrian Impact Crater in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Field evidence indicates that the source of the Stac Fada impact deposit (Mesoproterozoic) in NW Scotland was to the east, and that the now buried crater is represented by the 40+ km diameter Lairg Gravity Low.

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  7. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  8. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  9. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

  10. The effect of sand composition on the degradation of buried oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Bernabeu, Ana M; Rey, Daniel; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bouchette, Frédéric

    2014-09-15

    The potential effects of the mineralogical composition of sediment on the degradation of oil buried on sandy beaches were investigated. Toward that purpose, a laboratory experiment was carried out with sandy sediment collected along NW Iberian Peninsula beaches, tar-balls from the Prestige oil spill (NW Spain) and seawater. The results indicate that the mineralogical composition is important for the physical appearance of the oil (tar-balls or oil coatings). This finding prompted a reassessment of the current sequence of degradation for buried oil based on compositional factors. Moreover, the halo development of the oil coatings might be enhanced by the carbonate concentration of the sand. These findings open new prospects for future monitoring and management programs for oiled sandy beaches. PMID:25044040

  11. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  12. Dual-band, infrared buried mine detection using a statistical pattern recognition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.

    1993-08-01

    The main objective of this work was to detect surrogate land mines, which were buried in clay and sand, using dual-band, infrared images. A statistical pattern recognition approach was used to achieve this objective. This approach is discussed and results of applying it to real images are given.

  13. Detecting buried mines in ground-penetrating radar using a Hough transform approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.

    2002-08-01

    A method for detecting buried mines in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data using a Hough transform approach is described. GPR is one of three sensors used in the Mine Hunter/Killer (MH/K) system for detecting buried mines. A buried mine modeled as a point scatterer in object space gives rise to a hyperbolic response in GPR measurement space. Our approach uses the Hough transform to recover the object space representation (i.e., the location of mines in x, y, and depth) from the GPR data, in effect 'deconvolving' the response of the radar. This is done by having each point in measurement space vote for all points in object space where the mine could be located. Against a baseline energy detector, the Hough algorithm shows a one half order reduction in false alarm rate at a fixed probability of detection for low metal, metal, and non metal mines.

  14. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  15. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  16. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported. PMID:23942265

  17. Structural vibrations of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei; Donskoy, Dimitri; Ekimov, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    Buried landmines exhibit complex structural vibrations, which are dependent on interaction between soil and mines as well as on their respective properties. This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of multimodal vibrations of buried mines and discusses the effects of burial depth and soil properties on dynamics of the soil-mine system. The two-dimensional model of the soil-mine system that accounts for soil-coupled mine's multiple vibration modes and spatial distribution of vibrations over the soil surface is introduced. The model was tested using experiments with the plastic mine simulant. The study reveals that the soil shear stiffness is one of the key governing parameters determining the resonance vibration frequency and the amplitude of the soil-mine system. Burial depth, soil moisture, and consolidation are among factors leading to the increase of the soil shear stiffness, therefore effectively influencing modal vibrations of buried mines.

  18. Frost heave induced mechanics of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Shinde, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the problem of the flexural interaction between a long-distance buried pipeline embedded in a soil medium that experiences differential frost heave. The modeling takes into consideration the interaction at a transition zone between a frozen region and a frost-susceptible region that experiences a time-dependent growth of a frost bulb around the buried pipeline. The heave that accompanies the development of a frost bulb induces the soil-pipeline interaction process. The analysis focuses on the development of a computational scheme that addresses the three-dimensional nature of the soil-pipeline interaction problem, the creep susceptibility of the frozen region, and a prescribed time- and stress-dependent heave in an evolving frost bulb zone. The numerical results presented in the paper illustrate the influence of the heave process and the creep behavior of the frozen soil on the displacements and stresses in the buried pipeline.

  19. Limited Panniculectomy for Adult Buried Penis Repair.

    PubMed

    Figler, Bradley D; Chery, Lisly; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with buried or hidden penis may be unable to carry out normal hygiene, void with a directable urine stream, or be sexually active as a result of the condition. Although these patients are nearly always obese, weight loss often does not reverse the problem, as the mons pannus may remain after weight loss. Furthermore, associated penile skin changes such as lichen sclerosus or stenosis of the penile shaft skin are often irreversible. Treatment includes removal of the diseased shaft skin surrounding the penis, in combination with a limited panniculectomy. The authors present their technique for this procedure in a typical patient with buried penis that prevented him from voiding effectively. PMID:26182174

  20. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  1. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  2. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  3. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  4. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  5. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material used...) Nonmetallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission...

  6. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  7. Preputial flaps to correct buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Loh, Ih-Wei; Chen, Ke-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The authors developed a preputial skin flap technique to correct the buried penis which was simple and practical. This simple procedure can be applied to most boys with buried penis. In the last 3 years, we have seen 12 boys with buried penis and have been treated by using preputial flaps. The mean age is about 5.1 (from 3 to 12). By making a longitudinal incision on the ventral side of penis, the tightness of the foreskin is released and leave a diamond-shaped skin defect. It allows the penile shaft to extend out. A circumferential incision is made about 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus. Pedicled preputial flaps are obtained leaving optimal penile skin on the dorsal side. The preputial skin flaps are rotated onto the ventral side and tailored to cover the defect. All patients are followed for at least 3 months. Edema and swelling on the flaps are common, but improves with time. None of our patients need a second operation. The preputial flaps technique is a simple technique which allows surgeons to deal with most cases of buried penis by tailoring the flaps providing good cosmetic and functional results.

  8. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  9. Nanostructured Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, J.-P.

    In many branches of technology where surfaces are playing a growing role, the use of coatings is often the only way to provide surfaces with specific functional properties. For example, the austenitic stainless steels or titanium alloys exhibit poor resistance to wear and low hardness values, which limits the field of applications. The idea then is to develop new solutions which would improve the mechanical performance and durability of objects used in contact and subjected to mechanical forces in hostile gaseous or liquid environments. Hard coatings are generally much sought after to enhance the resistance to wear and corrosion. They are of particular importance because they constitute a class of protective coatings which is already widely used on an industrial scale to improve the hardness and lifetime of cutting tools.

  10. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  11. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  12. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age. PMID:17842285

  13. Layerwise reaction at a buried interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.A.; DeVries, B. ); Robinson, I.K.; Eng, P.J. )

    1992-10-26

    X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the {ital in} {ital situ} reaction of Pd deposited on Si(111) at room temperature. An ordered silicide forms spontaneously beneath a poorly ordered overlayer. It is commensurate and strained at low coverage, but relaxes to an unstrained state above a critical thickness of 18 A. During both phases of growth sustained intensity oscillations are seen that correspond to a layerwise consumption of the substrate at the buried interface.

  14. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  15. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  16. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  17. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  18. A model for dynamic analysis of buried and partially buried piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.J.; Harvey, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Compressor station yard piping may be subject to low frequency excitation forces due to acoustical resonance with flow generated sources. Compression facility yard piping in the gas transmission system of NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL) consists of a combination of above ground and buried piping with nominal sizes ranging from 8 to 48 inches. Vibration control is implemented at the design state by attenuation of pulsation sources, acoustic detuning through adjustment of piping the configuration, and stiffness modification through piping supports. Dynamic analysis is often required to determine the need for vibration control and the best design option. This paper reviews the dynamic analysis model employed at NGTL at the present time and presents a proposed model for dynamic analysis of buried and partially buried piping systems. The model is based on beam and soil spring models. Emphasis is on determination of dynamic soil properties and soil spring constants. The effects of dynamic soil behavior are demonstrated by a simple example.

  19. Acoustic and Doppler radar detection of buried land mines using high-pressure water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier, Robert; Herrick, Thomas J.; Mitchell, O. Robert; Summers, David A.; Saylor, Daniel R.

    1999-08-01

    The goal of the waterjet-based mine location and identification project is to find a way to use waterjets to locate and differentiate buried objects. When a buried object is struck with a high-pressure waterjets, the impact will cause characteristic vibrations in the object depending on the object's shape and composition. These vibrations will be transferred to the ground and then to the water stream that is hitting the object. Some of these vibrations will also be transferred to the air via the narrow channel the waterjet cuts in the ground. Currently the ground vibrations are detected with Doppler radar and video camera sensing, while the air vibrations are detected with a directional microphone. Data is collected via a Labview based data acquisition system. This data is then manipulated in Labview to produce the associated power spectrums. These power spectra are fed through various signal processing and recognition routines to determine the probability of there being an object present under the current test location and what that object is likely to be. Our current test area consists of a large X-Y positioning system placed over approximately a five-foot circular test area. The positioning system moves both the waterjet and the sensor package to the test location specified by the Labview control software. Currently we are able to locate buried land mine models at a distance of approximately three inches with a high degree of accuracy.

  20. A proposed alternative approach for protection of inadvertent human intruders from buried Department of Energy low level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The burial of radioactive wastes creates a legacy. To limit the impact of this legacy on future generations, we establish and comply with performance objectives. This paper reviews performance objectives for the long-term isolation of buried radioactive wastes; identifies regulatorly-defined performance objectives for protecting the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) from buried low-level radioactive waste (LLW); (3) discusses a shortcoming of the current approach; and (4) offers an alternative approach for protecting the IHI. This alternative approach is written specifically for the burial of US Department of Energy (DOE) wastes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), although the approach might be applied at other DOE burial sites.

  1. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel), revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An all solid state television camera was designed which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525-line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (1) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (2) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (3) automatic light control and video gain control techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  2. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control (i.e., ALC and AGC) techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  3. Generation of Acoustic Signals from Buried Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Reinke, R.; Waxler, R.; Lenox, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried explosions generate both seismic and acoustic signals. The mechanism for the acoustic generation is generally assumed to be large ground motions above the source region that cause atmospheric pressure disturbances which can propagate locally or regionally depending on source size and weather conditions. In order to better understand the factors that control acoustic generation from buried explosions, we conducted a series of 200 lb explosions detonated in and above the dry alluvium and limestones of Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. In this experiment, nicknamed HUMBLE REDWOOD III, we detonated charges at heights of burst of 2 m (no crater) and depths of burst of 7 m (fully confined). The seismic and acoustic signals were recorded on a network of near-source (< 90 m) co-located accelerometer and overpressure sensors, circular rings of acoustic sensors at 0.3 and 1 km, and multiple seismic and infrasound sensors at local-to-regional distances. Near-source acoustic signals for the 200 lb buried explosion in limestone show an impulsive, short-duration (0.04 s) initial peak, followed by a broad duration (0.3 s) negative pressure trough, and finally a second positive pulse (0.18 s duration). The entire width of the acoustic signal generated by this small buried explosion is 0.5 s and results in a 2 Hz peak in spectral energy. High-velocity wind conditions quickly attenuate the signal with few observations beyond 1 km. We have attempted to model these acoustic waveforms by estimating near-source ground motion using synthetic spall seismograms. Spall seismograms have similar characteristics as the observed acoustics and usually include an initial positive motion P wave, followed by -1 g acceleration due to the ballistic free fall of the near surface rock units, and ends with positive accelerations due to "slapdown" of the material. Spall seismograms were synthesized using emplacement media parameters and high-speed video observations of the surface movements. We present a

  4. Fabrication of Buried Nanochannels From Nanowire Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Daniel; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating channels having widths of tens of nanometers in silicon substrates and burying the channels under overlying layers of dielectric materials has been demonstrated. With further refinement, the method might be useful for fabricating nanochannels for manipulation and analysis of large biomolecules at single-molecule resolution. Unlike in prior methods, burying the channels does not involve bonding of flat wafers to the silicon substrates to cover exposed channels in the substrates. Instead, the formation and burying of the channels are accomplished in a more sophisticated process that is less vulnerable to defects in the substrates and less likely to result in clogging of, or leakage from, the channels. In this method, the first step is to establish the channel pattern by forming an array of sacrificial metal nanowires on an SiO2-on-Si substrate. In particular, the wire pattern is made by use of focused-ion-beam (FIB) lithography and a subsequent metallization/lift-off process. The pattern of metal nanowires is then transferred onto the SiO2 layer by reactive-ion etching, which yields sacrificial SiO2 nanowires covered by metal. After removal of the metal covering the SiO2 nanowires, what remains are SiO2 nanowires on an Si substrate. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is used to form a layer of a dielectric material over the Si substrate and over the SiO2 wires on the surface of the substrate. FIB milling is then performed to form trenches at both ends of each SiO2 wire. The trenches serve as openings for the entry of chemicals that etch SiO2 much faster than they etch Si. Provided that the nanowires are not so long that the diffusion of the etching chemicals is blocked, the sacrificial SiO2 nanowires become etched out from between the dielectric material and the Si substrate, leaving buried channels. At the time of reporting the information for this article, channels 3 m long, 20 nm deep, and 80 nm wide (see figure) had been

  5. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed.

  6. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed. PMID:26796472

  7. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  8. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  9. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  10. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, May Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  11. Healing from incest: resurrecting the buried self.

    PubMed

    Godbey, J K; Hutchinson, S A

    1996-10-01

    Writers on the incest experience estimate conservatively that 10% to 30% of all girls and 30% of all boys have had at least one childhood experience of incest. Incest is emotionally devastating to a child as it involves betrayal, and the irretrievable loss of trust in the adults in the child's life. Little is written about the healing processes of incest survivors. The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive grounded theory that provides an explanatory schema for understanding the healing process of adult female incest survivors. The sample consisted of 10 adult women who had a history of incest and who volunteered to participate in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Data analysis revealed that these women had buried an integral part of the self because of the trauma of incest; The healing process required resurrecting the buried self through a series of seven phases. The model generated from this research provides a heuristic for nurse therapists that assists in assessing and counseling incest survivors.

  12. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  13. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  14. VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET PHOTON-STIMULATED OXIDATION OF BURIED ICE: GRAPHITE GRAIN INTERFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Grieves, G. A.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synthesis of CO and CO{sub 2} on ice-coated graphite and isotopic labeled {sup 13}C graphite has been examined for temperatures between 40 and 120 K. The results show that CO and CO{sub 2} can be formed at the buried ice:graphite interface with Lyα photon irradiation via the reaction of radicals (O and OH) produced by direct photodissociation and the dissociative electron attachment of the interfacial water molecules. The synthesized CO and CO{sub 2} molecules can desorb in hot photon-dominated regions and are lost to space when ice coated carbonaceous dust grains cycle within the protoplanetary disks. Thus, the nonthermal formation of CO and CO{sub 2} at the buried ice:grain interface by VUV photons may help regulate the carbon inventory during the early stage of planet formation. This may contribute to the carbon deficits in our solar system and suggests that a universal carbon deficit gradient may be expected within astrophysical bodies surrounding center stars.

  15. Definition and compositions of standard wastestreams for evaluation of Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1993-06-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project was organized at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of emerging technologies that offer promising solutions to remediation of buried waste. BWID will identify emerging technologies, screen them for applicability to the identified needs, select technologies for demonstration, and then evaluate the technologies based on prescribed performance objectives. The technical objective of the project is to establish solutions to Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s technological deficiencies and improve baseline remediation systems. This report establishes a set of standard wastestream compositions that will be used by BWID to evaluate the emerging technologies. Five wastestreams are proposed that use four types of waste and a nominal case that is a homogenized combination of the four wastes. The five wastestreams will provide data on the compositional extremes and indicate the technologies` effectiveness over the complete range of expected wastestream compositions.

  16. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  17. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  18. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  19. Bistatic, above-critical angle scattering measurements of fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and clutter.

    PubMed

    Waters, Z J; Simpson, H J; Sarkissian, A; Dey, S; Houston, B H; Bucaro, J A; Yoder, T J

    2012-11-01

    Laboratory grade bistatic scattering measurements are conducted in order to examine the acoustic response of realistic fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) from above-critical angle insonification, between 2 and 40 kHz. A 127 mm diameter rocket UXO, a 155 mm diameter artillery shell, a natural rock of approximately the same size, and a cinder block are fully buried in water-saturated medium grained sand (mean grain diameter, 240 μm) at depths of 10 cm below the water-sediment interface. A two-dimensional array of bistatic scattering measurements is generated synthetically by scanning a single hydrophone in steps of 3 cm over a 1 m × 1 m patch directly above the targets at a height of 20 cm above the water-sediment interface. Three-dimensional volumetric acoustic images generated from the return waveforms reveal scattering components attributed to geometric and elastic scattering, as well as multiple-scattering interactions of returns between the sediment-water interface and the buried objects. The far-field target strength of the objects is estimated through extrapolation of the angular spectrum. Agreement is found between experimental data and simulated data generated from a finite-element-based, three-dimensional time-harmonic model (2-25 kHz). Separation of the measured UXO from the clutter objects is demonstrated through exploitation of structural-acoustics-based features.

  20. Bistatic, above-critical angle scattering measurements of fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and clutter.

    PubMed

    Waters, Z J; Simpson, H J; Sarkissian, A; Dey, S; Houston, B H; Bucaro, J A; Yoder, T J

    2012-11-01

    Laboratory grade bistatic scattering measurements are conducted in order to examine the acoustic response of realistic fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) from above-critical angle insonification, between 2 and 40 kHz. A 127 mm diameter rocket UXO, a 155 mm diameter artillery shell, a natural rock of approximately the same size, and a cinder block are fully buried in water-saturated medium grained sand (mean grain diameter, 240 μm) at depths of 10 cm below the water-sediment interface. A two-dimensional array of bistatic scattering measurements is generated synthetically by scanning a single hydrophone in steps of 3 cm over a 1 m × 1 m patch directly above the targets at a height of 20 cm above the water-sediment interface. Three-dimensional volumetric acoustic images generated from the return waveforms reveal scattering components attributed to geometric and elastic scattering, as well as multiple-scattering interactions of returns between the sediment-water interface and the buried objects. The far-field target strength of the objects is estimated through extrapolation of the angular spectrum. Agreement is found between experimental data and simulated data generated from a finite-element-based, three-dimensional time-harmonic model (2-25 kHz). Separation of the measured UXO from the clutter objects is demonstrated through exploitation of structural-acoustics-based features. PMID:23145593

  1. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  2. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. ); Luey, J.K. )

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  3. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A.; Luey, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  4. Simulation of EUV multilayer mirror buried defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukman, Matthew J.; Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2000-07-01

    A new interface has been created to link existing deposition/etching and electromagnetic simulation software, allowing the user to program deposition and etching conditions and then find the reflective properties of the resultant structure. The application studied in this paper is the problem of three-dimensional defects which become buried during fabrication of multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The software link reads in surface information in the form of linked triangles, determines all nodes within the triangles, and then creates nodes lying between triangles of different layers to create a 3- dimensional inhomogeneous matrix containing the materials' indices of refraction. This allows etching and depositions to be input into SAMPLE-3D, a multi-surface topology to be generated, and then the electromagnetic properties of the structure to be assessed with TEMPEST. This capability was used to study substrate defects in multilayer mirrors by programming a defect and then sputter-depositing some forty layers on top of the defect. Specifically examined was how the topography depended on sputter conditions and determined the defects' impact on the mirrors' imaging properties. While this research was focused on application to EUV lithography, the general technique may be extended to other optical processes such as alignment and mask defects.

  5. Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Laversenne, L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pollnau, M.; Moretti, P.; Mugnier, J.

    2004-11-29

    Buried and stacked planar as well as buried single and parallel channel waveguides are fabricated in sapphire by proton implantation. Good control of the implantation parameters provides excellent confinement of the guided light in each structure. Low propagation losses are obtained in fundamental-mode, buried channel waveguides without postimplantation annealing. Choice of the implantation parameters allows one to design mode shapes with different ellipticity and/or mode asymmetry in each orthogonal direction, thus demonstrating the versatility of the fabrication method. Horizontal and vertical parallelization is demonstrated for the design of one- or two-dimensional waveguide arrays in hard crystalline materials.

  6. Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark; Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás

    2015-10-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects.

  7. Buried mine detection using fractal geometry analysis to the LWIR successive line scan data image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kan

    2012-06-01

    We have engaged in research on buried mine/IED detection by remote sensing method using LWIR camera. A IR image of a ground, containing buried objects can be assumed as a superimposed pattern including thermal scattering which may depend on the ground surface roughness, vegetation canopy, and effect of the sun light, and radiation due to various heat interaction caused by differences in specific heat, size, and buried depth of the objects and local temperature of their surrounding environment. In this cumbersome environment, we introduce fractal geometry for analyzing from an IR image. Clutter patterns due to these complex elements have oftentimes low ordered fractal dimension of Hausdorff Dimension. On the other hand, the target patterns have its tendency of obtaining higher ordered fractal dimension in terms of Information Dimension. Random Shuffle Surrogate method or Fourier Transform Surrogate method is used to evaluate fractional statistics by applying shuffle of time sequence data or phase of spectrum. Fractal interpolation to each line scan was also applied to improve the signal processing performance in order to evade zero division and enhance information of data. Some results of target extraction by using relationship between low and high ordered fractal dimension are to be presented.

  8. Application of geoelectric methods using buried electrodes in exploration and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Draskovits, P.; Simon, A. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper various geoelectric methods which have been developed and applied in the last 10-20 years in ELGI are discussed. These methods which use buried electrodes are: hole-to-surface gradient mapping to detect bauxite deposits in sinkholes below a resistive screening layer; in-mine gradient profiling to map the basement topography below galleries; and the hole-to-surface version of geoelectric layer tracing to find outcrops of mineralized zones penetrated by drillings. Data processing procedures have been developed on the basis of common concepts and hypotheses to link theoretical models with geological structures. The objects investigated are determined as the difference between the theoretical models and geological structures. Examples illustrate the solution of the above-mentioned geological problems by the practical application of adequate geoelectric methods using buried electrodes.

  9. Buried waste integrated demonstration Fiscal Year 1993 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.J.; Hyde, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during FY-93.

  10. Detection of surface and buried mines with an UHF airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Theodore O.; Lee, Check F.; Adams, Eileen M.; Tran, Chi; Koening, Francois; Tom, Kwok; Vickers, Roger S.

    1995-06-01

    A small minefield was deployed in the desert near Yuma, Arizona in June of 1993. Radar data of this minefield was collected by ground-based and airborne radar sensors. The minefield consists of M-20 metal and M-80 plastic anti-armor mines and Valmara-69 antipersonnel mines. The mines were deployed on the surface and buried at three different depths. Images and analysis of the minefield, which are derived from data collected by the SRI FOLPEN II synthetic aperture radar, are presented here. The minefield was imaged over three bands from 100 to 500 MHz and at various depression angles with this radar sensor. The image analysis is compared to the modeling results of surface and buried mine-like objects. We also show the results of a new radio frequency interference (RFI) rejection algorithm and the image quality improvement we achieved.

  11. Aluminide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H; Shin, Yongsoon; Samuels, William D

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  12. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  13. Mars - Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region.

  14. Carbon limitation patterns in buried and open urban streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams alternate between darkened buried segments dominated by heterotrophic processes and lighted open segments dominated by autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that labile carbon leaking from autotrophic cells would reduce heterotrophic carbon limitation in open chan...

  15. Buried Mesozoic rift basins of Moroccan Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, N.; Jabour, H.; El Mostaine, M.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlantic continental margin is the largest frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Morocco. Most of the activity has been concentrated where Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but non commercial oil discovery. Recent exploration activities have focused on early Mesozoic Rift basins buried beneath the post-rift sediments of the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Many of these basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness to be classified as efficient oil prone source rock. Location of inferred rift basins beneath the Atlantic coastal plain were determined by analysis of drilled-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. These rift basins are characterized by several half graben filled by synrift sediments of Triassic age probably deposited in lacustrine environment. Coeval rift basins are known to be present in the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Basin modeling suggested that many of the less deeply bored rift basins beneath the coastal plain are still within the oil window and present the most attractive exploration targets in the area.

  16. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  17. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  18. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP), FINAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS GROUP TAGNITE--TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN (T/QAP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the Environmental Testing and Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program is to verify pollution prevention and performance characteristics of coating technologies and make the results of the testing available to prospective coating technology use...

  20. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  1. Use of polyurea from urea for coating of urea granules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Panfang; Zhang, Yanfei; Jia, Cong; Li, Yufeng; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    A new type of controlled release fertilizers coated with polyurea was prepared. The granulated urea was firstly changed into a liquid urea by heating as the coating liquid. By spraying uniformly the urea was coated with the polyurea synthesized by the reaction of isocyanates with a liquid urea. The effects of different modifiers on N release characteristics of polyurea-coated urea (PCU) were studied. The morphology and chemical structure of PCU coating materials was investigated by SEM and FTIR. We studied the nitrogen release characteristics of the PCU applied in both water and soil, and the biodegradability of PCU coating after buried in soil. The results showed that PCU reduced nitrogen release rate and exhibited excellent controlled release property. The PCU coating materials could biodegrade in soil. This indicated that the low cost PCU products from urea are expected to use in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:27119061

  2. Use of polyurea from urea for coating of urea granules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Panfang; Zhang, Yanfei; Jia, Cong; Li, Yufeng; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    A new type of controlled release fertilizers coated with polyurea was prepared. The granulated urea was firstly changed into a liquid urea by heating as the coating liquid. By spraying uniformly the urea was coated with the polyurea synthesized by the reaction of isocyanates with a liquid urea. The effects of different modifiers on N release characteristics of polyurea-coated urea (PCU) were studied. The morphology and chemical structure of PCU coating materials was investigated by SEM and FTIR. We studied the nitrogen release characteristics of the PCU applied in both water and soil, and the biodegradability of PCU coating after buried in soil. The results showed that PCU reduced nitrogen release rate and exhibited excellent controlled release property. The PCU coating materials could biodegrade in soil. This indicated that the low cost PCU products from urea are expected to use in agricultural and horticultural applications.

  3. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H.; Waggoner, Charles

    2012-07-01

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  4. Littoral assessment of mine burial signatures (LAMBS): buried-landmine hyperspectral data collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenton, Arthur C.; Geci, Duane M.; McDonald, James A.; Ray, Kristofer J.; Thomas, Clayton M.; Holloway, John H., Jr.; Petee, Danny A.; Witherspoon, Ned H.

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies project's Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) contract is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines located in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 μm) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. The LAMBS program further expands the hyperspectral database previously collected and analyzed on the U.S. Army's Hyperspectral Mine Detection Phenomenology program [see "Detection of Land Mines with Hyperspectral Data," and "Hyperspectral Mine Detection Phenomenology Program," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3710, pp 917-928 and 819-829, AeroSense April 1999] to littoral areas where tidal, surf, and wind action can additionally modify spectral signatures. This work summarizes the LAMBS buried mine collections conducted at three beach sites - an inland bay beach site (Eglin AFB, FL, Site A-22), an Atlantic beach site (Duck, NC), and a Gulf beach site (Eglin AFB, FL, Site A-15). Characteristics of the spectral signatures of the various dry and damp beach sands are presented. These are then compared to buried land mine signatures observed for the tested background types, burial ages, and environmental conditions experienced.

  5. Littoral assessment of mine burial signatures (LAMBS): buried landmine/background spectral-signature analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenton, Arthur C.; Geci, Duane M.; Ray, Kristofer J.; Thomas, Clayton M.; Salisbury, John W.; Mars, John C.; Crowley, James K.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 μm) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites. We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  6. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  7. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  8. Diagnosing The English Patient: schizoid fantasies of being skinless and of being buried alive.

    PubMed

    Doidge, N

    2001-01-01

    The psychological world of The English Patient is explored to deepen the understanding of schizoid states. The protagonist, Almásy, is a remote desert explorer whose triangular sadomasochistic affair with the married Katharine destroys them all. His damaged skin is understood as a symbolic representation of his psychological condition. For the schizoid, love consumes and leads to obliteration of the self, represented by the loss of identifying features, and to traumatic permeability (i.e., the loss of boundaries between self and other, and between the ego and repressed desires). Other schizoid themes are the animation of the inanimate, as in the depiction of the desert as a woman; hidden or buried identities; the digital and destructive experience of emotion represented by the conundrum of the bomb defuser; the sense that everything good is imaginary and might suddenly explode; and the moral unevenness of the characters. Almásy collaborates with the Nazis so he can retrieve Katharine's three-year-old corpse, with which he has necrophilic contact in a cave. Fantasies of the lost object buried within the self, of being buried alive, and of being skinned alive are related to the schizoid condition. Hyperpermeability is proposed as a core schizoid state, underlying schizoid withdrawal.

  9. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    processing of real-world data, and back again. Unfortunately, we face critical configurations in practice. They require increasingly sophisticated models, which exhaust most of our computational resources—notably due to the three-dimensionally bounded objects in possibly vast and little known search zones. Furthermore, we have to reckon with vector fields and dyadic Green functions, complex behaviours of materials and often with severely incomplete and limited data. The latter limitation is a severe one and is pervasive in the specific situation of buried objects in layered media, upon which we focus in the special section. In brief, this means that the solution methods must not be reduced to incremental improvements over existing ones. They must be validated in-depth, have sound theoretical bases and knowledge of the peculiarities and of the limitations of the measurements. Naturally, this means that the technologically advanced sensors that are available nowadays, together with advanced computers, provide increasingly reliable data and powerful implementations of solution methods. But as yet they do not provide us with the solution itself. This is evident in the papers published today—they rely on rigorous analyses, clever insights and much labour. Also, it is necessary to solve first and often simultaneously (within iterative retrievals) a sequence of direct (forward) wave-field problems. This is needed to understand the interaction, determine key parameters, estimate which models best fit our inversion needs and acquire well-generated synthetic data for cost-effective preliminary testing of methods. The 14 papers in this special section should do justice to the above, overall if not every one individually. Ordered alphabetically, by the first author, the articles are as follows: • A Baussard, E L Miller and D Lesselier, in `Adaptive multiscale reconstruction of buried objects', seek to improve the speed and robustness of a nonlinear inversion (here limited to the

  10. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  11. Algorithm development for deeply buried threat detection in GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichman, Daniël.; Malof, Jordan M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2016-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a popular remote sensing modality for buried threat detection. Many algorithms have been developed to detect buried threats using GPR data. One on-going challenge with GPR is the detection of very deeply buried targets. In this work a detection approach is proposed that improves the detection of very deeply buried targets, and interestingly, shallow targets as well. First, it is shown that the signal of a target (the target "signature") is well localized in time, and well correlated with the target's burial depth. This motivates the proposed approach, where GPR data is split into two disjoint subsets: an early and late portion corresponding to the time at which shallow and deep target signatures appear, respectively. Experiments are conducted on real GPR data using the previously published histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) prescreener: a fast supervised processing method operated on HOG features. The results show substantial improvements in detection of very deeply buried targets (4.1% to 17.2%) and in overall detection performance (81.1% to 83.9%). Further, it is shown that the performance of the proposed approach is relatively insensitive to the time at which the data is split. These results suggest that other detection methods may benefit from depth-based processing as well.

  12. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  13. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  14. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  15. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  16. Investigation of microphones as near-ground sensors for seismic detection of buried landmines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Gregg D; Martin, James S; Scott, Waymond R

    2007-07-01

    Commercially available microphones were investigated as near-ground sensors to measure the acoustic pressure and the vertical pressure gradient of evanescent air-acoustic waves associated with audio-frequency seismic waves. Measurements in close proximity to the surface and the use of waveguides were found to improve the microphone signal's quality, the comparison of its seismic sensitivity to its sensitivity to propagating sound (ambient acoustic noise and nonseismic reverberation). Landmine images formed using microphone data collected in a laboratory experimental model clearly locate buried inert landmines but exhibit more clutter than images of the same objects formed with seismic displacement data collected using other techniques.

  17. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  18. Surface Localization of Buried III-V Semiconductor Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Alonso-González, P; González, L; Fuster, D; Martín-Sánchez, J; González, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the top surface localization of InAs quantum dots once capped by a GaAs layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At the used growth conditions, the underneath nanostructures are revealed at the top surface as mounding features that match their density with independence of the cap layer thickness explored (from 25 to 100 nm). The correspondence between these mounds and the buried nanostructures is confirmed by posterior selective strain-driven formation of new nanostructures on top of them, when the distance between the buried and the superficial nanostructures is short enough (d = 25 nm).

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration commercialization actions plans. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Glore, D.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE complex. BWID evaluates, validates, and demonstrates technologies and transfers this information throughout DOE and private industry to support DOE. remediation planning and implementation activities. This report documents commercialization action plans for five technologies with near-term commercialization/ implementation potential as well as provides a status of commercial and academic partners for each technology.

  20. Cathodic disbonding of pipeline coatings under realistic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautman, Brenda Lee

    1998-09-01

    Cathodic disbonding is one undesirable aspect of the combination of the corrosion control technology commonly used for the exterior of buried pipelines. This technology consists of the combined use of protective coatings and cathodic protection. While standard cathodic disbonding tests performed in the laboratory provide a relative ranking of coatings, due to the simplicity of the test environments and accelerated nature of the tests, the results may not necessarily be directly related to service performance. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cathodic disbonding behavior of three commonly used pipeline coating materials (i.e., fusion bonded epoxy, coal tar enamel, and tape coatings) under more realistic conditions. The research plan allowed the comparison of cathodic disbonding tests results between standard and realistic conditions by utilizing laboratory tests with controlled environments and cathodic protection levels. Several areas of focus were the effects of a moderate level of polarization, high level of polarization, and elevated temperatures. Additional factors examined included electrolyte composition (soil extract versus NaCl solutions), wet/dry cycling, and simulated soil conditions (i.e., sand moistened with soil extract). These tests delineated the effects of test parameters on cathodic disbonding and coating performance was related to these parameters. The processes considered to be important to the cathodic disbonding behavior of coatings are discussed as well as the implications of the realistic test results on laboratory cathodic disbonding test procedures. It was confirmed that greater disbonding occurred at more negative (i.e., cathodic) potentials, with higher alkalinity, and at elevated temperatures. This study also showed that disbonding increased greatly when sand moistened with soil extract solution was utilized in place of bulk electrolyte. The addition of such a barrier to convection may present a viable method to

  1. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  2. Buried particulate organic carbon stimulates denitrification and nitrate retention in stream sediments at the groundwater-surface water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The interface between ground water and surface water in streams is a hotspot for N processing. However, the role of buried organic C in N transformation at this interface is not well understood, and inferences have been based largely on descriptive studies. Our main objective was to determine how buried particulate organic C (POC) affected denitrification and NO3− retention in the sediments of an upwelling reach in a sand-plains stream in Wisconsin. We manipulated POC in mesocosms inserted in the sediments. Treatments included low and high quantities of conditioned red maple leaves (buried beneath combusted sand), ambient sediment (sand containing background levels of POC), and a control (combusted sand). We measured denitrification rates in sediments by acetylene-block assays in the laboratory and by changes in N2 concentrations in the field using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. We measured NO3−, NH4+, and dissolved organic N (DON) retention as changes in concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. POC addition drove oxic ground water to severe hypoxia, led to large increases in dissolved organic C (DOC), and strongly increased denitrification rates and N (NO3− and total dissolved N) retention relative to the control. In situ denitrification accounted for 30 to 60% of NO3− retention. Our results suggest that buried POC stimulated denitrification and NO3− retention by producing DOC and by creating favorable redox conditions for denitrification.

  3. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  4. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  8. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  9. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  10. Mars: Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis Montes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region. ?? 1981.

  11. Modeling Blast Loading on Buried Reinforced Concrete Structures with Zapotec

    DOE PAGES

    Bessette, Greg C.

    2008-01-01

    A coupled Euler-Lagrange solution approach is used to model the response of a buried reinforced concrete structure subjected to a close-in detonation of a high explosive charge. The coupling algorithm is discussed along with a set of benchmark calculations involving detonations in clay and sand.

  12. Buried mine detection using ground-penetrating impulse radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sargis, P.D.

    1995-03-01

    LLNL is developing a side-looking, ground-penetrating impulse radar system that can eventually be mounted on a robotic vehicle or an airborne platform to locate buried land mines. The system is described and results from field experiments are presented.

  13. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  14. [The buried penis : Indications, a new technique and the results].

    PubMed

    Riechardt, S; Fisch, M

    2013-10-01

    The buried penis describes a bunch etiologies and clinical presentations of which the congenital form is rare. In the past different techniques had been described, using inner prepuce after mobilization to cover the penile shaft. This can lead to persistent edema of the skin. We developed a new technique to reduce the rate of postoperative edema.

  15. Mapping suspected buried channels using gravity: Examples from southwest Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Keighley, K.E.; Atekwana, E.A.; Sauck, W.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    This study documents the successful application of the gravity method in mapping suspected buried bedrock valleys at three sites in southwest Michigan. The first site is located in Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Gravity surveys were conducted along the Jean Klock Park as part of an ongoing coastal research study of the Lake Michigan shoreline. Previous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) studies at this site had suggested the presence of a buried valley. The results of the gravity survey confirmed the existence of a buried valley approximately 30--40 m deep and at least 2,000 m wide, which is in good agreement with information from drill cores suggesting a possible ancient river system. A detailed gravity survey was conducted at the second site located in Schoolcraft Township, Kalamazoo County, where the heavy use of pesticides has resulted in the contamination of the upper aquifers. Preliminary results suggest the presence of a broad shallow valley at least 25 m deep. Gravity surveys at the third site located southeast of the Kavco Landfill, Barry County also suggests the presence of a buried valley oriented NE-SW, confirming the interpretations of an earlier electrical resistivity study. It is possible that this channel controls groundwater flow and facilitates the transport of contaminants from the landfill to the surrounding areas.

  16. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  17. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  18. Advancing the Documentation of Buried Archaeological Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, W.; Doneus, M.; Trinks, I.

    2012-07-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology, in collaboration with its nine European partner organisations, is the advancement of the state-of-the-art. This goal will be achieved by focusing on the development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications. Main focus will be placed on novel integrated interpretation approaches combining cutting-edge near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science.

  19. Ground-penetrating radar signal processing for the detection of buried objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Mitchell; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-06-01

    In this work the singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to analyze matrices of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. The targets to be detected are Russian PMN antipersonnel landmines and improvised explosive devices constructed from 155mm artillery shells. Target responses are simulated with GPRmax 2D, a simulation package based on the Finite- Difference-Time-Domain method. First, the utility of the SVD for image enhancement and reconstruction is demonstrated. Then the singular values and singular vectors of the decomposed matrices are analyzed with the goal of finding properties that will aid in the development of automated underground detection algorithms.

  20. Photoemissive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Polystyrene coating is applied to holographic storage tube substrate via glow discharge polymerization in an inert environment. After deposition of styrene coating, antimony and then cesium are added to produce photoemissive layer. Technique is utilized in preparing perfectly organized polymeric films useful as single-crystal membranes.

  1. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  2. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  6. Marble-burying is enhanced in 3xTg-AD mice, can be reversed by risperidone and it is modulable by handling.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; López-Pousa, Secundino; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    Translational research on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is relevant to the study the neuropsychiatric symptoms that strongly affect the quality of life of the human Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and caregivers, frequently leading to early institutionalization. Among the ethological behavioural tests for rodents, marble burying is considered to model the spectrum of anxiety, psychotic and obsessive-compulsive like symptoms. The present work was aimed to study the behavioural interactions of 12 month-old male 3xTg-AD mice with small objects using the marble-burying test, as compared to the response elicited in age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) mice. The distinction of the classical 'number of buried marbles' but also those left 'intact' and those 'changed' of position of marbles or partially buried (the transitional level of interaction) provided new insights into the modelling of BPSD-like alterations in this AD model. The analysis revealed genotype differences in the behavioural patterns and predominant behaviors. In the NTg mice, predominance was shown in the 'changed or partially buried', while interactions with marble were enhanced in 3xTg-AD mice resulting in an increase of marble burying. Besides, genotype-dependent meaningful correlations were found, with the marble test pattern of 3xTg-AD mice being directly related to neophobia in the corner tests. In both genotypes, the increase of burying was reversed by chronic treatment with risperidone (1mg/kg, s.c.). In 3xTg-AD mice, the repetitive handling of animals during the treatment also exerted modulatory effects. These distinct patterns further characterize the modelling of BPSD-like symptoms in the 3xTg-AD mice, and provide another behavioural tool to assess the benefits of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies, as well as the potential action of risk factors for AD, in this animal model.

  7. Regulatory Aspects of Coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter gives a history of the development and uses of edible coating regulations, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The chapter also...

  8. Acoustic penetration of the seabed, with particular application to the detection of non-metallic buried cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ruthven Clive Philip

    Damaged submarine fibre optic telecommunication cables are located by the use of remotely operated underwater vehicles. These are fitted with sensors which have the capability to detect the metal shielding in the cable cores. However, it is anticipated that the next generation of cables will have a much reduced metal content, their strength being derived from synthetic materials such as aramid fibres. This will make them practically invisible to present day detection systems. To this end, research has been conducted into the remote detection of a range of buried objects having a `low acoustic contrast' using, primarily, acoustic techniques, with particular emphasis being given to the detection of buried cables. This involved the design of a system to reliably detect a small diameter (cm scale), cylindrical target buried to a depth of up to 1 metre below the seabed from a height of 1 metre above the seabed at a sea depth of 1000 m. A purpose-built, laboratory-scale, automated sensing system comprising a bistatic arrangement of adjustable, focused transducers was constructed. This was used successfully in the high resolution imaging of a range of buried objects, proving an acoustic detection system to be a feasible solution. The experimental investigation focused on the areas of waveform optimisation, optimal filtering and clutter reduction, with the signal processing system being optimised to achieve maximum separation of the target signal from the background. The lack of an experimentally verified model to describe the transmission of acoustic waves into the seabed was a complicating factor. Therefore, the propagation of compressional waves into and within a sandy sediment was investigated. This study was of particular academic interest in light of recent work in which anomalous acoustic penetration of the seabed, where the grazing angle in the water column was sub-critical, has been observed. An experimental investigation showed that scattering from surface

  9. In-place coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Fuel pipelines at military aviation facilities are critical to mission accomplishment. Clean aviation fuel, free from contamination, is a must for flight safety. Internal corrosion and pipeline leaks cannot be tolerated. Repairs to, and replacement of, pipelines that are often buried under thick, reinforced concrete, can be difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Excavations to uncover such lines can totally disrupt flight operations. An in-place pipeline internal rehabilitation service has been utilized recently to clean and internally coat three major military jet fuel pipelines serving military airfields in New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Florida. The rehabilitation projects were accomplished by UCISCO (Union Carbide Industrial Services Co.) with little or no disruptive excavation. The total process involves, first, thorough internal cleaning of the pipe using the SANDJET pipeline cleaning service to completely remove deposits and corrosion down to bare white metal and leave a clean blasted surface in a dry, inert nitrogen atmosphere - conditions ideal for application of a polyamide epoxy coating material. The epoxy coating provides a smooth, continuous inner surface that is free of holidays and helps improve the flow efficiency of the line as well as protecting products from possible corrosion contamination.

  10. Characterization of rocks buried in the subsurface by the GPR WISDOM/ExoMars 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Yann; Ciarletti, Valérie; Le Gall, Alice; Guiffaut, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    The search for evidence of past life on Mars is the main objective of the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Rover mission. Given the hostile environment at the surface, if such evidence is to be found anywhere, it will most likely be in the subsurface. This is why the ExoMars rover mission has been optimized to investigate the subsurface. Among the instruments accommodated onboard the Rover, the polarimetric ground penetrating radar WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation On Mars, Ciarletti et al., 2011) has been designed to investigate the shallow subsurface and search for the most favorable locations where to drill and collect samples for analysis. WISDOM is able to probe down to a depth of few meters with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters, and will provide key information on the geological context of the environment.In particular, insights into density, size and shape of the rocks buried beneath the rover would be clues for a better understanding of the geological and hydrological history of the Rover site. In addition, the density and size of the buried rocks will have to be taken into account for the safety of the drilling operations.In this paper, we will focus on the ability of WISDOM to detect, localize and characterize (in terms of size and shape), rocks in the shallow subsurface of Mars. More specifically, we use a 3D numerical code based on the Finite Difference in Time Domain method to model the antenna system of WISDOM and simulate the instrument operations on realistic environments with buried rocks. In this approach, size-frequency distribution of rocks in agreement with observations from orbit and by cameras operated from the Martian surface will be considered. We will present results of simulations for different density and shape of buried rocks, including critical configurations where the density of rocks is too high to allow individual detection of rocks. In addition, we will present experimental data for comparison with the simulated data

  11. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  13. Aeromagnetic Expression of Buried Basaltic Volcanoes Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.; Mankinen, E.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey has defined a number of small dipolar anomalies indicating the presence of magnetic bodies buried beneath the surface of Crater Flat and the Amargosa Desert. Results of potential-field modeling indicate that isolated, small-volume, highly magnetic bodies embedded within the alluvial deposits of both areas produce the anomalies. Their physical characteristics and the fact that they tend to be aligned along major structural trends provide strong support for the hypothesis that the anomalies reflect buried basaltic volcanic centers. Other, similar anomalies are identified as possible targets for further investigation. High-resolution gravity and ground-magnetic surveys, perhaps along with drilling sources of selected anomalies and radiometric age determinations, can provide valuable constraints in estimating potential volcanic hazard to the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation; specifically for use in humid climates.

  15. Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J.; Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D.

    1993-10-01

    Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

  16. Imaging and controlling plasmonic interference fields at buried interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Lamb, Raymond J.; Berruto, Gabriele; Lagrange, Thomas; Dal Negro, Luca; García de Abajo, F. Javier; McGrouther, Damien; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2016-10-01

    Capturing and controlling plasmons at buried interfaces with nanometre and femtosecond resolution has yet to be achieved and is critical for next generation plasmonic devices. Here we use light to excite plasmonic interference patterns at a buried metal-dielectric interface in a nanostructured thin film. Plasmons are launched from a photoexcited array of nanocavities and their propagation is followed via photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM). The resulting movie directly captures the plasmon dynamics, allowing quantification of their group velocity at ~0.3 times the speed of light, consistent with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that the light polarization and nanocavity design can be tailored to shape transient plasmonic gratings at the nanoscale. This work, demonstrating dynamical imaging with PINEM, paves the way for the femtosecond and nanometre visualization and control of plasmonic fields in advanced heterostructures based on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, MoS2, and ultrathin metal films.

  17. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  19. The buried reference electrode: A critical long term performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, T.; Geyer, W.

    1998-12-31

    Accurate monitoring of cathodic protection relies upon the proficiency of the test personnel and the proper operation of the required equipment. The equipment consists of properly insulated test leads, an electronic volt meter with a known internal circuit resistance, and a reference electrode. The proper operation of each piece of equipment is critical to the accuracy of the cathodic protection test results. However, the reference electrode is not often suspected of being responsible for unexpected cathodic protection readings. This paper will provide background on the use of portable reference electrodes and data used to evaluate the performance of buried reference electrodes installed adjacent to a single, catholically protected, underground storage tank. Data accumulated at the test site clearly indicates that not all buried reference electrodes provide identical results.

  20. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  1. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  2. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  3. The Thermal Regime Around Buried Submarine High-Voltage Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeana, C. J.; Dix, J.; Henstock, T.; Gernon, T.; Thompson, C.; Pilgrim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the desire for "trans-continental shelf" power transmission, all require the use of submarine High Voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70oC and are typically buried at depths of 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the thermal properties of near surface shelf sediments are poorly understood and this increases the uncertainty in determining the required cable current ratings, cable reliability and the potential effects on the sedimentary environments. We present temperature measurements from a 2D laboratory experiment, designed to represent a buried, submarine HV cable. We used a large (2.5 m-high) tank, filled with water-saturated ballotini and instrumented with 120 thermocouples, which measured the time-dependent 2D temperature distributions around the heat source. The experiments use a buried heat source to represent a series of realistic cable surface temperatures with the aim for identifying the thermal regimes generated within typical non-cohesive shelf sediments: coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. The steady state heat flow regimes, and normalised and radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that at temperatures up to 60°C above ambient, the thermal regimes are conductive for the coarse silt sediments and convective for the very coarse sand sediments even at 7°C above ambient. However, the heat flow pattern through the fine sand sediment shows a transition from conductive to convective heat flow at a temperature of approximately 20°C above ambient. These findings offer an important new understanding of the thermal regimes associated with submarine HV cables buried in different substrates and has huge impacts on cable ratings as the IEC 60287 standard only considers conductive heat flow as well as other potential near surface impacts.

  4. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2014-02-01

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  5. Method and apparatus for constructing buried pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heuer, C.E.; Hsu, H.; Jahns, H.O.

    1982-11-09

    A method and apparatus for mitigating or eliminating the frost heave of refrigerated pipelines buried in frost-susceptible soil are provided. A blanket of heat absorbent material is placed over the pipeline on the surface of the soil to increase the flow of heat into the region surrounding the pipeline. This technique may be used in combination with other frost heave mitigation techniques, such as insulating the pipeline and supporting the pipeline with a heave resistant bedding material.

  6. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  7. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  8. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  9. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  10. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  11. Near-specular acoustic scattering from a buried submarine mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Anthony L; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are objects that form on the seafloor due to the emission of gas and fluidized sediment from the Earth's interior. They vary widely in size, can be exposed or buried, and are of interest to the underwater acoustics community as potential sources of active sonar clutter. Coincident seismic reflection data and low frequency bistatic scattering data were gathered from one such buried mud volcano located in the Straits of Sicily. The bistatic data were generated using a pulsed piston source and a 64-element horizontal array, both towed over the top of the volcano. The purpose of this work was to appropriately model low frequency scattering from the volcano using the bistatic returns, seismic bathymetry, and knowledge of the general geoacoustic properties of the area's seabed to guide understanding and model development. Ray theory, with some approximations, was used to model acoustic propagation through overlying layers. Due to the volcano's size, scattering was modeled using geometric acoustics and a simple representation of volcano shape. Modeled bistatic data compared relatively well with experimental data, although some features remain unexplained. Results of an inversion for the volcano's reflection coefficient indicate that it may be acoustically softer than expected. PMID:18247739

  12. A remote characterization system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.

    1992-10-01

    Mapping of buried objects and regions of chemical and radiological contamination is required at US Department of Energy (DOE) buried waste sites. The DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Integrated Program has initiated a project to develop and demonstrate a remotely controlled subsurface sensing system, called the Remote Characterization System (RCS). This project, a collaborative effort by five of the National Laboratories, involves the development of a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. To minimize interference with on-board sensors, the survey vehicle has been constructed predominatantly of non-metallic materials. The vehicle is self-propelled and will be guided by an operator located at a remote base station. The RCS sensors will be environmentally sealed and internally cooled to preclude contamination during use. Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and conductivity devices are planned for geophysical surveys. Chemical and radiological sensors will be provided to locate hot spots and to provide isotopic concentration data.

  13. BREAKING THE OBSCURING SCREEN: A RESOLVED MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN A BURIED QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-09-20

    We present Keck laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the nearby buried quasi-stellar object (QSO) F08572+3915:NW. We use near-infrared integral field data taken with the OH-Suppressing Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph to reveal a compact disk and molecular outflow using Paα and H{sub 2} rotational-vibrational transitions at a spatial resolution of 100 pc. The outflow emerges perpendicular to the disk into a bicone of one-sided opening angle 100° up to distances of 400 pc from the nucleus. The integrated outflow velocities, which reach at least –1300 km s{sup –1}, correspond exactly to those observed in (unresolved) OH absorption, but are smaller (larger) than those observed on larger scales in the ionized (neutral atomic) outflow. These data represent a factor of >10 improvement in the spatial resolution of molecular outflows from mergers/QSOs, and plausibly represent the early stages of the excavation of the dust screen from a buried QSO.

  14. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration fiscal Year 1994 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, K.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Buried Waste integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development initiated BMD at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during Fiscal Year 1994. In Fiscal Year 1995, these activities are transitioning into the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area.

  15. Near-specular acoustic scattering from a buried submarine mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Anthony L; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are objects that form on the seafloor due to the emission of gas and fluidized sediment from the Earth's interior. They vary widely in size, can be exposed or buried, and are of interest to the underwater acoustics community as potential sources of active sonar clutter. Coincident seismic reflection data and low frequency bistatic scattering data were gathered from one such buried mud volcano located in the Straits of Sicily. The bistatic data were generated using a pulsed piston source and a 64-element horizontal array, both towed over the top of the volcano. The purpose of this work was to appropriately model low frequency scattering from the volcano using the bistatic returns, seismic bathymetry, and knowledge of the general geoacoustic properties of the area's seabed to guide understanding and model development. Ray theory, with some approximations, was used to model acoustic propagation through overlying layers. Due to the volcano's size, scattering was modeled using geometric acoustics and a simple representation of volcano shape. Modeled bistatic data compared relatively well with experimental data, although some features remain unexplained. Results of an inversion for the volcano's reflection coefficient indicate that it may be acoustically softer than expected.

  16. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  17. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  18. Coating for prevention of titanium combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, V. G.; Funkhouser, M.; Mcdaniel, P.

    1980-01-01

    A limited number of coating options for titanium gas turbine engine components were explored with the objective of minimizing potential combustion initiation and propagation without adversely affecting component mechanical properties. Objectives were met by two of the coatings, ion-plated platinum plus electroplated copper plus electroplated nickel and ion vapor deposited aluminum.

  19. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first report of the first phase of a 3-year program. Its objectives are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system, then to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The first task (Task I) is to determine the major failure mechanisms. Presently, bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep are being evaluated as potential TBC failure mechanisms. The baseline TBC system consists of an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, and a Rene'80 substrate. Pre-exposures in air and argon combined with thermal cycle tests in air and argon are being utilized to evaluate bond coat oxidation as a failure mechanism. Unexpectedly, the specimens pre-exposed in argon failed before the specimens pre-exposed in air in subsequent thermal cycles testing in air. Four bond coats with different creep strengths are being utilized to evaluate the effect of bond coat creep on TBC degradation. These bond coats received an aluminide overcoat prior to application of the top coat to reduce the differences in bond coat oxidation behavior. Thermal cycle testing has been initiated. Methods have been selected for measuring tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, dynamic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion both of the bond coat and top coat layers.

  20. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  1. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  2. Analysis of buried interfaces in multilayer mirrors using grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry near resonance edges.

    PubMed

    Sertsu, M G; Nardello, M; Giglia, A; Corso, A J; Maurizio, C; Juschkin, L; Nicolosi, P

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4  nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms' interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed. PMID:26836858

  3. Analysis of buried interfaces in multilayer mirrors using grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry near resonance edges.

    PubMed

    Sertsu, M G; Nardello, M; Giglia, A; Corso, A J; Maurizio, C; Juschkin, L; Nicolosi, P

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4  nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms' interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed.

  4. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  5. Exploiting sparsity and field conditioning in subsurface microwave imaging of nonweak buried targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevacqua, Martina; Crocco, Lorenzo; Donato, Loreto Di; Isernia, Tommaso; Palmeri, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    An efficient inverse scattering strategy is proposed to achieve dielectric characterization of buried objects in lossy soils. The approach takes advantage of Virtual Experiments and Compressive Sensing to obtain quantitative reconstructions of nonweak targets which are nonsparse in the pixel representation basis, commonly adopted in microwave imaging. In addition, an original strategy is adopted to overcome the relevant information lack arising when data are gathered under aspect-limited configurations, such as in ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The proposed strategy significantly outperforms the results achievable with the "state of the art" standard approaches since it allows to achieve nearly optimal reconstructions within a linear framework and without increasing the overall computational burden. Numerical examples with simulated data are given to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  6. Extracting features buried within high density atom probe point cloud data through simplicial homology.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Kaluskar, Kaustubh; Broderick, Scott; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Feature extraction from Atom Probe Tomography (APT) data is usually performed by repeatedly delineating iso-concentration surfaces of a chemical component of the sample material at different values of concentration threshold, until the user visually determines a satisfactory result in line with prior knowledge. However, this approach allows for important features, buried within the sample, to be visually obscured by the high density and volume (~10(7) atoms) of APT data. This work provides a data driven methodology to objectively determine the appropriate concentration threshold for classifying different phases, such as precipitates, by mapping the topology of the APT data set using a concept from algebraic topology termed persistent simplicial homology. A case study of Sc precipitates in an Al-Mg-Sc alloy is presented demonstrating the power of this technique to capture features, such as precise demarcation of Sc clusters and Al segregation at the cluster boundaries, not easily available by routine visual adjustment.

  7. Solid state, CCD-buried channel, television camera study and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, K. A.; Balopole, H.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of an all solid state television camera design, which uses a buried channel charge-coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array was utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a design which addresses the program requirements for a deliverable solid state TV camera.

  8. A Large Buried Felsic Component in the Ancient Martian Crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Monnereau, M.; Samuel, H.; Michaut, C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Garcia, R.

    2014-12-01

    A new range of crustal density values for Mars was calculated from the major element chemistry of Martian meteorites
(3100 - 3700 kg/m3), igneous rocks at Gusev crater (3100 - 3600 kg/m3) and from the surface concentration of Fe, Al, Ca, Si, and K measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) (3250 - 3450 kg/m3) (Baratoux et al., 2014). Whereas a dense basaltic crust would be compatible with the moment of inertia factor of Mars, its thickness would exceed 100 km. Such a thick crust is not compatible with the geoid-to-topography ratios in the highlands, and would be unstable and prone to basal flow and/or crustal delamination. An alternative possibility is the existence of a buried light felsic or anorthositic component. A low-density crustal component in the highlands would be consistent with an isostatic compensation associated with a difference in elevation between the two hemispheres of Mars. This alternative is reinforced in the context of the findings of felsic or anorthositic material from visible/NIR spectroscopy (Carter and Poulet, 2013, Wray et al. 2013), and the identification of feldspar-rich rocks at Gale crater (Sautter et al., 2014), whereas felsic lithologies were already identified by Pathfinder. The recently identified outcrops could be either remnants of an ancient anorthositic crust or the result of local igneous differentiation of plutonic bodies. The latter interpretation is currently preferred as early Mars conditions should not be compatible with the formation of a plagioclase floatation crust (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2005). However, in light of the geophysical and petrological constraints discussed above, and given the absence of abundant light material at the surface, we advocate for the existence of a buried anorthositic crustal component that has been largely buried by volcanic material of basaltic composition in the late Noachian or Hesperian eras. Implications regarding the magma ocean scenario for Mars will be discussed.

  9. Structural coupling between FKBP12 and buried water

    PubMed Central

    Szep, Szilvia; Park, Sheldon; Boder, Eric T.; Van Duyne, Gregory D.; Saven, Jeffery G.

    2008-01-01

    Globular proteins often contain structurally well-resolved internal water molecules. Previously, we reported results from a molecular dynamics study that suggested that a buried water (Wat3) may play a role in modulating the structure of the FK506 binding protein-12 (FKBP12) 1. In particular, simulations suggested that disrupting a hydrogen bond to Wat3 by mutating E60 to either A or Q would cause a structural perturbation involving the distant W59 side chain, which rotates to a new conformation in response to the mutation. This effectively remodels the ligand binding pocket, as the side chain in the new conformation is likely to clash with bound FK506. To test if the protein structure is in effect modulated by the binding of a buried water in the distance, we determined high resolution (0.92 – 1.29 Å) structures of wild type FKBP12 and its two mutants (E60A, E60Q) by x-ray crystallography. The structures of mutant FKBP12 show that the ligand-binding pocket is indeed remodeled as predicted by the substitution at position 60, even though the water molecule does not directly interact with any of the amino acids of the binding pocket. Thus, these structures support the view that buried water molecules constitute an integral, noncovalent component of the protein structure. Additionally, this study provides an example in which predictions from molecular dynamics simulations are experimentally validated with atomic precision, thus showing that the structural features of protein-water interactions can be reliably modeled at a molecular level. PMID:18704951

  10. Structural coupling between FKBP12 and buried water.

    PubMed

    Szep, Szilvia; Park, Sheldon; Boder, Eric T; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Saven, Jeffery G

    2009-02-15

    Globular proteins often contain structurally well-resolved internal water molecules. Previously, we reported results from a molecular dynamics study that suggested that buried water (Wat3) may play a role in modulating the structure of the FK506 binding protein-12 (FKBP12) (Park and Saven, Proteins 2005; 60:450-463). In particular, simulations suggested that disrupting a hydrogen bond to Wat3 by mutating E60 to either A or Q would cause a structural perturbation involving the distant W59 side chain, which rotates to a new conformation in response to the mutation. This effectively remodels the ligand-binding pocket, as the side chain in the new conformation is likely to clash with bound FK506. To test whether the protein structure is in effect modulated by the binding of a buried water in the distance, we determined high-resolution (0.92-1.29 A) structures of wild-type FKBP12 and its two mutants (E60A, E60Q) by X-ray crystallography. The structures of mutant FKBP12 show that the ligand-binding pocket is indeed remodeled as predicted by the substitution at position 60, even though the water molecule does not directly interact with any of the amino acids of the binding pocket. Thus, these structures support the view that buried water molecules constitute an integral, noncovalent component of the protein structure. Additionally, this study provides an example in which predictions from molecular dynamics simulations are experimentally validated with atomic precision, thus showing that the structural features of protein-water interactions can be reliably modeled at a molecular level.

  11. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  12. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matt; Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications project is to evaluate and test pretreatments not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  13. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments-coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  14. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  15. Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2003-02-28

    Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92 (1978) 708], defensive (shock-prod) burying has been the focus of a considerable amount of research effort delineating the methodology/ethology, psychopharmacology and neurobiology of this robust and species-specific active avoidance or coping response. The present review gives a summary of this research with special reference to the behavioral (face and construct) and pharmacological (predictive) validity of the shock-prod burying test as an animal model for human anxiety. Emphasis is also placed on some recent modifications of the paradigm that may increase its utility and reliability as to individual differences in expressed emotional coping responses and sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. Overall, the behavioral and physiological responses displayed in the shock-prod paradigm are expressions of normal and functionally adaptive coping patterns and the extremes of either active (i.e., burying) or passive (i.e., freezing) forms of responding in this test cannot simply be regarded as inappropriate, maladaptive or pathological. For this reason, the shock-prod paradigm is not an animal model for anxiety disorder or for any other psychiatric disease, but instead possesses a high degree of face and construct validity for normal and functionally adaptive human fear and anxious apprehension. However, the apparent good pharmacological validation (predictive validity) of this test reinforces the view that normal and pathological anxiety involves, at least partly, common neurobiological substrates. Therefore, this paradigm is not only suitable for screening potential

  16. Polarization lidar measurements of honeybees for locating buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Seldomridge, Nathan L.; Dunkle, Dustin L.; Nugent, Paul W.; Spangler, Lee H.; Churnside, James H.; Wilson, James W.; Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.

    2005-08-01

    A polarization-sensitive lidar was used to detect honeybees trained to locate buried landmines by smell. Lidar measurements of bee location agree reasonably well with maps of chemical plume strength and bee density determined by visual and video counts, indicating that the bees are preferentially located near the explosives and that the lidar identifies the locations of higher bee concentration. The co-polarized lidar backscatter signal is more effective than the cross-polarized signal for bee detection. Laboratory measurements show that the depolarization ratio of scattered light is near zero for bee wings and up to approximately thirty percent for bee bodies.

  17. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments—coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  18. [Metabolic profiling for characteristics of Trichoderma from buried soils].

    PubMed

    Tukhbatova, R I; Morozova, Iu A; Alimova, F K

    2014-01-01

    Previously, 135 strains of Trichoderma isolated from buried soils of Tatarstan have been identified as T. asperellum, T. viride, T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. citrinoviride and T. longibrachiatum. At this stage, the biochemical analysis of the strains was carried out using the Biolog system, which being a simple screening test enables rapid preparation of strains based on 95 substrates. We have revealed that each species has only a specific substrate utilisation profile. Biochemical analysis provides a large amount of information that can then be used for optimization of biotechnological processes, in particular, the selection of effective nutrient media. PMID:25696984

  19. Explosive fluid transmitted shock method for mining deeply buried coal

    DOEpatents

    Archibald, Paul B.

    1976-06-22

    A method for recovering coal from deeply buried deposits comprising drilling a hole down into a coal seam, filling the hole with water, and periodically detonating an explosive charge at the bottom of the water-filled hole. The water transmits the explosive shock wave to the face of the coal seam, thereby fracturing and dislodging the coal. The resulting suspension of loose coal in water is then pumped to the surface where the coal is recovered and the water is recycled to the mining operation.

  20. Approximation functions for airblast environments from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-11-01

    In EMI report E 1/93, ``Airblast Environments from Buried HE-Charges,`` fit functions were used for the compact description of blastwave parameters. The coefficients of these functions were approximated by means of second order polynomials versus DOB. In most cases, the agreement with the measured data was satisfactory; to reduce remaining noticeable deviations, an approximation by polygons (i.e., piecewise-linear approximation) was used instead of polynomials. The present report describes the results of the polygon approximation and compares them to previous data. We conclude that the polygon representation leads to a better agreement with the measured data.

  1. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  2. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  3. Waterborne coatings for videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Fan, H.; Gogineni, N.; Jacobs, B.; Harrell, J.W.; Jefcoat, I.A.; Lane, A.M.; Nikles, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic tape provides a low-cost, high-density information storage medium. There is a problem, however, because current manufacturing technology uses organic solvents to apply the magnetic wailing to the film. Here the authors describe a waterborne formulation that shows promise as a technology for pollution prevention. The organic solvents used in magnetic tape coating formulations include 2-butanone (methylethyl ketone [MEK]), 4-methyl-2-pentanone (methyl-iso-butyl ketone [MIBK]), tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and cyclohexanone. These solvents present an occupational hazard to the workers and emissions hazard to the environment. The authors developed a new waterborne coating formulation and prepared magnetic tape in a pilot coating trial. The tape has mechanical and magnetic properties comparable to those of the commercial VHS tape. There is a clear economic and environmental incentive to consider adopting this waterborne process for magnetic tape manufacture. This process is not commercial, and a development effort by a tape manufacturer is required to bring it to commercial reality. They have not addressed the important issue of long-term reliability of the materials package, an object of current research. However, they have made a case for a reexamination of the use of waterborne coating formulations by the magnetic tape industry.

  4. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval.

  5. Probing Molecular Organization and Electronic Dynamics at Buried Organic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Sean

    2015-03-01

    Organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials due to their ability to meld the charge transport capabilities of semiconductors with many of the processing advantages of plastics. In thin film organic devices, interfacial charge transfer often comprises a crucial step in device operation. As molecular materials, the density of states within organic semiconductors often reflect their intermolecular organization. Truncation of the bulk structure of an organic semiconductor at an interface with another material can lead to substantial changes in the density of states near the interface that can significantly impact rates for interfacial charge and energy transfer. Here, we will present the results of experiments that utilize electronic sum frequency generation (ESFG) to probe buried interfaces in these materials. Within the electric dipole approximation, ESFG is only sensitive to regions of a sample that experience a breakage of symmetry, which occurs naturally at material interfaces. Through modeling of signals measured for thin organic films using a transfer matrix-based formalism, signals from buried interfaces between two materials can be isolated and used to uncover the interfacial density of states.

  6. Buried Impact Basins and the Earliest History of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    The "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) seen in MOLA data which have little or no visible appearance in image data have been interpreted as buried impact basins on Mars. These have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, what mechanisms could produce the crustal dichotomy, and the existence of crust older than the oldest observed surface units on Mars. A global survey of large QCDs using high resolution MOLA data now available has provided further details of the earliest history of Mars. The lowlands are of Early Noachian age, slightly younger than the buried highlands and definitely older than the exposed highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins.

  7. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  8. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  9. Imaging and controlling plasmonic interference fields at buried interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Lamb, Raymond J.; Berruto, Gabriele; LaGrange, Thomas; Dal Negro, Luca; García de Abajo, F. Javier; McGrouther, Damien; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2016-01-01

    Capturing and controlling plasmons at buried interfaces with nanometre and femtosecond resolution has yet to be achieved and is critical for next generation plasmonic devices. Here we use light to excite plasmonic interference patterns at a buried metal–dielectric interface in a nanostructured thin film. Plasmons are launched from a photoexcited array of nanocavities and their propagation is followed via photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM). The resulting movie directly captures the plasmon dynamics, allowing quantification of their group velocity at ∼0.3 times the speed of light, consistent with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that the light polarization and nanocavity design can be tailored to shape transient plasmonic gratings at the nanoscale. This work, demonstrating dynamical imaging with PINEM, paves the way for the femtosecond and nanometre visualization and control of plasmonic fields in advanced heterostructures based on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, MoS2, and ultrathin metal films. PMID:27725670

  10. Buried structure for increasing fabrication performance of micromaterial by electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yasuhiro; Saka, Masumi

    2016-06-01

    The electromigration (EM) technique is a physical synthetic growth method for micro/nanomaterials. EM causes atomic diffusion in a metal line by high-density electron flows. The intentional control of accumulation and relaxation of atoms by EM can lead to the fabrication of a micro/nanomaterial. TiN passivation has been utilized as a component of sample in the EM technique. Although TiN passivation can simplify the cumbersome processes for preparing the sample, the leakage of current naturally occurs because of the conductivity of TiN as a side effect and decreases the performance of micro/nanomaterial fabrication. In the present work, we propose a buried structure, which contributes to significantly decreasing the current for fabricating an Al micromaterial by confining the current flow in the EM technique. The fabrication performance was evaluated based on the threshold current for fabricating an Al micromaterial using the buried structure and the previous structure with the leakage of current.

  11. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  12. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  13. Buried CO2 Ice traces in South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars detected by radar sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, L.; Mège, D.; Orosei, R.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-12-01

    SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) is the subsurface sounding radar provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) as a facility instrument to NASA's 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Reduced Data Record of SHARAD data covering the area of the South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD), has been used. The elaboration and interpretation of the data, aimed to estimate electromagnetic properties of surface layers, has been performed in terms of permittivity. The theory of electromagnetic scattering from fractal surfaces, and the estimation of geometric parameters from topographic data by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) which was one of five instruments on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has been used. A deep analysis of inversion has been made on all Mars and extended to the South Polar Caps in order to extract the area with a permittivity constant of CO2 ice. Several corrections have been applied to the data, moreover the calibration of the signal requires the determination of a constant that takes into account the power gain due to the radar system and the surface in order to compensate the power losses due to the orbitographic phenomena. The determination of regions with high probability of buried CO2 ice in the first layer of the Martian surface, is obtained extracting the real part of the permittivity constant of the CO2 ice (~2), estimated by other means. The permittivity of CO2ice is extracted from the Global Permittivity Map of Mars using the global standard deviation of itself as following: ɛCO2ice=ɛCO2ice+ Σ (1)where Σ=±std(ɛMapMars)/2Figure 1(a) shows the south polar areas where the values of the permittivity point to the possibility of a CO2 ice layer. Figure 1(b) is the corresponding geologic map. The comparison between the two maps indicates that the area with probable buried CO2 overlaps Hesperian and Amazonian polar units (Hp, Hesperian plains-forming deposits marked by narrow sinuous, anabranching ridges and irregular depressions, and

  14. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  15. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  16. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  17. AT on Buried LPG Tanks Over 13 m3: An Innovative and Practical Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fratta, Crescenzo; Ferraro, Antonio; Tscheliesnig, Peter; Lackner, Gerald; Correggia, Vincenzo; Altamura, Nicola

    In Italy, since 2005, techniques based on Acoustic Emission have been introduced for testing of underground LPG tanks up to 13 m3, according to the European standard EN 12818:2004. The testing procedure for these tanks plans to install one or more pairs of sensors inside the "dome" suited for the access to the valves and fittings of the tank, directly on the accessible metal shell. This methodology is not applicable for the underground LPG buried tanks, where it is necessary to install a larger number of AE sensors, in order to cover at 100% the whole tank shell, even at very deep positions. Already in 2004, the European standard EN 12820 (Appendix C - Informative)give the possibility to use Acoustic Emission testing of LPG underground or buried tanks with a capacity exceeding 13 m3, but no technique was specified for the application. In 2008, TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS srl - Italian company of TÜV AUSTRIA Group - has developed a technique to get access at tank shell, where tank capacity is greater than 13 m3 and its' diameter greater than 3,5 m. This methodology was fully in comply with the provisions of the European Standard EN 12819:2010, becoming an innovative solution widely appreciated and is used in Italy since this time. Currently, large companies and petrochemical plants, at the occurrence of the tank's requalification, have engaged TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS to install such permanent predispositions, which allow access to the tank shell - test object - with diameters from 4 to 8 m. Through this access, you can install the AE sensors needed to cover at 100% the tank surface and then to perform AE test. In an economic crisis period, this technique is proving a valid and practically applicable answer, in order to reduce inspection costs and downtime by offering a technically advanced solution (AT), increasing the safety of the involved operators, protecting natural resources and the environment.

  18. Detecting buried remains in Florida using ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John Joseph

    This research tested the applicability of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in Florida to detect buried bodies; and assessed the effect of body size, depth, antenna type, time, and soil type on grave detection. Furthermore, because of the emphasis on decomposition, it was possible to address the role of depth, body size, time, and soil type on decomposition. The site was located in an open pasture, where 20 pig (Sus scrofa) cadavers of two average weights (29.7 and 63.8 kg) were buried at two depths (50 to 60 or 100 to 110 cm). The cadavers were monitored monthly for durations up to 21 months with GPR using 900- and 500-MHz antennae. Two different soil types were used: one composed solely of sand horizons and one composed of sand with clay horizons at approximately 1.00 m. The graves were excavated at the termination of each monitoring period to collect soil samples and score decomposition. Overall, depth was the most significant factor controlling decomposition, followed by time. Body size and soil type were not major factors. Ground-penetrating radar can be a very effective tool for grave detection in Florida. Salient anomalies were produced for the duration of this study due to a strong enough contrast between the skeleton, or decomposing body, and the surrounding soil with that of the undisturbed soil. While cadaver size and time were not major factors in grave detection, soil type and antenna choice were. Although it was possible to detect a decomposing body and a skeleton in both shallow and deep sand graves, it was difficult to image large pig cadavers retaining extensive soft tissue buried in proximity to the clay horizon in as little as six months. The clay masked the contrast of the cadavers by reducing their relative dielectric permittivity. Pig cadaver size was not a major factor in grave detection. The imagery of the 500-MHz antenna was preferred over the higher resolution of the 900-MHz, because the increased detail may result in difficulty

  19. Lunar Radar Scattering from Near-Surface Buried Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.; Heggy, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Apollo 15, 16, and 17 core tubes show that the uppermost few meters of the lunar regolith are interlaced layers of a fine grained powders and blocky crater ejecta. The layers of crater ejecta have dielectric constants in the range of 7-9 while the fine-grained powders has dielectric constant on the order of 2.7. These differences in dielectric constant, in turn, create radar reflections that are both refracted and reflected back through the space-regolith interface. Note that for a dielectric constant of 2.7 for the lunar regolith, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at the angle of 30-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of 18-degrees. At the limb, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at an angle near 90-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of about 37-degrees. These angles are within the range where radar backscatter is in the quasi-specular regime. When these buried crater ejecta layers are modeled using Hagfors’ formulation (Hagfors, 1963), echo powers match the behavior observed for average lunar backscatter at centimeter wavelengths for higher (30° to 90°) angles of incidence. In addition, Hagfors et al. (1965) conducted an experiment where the Moon was illuminated at 23-cm wavelength with circular polarization and the differences were observed in orthogonal linear polarizations. Modeling of these observations and assuming again that the buried crater ejecta scatter in a quasi-specular manner, echo differences in horizontal and vertical linear polarizations are in relatively good agreement with the observations. The data from Chandrayaan Mini-RF radar, which operated at S-Band (13cm) wavelength, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mini-RF radar, which is operating at S-Band and X-Band (4-cm) wavelengths, provide an opportunity for a new examination of whether radar backscatter from buried crater ejecta behaves like a quasi-specular scatter. These radars reproduce the

  20. How Burying Biomass Can Contribute to CO2 Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B.; Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B.; Gregg, J.

    2008-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  1. Large-Diameter Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Implications for age of the Highlands and (Buried) Lowlands and Turn-off of the Global Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2003-01-01

    The global populations of visible and buried impact basins less than 200 km diameter revealed by high resolution gridded MOLA indicate: (a) a small (approx. 10) number of very large basins (D=1300-3000km), most of which have remained visible over martian history; (b) a much larger population of smaller basins (D=200-800 km) with many more buried than visible (on images); (c) a depletion of visible basins at intermediate diameters which may be a signature of some global-scale event (formation of the lowlands? origin of Tharsis?); and (d) a crater retention age for the buried lowlands greater than that of the visible highlands but less than that of the total (visible + buried) highlands. Crustal magnetic anomalies are generally not present in the interiors of the largest basins with two exceptions: these two (which appear to be the oldest) may predate the demise of the global magnetic field.

  2. Large-Diameter Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Implications for Age of the Highlands and (Buried) Lowlands and Turn-Off of the Global Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    The global populations of visible and buried impact basins greater than 200 km diameter revealed by high resolution gridded MOLA indicate: (a) a small (approximately 10) number of very large basins (D=1300-3000km), most of which have remained visible over martian history; (b) a much larger population of smaller basins (D=200-800 km) with many more buried than visible (on images); (c) a depletion of visible basins at intermediate diameters which may be a signature of some global-scale event (formation of the lowlands? origin of Tharsis?); and (d) a crater retention age for the buried lowlands greater than that of the visible highlands but less than that of the total (visible + buried) highlands. Crustal magnetic anomalies are generally not present in the interiors of the largest basins with two exceptions: these two (which appear to be the oldest) may predate the demise of the global magnetic field.

  3. Enhanced buried UXO detection via GPR/EMI data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Kelly, Jack; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the enhancements to detection of buried unexploded ordinances achieved by combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) data with electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. Novel features from both the GPR and the EMI sensors are concatenated as a long feature vector, on which a non-parametric classifier is then trained. The classifier is a boosting classifier based on tree classifiers, which allows for disparate feature values. The fusion algorithm was applied to a government-provided dataset from an outdoor testing site, and significant performance enhancements were obtained relative to classifiers trained solely on the GPR or EMI data. It is shown that the performance enhancements come from a combination of improvements in detection and in clutter rejection.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description of the wastes present in each area, are included in this report. At a later date, technology-specific demonstration locations will be selected from these six potential sites. The selected locations will be used as necessary to demonstrate technologies whose potential abilities may be optimal on waste forms present at these identified locations.

  5. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  6. Testing of thermally piezoelectric deformable mirror with buried functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Goy, M.; Gebhardt, S.; Gutzeit, N.

    2014-03-01

    Laser-induced mirror deformation and thermal lensing in optical high power systems shall be compensated by a thermally-piezoelectric deformable mirror (DM). In our device, the laser-induced thermal lensing is compensated by heating of the DM as previously described with compound loading. We experimentally show the capability of this mirror for wavefront shaping of up to 6.2 kW laser power and power densities of 2 kW/cm2. The laser-induced defocussing of the membrane is compensated by mirror heating. We introduce a new mirror setup with buried heater and temperature sensor elements. Therewith, the compensation of laser-induced mirror deformation is possible within the same time scale. The piezoelectric stroke of the single actuators depends on their position on the membrane, and is not affected by the reflected laser power.

  7. Seasonal factors influencing the failure of buried water reticulation pipes.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J F; Boulaire, F A; Burn, S; Zhao, X L; Kodikara, J K

    2011-01-01

    While the use of environmental factors in the analysis and prediction of failures of buried reticulation pipes in cold environments has been the focus of extensive work, the same cannot be said for failures occurring on pipes in other (non-freezing) environments. A novel analysis of pipe failures in such an environment is the subject of this paper. An exploratory statistical analysis was undertaken, identifying a peak in failure rates during mid to late summer. This peak was found to correspond to a peak in the rate of circumferential failures, whilst the rate of longitudinal failures remained constant. Investigation into the effect of climate on failure rates revealed that the peak in failure rates occurs due to differential soil movement as the result of shrinkage in expansive soils. PMID:22049766

  8. Location of Buried Mineshafts and Adits Using Reconnaissance Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Martin; Donnelly, Laurance; McCann, David

    Britain has a long history of mining activity, which stretches back some 3000 years to the excavation of flint in East Anglia. The legacy of this long period of activity is the presence of many buried mineshafts and adits, whose location is often unknown precisely and in many cases not even recorded in historical mining records. As has been shown by Donnelly et al (2003) the discovery of a mineshaft in an area of housing development can have a profound effect on property values in its vicinity. Hence, urgent action must be taken to establish at the site investigation stage of a development to determine whether any mineshafts are present at the site so that remedial action can be taken before construction commences. A study of historical information and the drilling may well enable the developer to locate any suspected mineshafts and adits on his site. However, the use of geophysical reconnaissance methods across the whole site may well provide sufficient information to simplify the drilling programme and reduce its cost to a minimum. In this paper a number of rapid reconnaissance geophysical methods are described and evaluated in terms of their success in the location of buried mineshafts and adits. It has shown that a combination of ground conductivity and magnetic surveys provides a most effective approach on open sites in greenfield and brownfield areas. Ground penetrating radar and micro-gravity surveys have proved to be a valuable approach in urban areas where the use of many geophysical methods is prevented by the presence of various types of cultural noise. On a regional scale the infrared thermography method is being increasingly used but care must be taken to overcome certain environmental difficulties. The practical use of all these geophysical methods in the field is illustrated by a number of appropriate case histories.

  9. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

    2011-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  10. Environmental impact of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.; Noryskiewicz, B.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the research was to decipher the impacts of the role of dead ice melting on landscape evolution in the Lateglacial and early Holocene Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river which is located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. In this study we focused on a short terrestrial sediment core (48 cm) representing four phases of landscape evolution: telmatic, lacustrine, lacustrine-fluvial and alluvial. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 × 23 cal yr BP and thus falls within the Preboreal biozone. Our results showed that existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene is clear evidence that locally discontinuous permafrost still was present at that time. The results of our study prove a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata

    PubMed Central

    Han, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  13. 75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant... Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a). The revised specification will include new construction units for Fiber-to-the-Home, remove redundant or outdated requirements, and simplify the...

  14. Kirschner wire pin tract infection rates: a randomized controlled trial between percutaneous and buried wires.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, D G; Drew, S J; Eckersley, R

    2004-08-01

    This prospective, randomized trial compares the infection rates of Kirschner wires left percutaneously and those buried deep to the skin in a group of patients with isolated distal radial fractures. Percutaneous wires had a significantly greater infection rate than wires which were buried deep to the skin.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Han, C J

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  16. Broadband infrared electro-optic modulator having a buried microstrip network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, Peter K. (Inventor); Gilden, Meyer (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A microwave infrared modulator having a novel three dimensional structure is presented. The modulator includes a waveguide and metal base with a dielectric wafer buried therebetween. The buried wafer allows for conventional microstrip structures to be employed with larger microstrip electrode dimensions than would otherwise be possible.

  17. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  18. Buried topography of Utopia, Mars - Persistence of a giant impact depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, G. E.

    1989-03-01

    Knobs, partially buried craters, ring fractures, and some mesas permit a qualitative determination of the topography buried beneath younger northern plains materials. These features are widely distributed in the Utopia area but are absent in a large, roughly circular region centered at about 48 deg N, 240 deg W. This implies the existence of a circular depression about 3300 km in diameter buried beneath Utopia Planitia that is interpreted to represent the central part of a very large impact basin. The presence of buried curved massifs around part of this depression, and a roughly coincident mascon, lend further support. Present topography, areal geology, and paleotopography of buried surfaces all point to the persistence of this major depression for almost the entire history of Mars.

  19. Buried topography of Utopia, Mars - Persistence of a giant impact depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1989-01-01

    Knobs, partially buried craters, ring fractures, and some mesas permit a qualitative determination of the topography buried beneath younger northern plains materials. These features are widely distributed in the Utopia area but are absent in a large, roughly circular region centered at about 48 deg N, 240 deg W. This implies the existence of a circular depression about 3300 km in diameter buried beneath Utopia Planitia that is interpreted to represent the central part of a very large impact basin. The presence of buried curved massifs around part of this depression, and a roughly coincident mascon, lend further support. Present topography, areal geology, and paleotopography of buried surfaces all point to the persistence of this major depression for almost the entire history of Mars.

  20. Buried topography of Utopia, Mars: Persistence of a giant impact depression

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, G.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Knobs, partially buried craters, ring fractures, and some mesas permit a qualitative determination of the topography buried beneath younger northern plains materials. These features are widely distributed in the Utopia area but are absent in a large, roughly circular region centered at about 48{degree}N, 240{degree}W. This implies the existence of a circular depression about 3,300 km in diameter buried beneath Utopia Planitia that is here interpreted to represent the central part of a very large impact basin. The presence of buried curved massifs around part of this depression, and a roughly coincident mascon, lend further support. Present topography, areal geology, and paleotopography of buried surfaces all point to the persistence of this major depression for almost the entire history of Mars.

  1. Environmentally-Preferable Launch Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of environmentally friendly corrosion protecting coatings for launch facilities and ground support equipment (GSE). The focus of the project is corrosion resistance and survivability with the goal to reduce the amount of maintenance required to preserve the performance of launch facilities while reducing mission risk. The project compares coating performance of the selected alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  2. The effect of immersion time on burying depth of the bivalve Macoma balthica (Tellinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, Petra; Honkoop, Pieter J. C.

    2002-03-01

    As a characteristic buried tellinid bivalve, Macoma balthica has a long inhalent siphon that enables it to feed in two different ways: deposit and suspension feeding. To deposit feed efficiently on benthic microalgae, Macoma has to live close to the sediment surface, where it can graze an extensive surface area, but is within reach of many predators. Individuals that are more safely buried at a greater depth can only suspension feed, or deposit feed from a small surface area. We expected local differences in burying depth on intertidal mudflats to be caused by differences in immersion time (i.e. time available for feeding, particularly suspension feeding), since immersion time has been shown experimentally to affect body condition positively, and since body condition and burying depth in Macoma are postively related in the field. To test this we experimentally manipulated immersion time, and followed changes in burying depth and body condition. In the experiments, longer immersion time went consistently with greater burying depth of Macoma and higher body condition. On a transect in the western Wadden Sea, the deepest Macoma were indeed found at the intertidal level with the longest immersion time, but these were at that time not the animals with the highest body condition. Within each locality, however, body condition was positively correlated with burying depth. The experimental data and the within-locality data support the hypothesis that longer immersion time may influence burying depth through body condition. However, the fact that between-locality differences in burying depth seemed to be consistently related to immersion time, but not to body condition, indicates that body condition alone does not explain place-to-place variation in burying depth.

  3. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  4. Repair of a mirror coating on a large optic for high laser-damage applications using ion milling and over-coating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Ella S.; Bellum, John C.; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2014-10-01

    When an optical coating is damaged, deposited incorrectly, or is otherwise unsuitable, the conventional method to restore the optic often entails repolishing the optic surface, which can incur a large cost and long lead time. We propose three alternative options to repolishing, including (i) burying the unsuitable coating under another optical coating, (ii) using ion milling to etch the unsuitable coating completely from the optic surface, and then recoating the optic, and (iii) using ion milling to etch through a number of unsuitable layers, leaving the rest of the coating intact, and then recoating the layers that were etched. Repairs were made on test optics with dielectric mirror coatings according to the above three options. The mirror coatings to be repaired were quarter wave stacks of HfO2 and SiO2 layers for high reflection at 1054 nm at 45° incidence in P-polarization. One of the coating layers was purposely deposited incorrectly as Hf metal instead of HfO2 to evaluate the ability of each repair method to restore the coating's high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of 64 J/cm2. The repaired coating with the highest resistance to laser-induced damage was achieved using repair method (ii) with an LIDT of 49 - 61 J/cm2.

  5. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  6. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  7. Developing Corrosion Prevention Coating Solutions for the Canadian SCWR Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    The development of coating materials and processes was carried out with the objective to reduce material degradation in supercritical water. Based on the test results of bulk coating alloys (FeCrAlY and NiCrAl), two coating processes, plasma spray of dense NiCrAlY and pack aluminizing, have been developed to apply coatings to candidate stainless steels and Ni-based alloys. The SCW test results and microstructure characterization of both coating alloys and coated candidate alloys are presented in this short paper.

  8. The Chemistry of Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

  9. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  10. Fusion of forward-looking infrared camera and down-looking ground penetrating radar for buried target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Seniha E.; Akar, Gozde Bozdagi; Ozturk, Serhat

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a system to detect buried disk-shaped landmines from ground penetrating radar (GPR) and forward-looking long wave infrared (FL-LWIR) data. The data is collected from a test area of 500m2, which was prepared at the IPA Defence, Ankara, Turkey. This test area was divided into four lanes, each of size 25m length by 4m width and 1m depth. Each lane was first carefully cleaned of stones and clutter and then filled with different soil types, namely fine-medium sand, course sand, sandy silt loam and loam mix. In all lanes, various clutter objects and landmines were buried at different depths and at 1meter intervals. In the proposed approach, IR data is used as a pre-screener. Then possible target regions are further analyzed using the GPR data. IR data processing is done in three steps such as preprocessing, target detection, and postprocessing. In the pre-processing stage, bilateral noise reduction filtering is performed. The target detection stage finds circular targets by a radial transformation algorithm. The proposed approach is compared with the RX algorithm used widely for anomaly detection. The suspicious regions are further analyzed using Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features that are extracted from GPR images and classified by SVM. The same approach can also be applied in a parallel way where the results are combined using decision level fusion. The results of the proposed approach are given on different scenarios including different weather temperature and depth of buried targets.

  11. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  12. Deriving the extent of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany during the Neolithic period from sediments buried in Neolithic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Tinapp, Christian; Lauer, Tobias; Stäuble, Harald; Glaser, Bruno; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Material found in Neolithic pits, ditches or postholes was often buried quite fast, and since that time it was largely cut off from input of younger sediments and from subsequent transformation processes. Thus, this kind of material can be used as a discontinuous sedimentary archive that can give valuable information about the former palaeoenvironment such as the Neolithic soil type distribution. The largest region of Germany that is recently covered by black-coloured Chernozems and Phaeozems is located in the rain-shadow of the Harz Mountains in Central Germany. However, similar to other regions of Germany the former occurrence of Chernozems and Phaeozems in areas of Central Germany that are covered by other soil types today is suggested by black-coloured colluvia and by black fillings of Neolithic pits, ditches and postholes, as well as by dark-coloured clay coatings in the Bt-horizons of Luvisols (Luvic Phaeozems). Whereas for some German regions as the Lower Rhine Basin or Central Bavaria it could be demonstrated that buried black material does not originate from former Chernozems or Phaeozems but is of anthropogenic origin, similar investigations were not carried out in Central Germany yet. Thus, in this study we investigated whether Chermozems and Phaeozems had a larger distribution in Central Germany during the Neolithic period. This is achieved by comparatively analyzing sedimentologic and micromorphological properties of black-coloured material taken from Neolithic structures in the recent Luvisol area with Neolithic and Medieval material derived from the recent Chernozem/Phaeozem-region. Furthermore, carbonate contents from individual sites are compared with each other. Doing so it could be shown that the Neolithic distribution of Chernozems and Chernozems in Central Germany was not significantly larger than today. Instead, most black material buried in Neolithic structures obviously has an anthropogenic origin or is derived from former Ah-horizons of

  13. Special bedrock buried hill and the reservoiring process in Qijia-Yitong basin in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenlin; Yin, Hongfu; Miao, Hongbo; Qiu, Yuchao; Zou, Yu

    2011-06-01

    The bedrock buried hill is a mountainous peak formed by the arching up of the basement rocks in a sedimentary basin. The mountainous peak could be the ancient buried hill, known as buried-hill drape structure, present before the formation of sedimentary cover. In contrast, the late-formed buried hill comes into being after the deposition of the sedimentary cover due to the fold, fracture, volcanic eruption and other tectonic events in later stages. No matter what type of buried-hills, the reservoiring is comparable, with the dissolved pores formed by weathering and leaching of bedrocks as the reservoir, and the overlying sedimentary rocks as the source rocks and cover rocks. These are known as ancient reservoir but newborn sources. We present here, however, a different situation of the buried hill in Yitong basin in northeastern China. The bedrock in Yitong basin is the Yanshanian granite, which occurs as a sill underlain by Paleozoic marine strata of low electric resistivity. A right-lateral strike-slip extrusion of Yitong basin in Himalayan period leads to the diapiric ascent of the Lower Paleozoic argillite, which in turn causes the arching up of the granite bedrock to form the buried hill. It is concluded, on the basis of drill No. Chang 37, that the natural gas is sourced from Carboniferous-Permian argillite, and reservoirs in the cracks developed beneath 300m of the granite sill, with the upper part of granite as the cover.

  14. Of mice and marbles: Novel perspectives on burying behavior as a screening test for psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-06-01

    Burying forms part of the normal behavioral routine of rodents, although its expression is species-specific. However, it has been suggested that aberrant burying behavior, of which marble-burying (MB) is an example, may represent neophobic and/or compulsive-like behavior. In the present investigation, we assessed MB in an established animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-namely, spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse-to establish whether high (H) stereotypy is associated with neophobia and/or another compulsive endophenotype, i.e. MB, as compared to nonstereotypical (N) controls. A three-trial, one-zone MB test was performed over three consecutive evenings both before and after chronic treatment with high-dose (50 mg/kg/day) oral escitalopram. Neophobia was measured via the number of marbles buried during the first pre- and posttreatment MB trials, and compulsive-like behavior via the number of marbles buried over all pre- and posttreatment MB trials. The data from the present study support earlier findings that burying is a normal behavioral routine (inherent burying behavior, IBB) that is expressed by all deer mice, irrespective of stereotypical cohort, and is not associated with either neophobia or compulsiveness. Indeed, chronic escitalopram treatment, which is similarly effective in treating clinical anxiety and OCD, as well as in attenuating H behavior, failed to influence IBB. Although 11 % of the animals presented with a unique burying endophenotype (high burying behavior), escitalopram also failed to attenuate said behavior, necessitating further investigation as to its relevance. In conclusion, MB cannot be regarded as a measure of anxiety-like or compulsive behavior in the deer mouse model of OCD. PMID:26920212

  15. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  16. Remediating the INEL`s buried mixed waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.; Reese, C.L.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), encompasses 890 square miles and is located in southeast Idaho. In 1949, the United States Atomic Energy Commission, now the Department of Energy (DOE), established the NRTS as a site for the building and testing of nuclear facilities. Wastes generated during the building and testing of these nuclear facilities were disposed within the boundaries of the site. These mixed wastes, containing radionuclides and hazardous materials, were often stored in underground tanks for future disposal. The INEL has 11 buried mixed waste storage tanks regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) ranging in size from 400 to 50,000 gallons. These tanks are constructed of either stainless or carbon steel and are located at 3 distinct geographic locations across the INEL. These tanks have been grouped based on their similarities in an effort to save money and decrease the time required to complete the necessary remediation. Environmental Restoration and Technology Development personnel are teaming in an effort to address the remediation problem systematically.

  17. Antimicrobial strategies in burying beetles breeding on carrion.

    PubMed

    Rozen, D E; Engelmoer, D J P; Smiseth, P T

    2008-11-18

    Rich and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, are a source of intense interspecific competition among animal scavengers and microbial decomposers. Janzen [Janzen DH (1977) Am Nat 111:691-713] hypothesized that microbes should be selected to defend such resources by rendering them unpalatable or toxic to animals, and that animals should evolve counterstrategies of avoidance or detoxification. Despite the ubiquity of animal-microbe competition, there are few tests of Janzen's hypothesis, in particular with respect to antimicrobial strategies in animals. Here, we use the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species that obligately breeds on carcasses of small vertebrates, to investigate the role of parental care and avoidance as antimicrobial strategies. We manipulated competition between beetle larvae and microbes by providing beetles with either fresh carcasses or old ones that had reached advanced putrefaction. We found evidence for a strong detrimental effect of microbial competition on beetle reproductive success and larval growth. We also found that parental care can largely compensate for these negative effects, and that when given a choice between old and fresh carcasses, parents tended to choose to rear their broods on the latter. We conclude that parental care and carcass avoidance can function as antimicrobial strategies in this species. Our findings extend the range of behavioral counterstrategies used by animals during competition with microbes, and generalize the work of Janzen to include competition between microbes and insects that rely on carrion as an obligate resource for breeding and not just as an opportunistic meal.

  18. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  19. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  20. Parental care buffers against inbreeding depression in burying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Jamieson, Seonaidh; Moorad, Jacob A.; Smiseth, Per T.

    2015-01-01

    When relatives mate, their inbred offspring often suffer a reduction in fitness-related traits known as “inbreeding depression.” There is mounting evidence that inbreeding depression can be exacerbated by environmental stresses such as starvation, predation, parasitism, and competition. Parental care may play an important role as a buffer against inbreeding depression in the offspring by alleviating these environmental stresses. Here, we examine the effect of parental care on the fitness costs of inbreeding in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with facultative parental care. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) the presence or absence of a caring female parent during larval development and (ii) inbred or outbred offspring. We examined the joint influence of maternal care and inbreeding status on fitness-related offspring traits to test the hypothesis that maternal care improves the performance of inbred offspring more than that of outbred offspring. Indeed, the female's presence led to a higher increase in larval survival in inbred than in outbred broods. Receiving care at the larval stage also increased the lifespan of inbred but not outbred adults, suggesting that the beneficial buffering effects of maternal care can persist long after the offspring have become independent. Our results show that parental care has the potential to moderate the severity of inbreeding depression, which in turn may favor inbreeding tolerance and influence the evolution of mating systems and other inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms. PMID:26080412

  1. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  2. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  3. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  4. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy. PMID:27462190

  5. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  6. A new approach to the surgical correction of buried penis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, V T

    1995-05-01

    Buried penis has been variously attributed to obesity with excessive suprapubic fat, severe phimosis with trapping of the penis within the prepubic tissues, and inadequate fixation of the penile shaft skin at the base resulting in tenting. Previous attempts at surgical correction, by excising suprapubic fat, fixing penile shaft skin to the base of the penis, and circumcising, have failed to give satisfactory results and, indeed, procedures like circumcision will make the condition even worse. The technique developed by the author is based on the recognition that this condition exists because of the displacement of the root of the penis below its normal position, resulting in the surrounding fat and dartos tissues enveloping the penile shaft. In this procedure, dissection at the root of the penis is carried out deep down to the corporal bodies. All fibrotic tissue that binds the penile shaft is excised. The lengthened penile shaft is anchored at its base by suturing the surrounding tissue onto the tunica. This technique has been applied in 22 patients ranging in age from 5 months to 11 years. Apart from two technical problems, all other patients had satisfactory correction with good functional results.

  7. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  8. Strong and Tough Layered Nanocomposites with Buried Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Tang, Xuke; Yue, Yonghai; Zhao, Hewei; Guo, Lin

    2016-04-26

    In nacre, the excellent mechanical properties of materials are highly dependent on their intricate hierarchical structures. However, strengthening and toughening effects induced by the buried inorganic-organic interfaces actually originate from various minerals/ions with small amounts, and have not drawn enough attention yet. Herein, we present a typical class of artificial nacres, fabricated by graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) polymer, and multivalent cationic (M(n+)) ions, in which the M(n+) ions cross-linking with plenty of oxygen-containing groups serve as the reinforcing "evocator", working together with other cooperative interactions (e.g., hydrogen (H)-bonding) to strengthen the GO/CMC interfaces. When compared with the pristine GO/CMC paper, the cross-linking strategies dramatically reinforce the mechanical properties of our artificial nacres. This special reinforcing effect opens a promising route to strengthen and toughen materials to be applied in aerospace, tissue engineering, and wearable electronic devices, which also has implication for better understanding of the role of these minerals/ions in natural materials for the mechanical improvement. PMID:27070962

  9. Buried threat detection using a handheld ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Mary; Torrione, Peter; Collins, Leslie; Morton, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we explore the efficacy of two buried threat detectors on handheld data. The first algorithm is an energy-based algorithm, which computes how anomalous a given A-scan measurement after it is normalized according to its local statistics. It is based on a commonly used prescreener for the Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS). In the HMDS setting measurements are sampled on a crosstrack-downtrack grid, and sequential measurements are at neighboring downtrack locations. In contrast, in the handheld setting sequential scans are often taken at neighboring crosstrack locations, and neighboring downtrack locations can be hundreds of scans away. In order to include both downtrack and crosstrack information, we compute local statistics over a much larger area than in the HMDS setting. The second algorithm is a shape-based algorithm. Shape Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features, which capture the gradient distributions of local patches, are extracted and used to train a non-linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). We found that in terms of AUC, the SIFT-SVM algorithm results in a 2.2% absolute improvement over the energy-based algorithm, with the greatest gains seen at lower false alarm rates.

  10. The study of buried drift aquifers in Minnesota by seismic geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Buried-drift aquifers are stratified sand and (or) gravel aquifers in glacial deposits that cannot be seen or inferred at the land surface. During the Pleistocene Epoch, four continental glaciations advanced and retreated across Minnesota, blanketing the bedrock surface with drift as much as 700 feet thick (fig. 1). Most of the drift consists of till, an unsorted, un-stratified mixture of clay silt, sand, and gravel that usually is not considered to be an aquifer. Permeable, stratified sand and gravel, deposited as outwash, alluvium, and (or) ice-contact deposits usually during an earlier glacial episode and subsequently covered (buried) with till, form the buried-drift aquifers.

  11. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, Lars; Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y. E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au; Schofield, Steven R.; Curson, Neil J. E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  12. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus

    PubMed Central

    Manwaring, Jared; Vourganti, Srinivas; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy; Valente, Alfredo L.; Byler, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams. PMID:26446361

  13. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  14. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  15. Optical Diagnostics for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Spuckler, C. M.; Bencic, T. J.; Martin, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The translucent nature of ceramic oxide thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provides an opportunity to employ optical probes to monitor temperature gradients and buried damage propagation within the coating. An important advantage of noncontact optical diagnostics is that they are amendable to health monitoring of TBCs in service. In this paper, two optical diagnostic approaches, operating in different wavelength regimes, are discussed. The first approach is the use of mid-infrared reflectance (MIR) to monitor the progression of TBC delamination produced by thermal cycling. This approach takes advantage of the maximum transparency of the TBCs at mid-infrared wavelengths, in particular, between 3 and 5 microns. Recent progress in extending the MIR method to a more practical visual inspection tool will be presented. A second approach, using visible wavelengths, is the embedding of thermographic phosphors within the TBC to add sensing functions to the coating that can provide depth-selective information about temperature gradients and TBC integrity. Emphasis will be given to the use of fluorescence decay time measurements to provide temperature readings from a thermographic phosphor layer residing beneath the TBC.

  16. Repair of a Mirror Coating on a Large Optic for High Laser Damage Applications using Ion Milling and Over-Coating Methods.

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Ella Suzanne; Bellum, John Curtis; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-06-01

    When an optical coating is damaged, deposited incorrectly, or is otherwise unsuitable, the conventional method to restore the optic often entails repolishing the optic surface, which can incur a large cost and long lead time. We propose three alternative options to repolishing, including (i) burying the unsuitable coating under another optical coating, (ii) using ion milling to etch the unsuitable coating completely from the optic surface, and then recoating the optic, and (iii) using ion milling to etch through a number of unsuitable layers, leaving the rest of the coating intact, and then recoating the layers that were etched. Repairsmore » were made on test optics with dielectric mirror coatings according to the above three options. The mirror coatings to be repaired were quarter wave stacks of HfO2 and SiO2 layers for high reflection at 1054 nm at 45° incidence in P-polarization. One of the coating layers was purposely deposited incorrectly as Hf metal instead of HfO2 to evaluate the ability of each repair method to restore the coating’s high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of 64.0 J/cm2. Finally, the repaired coating with the highest resistance to laser-induced damage was achieved using repair method (ii) with an LIDT of 49.0 – 61.0 J/cm2.« less

  17. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  18. Multi-layer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  19. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-11-15

    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas.

  20. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Buried and Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this innovation profile, CARB research shows HVAC ducts that are encapsulated in closed-cell spray foam and buried in blown insulation in a vented attic meet the code requirements for ducts in conditioned space.

  1. Buried-Hill discoveries of the Damintun depression in north China

    SciTech Connect

    Tong XiaoGuang; Huang Zuan )

    1991-04-01

    Several buried-hill oil fields recently have been found in the Damintun depression. All the buried hills except one consist of Archean metamorphic rocks. Of these, the Dongshenpu buried hill is the largest. The metamorphic rocks have no original porosity but have secondary porosity, such as weathering fractures, structural fractures, brecciated pores, secondary corrosion pores, and secondary replacement pores. Fractures, especially structural fractures, form the only migration passages and main reservoir spaces for hydrocarbons in the buried hill. Crude oil comes from Paleogene continental source rocks and is very waxy. Based on the interpretation of log data, the porosity averages 3.24%. According to calculations using pressure build-up curves, the effective permeability averages 0.140 {mu}m{sup 2}.

  2. How-to-Do-It: Laboratory Projects on Defensive Burying by Rodents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Leslie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are the basic materials and procedures used to study defensive burying behavior and suggested laboratory projects. Discusses live targets, non-living targets, social variables, and previous experiences of the subjects. (CW)

  3. Effects of a buried magnetic field on cranial bone reconstruction in rats

    PubMed Central

    de ABREU, Maíra Cavallet; PONZONI, Deise; LANGIE, Renan; ARTUZI, Felipe Ernesto; PURICELLI, Edela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The understanding of bone repair phenomena is a fundamental part of dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of buried magnetic field stimulation on bone repair in rat calvaria after reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts, synthetic powdered hydroxyapatite, or allogeneic cartilage grafts, with or without exposure to magnetic stimulation. Material and Methods Ninety male Wistar rats were divided into 18 groups of five animals each. Critical bone defects were created in the rats’ calvaria and immediately reconstructed with autogenous bone, powdered synthetic hydroxyapatite or allogeneic cartilage. Magnetic implants were also placed in half the animals. Rats were euthanized for analysis at 15, 30, and 60 postoperative days. Histomorphometric analyses of the quantity of bone repair were performed at all times. Results These analyses showed significant group by postoperative time interactions (p=0.008). Among the rats subjected to autogenous bone reconstruction, those exposed to magnetic stimulation had higher bone fill percentages than those without magnetic implants. Results also showed that the quality of bone repair remained higher in the former group as compared to the latter at 60 postoperative days. Conclusions After 60 postoperative days, bone repair was greater in the group treated with autogenous bone grafts and exposed to a magnetic field, and bone repair was most pronounced in animals treated with autogenous bone grafts, followed by those treated with powdered synthetic hydroxyapatite and allogeneic cartilage grafts. PMID:27119765

  4. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  5. Imaging Polarimetry of Scattered Light from the Buried QSO in IRAS F15307+3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Jeffrey; Hines, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present new imaging polarimetry observations of the Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxy and Type 2 QSO IRAS F15307+3252 (z = 0.9257). The observations were obtained with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advance Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The images show strongly polarized (p ≥ 20%) light extending ~8 kpc southwest from the center of the galaxy. The overall shape suggests that the extended emission has a single-sided, conical structure of apparent half-opening angle ~16 degrees and apex centered at the galaxy nucleus. The polarization position angle (at each resolution element) is perpendicular to the axis of the extended emission, implying that the structure is illuminated by a central source in the galaxy nucleus that is not seen directly. F15307+3252 is known to harbor a buried QSO that was revealed in a polarized spectrum by Hines et al. (1995); the degree of polarization and position angle of this polarized spectrum match those of the extended structure seen in our new HST/ACS data. We thus conclude that this extended emission is light from the buried QSO that is scattered (thus polarized) into our line of sight, and importantly, this object would be classified optically as a Type 1 QSO if viewed from the vantage point of the scattering material. The conical structure of the scattered light suggests that the material blocking our direct line of sight to the QSO has a spatial distribution similar to the dusty torus in lower redshift Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). Assuming that the scattered-light-cone half-opening angle is the same as the dusty torus half-opening angle, we derive a dust-covering fraction of ≥ 95%. This, and comparison between the observed spectral energy distribution of F15307+3252 and that of a composite Type 1 QSO, suggests that the majority of the luminosity in F15307+3252 is powered by the central QSO. Deep HST/ACS images in total light also show clearly that F15307+3252 sits at the center of a

  6. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential

  7. Coating life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Gedwill, Michael A.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation combines both experimental studies and numerical modeling to predict coating life in an oxidizing environment. The experimental work provides both input to and verification of two numerical models. The coatings being examined are an aluminide coating on Udimet 700 (U-700), a low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS) Ni-18Co-17Cr-24Al-0.2Y overlay coating also on U- 700, and bulk deposits of the LPPS NiCoCrAlY coating.

  8. Buried bumper syndrome: A complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Cyrany, Jiri; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used method of nutrition delivery for patients with long-term insufficiency of oral intake. The PEG complication rate varies from 0.4% to 22.5% of cases, with minor complications being three times more frequent. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a severe complication of this method, in which the internal fixation device migrates alongside the tract of the stoma outside the stomach. Excessive compression of tissue between the external and internal fixation device of the gastrostomy tube is considered the main etiological factor leading to BBS. Incidence of BBS is estimated at around 1% (0.3%-2.4%). Inability to insert, loss of patency and leakage around the PEG tube are considered to be a typical symptomatic triad. Gastroscopy is indicated in all cases in which BBS is suspected. The depth of disc migration in relation to the lamina muscularis propria of the stomach is critical for further therapy and can be estimated by endoscopic or transabdominal ultrasound. BBS can be complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, intra-abdominal and abdominal wall abscesses, or phlegmon, and these complications can lead to fatal outcomes. The most important preventive measure is adequate positioning of the external bolster. A conservative approach should be applied only in patients with high operative risk and dismal prognosis. Choice of the method of release is based on the type of the PEG set and depth of disc migration. A disc retained inside the stomach and completely covered by the overgrowing tissue can be released using some type of endoscopic dissection technique (needle knife, argon plasma coagulation, or papillotome through the cannula). Proper patient selection and dissection of the overgrowing tissue are the major determinants for successful endoscopic therapy. A disc localized out of the stomach (lamina muscularis propria) should be treated by a surgeon. PMID:26811611

  9. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  10. Nutrition, hormones and life history in burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Stephen T; Robinson, Gene E

    2004-05-01

    Nutrition, hormones and the allocation of physiological resources are intricately related. To investigate these inter-relationships in female burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.), we examined the effect of diet quality on juvenile hormone (JH) levels and reproduction, and the effect of JH supplementation on reproduction and resistance to starvation. Nicrophorus orbicollis adult females fed a less preferred mealworm larvae diet gained less body mass, had smaller ovaries and had lower titers of JH in their hemolymph than females fed a preferred blowfly diet. When presented a carcass for breeding, females on a less preferred diet oviposited 33% fewer eggs, and eggs were of 18% less mass. Females on the less preferred diet also took longer to begin oviposition as indicated indirectly by the time when their eggs hatched. To investigate the effects of JH, independent of nutrition, JH was topically applied to single and paired females of Nicrophorus tomentosus. When presented a carcass, JH-treated paired females oviposited more eggs (28%-year 1, 44%-year 2) than control females, and also showed a trend toward faster oviposition. JH supplementation had a greater effect on single females. JH treatment increased the proportion of single females attempting reproduction (at least one viable larva), increased the number of eggs (69%-year 1, 123%-year 2), and increased the proportion of females ovipositing early. In separate experiments, treatment with JH or a JH analog negatively affected resistance to starvation in three species. Treatment with JH reduced starvation survival by 10.3% days in N. tomentosus females. Treatment with the JH analog methoprene reduced starvation survival 17.8% in N. orbicollis females and by 18% in Ptomascopus morio females. These results suggest that JH has positive and negative effects on different components of life history.

  11. Nutrition, hormones and life history in burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Stephen T; Robinson, Gene E

    2004-05-01

    Nutrition, hormones and the allocation of physiological resources are intricately related. To investigate these inter-relationships in female burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.), we examined the effect of diet quality on juvenile hormone (JH) levels and reproduction, and the effect of JH supplementation on reproduction and resistance to starvation. Nicrophorus orbicollis adult females fed a less preferred mealworm larvae diet gained less body mass, had smaller ovaries and had lower titers of JH in their hemolymph than females fed a preferred blowfly diet. When presented a carcass for breeding, females on a less preferred diet oviposited 33% fewer eggs, and eggs were of 18% less mass. Females on the less preferred diet also took longer to begin oviposition as indicated indirectly by the time when their eggs hatched. To investigate the effects of JH, independent of nutrition, JH was topically applied to single and paired females of Nicrophorus tomentosus. When presented a carcass, JH-treated paired females oviposited more eggs (28%-year 1, 44%-year 2) than control females, and also showed a trend toward faster oviposition. JH supplementation had a greater effect on single females. JH treatment increased the proportion of single females attempting reproduction (at least one viable larva), increased the number of eggs (69%-year 1, 123%-year 2), and increased the proportion of females ovipositing early. In separate experiments, treatment with JH or a JH analog negatively affected resistance to starvation in three species. Treatment with JH reduced starvation survival by 10.3% days in N. tomentosus females. Treatment with the JH analog methoprene reduced starvation survival 17.8% in N. orbicollis females and by 18% in Ptomascopus morio females. These results suggest that JH has positive and negative effects on different components of life history. PMID:15121451

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae).

    PubMed

    Sikes, Derek S; Venables, Chandra

    2013-12-01

    Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae's currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and COII, and two nuclear genes, the D2 region of 28S, and the protein coding gene CAD, provided 3,971 nucleotides for 58 nicrophorine and 5 outgroup specimens. Ten partitions, with each modeled by GTR+I+G, were used for a 100 M generation MrBayes analysis and maximum likelihood bootstrapping with Garli. The inferred Bayesian phylogeny was mostly well-resolved with only three weak branches of biogeographic relevance. The common ancestor of the subfamily and of the genus Nicrophorus was reconstructed as Old World with four separate transitions to the New World and four reverse colonizations of the Old World from the New. Divergence dating from analysis with BEAST indicate the genus Nicrophorus originated in the Cretaceous, 127-99 Ma. Most prior, pre-cladistic hypotheses of relationships were strongly rejected while most modern hypotheses were largely congruent with monophyletic groups in our estimated phylogeny. Our results reject a recent hypothesis that Nicrophorus morio Gebler, 1817 (NEW STATUS as valid species) is a subspecies of N. germanicus (L., 1758). Two subgenera of Nicrophorus are recognized: NecroxenusSemenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1933, and NicrophorusFabricius, 1775.

  13. Mapping a buried Quaternary valley and pre-Quaternary faults through seismic methods in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Kerim; Alfredo Mendoza, Jose; Henrik, Olsen

    2010-05-01

    Shield. The refraction interpretation allowed the mapping of the velocity distribution in the upper sediments and their interface with the underlying limestone sequences. In this work two sections along the northern part of the survey are presented and discussed. The cases show the ability of the seismic results to image the presence of a buried valley that has been previously reported but was geophysically mapped for the first time under these investigations. The results delineate the sediments-limestone interface as the depth to the limestone increases. These results are validated through borehole data from locations along the surveyed lines. Other minor lateral variations are also observed and compared to a geological model. The location of the buried valley corresponds to a fault zone observed in the reflection seismic investigation. Accordingly, the location of the valley may in part have been controlled by the faults. The overall results of the seismic investigations are currently being used as part of the design basis for the construction of the metro line and may be useful for future engineering projects in the area. In general, the investigation results demonstrated that in addition to meet specific project objectives near surface geophysics has the potential to provide insights to the general understanding of geological processes. The authors wish to acknowledge Metroselskabet I/S for permission in presenting the results, and the Cityringen Joint Venture partners COWI, Arup and Systra.

  14. Insect succession on buried carrion in two biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    VanLaerhoven, S L; Anderson, G S

    1999-01-01

    We established a database of insect succession on buried carrion in two biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia over a 16-month period beginning June 1995. Pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were buried shortly after death in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Sub-boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia. Buried pigs exhibited a distinct pattern of succession from that which occurred on above-ground carrion. The species composition and time of colonization for particular species differed between the two zones. Therefore ideally, a database of insect succession on buried carrion should be established for each major biogeoclimatic zone. We did not observe maggot masses on any of the buried carcasses; therefore, the presence of maggot masses may indicate a delayed burial. Soil temperature was a better indicator of internal buried carcass temperature (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.0001) than was ambient air temperature (r2 = 0.60, p < 0.0001); thus soil temperature should be used to determine developmental rates of insects for determination of the postmortem interval by a forensic entomologist. PMID:9987868

  15. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B.

    1993-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  16. Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior.

    PubMed

    Nardo, Mirella; Casarotto, Plinio C; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2014-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main components of Cannabis sp., presents clinical and preclinical anxiolytic properties. Recent results using the marble-burying test (MBT) suggest that CBD can also induce anticompulsive-like effects. Meta-chloro-phenyl-piperazine (mCPP) is a nonspecific serotonergic agonist (acting mainly at 5HT1A, 5HT2C and 5HT1D receptors) reported to increase symptoms in OCD patients and block the anticompulsive-like effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the interference of CBD on mCPP effects in repetitive burying. Administration of mCPP showed dual effects in the MBT, increasing the number of buried marbles at lower (0.1 mg/kg) while decreasing it at higher doses (1 mg/kg), an effect not related to a general increase in anxiety-like behavior. As found previously, CBD (30 mg/kg) and the positive control fluoxetine (FLX; 10 mg/kg) decreased burying behavior without changing general exploratory activity. A similar effect was found when subeffective doses of CBD (15 mg/kg) and FLX (3 mg/kg) were administered together. These subeffective doses alone were also able to block mCPP-induced repetitive burying. The results, in addition to reinforcing a possible anticompulsive effect of CBD, also suggest that mCPP-induced repetitive burying could be a useful test for the screening of compounds with presumed anticompulsive properties.

  17. Imaging of Au nanoparticles deeply buried in polymer matrix by various atomic force microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. PMID:23770541

  18. Experimental Studies about Transient Characteristics of a Deeply Buried Grounding Electrode and a Grounding Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yanagawa, Shunichi; Sekioka, Shozo

    When lightning strikes the tower of a cellular phone base station or other such facilities, power and communication equipments in the vicinity of the tower may suffer extensive damages due to the lightning current flowing backward from the grounding system of the tower. The use of a deeply buried grounding electrode has been proposed recently to suppress such back flow current and a potential rise in the vicinity of the tower. The deeply buried grounding electrode is a bare conductor buried deep in the ground that is connected to a lightning rod on the ground by an insulated wire. When lightning strikes the lightning rod, the lightning current is directed to the electrode from which it diffuses to the ground. The deeply buried grounding electrodes have been installed in cellular phone base stations and other such facilities to solve such problems caused by the back flow current and the potential rise. A grounding mesh is usually laid around such base stations as a grounding system for the facilities on the ground. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions between the deeply buried grounding electrode and the grounding mesh. In this study, experiments on the interactions between a grounding mesh and a deeply buried grounding electrode have been carried out. Additionally, the transient characteristics of the mesh grounding have researched.

  19. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra.

    PubMed

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Capek, Petr; Santrůčková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze-thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes.

  20. Enforced water drinking induces changes in burying behavior and social interaction test in rats.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-González, J A; Hernández-León, M J; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of water deprivation and water intake on experimental anxiety in rats was tested using burying behavior (BB) and social interaction (SI) anxiety paradigms. Two groups of animals were studied: a control group with free access to water, and a 72-h water-deprived experimental group. Anxiety was studied in a water-deprived group or following a 10-min period of ad lib water drinking. An increase in the mean time of defensive burying in animals deprived for 72 h was observed, whereas an important reduction occurred in the levels of burying behavior immediately after the animals were allowed to drink ad lib for 10 min. These results suggest that the observed increase in defensive burying in the water-deprived animals represents an anxiogenic effect, whereas the decrease in this behavior in water-satiated animals is considered an anxiolytic action. The temporal course of reduction in burying behavior, observed after water drinking, revealed that the anxiolytic action lasts 5 min, whereas 15-30 min after drinking, burying behavior levels were similar to those in the control group. In the social interaction experiment a partial anxiogenic/anxiolytic effect of water deprivation and water intake was observed. The adaptive meaning of anxiogenic and anxiolytic changes linked to consummatory behaviors in rats is discussed on the basis of behavioral and biochemical data.

  1. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  2. The evaluation and restoration of a deteriorated buried gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dovico, R.; Montero, E.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, the Argentine gas transmission and distribution industry was owned and operated by the State. In 1992, by government decree, this entire industry was transferred to private owners and operators, and divided into two Gas Transmission Companies (TGN and TGS) and eight Gas Distribution Companies. The pipelines and related facilities had been left in an operating condition, however major capital investments were required to assure that the integrity, reliability and operability of the facilities were intact. These capital expenditures were mandatory in many areas as part of the privatization. Maintenance and rehabilitation tasks were developed for the entire transmission system, with the intent to reduce the number of unscheduled outages, optimize system maintenance costs, increase operation safety, and upgrade the pipeline to ensure compliance with the international code. Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), operated by Nova Gas International of Calgary, Canada, consists of two major pipeline transmission systems. The North Line, which transports gas from Northern Argentina and Bolivia to markets south to Buenos Aires is a 24 inch, 3,000 Km system constructed in 1960. It was constructed using a field applied asphalt coating system. The Center West Line, which transports gas from central Argentina (Neuquen) to markets in the western part of the country and also the Buenos Aires area, is a 30 inch, 1,400 Km system constructed in 1981. It was constructed using a field applied polyethylene tape coating system.

  3. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    SciTech Connect

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  4. Coatings on Atacama Desert Basalt: A Possible Analog for Coatings on Gusev Plains Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Surface coatings on Gusev Plains basalt have been observed and may contain hematite and nanophase Fe-oxides along with enrichments in P, S, Cl, and K relative to the underlying rock. The Gusev coatings may be derived from the dissolution of adhering soil and/or parent rock along with the addition of S and Cl from outside sources. Transient water for dissolution could be sourced from melting snow during periods of high obliquity, acid fog, and/or ground water (Haskin et al., 2005). Coatings on basalt in the hyper-arid (less than 2mm y(sup -1)) Atacama Desert may assist in understanding the chemistry, mineralogy and formation mechanisms of the Gusev basalt coatings. The Atacama Desert climate is proposed to be analogous to a paleo-Mars climate that was characterized by limited aqueous activity when the Gusev coatings could have formed. The objectives of this work are to (i) determine the chemical nature and extent of surface coatings on Atacama Desert basalt, and (ii) assess coating formation mechanisms in the Atacama Desert. Preliminary backscattered electron imaging of Atacama basalt thin-sections indicated that the coatings are as thick as 20 m. The boundary between the coating and the basalt labradorite, ilmenite, and augite grains was abrupt indicating that the basalt minerals underwent no chemical dissolution. The Atacama coatings have been added to the basalt instead of being derived from basalt chemical weathering. Semi-quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy shows the coatings to be chemically homogeneous. The coating is depleted in Ca (0.9 wt% CaO) and enriched in K (1.3 wt.% K2O) and Si (69.1 wt.% SiO2) relative to the augite and labradorite grains. A dust source enriched in Si (e.g., poorly crystalline silica) and K and depleted in Ca appears to have been added to the basalt surface. Unlike the Gusev coatings, no P, S, and Cl enrichment was observed. However, Fe (3.2 wt.% FeO) was present in the Atacama coatings suggesting the present of Fe

  5. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-11

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

  6. Operation Hardtack. Project 1. 9. Loading on buried simulated structures in high-overpressure regions. Report for April-October 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Bultmann, E.H.; McDonough, G.F.; Sinnamon, G.K.

    1984-10-31

    The objective of this project was to study some of the factors affecting the transmission of air-blast-induced pressure through soil and the loading produced on buried structures by such pressures in the high-pressure region (approximately 250 psi). Factors studied were: (1) the attenuation of pressure in a sand deposit when the water table is a few feet below the ground surface; (2) the effect of duration of positive phase of blast on the pressure transmitted through such a soil; (3) the effect of structure flexibility on the pressure acting on structures buried in such a soil; and (4) the relationship between horizontal and vertical pressures in such a soil. The project employed 43 devices, each a rigid cylinder having one rigid end and one deformable-diaphragm end. The devices were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 20 feet at each of two locations at the Eniwetok Proving Ground. The locations were chosen to give a predicted ground surface overpressure of about 250 psi from each of two shots, Cactus and Koa.

  7. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  8. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  9. An application of log-Gabor filter on road detection in arid environments for forward looking buried object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plodpradista, P.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.

    2015-05-01

    For road implanted explosive hazard detection, detecting the road at distance is critical for the classification algorithms and for sensor positioning to maintain road view during turns. In this paper, we propose the use of the Log-Gabor Filter (LGF) to enhance our road detection system. The LGF can be used to suppress the road-like pixels in the image. By filtering the unpaved road images with varying scales and orientations of the LGF and a combination of basic image processing techniques, evidence images of the road are created. Each evidence image is a binary image where value one at any pixel represents evidence of the road at that pixel. Otherwise the value will be zero. However, the maximum distance for generating evidence of the road varies for each image. Therefore, additionally, a road model is utilized. Using the least squares algorithm, the road model is optimized to fit the support of the road presented in each image. By specifying the length of the road on the optimized model, the distance of road detection can also be specified. Thus, utilizing the LGF and the road model allows our system to detect poorly defined dirt roads as far as forty meters as shown for a winding road at an arid U.S. Army test site.

  10. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilsner, B. H.; Hillery, R. V.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Kim, K. S.; Duderstadt, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system, and then to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The program is divided into two phases, each consisting of several tasks. The work in Phase 1 is aimed at identifying the relative importance of the various failure modes, and developing and verifying life prediction model(s) for the predominant model for a thermal barrier coating system. Two possible predominant failure mechanisms being evaluated are bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep. The work in Phase 2 will develop design-capable, causal, life prediction models for thermomechanical and thermochemical failure modes, and for the exceptional conditions of foreign object damage and erosion.

  11. Vacuum plasma coatings for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades, vacuum plasma spray coated with NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY/Cr2O3, were evaluated and rated superior to standard space shuttle main engine (SSME) coated blades. Ratings were based primarily on 25 thermal cycles in the MSFC Burner Rig Tester, cycling between 1700 F (gaseous H2) and -423 F (liquid H2). These tests showed no spalling on blades with improved vacuum plasma coatings, while standard blades spalled. Thermal barrier coatings of ZrO2, while superior to standard coatings, lacked the overall performance desired. Fatigue and tensile specimens, machined from MAR-M-246(Hf) test bars identical to the blades were vacuum plasma spray coated, diffusion bond treated, and tested to qualify the vacuum plasma spray process for flight hardware testing and application. While NiCrAlY/Cr2O3 offers significant improvement over standard coatings in durability and thermal protection, studies continue with an objective to develop coatings offering even greater improvements.

  12. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    PubMed

    Losey, Robert J; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A; Katzenberg, M Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V; Goriunova, Olga I; Berdnikova, Natalia E; Savel'ev, Nikolai A

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  13. Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Katzenberg, M. Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Berdnikova, Natalia E.; Savel’ev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  14. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop an integrated life prediction model accounting for all potential life-limiting thermal barrier coating (TBC) degradation and failure modes, including spallation resulting from cyclic thermal stress, oxidation degradation, hot corrosion, erosion and foreign object damage.

  15. Plasmachemical Conservation of Corroded Metallic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazavska, Vera; Balastikova, Radka; Krcma, Frantisek; Radkova, Lucie; Fojtikova, Petra; Prikryl, Radek; Prochazka, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Plasmachemical process for conservation of metallic objects is a new way of effective and fast treatment of corroded objects. This process consists of two main steps: corrosion removal and deposition of a protecting film. Removal of corrosion products is based on plasmachemical reduction of corrosion layers by radio-frequency (RF) low pressure hydrogen plasma. Chosen barrier films are parylene (poly-para-xylylene) coatings and SiO2- like high density films. Parylene coatings are prepared by a standard chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) enables preparation of SiOx based thin films with higher flexibility due to variable incorporated organics groups. The coatings were characterized by various methods in order to obtain information about their chemical structure (FTIR) and barrier properties (OTR). The results from standard corrosion test were compared with those on samples treated by conventional conservation procedures.

  16. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  17. Experiments with ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, E. K.; Rollins, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    Report describes the procedures and techniques used in the application of a ceramic coating and the evaluation of test parts through observation of the cracks that occur in this coating due to loading.

  18. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

  19. Investigation of environmental effects on coatings for thermal control of large space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerlaunt, G. A.; Gilligan, J. E.; Ashford, N. A.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of significantly advancing the state-of-the-art of white, spacecraft-radiator coatings has been realized in a comprehensive goal-oriented, pigmented-coatings research program. Considered were inorganic pigments and coatings, silicone polymers and coatings, the design and construction of a combined ultraviolet-plus-proton irradiation facility, the development of zinc orthotitanate pigment and coatings, and the effects on several low alpha sub s/epsilon paints of combined ultraviolet and proton irradiation.

  20. Analytical model of LDMOS with a single step buried oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Single-Step Buried Oxide SOI structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expression of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device is achieved. In the SBOSOI (Single-Step Buried Oxide Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different buried oxide layer thickness. These variations will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 60% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. The results verified the established two-dimensional analytical model for SBOSOI structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.

  1. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  2. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, E. Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography.

  3. Coatings for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-18

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors.

  4. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  5. Ceramic with zircon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  6. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  7. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  8. Multi-layered ruthenium-containing bond coats for thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryon, Brian S.

    Advances in thermal barrier coating (TBC) technology for Ni-base superalloys have shown that B2 Pt-modified NiAl-based bond coatings outperform conventional NiAl bond coat layers for high temperature TBC multilayer systems. This thesis addresses the potential improvement in the high temperature capability of a 132 Ru-modified aluminide bond coat layer due to improved high temperature properties of RuAl over NiAl. The objectives of this research have been to define a processing path for fabrication of a multi-layered Ru-modified aluminide bond coating and to investigate its performance within a TBC system. Microstructural development and the oxidation behavior of Ru-modified and Ru/Pt-modified bond coatings have been studied in detail. Two types of Ru-modified bond coatings have been fabricated: one by means of high temperature, low activity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processing, and one via high temperature, high activity pack-aluminization. The location of the RuAl-rich layer has been shown to be process dependent with a low activity Ru-containing bond coating producing an exterior B2 NiAl layer with an interior B2 RuAl layer and a high activity Ru-containing bond coat producing the reverse arrangement of B2 layers. While all bond coating systems studied offer some oxidation protection by forming alpha-Al2O3, the low activity Ru/Pt-modified bond coatings exhibited a higher resistance to oxidation-induced failure compared to Ru-modified bond coatings. Through 1000 cyclic oxidation exposures, the Ru/Pt-modified coatings with an initial Ru deposition of 3mum are comparable to conventional Pt-modified aluminide coatings. The Ru-Al-Ni ternary system is the basis for Ru-modifed aluminide coating systems. An experimental assessment of the Ru-Al-Ni phase diagram at 1000°C and 1100°C has been produced via a series of diffusion couple experiments. A continuous solid-solution has been shown to exist between the RuAl and NiAl phases in the ternary system at the

  9. Ethylene glycol-assisted coating of titania on nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Michael; Castaneda, Fernando; Joo, Ji Bong; Reyes, Victor; Goebl, James; Yin, Yadong

    2016-06-14

    Coating titania shells onto sub-micron sized particles has been widely studied recently, with success mainly limited to objects with sizes above 50 nm. Direct coating on particles below this size has been difficult to attain especially with good control over properties such as thickness and crystallinity. Here we demonstrate that titanium-glycolate formed by reacting titanium alkoxide and ethylene glycol is an excellent precursor for coating titania on aqueous nanoparticles. The new coating method is particularly useful for its ability to coat materials lacking strong polymers or ligands which are frequently needed to facilitate typical titania coatings. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the process of coating titania on metal nanoparticles ranging from citrate-stabilized gold and silver spheres to gold nanorods and silver nanoplates, and larger particles such as SiO2 microspheres and polymer spheres. Further the thickness of these coatings can be tuned from a few nanometers to ∼40 nm through sequential coatings. These coatings can subsequently be crystallized into TiO2 through refluxing in water or by calcination to obtain crystalline shells. This procedure can be very useful for the production of TiO2 coatings with tunable thickness and crystallinity as well as for further study on the effect of TiO2 coatings on nanoparticles.

  10. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-11

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved temperature capability and reliability. This report describes the bond/coating process and manufacturing.

  11. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-08

    Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair.

  12. Template-matching based detection of hyperbolas in ground-penetrating radargrams for buried utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnard, Florence; Tarel, Jean-Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a mature geophysical technique that is used to map utility pipelines buried within 1.5 m of the ground surface in the urban landscape. In this work, the template-matching algorithm has been originally applied to the detection and localization of pipe signatures in two perpendicular antenna polarizations. The processing of a GPR radargram is based on four main steps. The first step consists in defining a template, usually from finite-difference time-domain simulations, made of the nearby area of the hyperbola apex associated with the mean size object to be detected in the soil, whose mean permittivity has been previously experimentally estimated. In the second step, the raw radargram is pre-processed to correct variations due to antenna coupling, then the template matching algorithm is used to detect and localize individual hyperbola signatures in an environment containing unwanted reflections, noise and overlapping signatures. The distance between the shifted template and a local zone in the radargram, based on the L1 norm, allows us to obtain a map of distances. A user-defined threshold allows us to select a reduced number of zones having a high similarity measure. In the third step, minimum or maximum discrete amplitudes belonging to a selected hyperbola curve are semi-automatically extracted in each zone. In the fourth step, the discrete hyperbola data (i, j) are fitted by a parametric hyperbola model using a non-linear least squares criterion. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on numerical radargrams, and afterwards on experimental radargrams.

  13. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  14. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  15. Coating Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Gedwill, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Hot-section gas-turbine components typically require some form of coating for oxidation and corrosion protection. Efficient use of coatings requires reliable and accurate predictions of the protective life of the coating. Currently engine inspections and component replacements are often made on a conservative basis. As a result, there is a constant need to improve and develop the life-prediction capability of metallic coatings for use in various service environments. The purpose of this present work is aimed at developing of an improved methodology for predicting metallic coating lives in an oxidizing environment and in a corrosive environment.

  16. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  17. Coatings For Plastic Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Robert W.

    1983-11-01

    Over the past decade there has been a tremendous surge of interest in the use of plastic optical elements to supplement or replace glass optics. While the technology of molding and polishing plastic optics has been the chief interest, there has been increasing need for precision coatings for these elements. In some instances these coatings are as critical as the elements themselves. In this paper we will describe the difficulties incurred in coating plastic and some of the many coatings presently available today despite the difficulties encountered. We will then cover the durability aspects of these coatings and lastly, point out some areas to consider when evaluating using plastic instead of glass.

  18. Lubricant Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    "Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

  19. Buried penis: An unrecognized risk factor in the development of invasive penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Alym; Daya, Dean; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Davies, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    One of the documented benefits of neonatal circumcision is protection against invasive penile cancer. To date there have been a handful of published cases of invasive penile cancer in men circumcised as neonates. We report a case of a 73-year-old man, with a history of neonatal circumcision with no evidence of previous human papillomavirus exposure, who developed a buried penis secondary to obesity. He was diagnosed with Grade 2, pT3N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. This report suggests that buried penis may pose a risk factor for the development of penile cancer despite the protective effects of neonatal circumcision. Thus periodic examination of a buried penis is warranted even in patients with no risk factors for penile cancer. A review of the literature is provided. PMID:23093645

  20. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  1. Acoustic identification of buried underwater unexploded ordnance using a numerically trained classifier (L).

    PubMed

    Bucaro, Joseph A; Waters, Zachary J; Houston, Brian H; Simpson, Harry J; Sarkissian, Angie; Dey, Saikat; Yoder, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Using a finite element-based structural acoustics code, simulations were carried out for the acoustic scattering from an unexploded ordnance rocket buried in the sediment under 3 m of water. The simulation treated 90 rocket burial angles in steps of 2°. The simulations were used to train a generative relevance vector machine (RVM) algorithm for identifying rockets buried at unknown angles in an actual water/sediment environment. The trained RVM algorithm was successfully tested on scattering measurements made in a sediment pool facility for six buried targets including the rocket at 90°, 120°, and 150°, a boulder, a cinderblock, and a cinderblock rolled 45° about its long axis. PMID:23231093

  2. Atomic friction at exposed and buried graphite step edges: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhijiang; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-06-08

    The surfaces of layered materials such as graphite exhibit step edges that affect friction. Step edges can be exposed, where the step occurs at the outmost layer, or buried, where the step is underneath another layer of material. Here, we study friction at exposed and buried step edges on graphite using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and complementary molecular dynamics simulations of the AFM tip apex. Exposed and buried steps exhibit distinct friction behavior, and the friction on either step is affected by the direction of sliding, i.e., moving up or down the step, and the bluntness of the tip. These trends are analyzing in terms of the trajectory of the AFM tip as it moves over the step, which is a convolution of the topography of the surface and the tip shape.

  3. Detecting near-surface buried targets by a geophysical cluster of electromagnetic, magnetic and resistivity scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfouzan, F.; Zhou, B.; Bakkour, K.; Alyousif, M.

    2016-11-01

    We recently built up a geophysical cluster that includes three kinds of instruments EM61-MK2, Magnetometer and OhmMapper, which can simultaneously measure the secondary electromagnetic, magnetic and apparent resistivity data. This paper will demonstrate field experiments of using this cluster and development of integrated data proceeding schemes that can individually and simultaneously process the three kinds of data measured by the cluster, and yield integrated images of near-surface buried targets. We conducted mapping experiments on a 20 m × 20 m synthetic field site, beneath which five targets: a cross iron pipe, two small iron cylinder and block, a piece of limestone and PVP pipe are buried in different depths. The results show that the integrated cluster and data-processing schemes are successful in detecting these near-surface buried targets.

  4. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

  5. Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    PubMed Central

    Driks, Adam

    1999-01-01

    In response to starvation, bacilli and clostridia undergo a specialized program of development that results in the production of a highly resistant dormant cell type known as the spore. A proteinacious shell, called the coat, encases the spore and plays a major role in spore survival. The coat is composed of over 25 polypeptide species, organized into several morphologically distinct layers. The mechanisms that guide coat assembly have been largely unknown until recently. We now know that proper formation of the coat relies on the genetic program that guides the synthesis of spore components during development as well as on morphogenetic proteins dedicated to coat assembly. Over 20 structural and morphogenetic genes have been cloned. In this review, we consider the contributions of the known coat and morphogenetic proteins to coat function and assembly. We present a model that describes how morphogenetic proteins direct coat assembly to the specific subcellular site of the nascent spore surface and how they establish the coat layers. We also discuss the importance of posttranslational processing of coat proteins in coat morphogenesis. Finally, we review some of the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:10066829

  6. 50 CFR 27.63 - Search for and removal of other valued objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Search for and removal of other valued...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.63 Search for and removal of other valued objects. (a) No person shall search for buried treasure, treasure trove, valuable semi-precious rocks, stones, or mineral specimens...

  7. 50 CFR 27.63 - Search for and removal of other valued objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Search for and removal of other valued...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.63 Search for and removal of other valued objects. (a) No person shall search for buried treasure, treasure trove, valuable semi-precious rocks, stones, or mineral specimens...

  8. 50 CFR 27.63 - Search for and removal of other valued objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Search for and removal of other valued...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.63 Search for and removal of other valued objects. (a) No person shall search for buried treasure, treasure trove, valuable semi-precious rocks, stones, or mineral specimens...

  9. 50 CFR 27.63 - Search for and removal of other valued objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Search for and removal of other valued...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.63 Search for and removal of other valued objects. (a) No person shall search for buried treasure, treasure trove, valuable semi-precious rocks, stones, or mineral specimens...

  10. 50 CFR 27.63 - Search for and removal of other valued objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Search for and removal of other valued...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.63 Search for and removal of other valued objects. (a) No person shall search for buried treasure, treasure trove, valuable semi-precious rocks, stones, or mineral specimens...

  11. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

  12. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Čapek, Petr; Šantrůčková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze–thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes. PMID:24335828

  13. Coated Aerogel Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  14. Microstructural studies of thermal spray coatings for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Limin

    2002-01-01

    This project aims to address two major concerns with the use of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, i.e., HA] coatings; i.e., (i) the resorption of the coating, and (ii) the resorption of bone. The objective is to optimize coating design through microstructural studies of two coating systems: a HA coating and a HA/polymer composite coating. For the HA coating, the HA powders were atmospherically plasma sprayed (APS) using various process parameters. The phase, structure and microstructure of the coatings were investigated and the mechanical property and dissolution behavior measured. Both crystallinity and hydroxyl contents decreased with increasing spray power and stand-off distance (SOD), and increased from the coating interface to surface. Impurity phase contents increased with increasing spray power. Crystallinity alone cannot reflect coating quality due to the existence of various HA, i.e., unmelted, recrystallized and dehydroxylated, and the gradient structure. Coating microstructure varied from a porous structure to a smooth glassy structure or a typical lamellar structure, and some newly formed nanocrystalline regions were revealed. These effects were associated with the temperature-time experiences of particles, their cooling rates and the heat and hydroxyl accumulation during coating buildup. Different coating properties and performance resulted from the characteristic differences. The coating with highest recrystallization displayed the highest microhardness. Dissolution of all coatings reached a saturation value much lower compared to their pulverized counterparts in a fresh solution despite a higher and similar dissolution in the initial immersion stage. The coating with higher recrystallization exhibited higher saturation value. Microstructural analysis indicated the complete and preferential dissolution of amorphous and impurity phases and some precipitation of apatite observable for coatings with higher recrystallization. For the composite coating, HA

  15. [The taphonomic aspects of cadaverous changes in corpses, buried in the plastic foils].

    PubMed

    Stuller, F; Straka, L; Macko, V; Krivos, D; Krajcovic, J; Novomeský, F

    2008-10-01

    The forensic expertise of the 6 human bodies, being murdered in organised crime activities, had been realised by the authors. All the cadavers were packed in plastic bags or plastic foils, then buried to the illegal graves, being prepared in advance. The detail overlook and autopsy of the bodies had disclosed, that due of almost airtight sealing of the cadavers in plastic materials, the postmortal cadaverous changes went on much slower and were manifested under a different picture, as seen in the human cadavers being buried in the standard wooden coffins. The authors point out the peculiarities of such a postmortal changes, with particular focusing on the estimation of postmortal period.

  16. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  17. Behavior of pipelines buried in SCP-improved ground during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchida, Kunihiko; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Hyodo, Takeshi

    1995-12-31

    Behavior of pipelines buried in the improved ground by sand compaction pile (SCP) and subjected to permanent ground displacement induced by liquefaction is investigated. Combining the programs for the simulation of SCP-improvement, the liquefaction analysis and the permanent ground displacement, the soil spring and the input ground displacement for the analysis of pipelines are evaluated. Results of numerical computations for the pipeline responses show that SCP ground improvement is effective to prevent soil liquefaction and reduce responses of pipeline buried in SCP-improved ground.

  18. Buried waste integrated demonstration fiscal year 1992 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially-available baseline technologies form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste disposed of throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-91. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID Program during FY-92.

  19. Buried Anode Device Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-451

    SciTech Connect

    Tenent, R.

    2015-03-01

    The possibility of a reflecting electrochromic device is very attractive, and the 'Buried Anode' architecture developed at NREL could yield such a device. The subject of this cooperative agreement will be the development and refinement of a Buried Anode device process. This development will require the active involvement of NREL and US e-Chromic personnel, and will require the use of NREL equipment as much as possible. When this effort is concluded, US e-Chromic will have enough information to construct a pilot production line, where further development can continue.

  20. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  1. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  2. The Vertical Distribution of Buried Volatiles at the Moon revealed by Thermal and Epithermal Neutron Fluxes from LEND Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.; Livengood, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the quantity and vertical distribution of volatile species on and below the surface of planetary bodies is vital to understand the primordial chemical inventory and subsequent evolution of planets. Volatiles may provide resources to support future human exploration. This is particularly true for the Moon, which is well observed by many methods from ground-based, lunar orbit, and in situ, and is an accessible destination or way station for human exploration. We present Geant4 models of relative fluxes of Fast, Epithermal, and Thermal neutron emission generated in a planetary regolith by galactic cosmic rays to reveal the first 1-2 meters vertical structure of embedded hydrogen or water. Varying ratios of Thermal versus Epithermal, low-energy-Epithermal versus high-energy-Epithermal, and Thermal versus Fast neutron emissions are diagnostics of the depth in which hydrogen/water layers are buried within the top 1-2 meters of the regolith. In addition, we apply model calculations to Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) thermal and epithermal data, acquired on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), in specific regions of the Moon to retrieve the vertical distribution of buried ice from the remote sensing information. GEANT4 is a set of particle physics transport simulation codes that exploits object-oriented software methods to deliver a comprehensive and flexible toolkit that is modular and extensible, based on a free open-source development model. GEANT4 has become a standard tool to simulate applications as diverse as particle telescope and detector response, space radiation shielding and optimization, total ionizing dose in spacecraft components, and biological effects of radiation.

  3. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Cook, T. S.; Kim, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the first 3-year phase of a 2-phase, 5-year program. The objectives of the first phase are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consists of an air plasma sprayed ZrO-Y2O3 top coat, a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. Task I was to evaluate TBC failure mechanisms. Both bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep have been identified as contributors to TBC failure. Key property determinations have also been made for the bond coat and the top coat, including tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, dynamic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Task II is to develop TBC life prediction models for the predominant failure modes. These models will be developed based on the results of thermmechanical experiments and finite element analysis. The thermomechanical experiments have been defined and testing initiated. Finite element models have also been developed to handle TBCs and are being utilized to evaluate different TBC failure regimes.

  4. Identification of metallic objects with various sizes and burial depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet; Kaplan, Gülay; Deniz, Sencer M.; Bahadırlar, Yıldırım; İçoğlu, Oğuz

    2009-05-01

    In this study, identification of the different metallic objects with various burial depths was considered. Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) were used to obtain metallic content and dielectric characteristic of the buried objects. Discriminative features were determined and calculated for data set. Six features were selected for metal detector and one for Ground Penetrating Radar. Twenty classification algorithms were examined to obtain the best classification method, for this data set. A Meta learner algorithm completed the classification process with 100% performance.

  5. Pellet coating by air suspension technique using a mini-model coating unit.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, M; Pal, T K; Jayakumar, M

    2003-09-01

    Air suspension coating is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, as an attractive alternative to pan coating in that it can successfully coat small particles, pellets and tablets irrespective of size or shape with a wide variety of coating materials. The commercially available air suspension coating equipments require at least one kilogram of material for optimum efficiency of their working. Therefore, it is felt that there is a potential need for a small, compact air suspension coating instrument, which can work with gram quantities of material. The main objective of the present work is to design and evaluate a laboratory model top spray air suspension coating instrument. The performance of the instrument was evaluated for both, drug loading on to non-pareil pellets and coating of drug-loaded pellets. Terbutaline sulphate was selected as model drug, while Surelease (aqueous polymeric dispersion of ethyl cellulose) as representative coating material. The drug loading efficiency of the instrument was found to be around 82% with a pellet load of 10 g. The drug loading efficiency was found to be satisfactory and reproducible. Scanning electron micrographs of coated pellets indicated that coating was homogenous and uniform around the pellets. The maximum deviations observed in the in vitro drug release studies were +/- 2.7397% of the mean percent quantity of drug released, which is low enough for the coating to be considered uniform and reproducible. Reproducibility of the coating process was further confirmed by determining the 95% confidence interval for average difference in cumulative percentage drug release between two runs of each batch, which was found to be less than 5% set as the maximum allowable difference. The release data obtained were found to show best fit with first order kinetic model. A significant influence of coating thickness on the drug release rate was observed. From the results and observations of this work, it may be concluded that the

  6. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the third volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report.

  7. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the second volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report.

  8. Spacecraft materials and coatings experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, Wayne S.

    1992-01-01

    The 5.8-year exposure data from the Long Duration Experiment Facility (LDEF) has demonstrated the benefits of long-term exposure in low Earth orbit (LEO) for understanding the behavior of spacecraft materials and coatings for use in extended space missions. The Space Station Freedom represents the next large area spacecraft available in NASA planned missions for obtaining this long term space exposure data. The advantages of using the Space Station Freedom for these studies are presented. Discrepancies between short-term flight exposure result from Shuttle Orbiter experiments and the long-term LDEF results are shown. The major objectives and benefits of conducting materials and coatings experiments on Space Station Freedom are emphasized.

  9. Tailored coatings for hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Dustoor, M.R.; Moskowitz, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    An update on Conforma Clad coatings, first presented at the 1982 National Powder Metallurgy Conference in Montreal, Canada, is presented. The major advantage is the ability to offer selective-area coatings in a wide range of thicknesses and material choices while retaining dimensional and edge control of the coating. Complex geometries can be coated with a high materials utilization and with coating properties tailored to the end application. Porosity and bond strength values can match or exceed those seen with the best commercially available thermal sprayed coatings. The ability of the process to balance abrasion resistance and toughness requirements for a specific wear mode, is illustrated by microstructural control of the size, shape and density of carbide particles contained in the coatings. Dry sand abrasive test data are provided on Conforma Clad coatings and competitive processes. Ongoing developments of non-furnace fusion techniques, such as laser cladding, are presented and the microstructures compared with those obtained with conventional coating processes. Commercial applications for these coatings are highlighted with some typical examples.

  10. Automated optical microscopy of coated particle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D; Price, Jeffery R; Pappano, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental technological advances have occurred during the 20 year hiatus in US research on coated particle nuclear fuel. As part of the recent US Department of Energy s Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has utilized advancements in computer automation, digital imaging, and image analysis to modernize US optical microscopy techniques for coated particle nuclear fuel. Automated optical microscopy has enabled detailed and objective analysis of individual particles (hundreds of measurements per particle) and of large sample sizes that far exceed the capabilities of conventional manual microscopy methods (analysis of 1500-5000 particles is common). Demonstrative examples of the capabilities of this automated optical microscopy are given for: (a) shadow imaging of kernels, coated fuel particles, and graphite matrix overcoated particles and (b) cross-sectional analysis of coated fuel particles to determine layer thicknesses.

  11. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  12. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  13. Novel applications of optical techniques to the study of buried semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed electronic and structural information about buried semiconductor interfaces obtained through application of optical techniques is discussed. The measurements described include the determination of band discontinuities, strain, and disorder associated with semiconductor heterointerfaces. The contactless and nondestructive nature of these optical techniques is particularly important for the study of heterointerfaces which are inherently inaccessible to direct electrical or physical contact.

  14. Capturing buried defects in metal interconnections with electron beam inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Jiang, Ximan; Trease, David; Van Riet, Mike; Ramprasad, Shishir; Bhatia, Anadi; Lefebvre, Pierre; Bastard, David; Moreau, Olivier; Maher, Chris; MacDonald, Paul; Campochiaro, Cecelia

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present a novel mode of electron beam inspection (EBI), entitled super wide optics (SWO) mode, which can effectively detect buried defects in tungsten (W) plugs and copper (Cu) wires. These defects are defects of interest (DOI) to integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers because they are not detectable in optical inspection, voltage contrast (VC) mode EBI or physical mode EBI. We used engineering systems to study two samples, a tungsten chemical mechanical polish (CMP) wafer and a copper CMP wafer with a silicon carbon nitride (SiCN) cap layer. EBI with our novel SWO mode was found to capture many dark defects on these two wafers. Furthermore, defect review with all three EBI modes found some of these dark defects were unique to SWO mode. For verification, physical failure analysis was performed on some SWO-unique DOI. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed that the unique DOI were buried voids in W-plugs and copper wire thinning caused by either buried particles or buried particle induced metal trench under-etch. These DOI can significantly increase the resistance of metal interconnects of IC chip and affect the chip yield. This new EBI mode can provide an in-line monitoring solution for these DOI, which does not exist before this study.

  15. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  16. Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

  17. Bioelectrochemical denitrification on biocathode buried in simulated aquifer saturated with nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Khanh; Park, Younghyun; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate contamination in aquifers has posed human health under high risk because people still rely on groundwater withdrawn from aquifers as drinking water and running water sources. These days, bioelectrochemical technologies have shown a great number of benefits for nitrate remediation via autotrophic denitrification in groundwater. This study tested the working possibility of a denitrifying biocathode when installed into a simulated aquifer. The reactors were filled with sand and synthetic groundwater at various ratios (10, 50, and 100 %) to clarify the effect of various biocathode states (not-buried, half-buried, and fully buried) on nitrate reduction rate and microbial communities. Decreases in specific nitrate reduction rates were found to be correlated with increases in sand/medium ratios. A specific nitrate reduction rate of 322.6 mg m(-2) day(-1) was obtained when the biocathode was fully buried in an aquifer. Microbial community analysis revealed slight differences in the microbial communities of biocathodes at various sand/medium ratios. Various coccus- and rod-shaped bacteria were found to contribute to bioelectrochemical denitrification including Thiobacillus spp. and Paracoccus spp. This study demonstrated that the denitrifying biocathode could work effectively in a saturated aquifer and confirmed the feasibility of in situ application of microbial electrochemical denitrification technology. PMID:27117152

  18. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  19. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  20. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged components. 193.2629 Section 193.2629 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL...

  1. 75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Plant (Form 515a). The revised specifications will include new construction units for Fiber-to-the-Home... Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural... titled ``Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372'' (50 FR 47034),...

  2. Revealing the semiconductor–catalyst interface in buried platinum black silicon photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous 'black' silicon semiconductors interfaced with buried platinum nanoparticle catalysts have exhibited stable activity for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution even after months of exposure to ambient conditions. The mechanism behind this stability has not been explained in detail, but is thought to involve a Pt/Si interface free from SiOx layer that would adversely affect interfacial charge transfer kinetics. In this paper, we resolve the chemical composition and structure of buried Pt/Si interfaces in black silicon photocathodes from a micron to sub-nanometer level using aberration corrected analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy. Through a controlled electrodeposition of copper on samples aged for one month in ambient conditions, we demonstrate that the main active catalytic sites are the buried Pt nanoparticles located below the 400-800 nm thick nanoporous SiOx layer. Though hydrogen production performance degrades over 100 h under photoelectrochemical operating conditions, this burying strategy preserves an atomically clean catalyst/Si interface free of oxide or other phases under air exposure and provides an example of a potential method for stabilizing silicon photoelectrodes from oxidative degradation in photoelectrochemical applications.

  3. Analytical model of LDMOS with a double step buried oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Buried Oxide Double Step Silicon On Insulator structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expressions of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device are achieved. In the BODS (Buried Oxide Double Step Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the positive charge in the drift region can be accumulated at the corner of the step. These accumulated charge function as the space charge in the depleted drift region. At the same time, the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different drift region thickness. These variations especially the accumulated charge will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 30% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. That means the established two-dimensional analytical model for BODS structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.

  4. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10th day of the experiment. On the 11th and 12th treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Results: Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Conclusion: Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them. PMID:27366354

  5. 75 FR 38042 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., at 75 FR 32313 regarding the request for comments on revising RUS Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications... document FR Doc. 2010-12830 beginning on page 32313 in the issue of June 8, 2010, make the following... Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed Rule;...

  6. Advanced modeling of thermal NDT problems: from buried landmines to defects in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.; Burleigh, Douglas D.; Klimov, Alexey G.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced thermal models that can be used in the detection of buried landmines and the TNDT (thermographic nondestructive testing) of composites are discussed. The interdependence between surface temperature signals and various complex parameters, such as surface and volumetric moisture, the shape of a heat pulse, material anisotropy, etc., is demonstrated.

  7. Bioelectrochemical denitrification on biocathode buried in simulated aquifer saturated with nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Khanh; Park, Younghyun; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate contamination in aquifers has posed human health under high risk because people still rely on groundwater withdrawn from aquifers as drinking water and running water sources. These days, bioelectrochemical technologies have shown a great number of benefits for nitrate remediation via autotrophic denitrification in groundwater. This study tested the working possibility of a denitrifying biocathode when installed into a simulated aquifer. The reactors were filled with sand and synthetic groundwater at various ratios (10, 50, and 100 %) to clarify the effect of various biocathode states (not-buried, half-buried, and fully buried) on nitrate reduction rate and microbial communities. Decreases in specific nitrate reduction rates were found to be correlated with increases in sand/medium ratios. A specific nitrate reduction rate of 322.6 mg m(-2) day(-1) was obtained when the biocathode was fully buried in an aquifer. Microbial community analysis revealed slight differences in the microbial communities of biocathodes at various sand/medium ratios. Various coccus- and rod-shaped bacteria were found to contribute to bioelectrochemical denitrification including Thiobacillus spp. and Paracoccus spp. This study demonstrated that the denitrifying biocathode could work effectively in a saturated aquifer and confirmed the feasibility of in situ application of microbial electrochemical denitrification technology.

  8. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  9. Transmission electron microscope specimen preparation for exploring the buried interfaces in plan view.

    PubMed

    Radnóczi, G Z; Pécz, B

    2006-12-01

    A relatively easy and convenient process for the preparation of transmission electron microscope specimens of buried interfaces is described. The method is based on the alignment and realignment of the specimen rotation centre during ion milling. The ion-milling time interval in which good samples are obtained is substantially extended in this way.

  10. A shear wave ground surface vibration technique for the detection of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Papandreou, B.

    2014-07-01

    A major UK initiative, entitled 'Mapping the Underworld' aims to develop and prove the efficacy of a multi-sensor device for accurate remote buried utility service detection, location and, where possible, identification. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics; the application of this technology for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular pipes, is currently being investigated. Here, a shear wave ground vibration technique for detecting buried pipes is described. For this technique, shear waves are generated at the ground surface, and the resulting ground surface vibrations measured. Time-extended signals are employed to generate the illuminating wave. Generalized cross-correlation functions between the measured ground velocities and a reference measurement adjacent to the excitation are calculated and summed using a stacking method to generate a cross-sectional image of the ground. To mitigate the effects of other potential sources of vibration in the vicinity, the excitation signal can be used as an additional reference when calculating the cross-correlation functions. Measurements have been made at two live test sites to detect a range of buried pipes. Successful detection of the pipes was achieved, with the use of the additional reference signal proving beneficial in the noisier of the two environments.

  11. Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)

  12. Method of making a nonplanar buried-heterostructure distributed-feedback laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, G.J.; Logan, R.A.; Temkin, H.; Wilt, D.P.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes a method for making a distributed feedback laser. The method comprises forming a buried heterostructure on a substrate by sequential deposition of layers including an active layer and a cladding layer. The method comprises producing a grating structure on a nonplanar surface of the cladding layer.

  13. The push-pull T technique: an easy and safe procedure in children with the buried bumper syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furlano, Raoul I; Sidler, Marc; Haack, Horst

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement is a well-established procedure in adults as well as in pediatric patients who cannot be orally fed. However, potential serious complications may occur. The buried bumper syndrome is a well-recognized long-term complication of PEG. Overgrowth of gastric mucosa over the inner bumper of the tube will cause mechanical failure of formula delivery, rendering the tube useless. However, published experience in children with buried bumper syndrome is very scarce. In the authors' clinic, 76 PEG tubes were placed from 2001 to 2008, and buried bumper syndrome occurred in 1 patient. The authors report on their experience with buried bumper syndrome, an adapted safe endoscopic removal technique, as well as recommendations for prevention of buried bumper syndrome.

  14. Optical coating in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technological appraisal of the steps required to approach the goal of in-situ optical coating, cleaning and re-coating the optical elements of a remote telescope in space is reported. Emphasis is placed on the high ultraviolet throughput that a telescope using bare aluminum mirrors would offer. A preliminary design is suggested for an Orbital Coating Laboratory to answer basic technical questions.

  15. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  16. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  17. Thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, D.J.; Blann, G.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Standardization of specimen preparation for microstructural evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings is considered. Metallographic specimen preparation procedures including sectioning, encapsulation, planar grinding, and power lapping of thermally sprayed coatings are described. A Co-Ni-Cr-W coating on an AISI 410 stainless steel substrate is used as a control sample. Specimen-preparation techniques have been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy for determining the percentage of apparent porosity and energy dispersive spectroscopy for determining elemental composition.

  18. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  19. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  20. Oxide coating development

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    Monolithic SiC heat exchangers and fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchangers and filters are susceptible to corrosion by alkali metals at elevated temperatures. Protective coatings are currently being developed to isolate the SiC materials from the corrodants. Unfortunately, these coatings typically crack and spall when applied to SiC substrates. The purpose of this task is to determine the feasibility of using a compliant material between the protective coating and the substrate. The low-modulus compliant layer could absorb stresses and eliminate cracking and spalling of the protective coatings.

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  2. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  3. Coatings for Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

  4. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  6. Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5μm axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

  7. Detecting buried metallic weapons in a controlled setting using a conductivity meter.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Charles A; Schultz, John J; Murdock, Ronald A; Smith, Stephen A

    2011-05-20

    Forensic personnel may face a daunting task when searching for buried weapons at crime scenes or potential disposal sites. In particular, it is common to search for a small firearm that was discarded or buried by a perpetrator. When performing forensic searches, it is recommended to first use non-invasive methods such as geophysical instruments to minimize damage to evidence and to the crime scene. Geophysical tools are used to pinpoint small areas of interest across a scene for invasive testing, rather than digging large areas throughout the site. Prior to this project, there was no published research that tested the utility of the conductivity meter to search for metallic weapons such as firearms and blunt and sharp edged weapons. A sample comprised of 32 metallic weapons including firearms, blunt and sharp edged weapons, and scrap metals was buried in a controlled setting to test the applicability of a conductivity meter for forensic searches. Weapons were tested at multiple depths and after data collection was performed for one depth, the weapons were reburied 5 cm deeper until they were no longer detected. Variables such as weapon size, burial depth, transect interval spacing (25 and 50 cm), and metallic composition were tested. All of the controlled variables influenced maximum depth of detection. For example, size was a factor as larger weapons were detected at deeper depths compared to smaller weapons. Metal composition affected maximum depth of detection as the conductivity meter detected items comprised of ferrous metals at deeper depths than non-ferrous metals. Searches for large buried items may incorporate a transect interval spacing of 50 cm but small weapons may be undetected between transects and therefore a transect interval spacing of 25 cm is recommended. Overall, the conductivity meter is a geophysical tool to consider when searching for larger-sized metallic weapons or to use in conjunction with an all-metal detector, particularly when

  8. Micro-imaging of buried layers and interfaces in ultrathin films by X-ray reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinxing; Hirano, Keiichi; Sakurai, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    X-ray reflectivity is a promising technique for characterizing buried layers and interfaces in ultrathin films because of its ability to probe the electron density profile along the depth in a non-destructive manner. While routine X-ray reflectivity assumes the in-plane uniformity of the sample to be measured, it is also quite important to see buried inhomogeneous/patterned layers and interfaces. The present paper describes the addition of spatial resolution and imaging capability to an X-ray reflectivity technique to visualize surfaces and buried interfaces. To visualize quite wide viewing area size quickly, the image reconstruction scheme has been employed instead of the scanning of microbeam. Though the mathematics is quite close to X-ray computer tomography, the technique gives the image contrast caused by the difference in reflectivity at each in-plane point in the thin film sample. By choosing a grazing angle, the image gives inhomogeneity of X-ray reflectivity at the specific wavevector transfer. With a collimated monochromatic synchrotron X-ray beam of 0.05 mm (H) × 8 mm (V), the intensity profiles of X-ray reflection projections have been taken at many different in-plane rotation angles, from 0° to 180°. We have succeeded in visualizing buried layers and interfaces of the 8 mm dia area with the spatial resolution of better than 20 μm. Because of the brilliance of synchrotron radiation, the typical measuring time is shorter than 1 min. Three analytical cases have been discussed: (i) imaging of a buried layer and an interface covered by a protection layer, (ii) distinguishing different local parts of different thicknesses in an ultrathin film, and (iii) selective imaging of a specific metal in the thin film form.

  9. Significant role of structural fractures in Ren-Qiu buried-block oil field, eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Xie-Pei, W.

    1983-03-01

    Ren-qui oil field is in a buried block of Sinian (upper Proterozoic) rocks located in the Ji-zhong depression of the western Bohai Bay basin in eastern China. The main reservoir consists of Sinian dolomite rocks. It is a fault block with a large growth fault on the west side which trends north-northeast with throws of up to 1 km (0.6 mi) or more. The source rocks for the oil are Paleogene age and overlie the Sinian dolomite rocks. The structural fractures are the main factor forming the reservoir of the buried-block oil field. Three structural lines, trending northeast, north-northeast, and northwest, form the regional netted fracture system. The north-northeast growth fault controlled the structural development of the buried block. The block was raised and eroded before the Tertiary sediments were deposited. In the Eocene Epoch, the Ji-zhong depression subsided, but the deposition, faulting, and related uplift of the block happened synchronously as the block was gradually submerged. At the same time, several horizontal and vertical karst zones were formed by the karst water along the netted structural fractures. The Eocene oil source rocks lapped onto the block and so the buried block, with many developed karst fractures, was surrounded by a great thickness of source rocks. As the growth fault developed, the height of the block was increased from 400 m (1300 ft) before the Oligocene to 1300 m (4250 ft) after. As the petroleum was generated, it migrated immediately into the karst fractures of the buried block along the growth fault. The karst-fractured block reservoir has an 800-m (2600-ft) high oil-bearing closure and good connections developed between the karst fractures.

  10. Validating Ancient Age of the Buried Floor of the Northern Lowlands, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Frey, H. V.; Roark, J. H.; McGill, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    Hesperian and Amazonian plains units cover the northern lowlands but little is known about what this surface covers. Models for the creation of the lowlands and the dichotomy boundary implement mechanisms which vary from internal processes, such as plate tectonics or first-order mantle convection, to external processes, such as a single large impact or multiple impacts. Different models require different time scales for low-land formation; determining the age of the buried low-land surface would help constrain the formation models. The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) has yielded a high-precision, topographic gridded data set that reveals the presence of Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) in both the southern highlands and the northern lowlands. Most of these roughly circular depressions have no corresponding visible structural feature on the surface. It is proposed that these QCDs are the surface representation of buried impact craters. Based on this assumption, cumulative number vs. diameter curves were constructed, which placed the age of the buried surface of the northern lowlands in the Early or pre-Noachian. A Noachian basement is supported by the remnants of large craters and multi-ring basins discovered in earlier research, but the QCDs provide the first evidence of this for the entire lowland. Constraining the age of the basement floor to the earliest Noachian, however, would require that the process that formed the northern lowlands either occurred in the early Noachian or involves removal of material from the bottom of the crust without destroying the previously formed craters to achieve the modeled crustal thinning. But can we establish that the QCDs do in fact represent buried impact craters, and thus validate an Early Noachian age for the buried lowland floor?

  11. Carbon stored in peatlands formed by terrestrialization: the importance of buried lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    A lot of efforts have been made over the last few decades to quantify the amount of carbon stored in soils, including in peat-producing systems. Estimates of soil carbon storage at the landscape scale has to take into account all buried carbon pools, including deep-buried lake sediments found under many peatlands that formed by terrestrialization. To illustrate the importance of buried lake sediments in the overall carbon storage of a peatland site, we studied a small peat swamp located in Gatineau Park (Quebec, Canada), the Folly peatland (45°27'18.12"N 75°46'57.38''W). This 7 ha peatland developed from a small lake that appeared after the postglacial Champlain Sea receded from the region, about 12 200 years ago. Its development followed a classical terrestrialization sequence and its hydrology has been stable since peat inception. A profile of over 8.5 m of organic matter was collected at the site, of which 2.5 m is peat and the rest is composed of lake sediments (gyttja). With the exception of a few tephra layers, the organic matter content exceeds 75 % of dry weight for the entire profile. Although it constitutes only 30 % of the profile depth, peat contains 48 % of the buried carbon because of its higher bulk density, and peat carbon accumulated at a rate of 88 g C m-2 yr-1. Overall, the site carbon density (including buried lake sediments) is 172 kg C m-2, a value comparable to the carbon density of many peatlands with much deeper peat profiles. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of global peatland carbon inventories and peatland biogeochemistry.

  12. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  13. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  14. Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2009-04-15

    Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

  15. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber, UAV, UCAV

  16. Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered Coatings by Pulsed Eddy Current Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, Chris; Lee Changqing; Danon, Yaron

    2005-04-09

    A method that uses induced pulsed eddy currents for characterization of thick magnetron sputtered Nb coatings on steel is presented in this paper. The objectives of this work are to develop a system for rapid quantitative nondestructive inspection of coatings as well as to determine the correlation between coating properties, such as density and purity, and eddy current measured resistivity of coatings. A two-probe differential system having higher sensitivity and less noise than a one-probe system with 2-D scanning ability was developed.

  17. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  19. Channeled substrate buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InP laser employing a buried Fe ion implant for current confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.P.; Schwartz, B.; Tell, B.; Beebe, E.D.; Nelson, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    A channeled substrate buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InP laser is demonstrated using a hybrid technique of Fe ion implantation followed by liquid phase epitaxy. A high resistivity region is formed by the implantation and subsequent anneal of Fe into an n-type InP substrate, and this is used to provide a self-aligned current confinement barrier layer. The use of an in situ anneal prior to liquid phase epitaxy minimizes the number of processing steps. Pulsed threshold currents as low as 22 mA have been achieved on devices utilizing broad area metal contacts.

  20. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.