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Sample records for buried soil horizons

  1. The Impact of Buried Horizons and Deep Soil Pedogenesis on Soil Carbon Content and Vertical Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, J. N.; Dietzen, C.; Harrison, R. B.; Gross, C.; Kirpach, A.

    2015-12-01

    The lower boundary of soil has been a point of contention among soil scientists for decades. Recent evidence suggests that soil is much deeper than is measured by many ecological studies and that arbitrary definitions of maximum soil depth unnecessarily exclude important regions of the soil profile. This paper provides illustrated examples of soil profiles that have important deep soil characteristics or buried horizons. Soil pits were excavated with a backhoe to at least 2.5 m depth at 35 sites throughout the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) ecoregion of the Pacific Northwest. These soils cover four orders - Andisol, Inceptisol, Alfisol, and Ultisol - and highlight the hidden diversity of subsoil characteristics throughout the region. The roots of trees and understory species often extended deep into the C horizons of soil. Despite experiencing less pedogenic development than surface horizons, C horizons are important as the frontier of soil formation, as an important resource for plant growth, and as a repository of diffuse but significant carbon storage. On average, there was 188.1 Mg C ha-1 total across all 35 sites, of which 76.3 Mg ha-1 (40.5%) was found below 0.5 m and 44.4 Mg ha-1 (23.6%) was found below 1 m. There was substantial variability in the vertical distribution of C with as little as 8.0% and as much as 58.0% of total C below 1 m. In some cases, B horizons are far deeper than the 1 or 2 m depth arbitrarily assumed to represent the whole soil. In other cases, subsoil hides buried profiles that can significantly impact total soil carbon stocks as well as aboveground plant growth. These buried horizons are important repositories of nutrients and carbon that are poorly understood and rarely sampled. Ignoring subsoil precludes incorporating soil burial or deep soil processes into biogeochemical and global carbon cycle models, and limits mechanistic understanding of carbon sequestration and mobilization in soil.

  2. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  3. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra.

    PubMed

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Capek, Petr; Santrůčková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze-thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes.

  4. Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

  5. Mineralization of soil organic matter initiated by the application of an available substrate to the profiles of surface and buried podzolic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, A. I.; Yakimov, A. S.; Demkin, V. A.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.

    2012-04-01

    The priming effect (PE) initiated by the application of 14C-glucose was studied for copiotrophic microbial communities of organic horizons and for oligotrophic microbial communities of mineral soil horizons, as well as for mineral horizons of buried soils depleted in the input of fresh organic matter. The intensity of the PE depended on the reserves of Corg, the initial amount of the microbial biomass, and the enzymatic activity, which decreased from the organic to the mineral soil horizons. The ratio of the PE to the applied carbon was two times higher in the mineral horizons as compared with the organic horizons. This is explained by the predominance of K-strategists capable of decomposing difficultly available organic compounds in the mineral horizons, so that the turnover of the microbial biomass in the mineral horizons was more active than that in the organic horizons. The predominance of K-strategists was confirmed by the close correlation between the PE and the activity of the cellobiohydrolase enzyme decomposing cellulose ( R = 0.96). In general, the absolute value of the PE was controlled by the soil organic matter content, whereas the specific PE was controlled by the functional features of the microorganisms. It was shown that the functional features of the soil microorganisms remained unchanged under the conditions of their preservation in the buried soil.

  6. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Čapek, Petr; Šantrůčková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze–thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes. PMID:24335828

  7. Microbial communities of buried soils of the Tsaritsyn Defense Line (1718-1720)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; Kontoboitseva, A. A.; Borisov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities of recent surface soils and the soils buried beneath the rampart of the Tsaritsyn Defense Line (1718-1720) in the Little Ice Age were studied. The contribution of the time factor to the variability in the number of microorganisms from different trophic groups was shown to be minor (0.2-0.3%), although significant. In the upper horizon of the paleosols reflecting the environmental conditions intrinsic to the period of the rampart construction, the lower (by two times) content of live microbial biomass, the lower metabolic activity of the microbial community, and the more contrasting changes in the microbiological parameters as compared to these characteristics in the recent soils were found for all the elements of the local topography. The stabilities of the microbial communities in the buried and recent soils were almost the same. The ecological-trophic structure of the microbial communities in the buried soils evidences that, the climate of the 18th century in the southern Privolzhskaya Upland was more humid than now. At the same time, temperature conditions of the Little Ice Age did not prevent the development of steppe vegetation and corresponding soil microbial communities in this area. Our data on the morphology and physicochemical properties of the soils confirm the assumption about more humid climatic conditions at the beginning of the 18th century in the studied area.

  8. Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J.; Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D.

    1993-10-01

    Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

  9. Aeolian cliff-top deposits and buried soils in the White River Badlands, South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawling, J. E.; Fredlund, G.G.; Mahan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Aeolian deposits in the North American Great Plains are important sources of Holocene palaeo-environmental records. Although there are extensive studies on loess and dune records in the region, little is known about records in aeolian cliff-top deposits. These are common on table (mesa) edges in the White River Badlands. These sediments typically have loam and sandy-loam textures with dominantly very fine sand, 0.5-1% organic carbon and 0.5-5% CaCO3. Some of these aeolian deposits are atypically coarse and contain granules and fine pebbles. Buried soils within these deposits are weakly developed with A-C and A-AC-C profiles. Beneath these are buried soils with varying degrees of pedogenic development formed in fluvial, aeolian or colluvial deposits. Thickness and number of buried soils vary. However, late-Holocene soils from several localities have ages of approximately 1300, 2500 and 3700 14C yrs BP. The 1300 14C yr BP soil is cumulic, with a thicker and lighter A horizon. Soils beneath the cliff-top deposits are early-Holocene (typically 7900 but as old as 10000 14C yrs BP) at higher elevation (???950 m) tables, and late-Holocene (2900 14C yrs BP) at lower (???830 m) tables. These age estimates are based on total organic matter 14C ages from the top 5 cm of buried soils, and agreement is good between an infrared stimulated luminescence age and bracketing 14C ages. Our studies show that cliff-top aeolian deposits have a history similar to that of other aeolian deposits on the Great Plains, and they are another source of palaeoenvironmental data.

  10. Temperature dependence of the activity of polyphenol peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in modern and buried soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.; Blagodatsky, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    Under conditions of the global climate warming, the changes in the reserves of soil humus depend on the temperature sensitivities of polyphenol peroxidases (PPPOs) and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). They play an important role in lignin decomposition, mineralization, and humus formation. The temperature dependence of the potential enzyme activity in modern and buried soils has been studied during incubation at 10 or 20°C. The experimental results indicate that it depends on the availability of the substrate and the presence of oxygen. The activity of PPOs during incubation in the absence of oxygen for two months decreases by 2-2.5 times, which is balanced by an increase in the activity of PPPOs by 2-3 times. The increase in the incubation temperature to 20°C and the addition of glucose accelerates this transition due to the more abrupt decrease in the activity of PPOs. The preincubation of the soil with glucose doubles the activity of PPPOs but has no significant effect on the activity of PPOs. The different effects of temperature on two groups of the studied oxidases and the possibility of substituting enzymes by those of another type under changing aeration conditions should be taken into consideration in predicting the effect of the climate warming on the mineralization of the soil organic matter. The absence of statistically significant differences in the enzymatic activity between the buried and modern soil horizons indicates the retention by the buried soil of some of its properties (soil memory) and the rapid restoration of high enzymatic activity during the preincubation.

  11. [Metabolic profiling for characteristics of Trichoderma from buried soils].

    PubMed

    Tukhbatova, R I; Morozova, Iu A; Alimova, F K

    2014-01-01

    Previously, 135 strains of Trichoderma isolated from buried soils of Tatarstan have been identified as T. asperellum, T. viride, T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. citrinoviride and T. longibrachiatum. At this stage, the biochemical analysis of the strains was carried out using the Biolog system, which being a simple screening test enables rapid preparation of strains based on 95 substrates. We have revealed that each species has only a specific substrate utilisation profile. Biochemical analysis provides a large amount of information that can then be used for optimization of biotechnological processes, in particular, the selection of effective nutrient media. PMID:25696984

  12. Effective hydraulic properties on a highly heterogeneous soil horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samouëlian, A.; Cousin, I.; Frison, A.; Richard, G.

    2009-04-01

    Knowing the soil hydraulic functioning for agricultural practices is more and more important in the context of global change. In that context, soil horizons represent the reference soil volume in term of soil functioning. Nevertheless they can be heterogeneous as for example, stony horizons, cultivated horizons, or also specific weathering horizons like those in Albeluvisol. The determination of effective hydraulic properties in these heterogeneous horizons can not be done by classical laboratory experiments like Multi-Step-Outflow or evaporative Wind experiment. So it remains a real challenge to get the effective hydraulic properties. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for the determination of effective hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soil horizons based on the knowledge of the: on one hand the 3D soil structure and on the other hand the local hydraulic properties. The studied soil is an Albeluvisol that exhibits some horizons composed by the juxtaposition of two Elementary Pedological Volumes (EPVs); they can be visually distinguished by their colours (ochre and white) and they have differential hydraulic functioning: the clayey ochre ones conduct less water than the loamy white ones. Local hydraulic properties were determined on each type of volumes. The 3D structure of the heterogeneous horizon was obtained by electrical resistivity measurements. Several two-dimensional cuts with different structures were extracted from this 3D block so that we can simulate on them the hydraulic functioning of the horizon by the Hydrus2D software. The equivalent water retention curve was obtained thanks to the additive properties of the water retention curves at the local scale. The equivalent unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the horizon was determined on each 2D cut, which requires the knowledge of the structure. The calculations were done by two methods, a numerical one that simulated the water flow for a constant hydraulic potential, a analytical

  13. Characterization of the microbial communities in the modern and buried under kurgans soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppes of the Lower Volga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Popova, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    The microbial communities were studied in the modern and buried under kurgans (1st century AD) soils of solonetzic complexes on the dry steppes of the northern part of the Yergeni Upland. It was found that the changes in the numbers of microorganisms from different trophic groups and in the biomass of the fungal mycelium along the profiles of the modern and buried solonetzic chestnut soils and solonetzes do not differ significantly. The quantitative estimate of the impact of the solonetzic process on the spatial variability of the microbiological parameters of the soils was given on the basis of the ANOVA. As a rule, the values of the microbiological parameters in all the horizons of the modern and buried chestnut soils were 1.2-2.8 times higher than those in the modern and buried solonetzes. The influence of the degree of solonetzicity of the buried paleosols on the microbiological parameters manifested itself in the entire profile, though in each particular horizon it was only seen in the numbers of some particular trophic groups of microorganisms. The comparison between the mean weighted values of the microbiological parameters in the entire soil profiles (the A1 + B1 + B2 horizons) demonstrated an inverse relationship between the population density of the microorganisms utilizing easily available organic matter and the degree of solonetzicity of the buried paleosols. The maximum biomass of the fungal mycelium was found in the solonetzic chestnut paleosol; it exceeded the biomass of the fungal mycelium in the other paleosols (which did not differ significantly in that parameter from one another) by 1.5-1.6 times.

  14. Soil science horizons: Progress and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoba, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    The main tendencies in the development of Russian soil science after the previous congress (Novosibirsk, 2004) are analyzed. The major achievements of Russian pedologists in the field of the geography and cartography of soils are outlined, including the development of new small-scale maps of Russia and particular regions and the study of soils of northern territories. The latest data on the emission of greenhouse gases from soils of Russia are analyzed. It is shown that expectations of a sharp increase in the emission of greenhouse gases from the soils of northern territories in relation to the predicted climate warming are groundless. At the same time, the widespread development of soil degradation processes and the conversion of former agricultural lands into other land categories are the matters of deep concern of Russian soil scientists. The need in activation of the work of the Dokuchaev Soil Science Society in the field of the development of legislative regulations of soil management and rational use of land resources is stressed. The organization of the Soil Conservation Service in Russia, the adoption a federal law on soil conservation, the development of the national soil-geographic database, and the practical implementation of soil certification and soil-ecological monitoring are considered to be major challenges facing Russian soil scientists in the nearest future.

  15. Copper distribution in surface and subsurface soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Lago, Daniel; Vega, Flora A; Silva, Luis Felipe O; Andrade, María Luisa

    2014-09-01

    The horizons of four natural soils were treated with Cu(2+) in an acid medium to study the retention capacity of Cu. The possible mineralogical changes arising because of the treatment were also studied. The soil properties and characteristics with the greatest influence on the metal retention and its distribution among the different soil fractions were determined. Crystalline phases of each horizon were determined by X-ray diffraction (XDR). The morphology, structural distribution and particle chemical composition of soil samples were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cu distribution in the different geochemical phases of the soil was studied using a sequential extraction. The treatment led to an increase in the amorphous phases and the formation of new crystalline phases, such as rouaite (Cu2(NO3)(OH)3) and nitratine (NaNO3). Cu was also found superficially sorbed on amorphous hydroxy compounds of Fe that interact with albite, muscovite and gibbsite, and also on spherical and curved particles of aluminium clays. The largest amount of Cu retained was in an exchangeable form, and the smallest amount associated with the crystalline Fe oxides and residual fraction. In the surface horizons, the predominant Cu retention process is complexation in organomineral associations, while in the subsurface horizons it is adsorption.

  16. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi

  17. The microbial biomass in paleosols buried under kurgans and in recent soils in the steppe zone of the Lower Volga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashirskaya, N. N.; Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Demkin, V. A.

    2009-05-01

    The total microbial biomass (TMB) was assessed in the chestnut and light chestnut soils and in the paleosols under burial mounds (steppe kurgans) in the Lower Volga region on the basis of data on the organic carbon content in the extracted microbial fraction supplemented with the data on the extraction completeness as a conversion coefficient. The completeness of the microbial fraction extraction was determined by direct counting of the microbial cells and colony-forming units (on plates with soil agar). The total microbial biomass varied from 400 to 6600 μg of C/soil. Its values in the buried soils were 3-5 times lower than those in the surface soils. The TMB distribution in the buried chestnut soil profile was close to that in its modern analogue (with the minimum in the B1 horizon). In the buried light chestnut paleosols, the TMB values usually increased down the profile; in the recent light chestnut soils, the maximum TMB values were found in the uppermost horizon.

  18. Soil organic matter transformation in cryoturbated horizons of permafrost affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Dickopp, Jan-Erik; Barta, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Joerg; Guggenberg, Georg; Gentsch, Norman; Hugelius, Gustaf; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Gittel, Antje; Schleper, Christa; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Cryoturbated soil horizons are special feature of permafrost affected soils. These soils are known to store great amount of organic carbon and cryoturbation undoubtedly contribute to it to large extent. Despite this fact there is almost no information about soil organic matter (SOM) transformation in cryoturbated horizons. Therefore we carried out long term incubation experiment in which we inspect SOM transformation in cryoturbated as well as in organic and mineral soil horizons under different temperature and redox regimes as potential drivers. We found out that lower SOM transformation in cryoturbated horizons compared to organic horizons was mainly limited by the amount of microbial biomass, which is extremely low in absolute numbers or expressed to SOM concentration. The biochemical transformation ensured by extracellular enzymes is relatively high leading to high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in cryoturbated horizons. Nevertheless the final step of SOM transformation leading to C mineralization to CO2 or CH4 seems to be restricted by low microbial biomass. Critical step of biochemical transformation of complex SOM is dominated by phenoloxidases, which break down complex organic compounds to simple ones. Their oxygen consumption greatly overwhelms oxygen consumption of the whole microbial community. However the phenoloxidase activity shows strong temperature response with optimum at 13.7° C. Therefore we suggest that apparent SOM stability in cryoturbated horizons, which is expressed in old C14 dated age, is caused by low amount of microbial biomass and restricted diffusion of oxygen to extracellular enzymes in field.

  19. Physico-chemical change in vertical soil horizon characteristics of distillery affected soil.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Farid; Awasthi, A K; Kumar, P

    2013-10-01

    Effect of treated distillery effluent on the physico-chemical characteristics of vertical soil horizon was studied to observe the impact of effluent on soil of nearby area where distillery canal flows. The studies were also carried out with respect to the unaffected region to compare the soil characteristics. The results showed that in distillery affected soil pH, bulk density and alkalinity increased with depth whereas water holding capacity, chloride, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium decreased with depth compared to unaffected soil horizon. Preliminary study revealed that although most of the parameters were high in distillery affected soil horizon which might promote growth of plants but increase in pH and other toxic substances with depth could cause ground water pollution through constant and continuous leaching.

  20. Physico-chemical change in vertical soil horizon characteristics of distillery affected soil.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Farid; Awasthi, A K; Kumar, P

    2013-10-01

    Effect of treated distillery effluent on the physico-chemical characteristics of vertical soil horizon was studied to observe the impact of effluent on soil of nearby area where distillery canal flows. The studies were also carried out with respect to the unaffected region to compare the soil characteristics. The results showed that in distillery affected soil pH, bulk density and alkalinity increased with depth whereas water holding capacity, chloride, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium decreased with depth compared to unaffected soil horizon. Preliminary study revealed that although most of the parameters were high in distillery affected soil horizon which might promote growth of plants but increase in pH and other toxic substances with depth could cause ground water pollution through constant and continuous leaching. PMID:25906588

  1. Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodešová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohošková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Kočárek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Šimůnek, Jirka

    2009-02-01

    When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt 1 horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be

  2. Impact of varying soil structure on transport processes in different diagnostic horizons of three soil types.

    PubMed

    Kodesová, Radka; Vignozzi, Nadia; Rohosková, Marcela; Hájková, Tereza; Kocárek, Martin; Pagliai, Marcello; Kozák, Josef; Simůnek, Jirka

    2009-02-16

    When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt(1) horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be

  3. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    degree of anomalousness, named the "correlation value", was used to rank collapse features by their potential to overlie a deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipe. Soil geochemical results from the three mineralized breccia pipes (the only three of the 50 that had previously been drilled) show that: (1) Soils above the SBF pipe contain significant enrichment of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ga, K, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, U and Zn, and depletion in Ca, Mg and Sr, in contrast to soils outside the topographic and structural rim; (2) Soils over the inner treeless zone of the Canyon pipe show Mo and Pb enrichment anf As and Ga depletion, in contrast to soils from the surrounding forest; and (3) The soil survey of the Mohawk Canyon pipe was a failure because of the rocky terrane and lack of a B soil horizon, or because the pipe plunges. At least 11 of the 47 other collapse structures studied contain anomalous soil enrichments similar to the SBF uranium ore-bearing pipe, and thus have good potential as exploration targets for uranium. One of these 11, #1102, does contain surface mineralized rock. These surveys suggest that soil geochemical sampling is a useful tool for the recognition of many collapse structures with underlying ore-bearing breccia pipes. ?? 1994.

  4. [Effects of Slope Position and Soil Horizon on Soil Microbial Biomass and Abundance in Karst Primary Forest of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-zhen; Su, Yi-rong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of slope position and soil horizon on soil microbial biomass and abundance, chloroform fumigation extraction methods and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) were adopted to quantify the changes of soil microbial biomass C, N and abundance of bacteria and fungi, respectively. Soil samples were harvested from three horizons along profile, i. e., leaching horizon (A, 0-10 cm), transitional horizon (AB, 30-50 cm) and alluvial horizon (B, 70-100 cm), which were collected from the upper, middle and lower slope positions of a karst primary forest ecosystem. The results showed that slope position, soil horizon and their interaction significantly influenced the soil microbial biomass and abundance (P < 0.05). Different from A horizon, where SMBC was greater in lower than in upper slope position (P < 0.05), SMBC in AB and B horizons were highest in middle slope position. Similarly, SMBN was greater in lower than in upper slope position for A, AB and B horizons. Besides soil bacterial abundance in B horizon and fungal abundance in AB layer, the middle slope position had the highest value for all the three soil horizons (P < 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that soil organic carbon, available nitrogen and pH were the key factors responsible for SMBC and SMBN variation, respectively, while the important factors responsible for the variation of bacteria abundance were available nitrogen and available phosphorus, and that for fungi abundance variation were available potassium.

  5. Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

  6. The effect of soil horizon and mineral type on the distribution of siderophores in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Engy; Holmström, Sara J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies like production of siderophores. Siderophores are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe(III)-binding compounds, that can increase the bioavailability of iron by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals. In the present study, we investigated the composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores of the hydroxamate family in the soil horizons of podzol and the effect of specific mineral types on siderophores. Three polished mineral specimens of 3 cm × 4 cm × 3 mm (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) were inserted in the soil horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial) and B (upper illuvial)). After two years, soil samples were collected from both the bulk soil of the whole profile and from the soil attached to the mineral surfaces. The concentration of ten different fungal tri-hydroxamates within ferrichromes, fusigen and coprogens families, and five bacterial hydroxamates within the ferrioxamine family were detected. All hydroxamate types were determined in both soil water (dissolved) and soil methanol (adsorbed) extracts along the whole soil profile by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS); hence, the study is the most extensive of its kind. We found that coprogens and fusigen were present in much higher concentrations in bulk soil than were ferrioxamines and ferrichromes. On the other hand, the presence of the polished mineral completely altered the distribution of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with the dissolved and adsorbed hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. Thus siderophore composition in the soil environment is controlled by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of each soil horizon and also by the available mineral types.

  7. Lanthanides in humic acids of soils, paleosols and cultural horizons (Southern Urals, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergacheva, Maria; Nekrasova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, commercial interest in this element group increases. As consequence, their content may increase in environment, including soil and soil components. This requires quantitative estimations of rare metal accumulation by soils and their humic acids. The latter began to be actively used as fertilizers and it is alarming, because information about rare element participation (including lanthanides) in metabolism of live organisms is inconsistent. There was investigated lanthanide content in humic acids extracted from humus horizons of different objects of archaeological site Steppe 7 (Southern Urals, Russia). Humic acids were extracted from modern background soils and paleosols and cultural horizons of the Bronze Age as well. According to archaeological data burial of paleosols under a barrow and formation of the cultural layer (CL) took place 3600 and 3300-3200 years BP, respectively. The area of the site is located in the forest-steppe landscape, far from industrial plants. Lanthanides in soils are immobile elements, and such number of objects will allow to receive information about their content changing over time and to have more detailed basis for the future monitoring of this territory as well. Humic acids were precipitated from 0,1 n NaOH extraction after preliminary decalcification. Cleaning of humic acid preparations by 6N HCl or HF+HCl was not carried out. Determination of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu was performed by multi-element neutron-activation analysis. According to carried out diagnostics and reconstruction of natural conditions of all object formation, all objects correspond to steppe type landscape with a different level of humidity. Analysis of received data has shown that cerium is presented in humic acid preparations in the largest quantities among lanthanides (on average 4,0-6,6 mg/kg of preparation mass). The average content of samarium, europium, ytterbium and lutetium in the humic acids in the order of magnitude ranges from 0

  8. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  9. Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark; Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás

    2015-10-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects.

  10. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  11. The Magnetic Fingerprint of Alaskan Loess from Their Modern and Buried Soils to Their Petrostratigraphic Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Banerjee, S. K.; Jackson, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Halfway House loess and paleosol profile of Central Alaska is investigated with the goal of developing a magnetic approach for the recognition of (1) pedogenic mineralization of maghemite and (2) volcanic tephra. The characteristics of the modern soil will be used as a baseline for subsequent studies of buried soils at this site. The magnetic study of the Old Crow tephra (OCt) is motivated by the possibility of identifying tephra beds gone unnoticed in the field. The magnetic fingerprint of the upper 2.00m is investigated and interpreted in terms of the observed stratigraphy. The organic O and A horizons are 0.25m thick and are underlain by a layer of well-preserved wood fragments and leaves between 0.35 and 0.50m depth. Below the wood layer, we find slightly oxidized and sandy parent material (loess), which grades into less weathered loess by 1.00m depth. Several magnetic parameters indicate that at 0.60m the magnetic mineral assemblage undergoes a compositional change, which coincides with the contact between the modern soil above 0.60m and the parent material below. Maghemite is the mineral phase increasing non-proportionally in concentration below the modern soil. This is supported by a two-fold increase, below 0.60m, in the differential isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) measured in backfields of 100mT and 200mT normalized by the saturation IRM acquired in a field of 1T [ΔIRM{(-100mT, -200mT)}/SIRM(1T)]. The ratio between the ferromagnetic susceptibility and the saturation magnetization (χf/Ms) traces the abundance of superparamagnetic (SP) particles which decreases exponentially downwards from the surface with the exception of the wood layer that has values of the same magnitude as the O horizon. The relative concentration of single-domain (SD) particles, represented by the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and SIRM, is 2.5 times greater above 0.60m than below 1.00m, with a gradual decrease in abundance between 0.60m and 1.00m. In

  12. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  13. Measuring Soil Moisture using the Signal Strength of Buried Bluetooth Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, R.; Campbell, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A low power bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device is burried 20cm into the soil and a smartphone is placed on top of the soil to test if bluetooth signal strength can be related to soil moisture. The smartphone continuesly records and stores bluetooth signal strength of the device. The soil is artifcially wetted and drained. Results show a relation between BLE signal strength and soil moisture that could be used to measure soil moisture using these off-the-shelf consumer electronics. This opens the possibily to develop sensors that can be buried into the soil, possibly below the plow-line. These sensors can measure local parameters such as electric conductivity, ph, pressure, etc. Readings would be uploaded to a device on the surface using BLE. The signal strength of this BLE would be an (additional) measurement of soil moisture.

  14. Chemical Soil Physics Phenomena for Chemical Sensing of Buried UXO

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James, M.; Webb, Stephen W.

    1999-06-14

    Technology development efforts are under way to apply chemical sensors to discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that remain a threat to reutilization of military ranges. However, the chemical signature is affected by multiple environmental phenomena that can enhance or reduce its presence and transport behavior, and can affect the distribution of the chemical signature in the environment. For example, the chemical can be present in the vapor, aqueous, and solid phases. The distribution of the chemical among these phases, including the spatial distribution, is key in designing appropriate detectors, e.g., gas, aqueous or solid phase sampling instruments. A fundamental understanding of the environmental conditions that affect the chemical signature is needed to describe the favorable and unfavorable conditions of a chemical detector based survey to minimize the consequences of a false negative. UXO source emission measurements are being made to estimate the chemical flux from a limited set of ordnance items. Phase partitioning analysis has been completed to show what the expected concentrations of chemical analytes would be fi-om total concentrations measured in the soil. The soil moisture content in the dry region has been shown to be critical in the attenuation of soil gas concentrations by increased sorption to soil particles. Numerical simulation tools have been adapted to include surface boundary conditions such as solar radiation, surface boundary layer (which is a function of wind speed), precipitation and evaporation, and plant cover/root density to allow transport modeling and evaluate long term processes. Results of this work will provide performance targets for sensor developers and support operational decisions regarding field deployments.

  15. The pedogeochemical segregation a few horizons in soils from glass houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgariu, Dumitru; Rusu, Constantin; Filipov, Feodor; Buzgar, Nicolae; Bulgariu, Laura

    2010-05-01

    Our studies have focused the apparition and manifestation conditions of pedogeochemical segregation phenomena in case of soils from Copou - Iaşi, Bacău and Bârlad (Romania) glass house, and the effects of this on the pedogeochemical and agrochemical characteristics of soils from glass houses cultivated with vegetables. The utilization of intensive cultivation technologies of vegetables in glass houses determined the degradation of morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils, by rapid evolution of salted processes (salinization and / or sodization), compaction, carbonatation, eluviation-illuviation, frangipane formation, stagnogleization, gleization etc. Under these conditions, at depth of 30-40 cm is formed a compact and impenetrable horizon - Ahok(x) horizon. In function of exploitation conditions and by the chemical-mineralogical characteristics of soils from glasshouses, the Ahok horizons can have frangipane properties, expressed more or less. These horizons determined a geochemical segregation of soils from glass houses: (i) superior horizons, above Ahok(x) horizon evolve in weak oxidative conditions, weak alkaline pH, higher salinity, humidity and temperature; (ii) inferior horizons, below Ahok(x) horizon evolve in weak reducing conditions weak acid pH, lower salinity, humidity and temperature. Concomitant with the development of Ahok(x) horizons, the rapid degradation of the properties of soils from glasshouses is observed. The aspects about the formation of frangipane horizon in soils from glasshouses are not yet sufficiently know. Whatever of the formation processes, the frangipane horizons determined a sever segregation in pedogeochemical evolution of soils from glass houses, with very important consequences on the agrochemical quality of these soils. The segregation effects are manifested in the differential dynamics of pedogeochemical processes from superior horizons (situated above the segregation horizon), in comparison with the

  16. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reaches an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature, and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes circa 300 years for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under

  17. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model (ICBM-DE) including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reached an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes ca. 300 yr for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under

  18. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland.

    PubMed

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Capek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation ("buried topsoils"), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent ("unburied") topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation.

  19. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Čapek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID

  20. Transport of four pharmaceuticals in different horizons of three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Svatkova, Paula; Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Golovko, Oksana; Fer, Miroslav; Kocarek, Martin; Nikodem, Antonin; Grabic, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, which varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. Transport of many contaminants is in addition strongly influenced by their sorption on soil particles. Transport of four pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, atenolol and carbamazepine) was studied in soil columns (a diameter of 10.5 cm and a height of 13 cm) taken from all diagnostic horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol). The irrigation by water contaminated by a mixture of all four compounds followed by ponding infiltration of distilled water was simulated and water outflow and solute concentrations from the bottom of the soil sample was monitored in time. The highest infiltration rates were observed for soil samples from the Bt horizons of the Greyic Phaeozem that exhibited prismatic structure, followed by rates observed in the Ap horizons of the Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol (due to their granular soil structure and presence of root channels). The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of the Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of macropores. Compound discharge was however also highly affected by their sorption on solids. The highest mobility was observed for sulfamethoxazole followed by carbamazepine atenolol and trimethoprim, which corresponds to measured sorption isotherms. Mobility of ionizable compounds in different soil samples was influenced by pH (i.e. degree and form of their ionization) and sites available for absorption. Mobility of sulfamethoxazole decreased with decreasing pH (i.e. the largest sorption measured in horizons of the Haplic Cambisol). While mobility of atenolol and trimethoprim decreased with increasing base cation saturation, and with increasing organic matter content for carbamazepine. As result of both affects (i.e. soil

  1. Critical length for upheaval buckling of straight pipelines buried in ice rich soils

    SciTech Connect

    Quimby, T.B.

    1996-12-01

    Upheaval buckling, a phenomena receiving attention in offshore pipelines, has also been found to be a problem for onshore arctic pipelines buried in ice rich soils. While anticipated in overbend situations, it is also being found in pipelines designed to be straight. Understanding the mechanics and parameters affecting this behavior are essential to properly designing a buried arctic pipeline. This paper introduces the parameters that have led to upheaval buckling in at least one pipeline and describes the operation of a program that computes the critical buckling loads at various pipe lengths for the inception of upheaval buckling in a buried pipeline. The method uses finite elements to solve the eigenvalue problem for the axial stability of a column with flexible lateral restraints. This program can be used to predict critical lengths for straight pipelines that lose some or all of the lateral restraint of soil through erosion or thermal degradation. The results are used to make decisions concerning backfill and restrain design. The effects of soils stiffness are considered. Additional research needs are also discussed.

  2. Pedotransfer functions for Irish soils - estimation of bulk density (ρb) per horizon type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Simo, I.; Sills, P.; Creamer, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Soil bulk density is a key property in defining soil characteristics. It describes the packing structure of the soil and is also essential for the measurement of soil carbon stock and nutrient assessment. In many older surveys this property was neglected and in many modern surveys this property is omitted due to cost both in laboratory and labour and in cases where the core method cannot be applied. To overcome these oversights pedotransfer functions are applied using other known soil properties to estimate bulk density. Pedotransfer functions have been derived from large international data sets across many studies, with their own inherent biases, many ignoring horizonation and depth variances. Initially pedotransfer functions from the literature were used to predict different horizon type bulk densities using local known bulk density data sets. Then the best performing of the pedotransfer functions were selected to recalibrate and then were validated again using the known data. The predicted co-efficient of determination was 0.5 or greater in 12 of the 17 horizon types studied. These new equations allowed gap filling where bulk density data were missing in part or whole soil profiles. This then allowed the development of an indicative soil bulk density map for Ireland at 0-30 and 30-50 cm horizon depths. In general the horizons with the largest known data sets had the best predictions, using the recalibrated and validated pedotransfer functions.

  3. Pedotransfer functions for Irish soils - estimation of bulk density (ρb) per horizon type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Simo, I.; Sills, P.; Creamer, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    Soil bulk density is a key property in defining soil characteristics. It describes the packing structure of the soil and is also essential for the measurement of soil carbon stock and nutrient assessment. In many older surveys this property was neglected and in many modern surveys this property is omitted due to cost both in laboratory and labour and in cases where the core method cannot be applied. To overcome these oversights pedotransfer functions are applied using other known soil properties to estimate bulk density. Pedotransfer functions have been derived from large international datasets across many studies, with their own inherent biases, many ignoring horizonation and depth variances. Initially pedotransfer functions from the literature were used to predict different horizon types using local known bulk density datasets. Then the best performing of the pedotransfer functions, were selected to recalibrate and then were validated again using the known data. The predicted co-efficient of determination was 0.5 or greater in 12 of the 17 horizon types studied. These new equations allowed gap filling where bulk density data was missing in part or whole soil profiles. This then allowed the development of an indicative soil bulk density map for Ireland at 0-30 and 30-50 cm horizon depths. In general the horizons with the largest known datasets had the best predictions, using the recalibrated and validated pedotransfer functions.

  4. The effect of soil texture on the degradation of textiles associated with buried bodies.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A C; Beresford, D V; Carter, D O; Gaspari, F; O'Brien, R C; Stuart, B H; Forbes, S L

    2013-09-10

    There are many factors which affect the rate of decomposition in a grave site including; the depth of burial, climatic conditions, physical conditions of the soil (e.g. texture, pH, moisture), and method of burial (e.g. clothing, wrappings). Clothing is often studied as a factor that can slow the rate of soft tissue decomposition. In contrast, the effect of soft tissue decomposition on the rate of textile degradation is usually reported as anecdotal evidence rather than being studied under controlled conditions. The majority of studies in this area have focused on the degradation of textiles buried directly in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soil texture on the degradation and/or preservation of textile materials associated with buried bodies. The study involved the burial of clothed domestic pig carcasses and control clothing in contrasting soil textures (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) at three field sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Graves were exhumed after 2, 12 and 14 months burial to observe the degree of degradation for both natural and synthetic textiles. Recovered textile samples were chemically analyzed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the lipid decomposition by-products retained in the textiles. The findings of this study demonstrate that natural textile in contact with a buried decomposing body will be preserved for longer periods of time when compared to the same textile buried directly in soil and not in contact with a body. The soil texture did not visually impact the degree of degradation or preservation. Furthermore, the natural-synthetic textile blend was resistant to degradation, regardless of soil texture, contact with the body or time since deposition. Chemical analysis of the textiles using GC-MS correctly identified a lipid degradation profile consistent with the degree of soft tissue decomposition. Such information may be

  5. Preferential Flow Paths Allow Deposition of Mobile Organic Carbon Deep into Soil B Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Most of our understanding of soil carbon (C) dynamics derives from the top 10 to 20 cm, although globally the majority of the bulk soil C pool is found below those depths. Mineral associated C in deep soil is more stable than that held in surface horizons, and its long-term persistence may contribute to sequestration of anthropogenic C. Carbon can enter deep soil horizons in multiple ways: through biologically-mediated or abiotic physical mixing, illuviation, root inputs, or through a physical disturbance that would cause the burial of an originally shallow organic horizon. In this study, we investigated the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the transport and stabilization of soil C in tropical rainforest volcanic soils, where high rainfall, a highly productive forest, and dominance of highly reactive, non-crystalline minerals contribute to large soil C stocks at depth with long mean residence times. DOM plays an important role in many biological and chemical processes in soils, including nutrient transfer within and across ecosystems. Carbon storage in these soils is linked to movement of both DOC and particulate organic C along infiltration pathways. Climate and soil mineralogical properties create the right conditions for C to be pumped from the organic horizons where microbial activity is highest, to deep mineral horizons, where the potential for stabilization is greatest. High rainfall preserves hydrated short-range order minerals that are subject to strong shrinkage during occasional drought periods. The resulting cracks in subsurface B horizons become pathways for DOM complexed with Fe and Al moving in soil solution during subsequent wet periods. Preferential flow of these organically rich solutes and/or colloids moves C to depth where C, Fe and Al are preferentially deposited on near-vertical crack surfaces and along near-horizonal flow surfaces at horizon boundaries. Long-term deposition forms discontinuous Fe- and OM-cemented lamella that serve to

  6. Deep horizons: Soil Carbon sequestration and storage potential in grassland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Schulte, Rogier; Lanigan, Gary J.; Byrne, Kenneth A.; Reidy, Brian; Creamer, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) enhances soil fertility, holding nutrients in a plant-available form. It also improves aeration and water infiltration. Soils are considered a vital pool for C (Carbon) sequestration, as they are the largest pool of C after the oceans, and contain 3.5 more C than the atmosphere. SOC models and inventories tend to focus on the top 30 cm of soils, only analysing total SOC values. Association of C with microaggregates (53-250 μm) and silt and clay (<53 μm) is considered C sequestration as these fractions offer the greatest protection against mineralization. This study assessed the role of aggregation in C sequestration throughout the profile, down to 1 m depth, of 30 grassland sites divided in 6 soil types. One kg sample was collected for each horizon, sieved at 8 mm and dried at 40 °C. Through a wet sieving procedure, four aggregate sizes were isolated: large macroaggregates (>2000 μm); macroaggregates (250-2000 μm); microaggregates and silt & clay. Organic C associated to each aggregate fraction was analysed on a LECO combustion analyser. Sand-free C was calculated for each aggregate size. For all soil types, 84% of the SOC located in the first 30 cm was contained inside macroaggregates and large macroaggregates. Given that this fraction has a turnover time of 1 to 10 years, sampling at that depth only provides information on the labile fraction in soil, and does not consider the longer term C sequestration potential. Only when looking at the whole profile, two clear trends could be observed: 1) soils with a clay increase at depth had most of their C located in the silt and clay fractions, which indicate their enhanced C sequestration capacity, 2) free-draining soils had a bigger part of their SOC located in the macroaggregate fractions. These results indicate that current C inventories and models that focus on the top 30 cm, do not accurately measure soil C sequestration potential in soils, but rather the more labile fraction. However

  7. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  8. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  9. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  10. The microbial colonization of some woods of small dimensions buried in soil.

    PubMed

    Sharp, R F

    1975-06-01

    Several species of wood veneer, including some in a green undried state, were buried in various soils, and at intervals the colonists were isolated and identified. In addition, veneers were deteriorated for different periods of time, sterilized, and then reburied in the same soil. Isolates were obtained before sterilization and compared with those found afterwards. In each case the colonization involved a small number of microfungi and, because similar species were repeatedly isolated, an absence of succession under laboratory conditions was indicated. Deteriorating cubes of weed were periodically assayed for their glucose content, pH of exudates, and the release of microbial cellulase and amylase. A lack of any consistent change in colonist activity, with respect to these factors, again indicated an absence of stages during decay. The colonization pattern was contrasted with successions described in previous studies and the simplest explanation was given for the differences found. PMID:238728

  11. Bacterial, archaeal and eukaryal community structures throughout soil horizons of harvested and naturally disturbed forest stands.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Lee, Sangwon; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2009-12-01

    Disturbances caused by timber harvesting have critical long-term effects on the forest soil microbiota and alter fundamental ecosystem services provided by these communities. This study assessed the effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on microbial community structures in different soil horizons 13 years after timber harvesting at the long-term soil productivity site at Skulow Lake, British Columbia. A harvested stand was compared with an unmanaged forest stand. Ribosomal intergenic spacer profiles of bacteria, archaea and eukarya indicated significantly different community structures in the upper three soil horizons of the two stands, with differences decreasing with depth. Large-scale sequencing of the ribosomal intergenic spacers coupled to small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes allowed taxonomic identification of major microbial phylotypes affected by harvesting or varying among soil horizons. Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were the predominant phylotypes in the bacterial profiles, with the relative abundance of these groups highest in the unmanaged stand, particularly in the deeper soil horizons. Predominant eukaryal phylotypes were mainly assigned to known mycorrhizal and saprotrophic species of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Harvesting affected Basidiomycetes to a minor degree but had stronger effects on some Ascomycetes. Archaeal profiles had low diversity with only a few predominant crenarchaeal phylotypes whose abundance appeared to increase with depth. Detection of these effects 13 years after harvesting may indicate a long-term change in processes mediated by the microbial community with important consequences for forest productivity. These effects warrant more comprehensive investigation of the effects of harvesting on the structure of forest soil microbial communities and the functional consequences. PMID:19659501

  12. Spatial variability of microbial communities in modern and buried soils of the Sakarka River Basin, the Privolzhskaya Upland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Stretovich, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2010-05-01

    A comparative study of the microbial communities of the buried soils under the Anna Ioannovna mound (1718-1720) and the modern soils developed on different geomorphic positions (watershed, slope, and high floodplain) in the Sakarka River basin (the Privolzhskaya Upland) in the dry steppe zone was performed. The varying soil and ecological conditions of the different relief features were established to dictate the differences in the characteristics of the microbial community of the buried and modern soils, in particular, concerning the number of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (those restricted to sparse nutrients, humus-consuming ones, and those utilizing easily available organic matter), the ecologo-trophic structure, and the mycelia biomass and structure (the ratio between the light- and dark-colored hyphae). On the basis of the dispersion analysis, a qualitative estimation of the relief features’ impact on the spatial variations of the microbiological parameters of the soils under study is presented.

  13. The Effects of Soil Texture on the Ability of Human Remains Detection Dogs to Detect Buried Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Wescott, Daniel J; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    Despite technological advances, human remains detection (HRD) dogs still remain one of the best tools for locating clandestine graves. However, soil texture may affect the escape of decomposition gases and therefore the effectiveness of HDR dogs. Six nationally credentialed HRD dogs (three HRD only and three cross-trained) were evaluated on novel buried human remains in contrasting soils, a clayey and a sandy soil. Search time and accuracy were compared for the clayey soil and sandy soil to assess odor location difficulty. Sandy soil (p < 0.001) yielded significantly faster trained response times, but no significant differences were found in performance accuracy between soil textures or training method. Results indicate soil texture may be significant factor in odor detection difficulty. Prior knowledge of soil texture and moisture may be useful for search management and planning. Appropriate adjustments to search segment sizes, sweep widths and search time allotment depending on soil texture may optimize successful detection.

  14. Expanding the horizons of soil science to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Soils are critical to all life on the planet yet most individuals treat soil like dirt. As soil scientist we have long recognized this and have struggled to find ways to communicate the importance of soils to the public. The goal is not purely altruistic as we recognize that society funds or research and provides the workforce in soils that we need to continue to gain knowledge and expertise in soil science. In 2006 the Soil Science Society of America took a bold move and created its K12 Committee in part to compliment the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit that opened in July 2008 at the Smithsonian's Institution's Nation Museum of Natural History (of which SSS was a founding sponsor). The committee's work began quickly with a website designed to provide resources for K12 teachers (primary and school teachers). The first accomplishments included reviewing and posting links to web based information already available to teachers. These links were sorted by subject and grade level to make it easier for teachers to navigate the web and find what they needed quickly. Several presentations and lessons designed for K12 teachers were also posted at this time. Concurrent with this effort a subcommittee review and organized the national teaching standards to show where soils could fit into the overall K12 curriculum. As the website was being developed another subcommittee developed a soils book (Soil! Get the Inside Scoop, 2008) to further compliment the Dig It! exhibit. This was a new endeavor for SSSA having never worked with the non-academic audience in developing a book. Peer-reviews of this book included not only scientist but also students in order to make sure the book was attractive to them. Once the book was published and the website developed it became clear more outreach was needed. SSSA K12 Committee has attended both the National Science Teachers Association (since 2008) the USA Science and Engineering Festival (since 2010) with exhibits and workshops. It has

  15. Geochemical gradients in soil O-horizon samples from southern Norway: Natural or anthropogenic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimann, C.; Englmaier, P.; Flem, B.; Gough, L.; Lamothe, P.; Nordgulen, O.; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    Forty soil O- and C-horizon samples were collected along a south-to-north transect extending inland for approximately 200 km from the southern tip of Norway. The elements As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, W, Zn and Zr all show a distinct decrease in concentration in soil O-horizons with increasing distance from the coast. The elements showing the strongest coastal enrichment, some by more than an order of magnitude compared to inland samples, are Au, Bi, As, Pb, Sb and Sn. Furthermore, the elements Cd (median O-/median C-horizon = 31), C, Sb, Ag, K, S, Ge (10), Hg, Pb, As, Bi, Sr (5), Se, Au, Ba, Na, Zn, P, Cu and Sn (2) are all strongly enriched in the O-horizon when compared to the underlying C-horizon. Lead isotope ratios, however, do not show any gradient with distance from the coast (declining Pb concentration). Along a 50 km topographically steep east-west transect in the centre of the survey area, far from the coast but crossing several vegetation zones, similar element enrichment patterns and concentration gradients can be observed in the O-horizon. Lead isotope ratios in the O-horizon correlate along both transects with pH and the C/N-ratio, both proxies for the quality of the organic material. Natural conditions in southern Norway, related to climate and vegetation, rather than long range atmospheric transport of air pollutants (LRT), cause the observed features. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  17. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwen; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  18. A geophysical and biochemical investigation of buried remains in contrasting soil textures in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Amanda C.

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, geophysical tool used for the detection of clandestine graves. GPR operates by detecting density differences in soil by the transmission of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves from an antenna. A 500 Megahertz (MHz) frequency antenna is typically used for forensic investigations, as it provides a suitable compromise between depth of penetration and sub-surface resolution. Domestic pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were clothed in 100% cotton t-shirts and 50% cotton/50% polyester briefs, and buried at a consistent depth at three field sites of contrasting soil texture (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) in southern Ontario. GPR was used to detect and monitor the graves for a period of 14 months post burial. Analysis of collected data revealed that GPR had applicability in the detection of clandestine graves containing remains in silty clay loam and fine sandy loam soils, but was not suitable for detection in fine sandy soil. Specifically, within a fine sandy loam soil, there is the potential to estimate the post burial interval (PBI), as hyperbolic grave response was well defined at the beginning of the 14 month burial duration, but became less distinctive near the completion of the study. Following the detection of a clandestine grave containing a carcass, collection of gravesoil, tissue and textile samples is important for the estimation of the stage of decomposition and the post burial interval (PBI) of the remains. Throughout the decomposition process of a carcass, adipose tissue is subjected to hydrolytic enzymes that convert triglycerides to their corresponding unsaturated, saturated and salts of fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids in the decomposed tissue will vary with the post mortem period, but it is unknown what affect the soil texture has on lipid degradation. As decomposition proceeds, fatty acids can leach from the tissues into the surrounding burial environment. Fatty acid analysis

  19. Late quaternary temperature record from buried soils of the North American Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordt, L.; Von Fischer, J.; Tieszen, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive late Quaternary record of North American Great Plains temperature by assessing the behavior of the stable isotopic composition (??13C) of buried soils. After examining the relationship between the ??13C of topsoil organic matter and July temperature from 61 native prairies within a latitudinal range of 46??-38??N, we applied the resulting regression equation to 64 published ??13C values from buried soils of the same region to construct a temperature curve for the past 12 k.y. Estimated temperatures from 12 to 10 ka (1 k.y. = 1000 14C yr B.P.) fluctuated with a periodicity of ???1 k.y. with two cool excursions between -4.5 and -3.5 ??C and two warmer excursions between -1 and 0 ??C, relative to modern. Early Holocene temperatures from ca. 10-7.5 ka were -1.0 to -2.0 ??C before rising to +1.0 ??C in the middle Holocene between 6.0 and 4.5 ka. After a cool interlude from 4.2 to 2.6 ka, when temperatures dropped to slightly below modern, another warm interval ensued from 2.6 to 1 ka as temperatures increased to ???+0.5 ??C. A final decline in temperature to below modern occurred beginning ca. 0.5 ka. Cooler than present temperatures in the Great Plains indicate telecommunications with cool-water episodes in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic potentially governed by a combination of glacial meltwater pulses and low solar irradiance. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  20. Natural radionuclide activities in forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-06-01

    Natural radioactivity distribution of (40)K, (238)U, and (232)Th isotopes in forest soils was investigated by using gamma-ray spectrometry. An extensive radioecological study was carried out between 2010 and 2013 in Mount IDA/Kazdagi, located in Edremit region in Turkey. A total of 341 soil samples were collected from the surface and organic horizons (OL, OF+OH, and A) in 118 soil profiles. The distributions of natural radioactivity levels in these horizons and corresponding absorbed dose rates from outdoors terrestrial gamma radiation throughout the region were mapped in detail. Mean (40)K activity values over the combined horizons varied between 43 and 1,008 Bq kg(-1); whereas, mean (226)Ra and (232)Th concentrations over the combined horizons ranged between 5-152 and 6-275 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Our data indicate that the radioactivity values of the study sites were within the universal normal range. The significant variation among the (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (40)K activities and gamma dose rate might be due to the geological variation in the study sites.

  1. Time-domain response of a metal detector to a target buried in soil with frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Y.

    2006-05-01

    The work reported in this paper is a part of on-going studies to clarify how and to what extent soil electromagnetic properties affect the performance of induction metal detectors widely used in humanitarian demining. This paper studies the specific case of the time-domain response of a small metallic sphere buried in a non-conducting soil half-space with frequency-dependent complex magnetic susceptibility. The sphere is chosen as a simple prototype for the small metal parts in low-metal landmines, while soil with dispersive magnetic susceptibility is a good model for some soils that are known to adversely affect the performance of metal detectors. The included analysis and computations extend previous work which has been done mostly in the frequency domain. Approximate theoretical expressions for weakly magnetic soils are found to fit the experimental data very well, which allowed the estimation of soil model parameters, albeit in an ad hoc manner. Soil signal is found to exceed target signal (due to an aluminum sphere of radius 0.0127 m) in many cases, even for the weakly magnetic Cambodian laterite used in the experiments. How deep a buried target is detected depends on many other factors in addition to the relative strength of soil and target signals. A general statement cannot thus be made regarding detectability of a target in soil based on the presented results. However, computational results complemented with experimental data extend the understanding of the effect that soil has on metal detectors.

  2. Functional Assays and Metagenomic Analyses Reveals Differences between the Microbial Communities Inhabiting the Soil Horizons of a Norway Spruce Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Uroz, Stéphane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cébron, Aurélie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buée, Marc; Martin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the

  3. Fungal colonization of soil-buried plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) and the impact of incorporated biocides.

    PubMed

    Sabev, H A; Handley, P S; Robson, G D

    2006-06-01

    Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) with or without incorporated biocides was buried in grassland and forest soil for up to 10 months. The change with time in viable counts of fungi on the plastic surface was followed, together with the percentage capable of clearing the two plasticizers dioctyl adipate (DOA) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). With time fungal total viable counts (TVC) on control pPVC increased and the fraction able to clear DOA was considerably higher than the average estimated in both soil types. A total of 92 fungal morphotypes were isolated from grassland soil and 42 from forest soil with the greatest variety of fungal isolates observed on control pPVC. The incorporation of biocides into pPVC affected both fungal TVC and the richness of species isolated. The biocides NCMP [n-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide], OBPA (10,10'-oxybisphenoxarsine) and OIT (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) were the most effective in grassland soil, and TCMP [2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-(methylsulphonyl)pyridine] and NCMP the most effective in forest soil. In grassland soil, Penicillium janthinellum established as a principal colonizer and was recovered from all pPVC types. DOP clearers were found at much lower levels than DOA clearers, with Doratomyces spp. being the most efficient. At the end of 10 months the physical properties of the pPVC were altered; changes in stiffness were the most significant for heavily colonized grassland-buried pPVC samples, whereas in forest soil, the extensibility of the pPVC was affected more than the stiffness. These results suggest that fungi are important colonizers of pPVC buried in soil and that enrichment of soil fungi capable of clearing DOA occurs during colonization of the plastic surface. The results also demonstrate that incorporated biocides have a marked impact on the richness of species colonizing the pPVC surface.

  4. Thaw Characteristics of Soil around Buried Pipeline in Permafrost Regions Based on Numerical Simulation of Temperature Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zaiguo; Yu, Bo; Zhu, Jie; Li, Wang

    The freezing-thawing processes of the soil around the buried oil and gas pipelines in permafrost regions due to the effect of the pipe and atmospheric environment may bring about dangers to the pipelines as frost heave and thaw settlement occur and go on, and then the buried pipes may face huge challenges for safe operation. To analyze the thermal effect of the buried pipe on the surrounding soil, a two-dimensional computational model of the soil temperature fields was established based on the process of the heat transfer with phase change in the soil. The temperature fields and the thaw characteristics of the soil around the operating pipeline in permafrost regions were studied using numerical methods via the software FLUENT in this paper. The developments of the maximum thawed cylinders and corresponding thaw depths under the pipeline within operation life cycle were predicted and analyzed for various medium temperatures, water contents of soils, insulation layer thicknesses and imposed boundary conditions by climatic warming. In addition, the maximum thaw settlement of the soil under the pipeline in 5 typical permafrost areas along the Russia — China oil pipeline (the section in China) within operation life cycle was calculated. The medium temperatures were assumed to be constant and sinusoidal. The results indicated that the maximum thaw depths and thawed cylinders around the pipeline in permafrost regions enlarged with time elapse and the decrease in water content of the soils under the same boundary conditions. The maximum thaw depths and thawed cylinders increased with the increase of medium temperatures after the same operation time. The insulation layer weakened heat exchange between the pipeline and the surrounding soils and thus reduced the development of the thawed cylinders effectively during the early operation period. This research may provide an effective method for engineering application, and the results may provide references for predicting the

  5. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  6. The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?

    PubMed

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Farmer, John G; MacKenzie, Angus B

    2011-09-15

    Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.170 ± 0.002; mean ± SD) overlapped with that of the peat ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.16 ± 0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources.

  7. Micromorphological and ultramicroscopic aspects of buried remains: Time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burial.

    PubMed

    Zangarini, Sara; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    A buried body not only determines an environmental response at the deposition site but it is also affected by the soil. The experiment was performed using eleven swine carcasses buried in an open site (Northern Italy). Changes occurring in bone tissue at different post-burial intervals were evaluated observing thin sections of bones through micromorphological and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) techniques. These methods allowed the identification of: (a) magnesium phosphate (Mg3(PO4)2) crystallizations, probably linked to decomposition of bones and soft tissues; (b) significant sulphur levels which seem to be related to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) fixation in bone tissue; (c) metal oxide concentrations in the form of unusual violet-blue colorations, which probably are evidence of the soil's action and penetration in bones, also testified by (d) the presence of mineral grains enclosed in the osseous tissue. The results underline the possibility of identifying both time-dependent markers of decomposition and indicators of permanence in soil in buried bones. PMID:27081792

  8. Micromorphological and ultramicroscopic aspects of buried remains: Time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burial.

    PubMed

    Zangarini, Sara; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    A buried body not only determines an environmental response at the deposition site but it is also affected by the soil. The experiment was performed using eleven swine carcasses buried in an open site (Northern Italy). Changes occurring in bone tissue at different post-burial intervals were evaluated observing thin sections of bones through micromorphological and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) techniques. These methods allowed the identification of: (a) magnesium phosphate (Mg3(PO4)2) crystallizations, probably linked to decomposition of bones and soft tissues; (b) significant sulphur levels which seem to be related to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) fixation in bone tissue; (c) metal oxide concentrations in the form of unusual violet-blue colorations, which probably are evidence of the soil's action and penetration in bones, also testified by (d) the presence of mineral grains enclosed in the osseous tissue. The results underline the possibility of identifying both time-dependent markers of decomposition and indicators of permanence in soil in buried bones.

  9. Do Forest Age and Soil Depth Affect Carbon and Nitrogen Adsorption in Mineral Horizons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, P. G.; Lovett, G. M.; Fuss, C. B.; Goodale, C. L.; Lang, A.; Fahey, T.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral soils retain large amounts of organic matter through sorption on the surfaces of mineral soils, the largest pools of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the forests of the northeastern U.S. In addition to determining organic matter storage, adsorption and desorption processes are important controllers of runoff chemistry. We are studying adsorption dynamics of mineral soils collected from a chronosequence of hardwood forest sites in the White Mountains, NH to determine how soils vary in their DOM adsorption capacities as a function of effective C and N saturation. We hypothesize that forest age determines proximity to saturation because young forests may need to mine soil organic matter (SOM) in mineral soils to obtain nitrogen to meet growth demands, while the soils of older forests have had time to reaccumulate SOM, eventually reaching C and N saturation. Consequently, we expect adsorption capacities to first increase with forest age in young forests, as the trees mine C and N from mineral surfaces. They will then decrease with forest age in older forests as mining slows and C and N begin to re-accumulate. Batch experiments were conducted with mineral soil samples and dilutions of forest floor leachate. However, preliminary results from a mature forest site (about 100 years old), which we predicted to be a low point of C and N saturation from decades of mining, contradict expectations. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) adsorption in its shallow mineral soil layers (0-3 cm below E or A horizons) are lower than younger sites ranging from 20 to about 40 years old. In addition to forest age, soil depths also affect N retention dynamics in forest soils. We hypothesized that deeper mineral soils might have greater adsorption capacities due to the fact that they are exposed to less DOC and DON leaching from organic layers and therefore less saturated. Results from the same mature forest site confirm this. Soils from 3-10 cm depth have more potential to adsorb DOC and

  10. Influences upon the lead isotopic composition of organic and mineral horizons in soil profiles from the National Soil Inventory of Scotland (2007-09).

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; Eades, Lorna J; Lilly, Allan; Bacon, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-15

    Some 644 individual soil horizons from 169 sites in Scotland were analyzed for Pb concentration and isotopic composition. There were three scenarios: (i) 36 sites where both top and bottom (i.e. lowest sampled) soil horizons were classified as organic in nature, (ii) 67 with an organic top but mineral bottom soil horizon, and (iii) 66 where both top and bottom soil horizons were mineral. Lead concentrations were greater in the top horizon relative to the bottom horizon in all but a few cases. The top horizon (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio was lesser (outside analytical error) than the corresponding bottom horizon (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio at (i) 64%, (ii) 94% and (iii) 73% of sites, and greater at only (i) 8%, (ii) 3% and (iii) 8% of sites. A plot of (208)Pb/(207)Pb vs. (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios showed that the Pb in organic top (i, ii) and bottom (i) horizons was consistent with atmospherically deposited Pb of anthropogenic origin. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of the organic top horizon in (ii) was unrelated to the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of the mineral bottom horizon as demonstrated by the geographical variation in the negative shift in the ratio, a result of differences in the mineral horizon values arising from the greater influence of radiogenic Pb in the north. In (iii), the lesser values of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio for the mineral top horizon relative to the mineral bottom horizon were consistent with the presence of anthropogenic Pb, in addition to indigenous Pb, in the former. Mean anthropogenic Pb inventories of 1.5 and 4.5 g m(-2) were obtained for the northern and southern halves of Scotland, respectively, consistent with long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic Pb (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio~1.16). For cultivated agricultural soils (Ap), this corresponded to about half of the total Pb inventory in the top 30 cm of the soil column. PMID:26674702

  11. Composition and structure of aggregates from compacted soil horizons in the southern steppe zone of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Kust, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and structure of aggregates from different agrogenic soils in the southern steppe zone of European Russia have been studied. It is shown that the multi-level study (from the macro- to microlevel) of these horizons makes it possible to identify soil compaction caused by different elementary soil processes: solonetz-forming, vertisol-forming, and mechanical (wheel) compaction in the rainfed and irrigated soils. The understanding of the genesis of the compaction of soil horizons (natural or anthropogenic) is important for the economic evaluation of soil degradation. It should enable us to make more exact predictions of the rates of degradation processes and undertake adequate mitigation measures. The combined tomographic and micromorphological studies of aggregates of 1-2 and 3-5 mm in diameter from compacted horizons of different soils have been performed for the first time. Additional diagnostic features of negative solonetz- forming processes (low open porosity of aggregates seen on tomograms and filling of a considerable part of the intraped pores with mobile substance) and the vertisol-forming processes (large amount of fine intraaggregate pores seen on tomograms and a virtual absence of humus-clay plasma in the intraped zone)—have been identified. It is shown that the combination of microtomographic and micromorphological methods is helpful for studying the pore space of compacted horizons in cultivated soils.

  12. Persistence of 137Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Çakır, Rukiye; Çoban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons. PMID:25464048

  13. Persistence of 137Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Çakır, Rukiye; Çoban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons.

  14. Carbon delivery to deep mineral horizons in Hawaiian rain forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Kramer, Marc; Carbone, Mariah S.

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to better understand the mechanisms for soil organic matter delivery to and accumulation in mineral horizons of tropical rain forest, volcanic soils. We used soil morphology, lysimetry, isotopes, and spectroscopy to investigate the role of preferential flow paths in the delivery of carbon (C) to the subsoil. High rainfall, high primary productivity, and the dominance of highly reactive, short-range-order minerals combine to sequester substantial stocks of soil C with long mean residence times. The soils have large peds, separated by wide cracks, which form a network of channels propagating downward through the top 40 to 60 cm, facilitating macropore flow. The channel infillings and crack surfaces were enriched in organic material (OM) with lower C:N ratios, and had higher ammonium oxalate-extractable Al, and lower ammonium oxalate-extractable Fe than the adjacent mineral bulk soil. CP MAS 13C-NMR spectra of OM accumulating at depth showed strong signal intensities in the carboxyl and carbonyl C regions, indicative of organic acids, while decaying roots showed greater contributions of aromatic and O-alkyl C. The ratios of alkyl-to-O-alkyl C in the organic infillings were more similar to those of the bulk Bh and to dissolved organic matter than to those of decaying roots. Radiocarbon-based ages of OM infillings at >50 cm depth were significantly younger than the mineral soil (2000 years versus 7000 years). Respired CO2 from incubated soils showed that OM accumulating at depth is a mixture of modern and much older C, providing further evidence for the downward movement of fresh C.

  15. The formation of frangipane horizons and their influence on physical-chemical properties of soils from glass houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, F.; Bulgariu, D.; Avarvarei, I.

    2009-04-01

    The pedological, mineralogical and geochemical studies performed by as on soils (s.s hortic antrosols) from Iasi (Copou glass house), Barlad and Bacau glass houses have show that, in most of cases, the profile of hortic antrosols have the following compositions: Aho-AC-C or Ck, and Aho-B/C or Ck, respectively. In function of parental material nature and specific exploitation technologies, can appear the diagnostic horizons of association (hiposalic-sc, hiponatric-ac etc.) and / or of transition (A/B, A/C, C/A, A+C, ABk etc.). Specific for soils from glass houses are intense modifications of soil profile, large variability of mineralogy and chemistry, salinization processes (by progressive accumulation of soluble salts) at superior horizons level and formation, at 50 cm depth, of a compact and impermeable horizon (frangipane horizon). From chemical point of view, the hortic antrosols are generally characterized by high values of saturation in bases, of accessible phosphorus and of ratio between humic and fulvic acids (organic matter is dominant in intense humified fraction). Regarding the formation conditions, the mineralogy and geochemistry of frangipane horizons, in this moment, in literature are not too many data. In case of studied soils, the frangipane horizons appear in specific forms, where their structure, morphology and chemistry varied in large limits. In hortic antrosols where are formed, the frangipane horizons determined a sever pedogeochemical segregation. Thus, the horizons situated above to the frangipane horizon evolutes in weak oxidant conditions, weak acid-neutral pH (5.87 - 6.95), high salinity and humidity, intense biological activity; while the horizons situated below to the frangipane horizon evolutes in weak reduction conditions, neutral - weak alkaline pH (7.61 - 8.04), reduced salinity and humidity, weak biological activity. This determined an important differentiation of micro-elements and organic compounds dynamic, evidenced by the

  16. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep soil horizons of an arable and temporarily grassland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, A.; Chabbi, A.; Croue, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the bio-available fraction of the largest amount of soil organic matter (SOM), even if it does represent only a very small proportion. Because most of the studies on DOC dynamics were mainly restricted to forest soils, studies on the factors governing the dynamics of DOC in deep soil horizons (>1 m) in arable system are still very little limited. The objective of this work is to better define the proportion of DOC in deep soil horizons and indicate their main characteristics and structural properties. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site). DOC collected using lysimeters plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. Depend on the amount of material; the chemical composition of DOC was performed using UV254 nm, fluorescence EEM, NMR and HPSEC/UV/COD. The results show that the concentration and structural properties of DOC in deep soil horizon were similar to those of groundwater (low SUVA (1.2 m-1.L.mg C-1), structures composed mainly of low molecular weight). Because of the relatively recent establishment of the treatment, the monitoring of the dynamics of the DOC concentrations did not show significant differences between arable and grassland. However, the temporal dynamic shows a slight increase in the DOC content regardless of the of land use. DOC concentrations between winter and the middle of spring tend to double going from 1 to 2.5 mg / L and then

  17. Estimating the effect of tree uprooting on variation of soil horizon depth by confronting pedogenetic simulations to measurements in a Belgian loess area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, P. A.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Opolot, E.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2013-12-01

    patterns of soil often do not reflect those of topographic controls. We attempted to identify possible causes of this by comparing observed and simulated soil horizon depths. Observed depths of E, Bt, BC, C1, and C2 horizons in loess-derived soils in Belgium showed a weak to absent relation to terrain attributes in a sloping area. We applied the soil genesis model SoilGen2.16 onto 108 1 × 1 m2 locations in a 1329 ha area to find possible causes. Two scenarios were simulated. Model 1 simulated soil development under undisturbed conditions, taking slope, aspect, and loess thickness as the only sources of variations. Model 2 additionally included a stochastic submodel to generate tree-uprooting events based on the exposure of trees to the wind. Outputs of both models were converted to depths of transitions between horizons, using an algorithm calibrated to horizon depths observed in the field. Model 1 showed strong correlations between terrain attributes and depths for all horizons, although surprisingly, regression kriging was not able to model all variations. Model 2 showed a weak to absent correlation for the upper horizons but still a strong correlation for the deeper horizons BC, C1, and C2. For the upper horizons the spatial variation strongly resembled that of the measurements. This is a strong indication that bioturbation in the course of soil formation due to treefalls influences spatial patterns of horizon depths.

  18. The structural state of buried and surface soils of solonetzic complexes in the dry steppe zone of the Lower Volga basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotareva, B. N.; Bukhonov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    The structural state of modern (surface) soils and the soils buried under Anna Ioannovna's rampart (1718-1720) was studied. These soils are the components of solonetzic soil complexes in the southern Privolzhskaya Upland. The dehumification and the high content of calcium in the exchange complex determine the state of the macrostructure of the chestnut soil buried about 300 years ago. The dehumification drastically lowers the water stability of the soil aggregates, and the predominance of calcium ions in the soil exchange complex prevents the destruction of the chestnut paleosol aggregates and preserves their aggregate state upon moistening. For the last 300 years, no significant changes in the macrostructure of the solonetzes have been observed.

  19. Buried pipe design

    SciTech Connect

    Mosler, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers basic information on proper, cost-effective design of buried-pipe systems for underground fluid transportation. Examines various pipe products available. Discusses soil engineering and piping mechanics. Specific topics include pipe-wall stresses and strains; design bases; rigid- and flexible-pipe analysis; soil pressure; and longitudinal, wheel, expansive-soil, and frost loading.

  20. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  1. Buried stone lines in deserts - What can they tell us about landscape evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.; Kleber, A.

    2009-04-01

    Stone pavements are typical features of climate-sensitive arid environments. They allow formation of cumulic soils, protected from erosion, which may be used as archives that recorded past geomorphologic and pedologic processes. Stone lines within the soil column resulted from buried stone pavements. These stone lines, situated between compound soil horizons were affected by postdepositional processes that may be attributed to specific palaeoenvironmental conditions. From Cima Volcanic Field, eastern Mojave Desert, California, we present detailed alignment measurements of buried stone stratae. Soils in the study area were developed on basalt flows of middle Pleistocene age and consist mainly of aeolian dust which was overprinted by several phases of soil formation and stone pavement development. Stones that were arranged in specific depth intervals between compound soil horizons showed prominent orientation patterns that may be attributed to geomorphic processes that created, distorted or reworked at least two ancient stone pavements, now covered by sediment and the modern pavement. We suggest fluvial (re-)orientation of surficial stones prior to burial. Furthermore, a lateral displacement of clasts within the sediment matrix is recorded. The stratigraphic position of realigned stone lines within soil horizons presumably formed, both, under humid and arid environmental conditions allows the description of geomorphic processes for discrete climatic frameworks. Buried stone pavements are thus a unique opportunity for investigating past landscape dynamics, not recorded in other archives.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

  3. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  4. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest. Key Points We compared soil N dynamics of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transectShifts in N dynamics suggest a decrease in microbial N limitation with depthWe found no decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate zones PMID:26693204

  5. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  6. A Test Study to Display Buried Anti-Tank Landmines with GPR and Research Soil Characteristics with CRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    An anti-tank mine (AT mine) is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Anti-tank mines typically have a much larger explosive charge, and a fuze designed only to be triggered by vehicles or, in some cases, tampering with the mine. There are a lot of AT mine types. In our test study, MK4 and MK5 AT mine types has been used. The Mk 5 was a cylindrical metal cased U.K. anti-tank blast mine that entered service in 1943, during the Second World War. General Specifications of them are 203 mm diameter, 127 mm height, 4.4-5.7 kg weight, 2.05-3.75 kg of TNT explosive content and 350 lbs operating pressure respectively. The aims of the test study were to image anti-tank landmine with GPR method and to analyse the soil characteristics before the mines made explode and after made be exploded and determine changing of the soil characteristics. We realized data measurement on the real 6 unexploded anti-tank landmine buried approximately 15 cm in depth. The mines spaced 3 m were buried in two lines. Space between lines was 1.5 m. We gathered data on the profiles, approximately 7 m, with a Ramac CUII system and 800 MHz shielded antenna. We collected soil samples on the mines, near and around the mines, on the area in village. We collected soil samples before exploding and after exploding mines. We imaged anti-tank landmines on the depth slices of the GPR data and in their interactive transparent 3D subsets successfully. We used polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) to identify soil characteristic before and after exploitation. The results presented that GPR method and its 3D imaging were successful to determine AT mines, and there was no important changing on mineralogical and petrographical characterization of the soil before and after exploding processing. This project has been supported by Ankara University under grant no 11B6055002. The study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU

  7. Warmer Boreal Forest Organic Soil Horizons are Associated with Larger Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon than their Cooler Climate Counterparts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, K.; Edwards, K. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are characterized by large stocks of carbon associated with relatively slow decomposition and deep organic horizons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss from organic soil horizons occurs through hydrologically-mediated leaching processes, and contributes to downstream carbon both in deeper mineral soils and also in connected aquatic systems. However, the amount of DOC that leaves organic horizons and the environmental controls on this flux are poorly understood and are likely to be affected by climate changes. We sampled zero-tension lysimeters along 3 forested sites of a boreal climate transect to estimate DOC export from organic soil horizons of mesic boreal podzols (spodosols), and to investigate the climatic drivers of this flux. The sites are part of the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystems Latitudinal Transect (NL-BELT) and span approximately 5°C in mean annual temperature. Lysimeters were sampled over 4 years and DOC flux was calculated for each seasonal period (summer, fall, and winter) of each year. DOC flux was greatest in the warmest site (114 mg C day-1 m-2), with the two cooler sites having lower flux rates (40 and 36 mg C day-1 m-2 in the intermediate and coolest sites respectively). Seasonal variation was most pronounced in the warmest site where more DOC exited the organic soil horizons during fall than during summer or winter. DOC flux was correlated with the volume of soil solution collected in the lysimeters (R2 = .46), however the larger sample volumes collected in the warmest climate do not reflect greater overall precipitation. During the 4-year period of this study, similar amounts of precipitation were recorded in all regions, and the number of days with >10mm precipitation did not differ. The greater DOC flux in the warmer climate site may be due to higher rates of both litterfall and decomposition, contributing to increased labile DOC sources in the warmer climate. Analyses of the carbon quality of these samples

  8. Spatial distribution of mineral components in microcombinations of agrogrey soils with the second humus horizon in the Vladimir opolie area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Karpova, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Mineralogical composition of silt and clay fractions (<1.1-5 and 5-10 µm) in heavy loamy agrogrey soils (Luvic Retic Phaeozems) considerably changes both in the vertical (along the soil profile) and horizontal (along soil microcatenas) directions. The eluvial-illuvial distribution pattern of the clay fraction in the podzolized agrogrey soils with the second humus horizon is replaced by the homogeneous distribution in the agrogrey soils with residual carbonates. The distribution of silt fractions in the soil profiles is relatively homogeneous. The clay (<1 µm) fraction of the parent material is represented by the poorly ordered micasmectite interstratifications minerals, the proportion between which changes in the soil profiles in dependence on the particular pedogenetic processes. Hydromicas represent the second important component of the clay fraction. They consist of di- and trioctahedral varieties, the proportion between which changes in the soil profiles. Kaolinite and iron-magnesium chlorite are present in smaller amounts. The second humus horizon is characterized by the lowest content of mica-smectite interstratifications minerals with the high content of smectitic layers and by the lowest content of the clay fraction. Silt fractions are composed of quartz, micas, potassium feldspars, and plagioclases.

  9. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  10. Chemical speciation and enzymatic impact of silver in antimicrobial fabric buried in soil.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Toyota, Koki

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the impact of Ag in antibacterial fabric on soil enzymes in relation to solubility and speciation of Ag. Sections of Ag-containing sock fabric (1.0-1.5cm(2)) were incubated in soils with aerobic and anaerobic conditions and periodically determined activity of arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and urease. Microscale distribution and speciation of Ag at the interface between socks and soil particles were investigated using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and Ag speciation was determined using micro-focused X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy. Results showed that the sock fabric consisted of elemental Ag and Ag2S. After 60-day exposure to soil, majority (50-90%) of Ag in sock did not undergo phase transformation and present as elemental Ag and Ag2S in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A part of Ag in sock fabric was bound with soil colloids (<15%), depending on the distance from the edge of sock fabric. Soil enzyme activities were overall unaffected by Ag in sock textile after 60days of incubation, although a significant decrease in arylsulfatase activity was found only in the initial stage of soil incubation. Silver in the sock fabric is relatively stable and has little detrimental impacts on enzyme activity in ordinary soil conditions. PMID:27351904

  11. Chemical speciation and enzymatic impact of silver in antimicrobial fabric buried in soil.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Toyota, Koki

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the impact of Ag in antibacterial fabric on soil enzymes in relation to solubility and speciation of Ag. Sections of Ag-containing sock fabric (1.0-1.5cm(2)) were incubated in soils with aerobic and anaerobic conditions and periodically determined activity of arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and urease. Microscale distribution and speciation of Ag at the interface between socks and soil particles were investigated using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and Ag speciation was determined using micro-focused X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy. Results showed that the sock fabric consisted of elemental Ag and Ag2S. After 60-day exposure to soil, majority (50-90%) of Ag in sock did not undergo phase transformation and present as elemental Ag and Ag2S in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A part of Ag in sock fabric was bound with soil colloids (<15%), depending on the distance from the edge of sock fabric. Soil enzyme activities were overall unaffected by Ag in sock textile after 60days of incubation, although a significant decrease in arylsulfatase activity was found only in the initial stage of soil incubation. Silver in the sock fabric is relatively stable and has little detrimental impacts on enzyme activity in ordinary soil conditions.

  12. Anion retention in soil: Possible application to reduce migration of buried technetium and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Schulz, R.K. . Dept. of Soil Science)

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes a literature review of our present knowledge of the anion exchange properties of a number of soils and minerals, which may potentially be used as anion exchangers to retard migration of such anions as iodide (I{sup {minus}}), iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) and pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) away from disposal site. The amorphous clays allophane and imogolite, are found to be among the most important soil components capable of developing appreciable amounts of positive charge for anion exchange even at about neutral pH. Decreases in the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio and soil pH result in an increase in soil AEC. Allophane and imogolite rich soils have an AEC ranging from 1 to 18 meq/100g at pH about 6. Highly weathered soils dominated by Fe and Al oxides and kaolinite may develop a significant amount of AEC as soil pH falls. The retention of iodine (I) and technetium ({Tc}), by soils is associated with both soil organic matter, and Fe and Al oxides, whereas sorption on layer silicate minerals in negligible. Fe and Al oxides become more important in the retention of anionic I{sup {minus}}, IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} as pH falls, since more positive charge is developed on the oxide surfaces. Although few studies, if any, have been conducted on I and {Tc} sorption by soil allophane and imogolite, it is estimated that a surface plough soil (2 million pounds soil per acre) with 5 meq/100g AEC, as is commonly found in andisols, shall retain approximately 5900 kg I and 4500 kg {Tc}. It is conceivable that an anion exchanger such as an andisol could be used to modify the near field environment of a radioactive waste disposal facility. This whole disposal system would then offer similar migration resistance to anions as is normally afforded to cations by usual and normal soils. 93 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Vertical distribution of an ectomycorrhizal community in upper soil horizons of a young Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stand of the Bavarian Limestone Alps.

    PubMed

    Baier, Roland; Ingenhaag, Jan; Blaschke, Helmut; Göttlein, Axel; Agerer, Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    The vertical niche differentiation of genera of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) was assessed in a 17-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) plantation on a mountainous dolomitic site (1,050 m above sea level) of the Bavarian Limestone Alps. We determined ECM anatomotypes, recorded the abundance of corresponding ECM root tips and classified them into groups of ECM exploration types, which refer to the organisation and the extent of their extramatrical mycelia. The abundance of ECM was highest in the organic soil layers, compared to the mineral soil horizon. The ordination of the ECM communities and of the exploration types revealed segregation related to soil horizon properties. While Cenococcum geophilum preferred the organic soil layers, Lactarius spp., Tomentella spp. and Craterellus tubaeformis were generally most abundant in the mineral soil horizons. Cenococcum geophilum was the predominant species, possibly based on enhanced competitiveness under the prevailing site conditions. The short-distance exploration types (e.g. C. geophilum) preferentially colonised the organic soil layer, whereas the contact types (e.g. most of the Tomentella spp., C. tubaeformis) together with medium-distance types (e.g. Amphinema byssoides) were primarily associated with the underlying A-horizons. Therefore, the soil horizons had an important effect on the distribution of ECM and on their community structure. The spatial niche differentiation of ECM genera and exploration types is discussed in regard to specific physico-chemical properties of soil horizon and the assumed ecophysiological strategies of ECM.

  14. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this work is to quantity the DOC that percolates in deep horizons of an arable soil, and to characterize the structural properties of the main fractions. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site-France. DOC collected using lysimeter plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. The hydrophilic fraction is purified according the protocol proposed by Aiken and Leenheer (1993). The isolated fractions were subjected to several characterization tools: UV/Vis, fluorescence EEM, HPSEC/UV/DOC, 13C NMR, 14C dating, FT-IR, pyrolysis, thermochemolysis and MSSV GC/MS. The DOC content ranged from 1 to 2.5 mg / L between winter and the middle of spring and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. For all isolated fractions HPSEC analyses indicated the predominance of low molecular structures with a low aromatic character. Fluorescence EEM confirmed the non-humic character of the DOM. 13C-NMR spectra showed that the aromatic character decreased from HPO to TPH, and HPI character. Molecular size follows the same trend. HPI DOM was found to be strongly enriched in carboxyl groups. The 14C concentration of the HPO fraction corresponds to an apparent calibrated age around AD 1500. For the same fraction isolated from the 0 - 30 cm horizon, the measured 14C concentration 131.9 pMC corresponds to that in the atmosphere around AD 1978. Significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC

  15. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied

  16. Horizon-Specific Bacterial Community Composition of German Grassland Soils, as Revealed by Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Will, Christiane; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Nacke, Heiko; Herold, Nadine; Schrumpf, Marion; Gutknecht, Jessica; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of bacteria in soil is enormous, and soil bacterial communities can vary greatly in structure. Here, we employed a pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to characterize the overall and horizon-specific (A and B horizons) bacterial community compositions in nine grassland soils, which covered three different land use types. The entire data set comprised 752,838 sequences, 600,544 of which could be classified below the domain level. The average number of sequences per horizon was 41,824. The dominant taxonomic groups present in all samples and horizons were the Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Despite these overarching dominant taxa, the abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial communities were horizon specific. In almost all cases, the estimated bacterial diversity (H′) was higher in the A horizons than in the corresponding B horizons. In addition, the H′ was positively correlated with the organic carbon content, the total nitrogen content, and the C-to-N ratio, which decreased with soil depth. It appeared that lower land use intensity results in higher bacterial diversity. The majority of sequences affiliated with the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were derived from A horizons, whereas the majority of the sequences related to Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, TM7, and WS3 originated from B horizons. The distribution of some bacterial phylogenetic groups and subgroups in the different horizons correlated with soil properties such as organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, or microbial biomass. PMID:20729324

  17. Contamination of the O2 soil horizon by zinc smelting and its effect on woodlouse survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Cromartie, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of litter from the 02 horizon of Dekalb soil (loamyskeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept) were collected from 18 ridgetop sites on a transect that ran by two Zn smelters in Palmerton, Pa. Metal concentrations increased by regular gradations from a minimum at a site 105 km west of the smelters (67 mg/kg Zn, 0.85 mg/kg Cd, 150 mg/kg Pb, 11 mg/kg Cu) to a maximum 1.2 km east of the smelters (35,000 mg/kg Zn, 1300 mg/kg Cd, 3200 mg/kg Pb, 280 mg/kg Cu), and then decreased until they reached an eastern minimum at the easternmost site, 19 km from the smelters. An increase in the P concentrations near the smelters showed that the emissions were disrupting nutrient flow through the ecosystem. An increase in the pH near the smelters was attributed to the high concentrations of Zn. The log of the distance of the sites from the smelters was significantly correlated (r = - 0.80, p < 0.05) with the mortality of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille} fed samples of the litter during an 8-week test. There was substantial mortality of woodlice observed even in the 02 litter collected 19 km east of the smelters. Zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and sulfur were experimentally added, alone or in combination, to 02 litter collected far from any known source of metal emissions. The highest concentration of Zn added (20,000 mg/kg) was toxic enough to account for the mortality observed in the earlier test. A lower concentration of Zn (5000 mg/kg) as well as the concentration of Cd (500 mg/kg) tested also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mortality of woodlice.

  18. UHF ground penetration measurements of buried and partially buried trihedrals

    SciTech Connect

    Blejer, D.; Frost, C.; Scarborough, S.

    1994-12-31

    The Lincoln Laboratory ground-based rail SAR was used to collect UHF band data on buried and partially buried trihedral corner reflectors in Yuma soil. The frequency range was 0.25 to 1 GHz in descrete steps. Both HH and VV polarization data were collected in the vicinity of the pseudo-Brewster angle. The partially buried trihedrals revealed two principal components for the returned signals: (1) a surface reflected component, and (2) a ground penetrated component. A model is described for partially buried trihedrals that accounts for these two components and the model is used in estimating ground penetration parameters.

  19. Autonomous real-time adaptive management of soil salinity using a receding horizon control algorithm: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonjeong; Harmon, Thomas C

    2011-10-01

    Soil salinization is a potentially negative side effect of irrigation with reclaimed water. While optimization schemes have been applied to soil salinity control, these have typically failed to take advantage of real-time sensor feedback. This study incorporates current soil observation technologies into the optimal feedback-control scheme known as Receding Horizon Control (RHC) to enable successful autonomous control of soil salinization. RHC uses real-time sensor measurements, physically-based state prediction models, and optimization algorithms to drive field conditions to a desired environmental state by manipulating application rate or irrigation duration/frequency. A simulation model including the Richards equation coupled to energy and solute transport equations is employed as a state estimator. Vertical multi-sensor arrays installed in the soil provide initial conditions and continuous feedback to the control scheme. An optimization algorithm determines the optimal irrigation rate or frequency subject to imposed constraints protective of soil salinization. A small-scale field test demonstrates that the RHC scheme is capable of autonomously maintaining specified salt levels at a prescribed soil depth. This finding suggests that, given an adequately structured and trained simulation model, sensor networks, and optimization algorithms can be integrated using RHC to autonomously achieve water reuse and agricultural objectives while managing soil salinization.

  20. Large loop EMI sensor for detection of deeply buried munitions in magnetic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Billings, Stephen; Keranen, Joe; Schultz, Gregory; Bassani, Chet

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an active source Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) sensor that offers extended detection ranges (> 2m) with minimal sensitivity to magnetic geology. The Ultra Deep Search (ULTRA) EMI system employs a large (20 - 40m), stationary, surface-laid transmitter loop that produces a relatively uniform magnetic field within the search region. This primary field decays slowly with depth due to the non-dipolar nature of the field within the search volume. An array of 3-axis receiver cubes measures the time derivative of secondary field decays produced by subsurface metallic objects. The large-loop transmitter combined with the vector sensing induction coil receivers produces a deep search capability that remains robust in environments containing highly magnetic soils. In this paper, we assess the general detection capabilities of the ULTRA system and present data collected over a set of standardized UXO targets. Additionally, we evaluate the potential for target feature extraction through dipole fit analysis of several data sets.

  1. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Komárek, Michael; Farkaš, Juraj; Drábek, Ondřej; Vokurková, Petra; Němcová, Jana

    2012-03-30

    The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues.

  2. The morphology of cells and the biomass of microorganisms in the buried paleosols and modern steppe soils of the Lower Volga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashirskaya, N. N.; Khomutova, T. E.; Dmitriev, V. V.; Duda, V. I.; Suzina, N. E.; Demkin, V. A.

    2010-10-01

    The morphology of microbial cells was studied, and the biomass of microorganisms was estimated in the modern steppe soils and paleosols buried under kurgans in the Lower Volga region with the methods of electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of the cells in the modern soils and paleosols were similar, though their average volumes differed (0.37 and 0.28 μm3, respectively). The portion of cells with a volume above 1 μm3 in the surface soils and paleosols reached 10.9 and 9.2%, respectively, and the portion of cells with a volume less than 0.01 μm3 in the surface soils was 10% lower than that in the buried paleosols. It was found that the cells of the microorganisms have an external organomineral layer, which increases the cell volume by 4.9 times, and this fact was taken into account in the calculation of the microbial biomass. In the chestnut and light chestnut paleosols, the latter comprised 1500 and 230 μg of C/g soil, respectively.

  3. Physical properties of soils in Rostov agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Tagiverdiev, S. S.; Morozov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of natural and anthropogenically transformed soils of Rostov agglomeration were examined. The data obtained by conventional methods and new approaches to the study of soil physical properties (in particular, tomographic study of soil monoliths) were used for comparing the soils of different functional zones of the urban area. For urban territories in the steppe zone, a comparison of humus-accumulative horizons (A, Asod, Ap, and buried [A] horizons) made it possible to trace tendencies of changes in surface soils under different anthropogenic impacts and in the buried and sealed soils. The microtomographic study demonstrated differences in the bulk density and aggregation of urban soils from different functional zones. The A horizon in the forest-park zone is characterized by good aggregation and high porosity, whereas buried humus-accumulative horizons of anthropogenically transformed soils are characterized by poor aggregation and low porosity. The traditional parameters of soil structure and texture also proved to be informative for the identification of urban pedogenesis.

  4. Detecting buried remains in Florida using ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John Joseph

    This research tested the applicability of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in Florida to detect buried bodies; and assessed the effect of body size, depth, antenna type, time, and soil type on grave detection. Furthermore, because of the emphasis on decomposition, it was possible to address the role of depth, body size, time, and soil type on decomposition. The site was located in an open pasture, where 20 pig (Sus scrofa) cadavers of two average weights (29.7 and 63.8 kg) were buried at two depths (50 to 60 or 100 to 110 cm). The cadavers were monitored monthly for durations up to 21 months with GPR using 900- and 500-MHz antennae. Two different soil types were used: one composed solely of sand horizons and one composed of sand with clay horizons at approximately 1.00 m. The graves were excavated at the termination of each monitoring period to collect soil samples and score decomposition. Overall, depth was the most significant factor controlling decomposition, followed by time. Body size and soil type were not major factors. Ground-penetrating radar can be a very effective tool for grave detection in Florida. Salient anomalies were produced for the duration of this study due to a strong enough contrast between the skeleton, or decomposing body, and the surrounding soil with that of the undisturbed soil. While cadaver size and time were not major factors in grave detection, soil type and antenna choice were. Although it was possible to detect a decomposing body and a skeleton in both shallow and deep sand graves, it was difficult to image large pig cadavers retaining extensive soft tissue buried in proximity to the clay horizon in as little as six months. The clay masked the contrast of the cadavers by reducing their relative dielectric permittivity. Pig cadaver size was not a major factor in grave detection. The imagery of the 500-MHz antenna was preferred over the higher resolution of the 900-MHz, because the increased detail may result in difficulty

  5. Seasonal fluxes of some ions through the overstory, underbrush, and organic soil horizons of an aspen-birch forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Anthony G.; Watters, Robert J.

    1988-03-01

    A study was made of the water and chemical fluxes in a predominantly deciduous forest at Chalk River, Ontario. The chemistry of water moving to the soil through trembling aspen, large-tooth aspen and paper birch is strongly modified by interaction with all major components in the system: the overstory leaves and trunks, the underbrush stems and leaves, and the organic plus upper mineral soil horizon. The dominant controls on the chemistry of water reaching the forest floor are those exerted by the overstory. Hydrochemical changes through the underbrush are, generally, of the same type as those through the overstory, but of a smaller size. A significant, positive relationship was found between the hydrogen ion flux imposed on the overstory, and the net loss of calcium, magnesium, and potassium from the canopy, showing that acid deposition is having an effect on the export of these nutrients from the canopy.

  6. Mineralization of organic-matter labile fragments in the humus-accumulative horizon of soddy-podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S. Ya.; Lazarev, A. S.; Fokin, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The mineralization rate of the 14C-labeled organic matter (OM) in the humus-accumulative AE horizon of a soddy-podzolic soil was determined in a laboratory experiment. The labeling was performed in a field experiment when microamounts of 14C-labeled glucose, glycine, and uracil were added to tree waste in sacks embedded in the upper layer of the forest litter. Samples containing 14C were taken from the AE horizon (above which the sacks with the labeled material were placed) 7 and 20 months after the beginning of the experiment. The soil samples were wetted to a water content corresponding to ˜80% of the total water capacity and placed in hermetic vessels containing vials with a periodically renewed alkali solution. The incubation was performed at room temperature for 3.5 months; the alkali solutions in the vials were replaced and titrated 12 times during this period. Mineralization curves were plotted from the amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed by a 0.3 N NaOH solution, which were calculated for each time interval; its 14C content was determined by the scintillation method. The experimental treatments also included the determination of the OM mineralization rate in material from the AE horizon pretreated with a heavy liquid or a heavy liquid and a 0.1 N NaOH solution. The differences between the mineralization rates of the labeled organic matter applied to the soil in the form of glucose, glycine, and uracil under the field conditions after the interaction for 7 and 20 months were revealed. The changes in the mineralization rate after the successive extraction of the labile organic matter with a heavy liquid and a 0.1 N NaOH solution were studied. It was shown that the transformation of the labeled low-molecular-weight organic compounds in the soil over 20 months included their strong inclusion into the humus composition, which was confirmed by the similar values of the mineralization constants of the native and 14C-labeled OM. In addition, the treatments with the

  7. Distributions of microorganisms in Afroalpine and subalpine paleosols on Mount Kenya, East Africa: implications for radiocarbon dating of buried paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.

    Microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes have been identified in most buried (Ab) and subsurface horizons of fourteen paleosols examined on Mount Kenya, East Africa. A comprehensive microbiological survey shows that microorganisms observed in buried paleosols could also be observed in ground soils. Microorganism counts obtained by plating on standard Difco media, produced three distinct distributions or trends with depth, in surface and buried paleosols, that provide information concerning biogeochemical contamination and its effect on radiocarbon dates. The most frequently encountered distribution, termed sequential decline, is found in paleosols with decreasing counts vs. depth. This distribution produces internally consistent and accurate radiocarbon dates. Paleosol profiles with disjunct or bimodal microflora distributions, at various depths, often yield internally inconsistent sequences of radiocarbon dated buried substrates. Preliminary results suggest that counts up to 1.5 × 10 3 g -1 soil for fungi and 3.0 × 10 4 g -1 for bacteria in buried A horizons do not appear to affect the validity of radiocarbon dates. Beyond this threshold value, contamination appears to result in erroneous dates, the difference between true age and radiocarbon age widening with increasing numbers of microorganisms.

  8. Use of the color indices of humus soil horizons as indicators of soil evolution in the steppe zone of the Transvolga region under irrigation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoma, G. V.; Rozov, S. Yu.; Sukhanova, N. I.

    2015-05-01

    Changes that occurred in the humus parameters and humus horizon color of soils of an experimental production farm in the Saratov oblast during 50 years of irrigation indicate the development of a northern humid version of soil-forming process. Its rate is determined by the confinement of soils to mesoand microrelief elements. The qualitative differences in the character of humification in soils on watersheds and middle and lower slopes are confirmed by statistically reliable differences in the color parameters of soils in the CIE-L*a*b* color system. The lightness (L*) and the yellowness (b*) are the most informative parameters. The lightness is related to the content of humus and probably to its qualitative composition, and the changes in yellowness result from the masking of yellow-colored mineral iron compounds by the newly formed humus. These color indices are reliable criteria for color assessment and can be used for the detection and estimation of changes in the irrigated soils of the steppe regions.

  9. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  10. Soil morphology of a debris flow chronosequence in a coniferous forest, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.K.; Goforth, B.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Soils on a series of debris flow deposits, ranging from < 1 to 244??years old, were described and sampled in order to investigate the early stages of soil development. The parent material at the site is debris flow regolith, composed mainly of gneiss, the soil moisture regime is xeric, and the vegetation is mixed coniferous forest. Ages of the deposits were assessed using dendrochronology. Morphologic trends in the organic horizons included a thickening of the humus form over time, along with the development of Fm and Hr horizons. The humus forms underwent a progression from Mormodors (20??years old), to Hemimors (26-101??years old), and finally Lignomors (163??years old) and Resimors (184-244??years old). Changes in physical properties of the uppermost mineral horizons as a function of increasing age included a decrease in the volume of coarse fragments, a linear decrease in bulk density, and a darkening and reddening of the soil color. No significant soil development took place in the subsoil during the time span of this chronosequence. The soils described were classified as Typic Xerofluvents and Typic Xerorthents (Regosols and Leptosols). Buried A horizons were observed in many of the soils. Where the A horizons could be linked to dendrochronology to assess the age of the buried surface, we found that the properties of the buried A horizons do not serve as a good indicator of the age of the surface. This study suggests rapid development of the humus form profile (organic horizons and A horizon) following debris flow deposition and rapid degradation of these horizons when the debris flow surface is buried. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two circular features on the plains of northern Utopia. A common sight on the martian northern plains, these rings indicate the locations of buried impact craters.

    Location near: 65.1oN, 261.2oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  12. Boron isotopes in soils: investigation of horizon reactivity and vegetation cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cividini, D.; Lemarchand, D.; Chabaux, F. J.; Turpault, M.; Viville, D.; Stille, P.; Pierret, M.

    2009-12-01

    Investigating the soil/plant coupling requires the development of specific approaches being unambiguously sensitive to mineral- and biology-derived reactions. Boron presents chemical properties that, a priori, well meet the conditions for tracing bio-geochemical reactions. In particular, it is present in moderate to high concentrations in minerals; it is very sensitive to water/rock interactions during which it is partitioned between solid and liquid phases and undergoes a great isotopic fractionation and, finally, it is an essential nutrient for plants. Here, we present an extensive study on B isotopes in two distinct soil/tree systems from the well-characterized Strengbach basin (http://ohge.u-strasbg.fr/indexuk.html). Both bulk soil samples and granulometric fractions were analyzed. Soil solutions (down to 60 cm depth) were monitored every 6 weeks over two years (2005-2006). Tree samples (spruce needles and beech leaves) punctually sampled during this period. A Mass budget based on B concentration and hydrology model clearly first indicates that trees largely control the distribution of B in soil uppermost layers by yearly mobilizing 4 times more B than it is drained by soil solutions below 60 cm depth. B isotopes in soil solution depth profile highlight the presence of a highly reactive layer a 10 cm depth, which is interpreted as resulting from seasonal chemical oscillations caused by the biology and hydrology cycles. Isotopic budget indicates that this layer is not at steady state and accumulates B over years. The increasing contribution with depth of the weathering-derived B flux is clearly observable by a shift of the δ11B values towards low values. At the soil scale, mass and isotopic budgets help distinguishing both the B fluxes related to the mineral weathering reactions and the vegetation cycling and even show a strong correlation between them. Detailed analyses of granulometric fractions permit the determination of the B-carrier phases in these two

  13. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  14. A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

  15. Early season nitrogen limitation of microbial respiration in the organic horizon of tussock tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Steltzer, H.; Sullivan, P.; Melle, C.; Segal, A. D.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    Low nitrogen (N) availability is a key constraint to decomposition of organic matter in arctic ecosystems. In tussock tundra soils, we have previously observed relatively high N availability early in the growing season followed by a crash in N availability later in the season. This crash led us to hypothesize that N is less limiting to microbial respiration early in the season and more limiting later in the season. To test this hypothesis, we incubated tussock tundra soils for one week in mason jars at three temperatures (5,10,15°C) with either ambient N levels or additional N (112.5 ug N g-1 dry soil). We made early season measurements at the beginning of June and late season measurements at the end of July in both 2010 and 2011. Contrary to our hypothesis, the laboratory incubations suggest that soil respiration is N-limited at both times of the season. The size of the limitation varied with temperature, with the most consistent effect of added N observed at 10°C. Reductions in the C:N ratio of the microbial biomass shows that they readily took up the added N in both the early and late season. We also saw that more carbon overall was respired in the warmer treatments in 2011. Rapid reductions in the respiration rate over the course of the one week incubation, particularly in 2011, suggest that labile carbon is also strongly limiting to microbial respiration in these soils. These data suggest that both carbon and nitrogen limitation to decomposition can occur very early in the growing season, even shortly after the onset of soil thaw. The results of this study reinforce the role of nutrient limitation as an important constraint on the loss of large stocks of carbon from the organic-rich upper layers of tussock tundra soils.

  16. Multi-scale study of soil structure from different genetic horizons: from meter to nanometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsanina, Marina; Skvortsova, Elena; Abrosimov, Konstantin; Sizonenko, Timofey; Romanenko, Konstantin; Belokhin, Vasily; Yudina, Anna; Gilyazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is extremely diverse, has numerous relevant scales, e.g., important pore hierarchical levels, such as intra and inter aggregate porosity, cracks and others. None of the existing imaging techniques is capable of catching all scales within one single image due to sample size/resolution limitations. The only way to experimentally obtain soil structural information from all important scales is to utilize multi-scale scanning using different imaging approaches. In this study we use macro X-ray tomography (with resolution of 100 um), micro X-ray tomography (with resolution range of 3-16 um) and SEM with nanoscale resolutions to obtain a vast multi-scale structural data from meter to nanometer. Two one meter long undisturbed soil columns extracted from soddy-podzolic and grey forest soils were used as objects of our multi-scale study. At first macrotomography was used to make the coarsest 3D image of the whole column. Afterwards, the column was carefully sliced to obtain smaller undisturbed samples for microtomography scanning. Some undisturbed soil pieces were also imaged using SEM to obtain sub-micron images of the soil structure. All resulting 2/3D images were segmented using up-to-date image processing and segmentation techniques to obtain solid material and pore space binary phases. Directional correlation functions were utilized to characterize multi-scale soil structures and compare/differentiate them from each other. We extensively show how such powerful structural descriptors as correlation functions can results in better soil structure characterization and classification. Combined with multi-scale image fusion and/or pore-scale modelling techniques 3D multi-scale images can used to assess scale dependant flow and transport properties. This work was partially supported by RFBR grant 15-34-20989 (field studies, X-ray tomography and SEM imaging) and RSF grant 14-17-00658 (directional correlation functions). References: 1. Karsanina, M.V., Gerke, K

  17. Structural vibrations of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei; Donskoy, Dimitri; Ekimov, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    Buried landmines exhibit complex structural vibrations, which are dependent on interaction between soil and mines as well as on their respective properties. This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of multimodal vibrations of buried mines and discusses the effects of burial depth and soil properties on dynamics of the soil-mine system. The two-dimensional model of the soil-mine system that accounts for soil-coupled mine's multiple vibration modes and spatial distribution of vibrations over the soil surface is introduced. The model was tested using experiments with the plastic mine simulant. The study reveals that the soil shear stiffness is one of the key governing parameters determining the resonance vibration frequency and the amplitude of the soil-mine system. Burial depth, soil moisture, and consolidation are among factors leading to the increase of the soil shear stiffness, therefore effectively influencing modal vibrations of buried mines.

  18. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  19. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  20. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow. PMID:11237295

  1. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow.

  2. An outbreak of botulism in a family in Eastern Anatolia associated with eating süzme yoghurt buried under soil.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Buzgan, Turan; Tekin, Murat; Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa K

    2007-01-01

    Cases of botulism in a family in eastern Anatolia were studied. In late September 2005, an outbreak of botulism developed in our region, first in 2 patients, a teenage boy and his mother, in whom the disease culminated in respiratory insufficiency and death. An additional 8 cases of botulism were identified later; most of them presented to our medical centre the next d. These patients with milder symptoms recovered gradually. All the patients received anti-botulinum toxin. The investigation of the source of the outbreak showed an unexpected vehicle for botulism infection in the these patients, süzme (condensed) yoghurt buried under soil. Type A botulinal toxin was detected in the yoghurt sample. The clinical diagnosis was also confirmed by a mouse bioassay performed with the serum samples of the patients. The most common symptoms were dry mouth, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, and change in voice quality. The 10 identified patients with botulism constitutes the largest-ever outbreak of botulism reported in Turkey to date. The present study shows the importance of considering a diagnosis of botulism soon after patients present with acute cranial nerve dysfunction and of promptly treating suspected cases with antitoxin.

  3. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  4. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  5. Soil-landscape development and late Quaternary environmental change in coastal Estremadura, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Michael; Haws, Jonathan; Benedetti, Michael; Bicho, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    This poster integrates soil-landscape analysis with archaeological survey and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Soils in surface and buried contexts in Estremadura, Portugal, provide evidence of landscape stability and instability, relative age relationships between landforms, and general paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Quaternary. These factors provide insight into the distribution and condition of Paleolithic archaeological sites and help understand the record of human settlement in the region. Late Pleistocene and Holocene dunes extend inland approximately 10 km from coastal source regions. Surface soils in Holocene dunes under maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest exhibit A, E, C/Bh and A, C horizon sequences and classify as Quartzipsamments. Surface soils in late Pleistocene dunes exhibit A, E, Bh, Bhs, Bs horizon sequences and classify as Haplorthods. Both Pleistocene and Holocene dunes commonly bury a heavily weathered soil formed in calcareous sandstone. The boundary between underlying buried soils and overlying surface soils is characterized by a lag deposit of medium to coarse, moderately-rounded gravels, underlain immediately by subsurface Bt and Bss horizons. The lag deposit and absence of buried A horizons both indicate intense and/or prolonged surface erosion prior to burial by late Quaternary dunes. Soil-geomorphic relationships therefore suggest at least two distinct episodes of dune emplacement and subsequent landscape stability following an extensive episode late Pleistocene landscape instability and soil erosion. A conceptual model of soil-landscape evolution through the late Quaternary and Holocene results from the integration of soil profile data, proxy paleoenvironmental data, and the partial record of human settled as revealed in the archaeological record.

  6. Frost heave induced mechanics of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Shinde, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the problem of the flexural interaction between a long-distance buried pipeline embedded in a soil medium that experiences differential frost heave. The modeling takes into consideration the interaction at a transition zone between a frozen region and a frost-susceptible region that experiences a time-dependent growth of a frost bulb around the buried pipeline. The heave that accompanies the development of a frost bulb induces the soil-pipeline interaction process. The analysis focuses on the development of a computational scheme that addresses the three-dimensional nature of the soil-pipeline interaction problem, the creep susceptibility of the frozen region, and a prescribed time- and stress-dependent heave in an evolving frost bulb zone. The numerical results presented in the paper illustrate the influence of the heave process and the creep behavior of the frozen soil on the displacements and stresses in the buried pipeline.

  7. The contribution of micrometeorites to the iron stocks of buried podzols, developed in Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits (Brabant, The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; de Vet, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    The surface geology of an extensive part of NW-Europe is dominated by coversands (Late-glacial chemical poor aeolian sand deposits). The geomorphology of coversand landscapes is dominated by ridges and planes. Podzolation is the dominant soil forming process in coversands under moderate humid climatic conditions. Umbric Podzols developed on the ridges under Quercetum-mixtum, Gleyic and Histic Podzols developed in the planes under Alnetum. Even in chemical poor coversands, iron will be released by hydrolysis from iron containing silicate minerals (such as feldspars). It is well known that the vertical iron distribution in Podzols is effected by translocation of active iron from eluvial to illuvial horizons and that iron is leaching to the aquifer. Iron stocks of Podzols, in contrasts, have not been widely studied for comparison purposes of individual soil horizons or between soils. We determined the stocks of active and immobile iron in the horizons of buried xeromorphic Podzols (soils that developed without any contact with groundwater). The results show that the total amount of iron exceeds the potential amount which can be released by hydrolysis from the parent material. Furthermore, to amount of iron that leached to the groundwater is unknown. It is evident that we must find an additional source to explain the total iron stocks in buried Podzols. It is known from analysis of ice cores that the earth atmosphere is subjected to a continuous influx of (iron rich) micrometeorites. The precipitation of micrometeorites (and other aerosols) on the earth surface is concentrated in humid climatic zones with (intensive) rain fall. We analyzed minerals, extracted from the ectorganic horizon of the Initial Podzols, developed in driftsand that stabilized around 1900 AD, overlying Palaeopodzols, buried around 1200 AD. Among blown in quartz grains, we could determine also micrometeorites, embedded in the organic skeleton of the fermentation horizon of the Initial Podzol

  8. Buried late holocene paleosols of the nienshants cultural-historical monument in St. Petersburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakov, A. V.; Nikonov, A. A.; Savelieva, L. A.; Pinakhina, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Buried Late Holocene paleosols of the Nienshants historical monument at the junction of the Neva and Okhta rivers (St. Petersburg) have been studied. These soils developed from estuary deposits of the Littorina basin with abundant artifacts of the Neolithic and Early Iron ages (7-2 ka BP). The soil cover of the area consists of the mature dark-humus profile-gleyed soils on elevated elements of the mesotopography (3.0-3.5 a.s.l.) and dark-humus gley soils in the local depressions (2.0-2.6 m a.s.l.). The soils are characterized by the low to moderate content of humus of the fulvate-humate type. The beginning of humus formation in the dark-humus gley soil on the slope facing the Neva River is estimated at about 2600 yrs ago; for the darkhumus profile-gleyed soils of the studied paleocatena, at about 2000 and 1780 yrs ago; and for the darkhumus gley soil, at about 1440 years ago. Judging from the spore-pollen spectra, the development of these soils took place in the Subatlantic period under birch and pine-birch forests with the admixture of spruce and alder trees. The gleyed horizons of the buried soil at the depth of 1.6-1.2 m on the Neva-facing slope date back to the Late Subboreal period (2500-2600 yrs ago), when pine-birch-spruce forests were widespread in the area. The new data contribute to our knowledge of the environmental conditions during the Neolithic and Iron ages.

  9. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability. PMID:27016685

  10. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Microfabrics of Surface Horizons and Desert Varnish in Extremely Arid Soils of the Mojave (USA) and Trans-Altai Gobi (Mongolia) Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, M. P.; Shishkov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of coarse fraction and characteristic features of the micro- and submicrofabrics and chemical composition of desert varnish on gravels of desert pavements and the underlying vesicular crust soil horizons were studied in the extremely arid soils of the Mojave (USA) and Trans-Altai Gobi (Mongolia) deserts. A set of common diagnostic features of elementary pedogenetic processes was identified in the automorphic desert soils developed on ancient (70-90 ka) piedmont plains composed of alluvial deposits with the high content of red-earth clay. The results of this study attest to the long and complicated history of the extremely arid soils with alternation of the humid and arid phases of pedogenesis reflected in a specific combination of textural (clay-illuvial) and carbonate pedofeatures and in the distribution patterns of iron, manganese, titanium, and barium in different layers of the desert varnish. The chemical composition of the latter did not depend on the mineralogical composition of the underlying substrates and was formed with active participation of soil microorganisms. This allowed us to conclude about the polygenetic (accretionary-microbiological) nature of desert varnish.

  12. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  13. Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial design of whole experiment consisted of six vegetable crops (tomato, egg plant, spinach, amaranthus, carrot and radish) x two treatments (organic farming in open field and organic farming in glasshouse (OFG)) x seven independent harvest of each crop. The results indicated that except for Pb, atmospheric deposition of heavy metals increased consistently on time scale. Concentrations of heavy metals in cultivated soil horizon and in edible parts of open field grown vegetables increased over time and were significantly higher than those recorded in OFG plots. Increased contents of heavy metals in open field altered soil porosity, bulk density, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activities. Vegetable concentrations of heavy metal appeared in the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd and were maximum in leaves (spinach and amaranths) followed by fruits (tomato and egg plant) and minimum in roots (carrot and radish). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the major contribution of most heavy metals to vegetable leaves was from atmosphere. For roots however, soil appeared to be equally important. The study suggests that if the present trend of atmospheric deposition is continued, it will lead to a destabilizing effect on this sustainable agricultural practice and will increase the dietary intake of toxic metals.

  14. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (Σ9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest Σ23PAH and Σ9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, Σ23PAH and Σ9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584 ng g(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37 ± 8 ng g(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of Σ9OPAHs ranged from 6 ± 6 ng g(-1) to 39 ± 25 ng g(-1) in organic layers, and from 3 ± 1 ng g(-1) to 11 ± 3 ng g(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to Σ23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  15. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor

  16. Selected kinetic parameters of soil microbial respiration in the A horizon of differently managed mountain forests and meadows of Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranová, V.; Formánek, P.; Rejšek, K.; Kisza, L.

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of intensity of thinning (FD-dense stand = 2044 trees/ha; FS-open stand = 1652 trees/ha) performed in young forest stands (99% spruce, 1% fir) in Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts. (908 m a.s.l.; 49°30'10″ N, 18°32'20″ E) on V DS (C mineralization rate immediately after drying and re-wetting of soil), V BR (basal soil respiration at 60% w/w soil water content measured 5th day after rewetting of dry soil), V MAX (maximum respiration rate after glucose addition measured from 6th day after rewetting of dry soil), V DS/ V MAX (heterotrophic respiratory potential) and ACDS/ACBR (the potential flush of biologically available C) in Ae horizon of Haplic and Entic Podzols. The ACDS/ACBR was calculated from three 24-hour respirations of 7-day incubation according to the equation ACDS/ACBR= V DS V MAX/(2 V BR( V MAX- V DS)). The aim of the work was also to find the effect of circa 11-year abandonment of a mountain meadow in the locality (825-860 m a.s.l.; 49°30'17″ N, 18°32'28″ E) on the same parameters in Ah horizon of Gleyic Luvisol. The studied parameters were measured in the course of the vegetation season 2004 (May-September) at 30-day intervals. The higher intensity of thinning caused alternately higher or lower or very similar values of V DS, V BR, V MAX, V DS/ V MAX and ACDS/ACBR in the course of the season. The abandonment of the meadow increased V DS, V BR, V MAX throughout the whole experiment. V DS/ V MAX increased due to the abandonment except for the last sampling in September. Alternately higher or lower or very similar values of ACDS/ACBR in course of the season appeared on abandoned or moderately mown meadows. The lower intensity of thinning or abandonment of the meadow were connected with increasing number of significant ( P < 0.05) correlations between the studied properties.

  17. Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

    2007-04-01

    To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

  18. A model for dynamic analysis of buried and partially buried piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.J.; Harvey, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Compressor station yard piping may be subject to low frequency excitation forces due to acoustical resonance with flow generated sources. Compression facility yard piping in the gas transmission system of NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL) consists of a combination of above ground and buried piping with nominal sizes ranging from 8 to 48 inches. Vibration control is implemented at the design state by attenuation of pulsation sources, acoustic detuning through adjustment of piping the configuration, and stiffness modification through piping supports. Dynamic analysis is often required to determine the need for vibration control and the best design option. This paper reviews the dynamic analysis model employed at NGTL at the present time and presents a proposed model for dynamic analysis of buried and partially buried piping systems. The model is based on beam and soil spring models. Emphasis is on determination of dynamic soil properties and soil spring constants. The effects of dynamic soil behavior are demonstrated by a simple example.

  19. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.

  20. Are We Under-Estimating Mercury in Soils? Experimental Acidification and Sample Collection Timing Demonstrate Variability in Estimates of Mercury in O-Horizon Soils at a Maine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sampling protocols, including sample timing, collection methods, preservation, and preparation, can strongly influence the results of any analysis. Organic soil horizons are a large pool of mercury (Hg) in most temperate, forested sites; minimizing the potential for under- or over- estimates in this medium is critical for discerning the fate and transport of Hg. Detailed guidance is available for ultra-clean and semi-clean handling for Hg sampling in surface waters. However, neither guidance regarding the proper time of year to sample soils nor methodological studies regarding post-sampling preservation and handling were available in the scientific literature for soil Hg sampling. Here we report on pilot work that (1) provides data for Hg in soils (O-horizon) through an entire year, to determine whether seasonality affects Hg estimates; and (2) documents the effect of treating a soil with acidic water prior to preparation and analysis. We collected O-horizon soil samples monthly from a single plot during 2008, and analyzed them for total Hg. Each month, samples were split; half were ‘control’ samples (dried then analyzed) and half were ‘acidified’ (treated with acidic (pH 2.0) ultrapure water prior to drying and analysis). We observed: (1) a three-fold range of Hg values (148-446 ppb) for the control samples (all collected within the same 2-m2 plot), varying across the twelve months in 2008 during which samples were collected; (2) differences of ~15-20% between acidified and control samples; and, (3) an apparent loss of ~100 ppb of Hg (~22%) if acidification of the dry sample was delayed a day or more. Soils collected when the antecedent period had been wet lost Hg when soils were treated with pH 2.0 solution, potentially because soluble Hg in solution could have been leached during acid treatment. This finding may help to explain why researchers have seen large pulses of Hg in streamwater flux during snowmelt. Further, our results may help to inform

  1. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (δ 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (δ 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ŧ = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using Δ 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil δ 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and

  2. Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund

    2004-08-15

    The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared. PMID:15262169

  3. Changes in Fungal Community Composition in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization Varies with Soil Horizon.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; Vilgalys, Rytas; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2013-01-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and rates of nitrogen (N)-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0-2 cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0-2 and 2-5 cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0-2 cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e., phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH) was also observed. In the 0-2 cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae, and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes.

  4. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Pleistocene and early Holocene. The thick, dark, cumulic A horizons of soils, representing buried Paleoindian-age landscapes, are targets for future archaeological surveys. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal change in molecular weight distribution of hot-water extractable organic nitrogen from cattle manure compost buried in soil using high-performance size exclusion chromatography with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, M.; Mutsunaga, T.

    2012-04-01

    The application of compost can improve the fertility of the agricultural soils. The compost organic nitrogen is absorbed by plants after degradation and mineralization. To investigate the degradation process of compost organic nitrogen in soil, we conducted soil burial test of compost and observed the molecular weight distribution of hot-water extractable organic nitrogen from the compost. The cattle manure compost (1g) was mixed with soil (25g), put into glass fiber-filter paper bag and buried in 15 cm under surface of the ground for 6 months. The soils used were Andosol, Gray Lowland soil, and Yellow soil without organic matter application for 25 years in Tsukuba, Japan. Organic matter was extracted from the buried sample with 80° C of water for 16 hours. The molecular weight distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matter (HWEOM) was measured by high-performance size exclusion chromatography and chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (HPSEC/CLND). In this system, N-containing compound eluted from a SEC column was introduced into a furnace at 1050° C, and N in the compound was oxidized to nitric oxide and then detected using a chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. The N chromatogram showed that N in the HWEOM from the soil with compost had various molecular weights ranging from 0.1 to 100 kDa. A void peak (>100 kDa), a broad peak around 30 kDa, and several sharp peaks less than 30 kDa were observed in the chromatogram. The broad peak (~ 30kDa) was likely to be derived from the compost, because it was not observed in the chromatogram of HWEOM from soil alone. The N intensities of all peaks decreased with burial time, especially, the broad peak (~30 kDa) intensity rapidly decreased by 10 - 50 % in only first 2 months. The decreasing rates of the broad peak were higher than that of the sharp peaks, indicating that the organic nitrogen with a larger molecular weight decomposed faster. The broad peak (~ 30 kDa) had visible (420nm) absorption and less fulvic

  6. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  7. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography Visualizations of Large Soil Columns to Study Hydropedologic Relationships at the Horizon Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prominent contribution of macropores to water flow and solute transport points to the need for thorough characterization of their void structure. Large soil columns need to be studied to infer topological properties of macropores. We have sampled and studied undisturbed columns (7.5 cm ID, 20 cm...

  8. Resonance vibrations of buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei N.; Donskoy, Dimitri M.; Ekimov, Alexander E.

    2004-09-01

    Resonance behavior of many types of landmines was first experimentally discovered in 2000 (Donskoy et al. in Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4394, pp. 575-582, 2001). Laboratory studies and field tests have shown that mine"s resonance response is a complex phenomenon dependent upon interaction between soil and mines and their respective properties. Although the resonance effect was successfully used by various research teams for detection of landmines, there were no thorough studies on various factors influencing buried mine's resonance response. This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental investigation of this problem including multi-modal structure of mine's vibration response, effect of burial depth and soil condition. In the modeling efforts we considered multiple modes of vibration of mine casing and represented them as oscillators with effective parameters. This approach allowed for simplification of analysis and expanding existing lump-element model to account for multiple vibration modes. The experimental tests were focused on studying the effects of burial depth and soil moisture content on resonance behavior of soil-mine system. The tests have shown that a resonance frequency initially decreases with burial depth, as expected. However, an anomalous resonance frequency increase was observed at greater depths; soil moisture even further increases the resonance frequency.

  9. Magnetic Pattern of Luvisol Sequences From Mexico and Russia: An Alternative Analysis of Soil Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas Ortiz, J. F.; Ortega Guerrero, B.; Solleiro Rebolledo, E.; Sedov, S.

    2007-05-01

    Recently, soil has been consolidated like a worthy and complementary source of information to environmental and paleo-climatic reconstruction research. The study of magnetic mineralogy present in soil horizons play an important role to understand a lot of complex process which to allow obtain information about environment condition present during genesis and evolution of soil. The main aim of this study is to compare soils with different parent material, as well as to obtain a magnetic sign from soils profile which could be used to determinate the responsible of pedogenic process of their magnetic behavior of each horizon, and their possible relationship with environmental condition. Study carried out of two complete profiles of buried interglacial Luvisols, one formed in loess in Russia (Alexandrovsky quarry, AQ) and the other in volcaniclastics in Mexico (Barranca Tlalpan, BT). In the AQ, the magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the paleosol compared to parent material. In the BT sequence, susceptibility enhancement is absent in the soil profile. Increase of fine-grained magnetic components in the soil is attributed to neoformed minerals. However, this process cannot compensate for the loss of lithogenic magnetic minerals in any of the genetic horizons, and the resulting trend is susceptibility depletion in the whole soil profile. The pedogenic environment of eluvial horizons in both Luvisols is destructive to all magnetic components, both primary and secondary. Higher concentrations of antiferromagnetic components (hematite and goethite) found in E horizons are related to redoximorphic processes.

  10. Buried Craters of Utopia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003

    Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. Soils and cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgikh, A. V.; Aleksandrovskii, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Urban pedosediments (cultural layers) dating back to the 10th-11th centuries AD and soddypodzolic soils buried under them were studied in two archaeological excavations in Velikii Novgorod. Stages of their development were described. It was found that the buried soddy-podzolic soils at the latest stages of their development were cultivated or were formed under meadow vegetation. Weakly developed garden soils were described in the thickness of urban pedosediments. The lowermost organic cultural layers in Velikii Novgorod were waterlogged and represented peatlike mass with well-preserved wood remains. The oxidation of organic matter, gleyzation, and vivianite formation were described in them. The upper mineral layers were enriched in brick debris and building lime. The processes of organic matter mineralization, alkalization, calcification, zoogenic turbation, and biogenic structuring were clearly manifested in this part. Soil solutions infiltrated from the cultural layers caused some alkalization of the buried soddy-podzolic soil. Diagenetic carbonates and vivianite appeared in some loci within the eluvial and the upper part of the illuvial horizon of this soil. The entire cultural layer was subjected to contamination with heavy metals.

  12. Penoplasty for buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chuang, J H

    1995-09-01

    Buried penis is a congenitally abnormal arrangement of the foreskin relative to the penile shaft, which results in a pseudomicropenis in an otherwise healthy, nonobese child. The author proposes a penoplasty technique appropriate for correction of this disorder, based on experience with 21 patients.

  13. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  14. The history of soil erosion: Interpreting historical sources, buried soils and colluvial sediments as archives of past soil erosion and human-environment interactions in the Longue Durée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion threatens the environment and the sustainability of agricultural practices since the earliest societies started modifying their natural environment in the Neolithic. Almost all farming-based cultures in the world, from large civilizations to peasant groups on little islands, have suffered from soil erosion by water. The amounts of soil erosion varied largely through time and space, and extreme events have left a wide variety of imprints on the landscape over millennia. Eroded hillslopes and gullies, deposited sediments in sinks like lakes, footslopes, valleys, floodplains, and river deltas are geomorphic legacies that have been linked to changes in land use and climate by many studies during the last decades. However, a standardized analysis and interpretation of these geomorphic legacies is problematic because of the variety of methodological approaches and the nonlinearity between soil erosion, climate, and land use. Cascading effects, land use structures, soil management, soil conservation strategies, and long-term system changes have produced different signals over time. Historical records are crucial and an invaluable source to provide alternative proxies about soil erosion in the past. Direct observations of individual soil erosion events may restrict the deposition of a distinct sediment package to a certain time span. They also expand the range of alternative interpretations, particularly with respect to the long-term effects of soil erosion to ecosystem services and socioeconomic processes. However, historical records also need critical analyses regarding their origin, intention, and quality. They were often created in the context of personal interests or political issues rather than being based on scientific facts; and it is often unclear if they represent certain events, narratives, or vague assumptions. This presentation will present and discuss examples of geomorphic evidences and historical records of past soil erosion for the deciphering

  15. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  16. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  17. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  18. Beyond the horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, Martin B; Mahato, Manavendra

    2006-05-15

    Cosmic horizons arise in general relativity in the context of black holes and in certain cosmologies. Classically, regions beyond a horizon are inaccessible to causal observers. However, quantum mechanical correlations may exist across horizons that may influence local observations. For the case of de Sitter space, we show how a single particle excitation behind the horizon changes the density matrix governing local observables. As compared to the vacuum state, we calculate the change in the average energy and entropy per unit volume. This illustrates what may be a generic property allowing some features of spacetime beyond a horizon to be inferred.

  19. Estimation on soil erosion dynamics using stable isotope ratios of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakab, Gergely; Zacháry, Dóra; Szalai, Zoltán; Ringer, Marianna; Szabó, Judit

    2016-04-01

    Stable isotopes are a powerful and widely used tool for tracing biogeochemical processes across the ecosystem. Measuring the stable carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of CO2 and H2O compounds and organic matter is useful for examining the soil, plant and atmospheric carbon and water pools as they isotopic composition is altered during vegetation-soil-atmosphere exchange processes (e.g., evapotranspiration, carbon assimilation and respiration). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can serve as a tracer for C and N input by plants into the soil, C turnover and soil organic matter studies. In addition, coupling of isotopic tracers with molecular biology approaches and biomarkers can lead to a better understanding of the soil ecosystem processes. This study aims to estimate soil erosion deposition and redistribution processes at catena scale on the basis of stable isotope results. Soil samples were taken from the total depth of the solum along two catenas on an intensively tilled arable Cambisol. Highest δC13 values were found on the most eroded spots, while on the deposition areas significant differences were measured among the sedimented layers. The lowest δC13 value was in the buried horizon at around 120 cm depth. From this horizon δC13 values slightly increased in both upward and downward directions. However the total organic carbon concentration was highly fluctuated in the deposited profiles and have not reached its maximum in this horizon isotope results suggest that this horizon could have been the original soil surface prior to the main erosion events. In this way the use of stable isotope changes in space can provide additional information on soil redistribution due to tillage erosion. National Hungarian Research Found K100180, G. Jakab was supported by the János Bolyai fellowship of the HAS.

  20. Chemodestructive fractionation of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. I.; Rusakov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The method of chemodestructive fractionation is suggested to assess the composition of soil organic matter. This method is based on determination of the resilience of soil organic matter components and/or different parts of organic compounds to the impact of oxidizing agents. For this purpose, a series of solutions with similar concentration of the oxidant (K2Cr2O7), but with linearly increasing oxidative capacity was prepared. Chemodestructive fractionation showed that the portion of easily oxidizable (labile) organic matter in humus horizons of different soil types depends on the conditions of soil formation. It was maximal in hydromorphic soils of the taiga zone and minimal in automorphic soils of the dry steppe zone. The portion of easily oxidizable organic matter in arable soils increased with an increase in the rate of organic fertilizers application. The long-lasting agricultural use of soils and burying of the humus horizons within the upper one-meter layer resulted in the decreasing content of easily oxidizable organic matter. It was found that the portion of easily oxidizable organic matter decreases by the mid-summer or fall in comparison with the spring or early summer period.

  1. Influences of quaternary climatic changes on processes of soil development on desert loess deposits of the Cima volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFadden, L.D.; Wells, S.G.; Dohrenwend, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Soils formed in loess are evidence of both relict and buried landscapes developed on Pliocene-to-latest Pleistocene basalt flows of the Cima volcanic field in the eastern Mojave Desert, California. The characteristics of these soils change systematically and as functions of the age and surface morphology of the lava flow. Four distinct phases of soil development are recognized: phase 1 - weakly developed soils on flows less than 0.18 M.y. old; phase 2 - strongly developed soils with thick argillic horizons on 0.18 - 0.7 M.y. old flows; phase 3 - strongly developed soils with truncated argillic horizons massively impregnated by carbonate on 0.7 to 1.1 M.y. old flows; and phase 4 - degraded soils with petrocalcic rubble on Pliocene flows. A critical aspect of the development of stage 1 soils is the evolution of a vesicular A horizon which profoundly affects the infiltration characteristics of the loess parent materials. Laboratory studies show that secondary gypsum and possibly other salt accumulation probably occurred during the period of phase 1 soil development. Slight reddening of the interiors of peds from vesicular-A horizons of phase 1 soils and presence of weakly developed B horizons indicates a slight degree of in situ chemical alteration. However, clay and Fe oxide contents of these soils show that these constituents, as well as carbonates and soluble salts, are incorporated as eolian dust. In contrast to phase 1 soils, chemical and mineralogical analysis of argillic horizons of phase 2 soils indicate proportionally greater degrees of in-situ chemical alteration. These data, the abundant clay films, and the strong reddening in the thick argillic horizons suggest that phase 2 and phase 3 soils formed during long periods of time and periodically were subjected to leaching regimes more intense than those that now exist. Flow-age data and soil-stratigraphic evidence also indicate that several major loess-deposition events occurred during the past ??? 1.0 M

  2. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata

    PubMed Central

    Han, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  3. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Han, C J

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  4. Aeolian sands and buried soils in the Mecklenburg Lake District, NE Germany: Holocene land-use history and pedo-geomorphic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Kaiser, Knut; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The present study is a pedo-geomorphic approach to reconstructing Holocene aeolian sand dynamics in the Mecklenburg Lake District (NE Germany). Stratigraphical, sedimentological and soil research supplemented by morphogenetic interpretations of the genesis of dunes and aeolian sands are discussed. A complex Late Holocene aeolian stratigraphy within a drift sand area was developed at the shore of Lake Müritz. The results were confirmed using palynological records, archaeological data and regional history. Accelerated aeolian activity was triggered by the intensification of settlement and land-use activities during the 13th and in the 15th to 16th century AD. After a period of stability beginning with population decline during the ‘Thirty Years War' and continuing through the 18th century, a final aeolian phase due to the establishment of glassworks was identified during the 19th century AD. We assume a direct link between Holocene aeolian dynamics and human activities. Prehistoric Holocene drift sands on terrestrial sites have not been documented in the Mecklenburg Lake District so far. This might be explained either by erosion and incorporation of older aeolian sediments during younger aeolian phases and/or a lower regional land-use intensity in older periods of the Holocene. The investigated drift sands are stratigraphically and sedimentologically characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, reflecting the spatial and temporal variability of Holocene human impact.

  5. Soil profile dynamics in an eroding soil landscape - a catena through a kettle hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Kaczorek, Danuta; Hierold, Wilfried; Deumlich, Detlef; Koszinski, Sylvia; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscapes are characterized by a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils at hilltops and slopes, and by colluviated soils in topographic depressions. After removal of forest in the middle ages, colluvium started covering the pre-existing Histosols and Gleysols within and Luvisols in the vicinity of kettle holes. A catena through originally peat-filled kettle-hole has hardly been described with respect to ongoing pedological modifications according to changes in landscape and hydrology. The objective was to derive the lateral continuum of soil horizons by identifying the location of the lateral boundaries between regions of clay mobilization/migration and gleisation (gleyic conditions), peat accumulation, and secondary carbonate accumulation. Data from an intensively-sampled field in northeastern Germany are presented. The start of colluviation could be dated by tree ring analyses of a buried stem. The location of the fossil topsoil A and peat horizons was determined from a dense grid of auger holes and geophysical explorations. In addition to older processes in the landscape, also younger redoximorphic processes were indicating changes in soil hydraulic properties and a modified hydrology of the arable soil landscape. We found in micromorphological analyses of soil thin sections that clay migration is an ongoing process; samples indicated vertical gradients in C-contents and secondary carbonate accumulation. The clay mobilization in the colluvium and the migration into the fossil horizons seemed to depend on the direction of soil water movement; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity indicated a potential for lateral water movement. The catena data suggest that the soil landscape development was relatively dynamic; the results may allow the reconstruction of former land surfaces, soil distributions, and erosion rates and may help predicting future developments.

  6. The 2010 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  7. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  8. Semiclassical ultraextremal horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Matyjasek, Jerzy; Zaslavskii, O.B.

    2005-04-15

    We examine backreaction of quantum massive fields on multiply-degenerate (ultraextremal) horizons. It is shown that, under influence of the quantum backreaction, the horizon of such a kind moves to a new position near which the metric does not change its asymptotics, so the ultraextremal black holes and cosmological spacetimes do exist as self-consistent solutions of the semiclassical field equations.

  9. Validation of TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS Techniques Combined with Sorption and Desorption Experiments to Check Competitive and Individual Pb2+ and Cd2+ Association with Components of B Soil Horizons.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Beatriz; Arenas-Lago, Daniel; Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter's higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and/or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  10. Validation of TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS Techniques Combined with Sorption and Desorption Experiments to Check Competitive and Individual Pb2+ and Cd2+ Association with Components of B Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A.

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter’s higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and / or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25893518

  11. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  12. Deriving the extent of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany during the Neolithic period from sediments buried in Neolithic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Tinapp, Christian; Lauer, Tobias; Stäuble, Harald; Glaser, Bruno; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Material found in Neolithic pits, ditches or postholes was often buried quite fast, and since that time it was largely cut off from input of younger sediments and from subsequent transformation processes. Thus, this kind of material can be used as a discontinuous sedimentary archive that can give valuable information about the former palaeoenvironment such as the Neolithic soil type distribution. The largest region of Germany that is recently covered by black-coloured Chernozems and Phaeozems is located in the rain-shadow of the Harz Mountains in Central Germany. However, similar to other regions of Germany the former occurrence of Chernozems and Phaeozems in areas of Central Germany that are covered by other soil types today is suggested by black-coloured colluvia and by black fillings of Neolithic pits, ditches and postholes, as well as by dark-coloured clay coatings in the Bt-horizons of Luvisols (Luvic Phaeozems). Whereas for some German regions as the Lower Rhine Basin or Central Bavaria it could be demonstrated that buried black material does not originate from former Chernozems or Phaeozems but is of anthropogenic origin, similar investigations were not carried out in Central Germany yet. Thus, in this study we investigated whether Chermozems and Phaeozems had a larger distribution in Central Germany during the Neolithic period. This is achieved by comparatively analyzing sedimentologic and micromorphological properties of black-coloured material taken from Neolithic structures in the recent Luvisol area with Neolithic and Medieval material derived from the recent Chernozem/Phaeozem-region. Furthermore, carbonate contents from individual sites are compared with each other. Doing so it could be shown that the Neolithic distribution of Chernozems and Chernozems in Central Germany was not significantly larger than today. Instead, most black material buried in Neolithic structures obviously has an anthropogenic origin or is derived from former Ah-horizons of

  13. Method and apparatus for constructing buried pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heuer, C.E.; Hsu, H.; Jahns, H.O.

    1982-11-09

    A method and apparatus for mitigating or eliminating the frost heave of refrigerated pipelines buried in frost-susceptible soil are provided. A blanket of heat absorbent material is placed over the pipeline on the surface of the soil to increase the flow of heat into the region surrounding the pipeline. This technique may be used in combination with other frost heave mitigation techniques, such as insulating the pipeline and supporting the pipeline with a heave resistant bedding material.

  14. Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.F.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

  15. Parity horizons in shape dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczeg, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only do event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed timelike curves.

  16. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul; Nimmo, Francis

    2016-06-01

    The New Horizons mission has revealed Pluto and its moon Charon to be geologically active worlds. The familiar, yet exotic, landforms suggest that geologic processes operate similarly across the Solar System, even in its cold outer reaches.

  17. Acoustic Detection of Buried Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivansson, S.; Jacobsen, N.; Levonen, M.; Nilsson, B.; Moren, P.

    2001-12-01

    The capability to detect objects buried in the sea bottom is important for many reasons. For example bottom mines as well as dumped chemical munitions can be expected to have been buried by the sedimentation. Standard sub-bottom profilers that are routinely used for mapping sediment structures do not have good enough resolutions to detect small buried objects. Parametric sonar, with a much smaller lobe, is much more appropriate. In the report, we show results from measurements with a parametric sonar, mounted on a ROV (remotely operated vehicle). The measurements were made in the archipelago of Stockholm with a test object buried in clay. Two techniques were used to improve the detection capability, image processing and FARIM analysis. Concerning image processing, median filtering turns out to provide the best results. Isolated noisy pings are effectively suppressed in this way. FARIM analysis can be used to estimate roughness and impedance of the bottom. Our experiments show that a buried object can often be detected by an anomaly in the impedance estimate. Among three tested center frequencies for the emitted pulse, 5, 10 and 20 kHz, the highest frequency (20 kHz) turns out to provide the best detection capability. This is true for the image processing results as well as for the FARIM results. We have tried bistatic techniques to characterize a detected buried object. Sound pulses are emitted towards the object from one direction and the scattered energy is studied at another direction. We show computational results from a recently developed numerical model. The scattered field turns out to be very sensitive to the properties of the object.

  18. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  19. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  20. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, May Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  1. Mt. Blanco revisited: soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.

    1988-06-01

    Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (120,000 km/sup 2/) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons greater than or equal to 1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Blackwater Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggested that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

  2. Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) μg C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

  3. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  4. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  5. Firewall or smooth horizon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully pointed out that for a sufficiently old black hole (BH), the set of assumptions known as the complementarity postulates appears to be inconsistent with the assumption of local regularity at the horizon. They concluded that the horizon of an old BH is likely to be the locus of local irregularity, a "firewall". Here I point out that if one adopts a different assumption, namely that semiclassical physics holds throughout its anticipated domain of validity, then the inconsistency is avoided, and the horizon retains its regularity. In this alternative view-point, the vast portion of the original BH information remains trapped inside the BH throughout the semiclassical domain of evaporation, and possibly leaks out later on. This appears to be an inevitable outcome of semiclassical gravity (if assumed to apply throughout its anticipated domain of validity).

  6. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  7. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  8. New Horizons in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Geoffrey Gordon

    1991-02-01

    This thesis collects five papers which treat the theory of horizon thermodynamics and its applications to cosmology. In the first paper I consider general, spherically symmetric spacetimes with cosmological and black hole horizons. I find that a state of thermal equilibrium may exist in classical manifolds with two horizons so long as a matter distribution is present. I calculate the Euclidean action for non-classical manifolds with and without boundary and relate it to the grand canonical weighting factor. I find that the mean thermal energy of the cosmological horizon is negative. In the second paper I derive the first law of thermodynamics for bounded, static, spherically symmetric spacetimes which include a matter distribution and either a black hole or cosmological horizon. I calculate heat capacities associated with matter/horizon systems and find that they may be positive or negative depending on the matter configuration. I discuss the case in which the cosmological constant is allowed to vary and conclude that the Hawking/Coleman mechanisms for explaining the low value of the cosmological constant are not well formulated. In the third paper, co-authored by Jorma Louko, we analyze variational principles for non-smooth metrics. These principles give insight to the problem of constructing minisuperspace path integrals in horizon statistical mechanics and quantum cosmology. We demonstrate that smoothness conditions can be derived from the variational principle as equations of motion. We suggest a new prescription for minisuperspace path integrals on the manifold | D times S^2. In the fourth paper, I examine the contribution of the horizon energy density to black hole temperature. I show the existence of positive heat capacity solutions in the small mass regime. In the fifth paper, co-authored by Diego Pavon we investigate the role of primordial black holes in the very early universe under SU(3) times SU(2) times U (1), SU(5), and their supersymmetric

  9. Horizonal and Vertical Spatial Patterns of Radon and Other Soil-gases Across the El Pilar Fault Trace at Guaraphiche, Edo. Surce (Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    Soil-gases (radon, thoron, carbon dioxide and hydrogen) were measured at 63-cm depths along a transect perpendicular to the rupture (fault trace) from the 1997 Caricao earthquake (Mw=6.9) at Guarapiche, state of Sucre (Venezuela). The transect was about 40 meters long with ten sampling points with the spacings was smaller near the rupture. The shapes of the horizontal spatial patterns for radon (Rn-222), thoron (Rn-220) and total radon (Rn-222+Rn-220) were similar; the gas concentrations increased from both ends of the transect toward the rupture where a dip (valley) occurred. Both carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases showed anomalous values at the same sampling points. Twin peaks (anomalies) had been previously reported and suggested that they were due to blockage in the rupture. We have also determined soil-gases from 25-cm to 155-cm depths near the rupture and at the ends of the transect. The results showed that the soil-gas concentrations were not only higher in the upper levels (less than 65-cm) near the fault trace but were similar or greater than the lower levels. Thus, producing the twin peaks when soil-gas sampling was performed at the 65-cm depth. When the sampling was performed at only 45-cm depth the dip over the rupture was much less and the patterns looked more like a broad doublet peak. In conclusion, one can clearly see that not only positive soil-gas anomalies can occur over a fault trace but also negative ones too. 1) This work was partially funded by a research contract from the Venezuelan National Science Foundation (CONICIT Proyecto S1-95000448). 2) Mailing Address: Centro de Quimica, 8424 NW 56th Street, Suite 00204,Miami, Fl 33166 (USA). E-mail jjlabrec@ivic.ve FAX: +58-212-504-1214

  10. Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav

    2010-05-01

    concave parts of the slope and at the toeslope, the Corg content in the plough layer is lower due to an admixture of non-humus material transported from the steep parts of the plot. Nevertheless, the deeper (0.7 - 2 m), buried parts of the colluvial profiles are very rich in organic carbon (up to 4 %). These horizons may represent fossil chernic horizons of former Chernozems, buried by intensive sedimentation of humic material. Similar variability was found in carbonate content values, always due to amount of loess admixture in the plough horizon. While the soil structure stability, depending strongly on humus content, was the highest in the Chernozem unit, in the eroded parts it was highly unstable. Changes in the cation exchange capacity and pH are less distinctive. CEC slightly increases in humus-rich soils and pH is higher in the eroded parts of the plot due to the loess exposition. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

  11. Stable predictive control horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Raúl; Favela, Antonio; Raimondi, Angelo; Nevado, Antonio; Requena, Ricardo; Beltrán-Carbajal, Francisco

    2012-04-01

    The stability theory of predictive and adaptive predictive control for processes of linear and stable nature is based on the hypothesis of a physically realisable driving desired trajectory (DDT). The formal theoretical verification of this hypothesis is trivial for processes with a stable inverse, but it is not for processes with an unstable inverse. The extended strategy of predictive control was developed with the purpose of overcoming methodologically this stability problem and it has delivered excellent performance and stability in its industrial applications given a suitable choice of the prediction horizon. From a theoretical point of view, the existence of a prediction horizon capable of ensuring stability for processes with an unstable inverse was proven in the literature. However, no analytical solution has been found for the determination of the prediction horizon values which guarantee stability, in spite of the theoretical and practical interest of this matter. This article presents a new method able to determine the set of prediction horizon values which ensure stability under the extended predictive control strategy formulation and a particular performance criterion for the design of the DDT generically used in many industrial applications. The practical application of this method is illustrated by means of simulation examples.

  12. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  13. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  14. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-08-15

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes.

  15. New Horizons at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    2007-12-01

    New Horizons is NASA's reconnaissance mission to explore the Pluto system and small Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). I will describe the mission's history, current status, and instrument suite. I will then describe the Jupiter gravity assist flyby New Horizons conducted in early-mid 2007. This flyby involved over 700 observations in the Jupiter system, and represents the only spacecraft encounter with Jupiter planned to occur between the demise of Galileo in 2003 and the arrival of Juno in 2016. I will focus on results obtained, including the first-ever exploration of a giant planet magnetotail, new compositional observations of icy Galilean satellites, exploration of Jupiter's tenuous ring system, the first high-resolution spacecraft imagery of Jupiter's newly-generated little red spot, and the first-ever time-lapse imagery of an Ionian volcano eruption.

  16. Refraction near the horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Liller, William

    1990-01-01

    Variations in astronomical refraction near the horizon are examined. Sunset timings, a sextant mounted on a tripod, and a temperature profile are utilized to derive the variations in refraction data, collected from 7 locations. It is determined that the refraction ranges from 0.234 to 1.678 deg with an rms deviation of 0.16, and it is observed that the variation is larger than previously supposed. Some applications for the variation of refraction value are discussed.

  17. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2014-02-01

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  18. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  19. An optics & photonics program: buried

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    2007-06-01

    Buried in the Land Forces Technical Staff Program, a one-year program within Applied Military Science, AMS, at the Royal Military College of Canada, is a set of 27 lectures in optics and photonics. The lectures, spread over 1½ months, are organized and presented to 22 participants each year, Captains and Majors, to give an appreciation of: thermal imagers, image intensifiers, laser designators, atmospheric characteristics, and many of the basic concepts associated with the detection, identification, and recognition, of targets. Discussion is provided of the difficulties associated with this program.

  20. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  1. Electromagnetic response of buried cylindrical structures for line current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    The Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA) rigorously solves, in the spectral domain, the electromagnetic forward scattering by a finite set of buried two-dimensional perfectly-conducting or dielectric objects [1]-[2]. In this technique, the field scattered by underground objects is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves. Use is made of the plane-wave spectrum [1] to take into account the interaction of such waves with the planar interface between air and soil, and between different layers eventually present in the ground [3]. Obstacles of general shape can be simulated through the CWA with good results, by using a suitable set of small circular-section cylinders [4]. Recently, we improved the CWA by facing the fundamental problem of losses in the ground [5]: this is of significant importance in remote-sensing applications, since real soils often have complex permittivity and conductivity, and sometimes also a complex permeability. While in previous works concerning the CWA a monochromatic or pulsed plane-wave incident field was considered, in the present work a different source of scattering is present: a cylindrical wave radiated by a line source. Such a source is more suitable to model the practical illumination field used in GPR surveys. The electric field radiated by the line current is expressed by means of a first-kind Hankel function of 0-th order. The theoretical solution to the scattering problem is developed for both dielectric and perfectly-conducting cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space. The approach is implemented in a Fortran code; an accurate numerical evaluation of the involved spectral integrals is performed, the highly-oscillating behavior of the homogeneous waves is correctly followed and evanescent contributions are taken into account. The electromagnetic field scattered in both air and ground can be obtained, in near- and far-field regions, for arbitrary radii and permittivity of the buried cylinders, as well as for

  2. New Horizons at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

  3. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  6. Entropy of isolated horizons revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2010-07-15

    The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

  7. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-01

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems continued this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), and Ohio Valley Coal Company (OVC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  8. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL NO.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-07-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade Horizon Sensor (HS) systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (ExxonMobil), Mountain Coal Company West Elk Mine (Arch), Deserado Mining Company (Blue Mountain Energy), and The Ohio Valley Coal Company (TOVCC). Monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  9. Transverse deformations of extreme horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James

    2016-04-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining all extreme black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the extreme Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of extreme Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the extreme Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional extreme Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.

  10. Insect succession on buried carrion in two biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    VanLaerhoven, S L; Anderson, G S

    1999-01-01

    We established a database of insect succession on buried carrion in two biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia over a 16-month period beginning June 1995. Pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were buried shortly after death in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Sub-boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia. Buried pigs exhibited a distinct pattern of succession from that which occurred on above-ground carrion. The species composition and time of colonization for particular species differed between the two zones. Therefore ideally, a database of insect succession on buried carrion should be established for each major biogeoclimatic zone. We did not observe maggot masses on any of the buried carcasses; therefore, the presence of maggot masses may indicate a delayed burial. Soil temperature was a better indicator of internal buried carcass temperature (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.0001) than was ambient air temperature (r2 = 0.60, p < 0.0001); thus soil temperature should be used to determine developmental rates of insects for determination of the postmortem interval by a forensic entomologist. PMID:9987868

  11. Fungal communities in the soils of early medieval settlements in the taiga zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfenina, O. E.; Ivanova, A. E.; Kislova, E. E.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2008-07-01

    The difference between the mycobiota in anthropogenically transformed soils of the settlements of the 9th 14th centuries and in the background zonal Podzols and umbric Albeluvisols of the middle and southern taiga subzones in the European part of Russia is demonstrated. The mycological specificity of anthropogenically transformed soils with a cultural layer (CL) in comparison with the background soils is similar for all the studied objects. Its characteristic features are as follows: (1) the redistribution of the fungal biomass in the profile of anthropogenically transformed soils in comparison with zonal soils, (2) the lower amount of fungal mycelium in the CL with the accumulation of fungal spores in this layer, (3) the increased species diversity of fungal communities in the CL manifested by the greater morphological diversity of the spore pool and by the greater diversity of the fungi grown on nutrient media, (4) the change in the composition and species structure of fungal communities in the CL, (5) the replacement of dominant species typical of the zonal soils by eurytopic species, and (6) the significant difference between the fungal communities in the CL and in the above-and lower-lying horizons and buried soils of the same age. Most of the mycological properties of the soils of ancient settlements are also typical of modern urban soils. Thus, the mycological properties of soils can be considered informative carriers of soil memory about ancient anthropogenic impacts.

  12. Behavior of pipelines buried in SCP-improved ground during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchida, Kunihiko; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Hyodo, Takeshi

    1995-12-31

    Behavior of pipelines buried in the improved ground by sand compaction pile (SCP) and subjected to permanent ground displacement induced by liquefaction is investigated. Combining the programs for the simulation of SCP-improvement, the liquefaction analysis and the permanent ground displacement, the soil spring and the input ground displacement for the analysis of pipelines are evaluated. Results of numerical computations for the pipeline responses show that SCP ground improvement is effective to prevent soil liquefaction and reduce responses of pipeline buried in SCP-improved ground.

  13. Technologies on the Horizon: Teachers Respond to the Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Charles B.; Prater, Alyssa H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs regarding the integration of technologies from the 2011 K-12 edition of the "Horizon Report" into their local, public school contexts. Teachers read the "Horizon Report" and then participated in an asynchronous, threaded discussion focusing on technologies they…

  14. Buried Mid-Latitude Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-577, 17 December 2003

    This September 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows six circular features, three of which exhibit concentric, or 'bullseye,' patterns within them. Each circular feature is the remains of a partly-buried, partly-eroded, and partly-filled meteor impact crater. These occur in northeastern Arabia Terra. Areas such as this, located near the middle latitudes of Mars, commonly have a 'scabby' or roughened appearance. The cause of this 'terrain roughening' texture is unknown, although some scientists have speculated that it might result from the erosion and removal (by way of sublimation) of ground ice. This idea remains highly speculative. These features are located near 28.4oN, 317.5oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  15. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable....

  16. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  17. The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

  18. The Horizon Report. 2006 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…

  19. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  20. Controlled field experiments of wind effects on thermal signatures of buried and surface-laid landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Remke L.; Borchers, Brian; Hendrickx, Jan M.; Hong, Sung

    2004-09-01

    Thermal signatures of buried land mines depend on a complex combination of environmental conditions, soil properties, and properties and burial depth of the land mine. Due to the complex nature of the problem most modeling and experimental efforts to understand thermal signatures of land mines have focused on the effects of one or a few variables. Of these variables, the effect of wind speed has received little attention in modeling and experimental studies. In this contribution we discuss the role of wind in the generation of thermal images and we present results of field experiments at the outdoor land mine detection test facility at New Mexico Tech. Here, several anti-tank and anti-personnel land mine simulants have been buried in sand, loam, and clay soils. During the measurements the environmental and soil conditions were continuously monitored using a fully equipped weather station and using probes for measurements of soil temperature and soil water content.

  1. Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

  2. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  3. Impacts of Soil Warming and Plant Rhizosphere on Root Litter Decomposition at Different Soil Depths in a Mediterranuan Grassland Lysimeter Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Castanha, C.; Curtis, J. B.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate understanding of soil carbon cycling is critical for predicting climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Decomposition of root litter and its transformation into soil organic matter (SOM) are critical processes of soil carbon cycling. We aim to study the impacts of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on the fate of 13C-labeled roots buried at two soil depths using a field lysimeter facility at Hopland, California. The lysimeters contain soil columns of 38-cm diameter and 48-cm depth (0-15 cm A-horizon, and 15-48 cm B-horizon, Laughlin soil series) sown with annual grasses dominated by Avena barbata. The experiment has three treatments (planted-ambient, planted-warming (+4°C), and unplanted-ambient). In February 2014, 13C-labeled A. fatua roots were added to two depths (8-12 and 38-42 cm). We measured root-derived 13C in respired CO2 collected at the soil surface and in leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) collected from the lysimeters during the growing season and in soil harvested in August 2014. We found (1) soil temperature at two depths (10- and 40-cm) have been elevated by 4±0.2°C in the warmed compared to the ambient lysimeters; (2) surface (10-cm) volumetric soil moisture followed this order (unplanted-ambient > planted-ambient > planted-warming), while subsurface (40-cm) soil moisture showed little variation among treatments; (3) ecosystem respiration was enhanced by soil warming during the early growing season (March 15th and April 5th) when soil moisture was not limiting (>20%), while it was suppressed by soil warming during the late growing season (May 7th) when soil moisture was limiting (<20%), and was not significantly different among treatments towards the end of growing season (May 20th); and (4) aboveground plant biomass increased 25% with soil warming. More data including 13C values of ecosystem respiration, DOC loss, and harvested soil samples, as well as soil nutrient supply rates, microbial biomass and community structure will be presented

  4. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  5. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

  6. Surgical treatment of buried penis.

    PubMed

    Lipszyc, E; Pfister, C; Liard, A; Mitrofanoff, P

    1997-10-01

    The buried penis is a rare congenital entity, whose treatment is surgical. There are few publications concerning this matter. The authors report on their experience in 10 cases (1990-1995). In this abnormality, the tip of the glans does not project from the pubic or scrotal skin. It is due to: 1) an excessive development of the penile fascia which retracts the penis; 2) insufficient attachment of the penile skin at the base of the penis; 3) often excessive prepubic fat worsens the appearance of the abnormality but does not by itself totally explain it; 4) a tight phimosis is often present. Surgical treatment is necessary because this aspect tends to persist even after puberty. One cannot indeed count on the development at the age of puberty, neither on the diminution of the fat, nor on the simple cure of the phimosis. One must above all ban circumcision which causes the risk of eliminating the skin necessary for reconstruction. The surgical procedure will comprise: 1) a longitudinal dorsal incision extended circumferentially; 2) resection of the thickened fascia penis; 3) anchoring of the deep face of the dermis to the proximal part of the fascia penis at the base of the penis. This surgical procedure has always brought a significant improvement to the appearance of the penis.

  7. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  8. Mechanics of rotating isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Beetle, Christopher; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2001-08-15

    Black hole mechanics was recently extended by replacing the more commonly used event horizons in stationary space-times with isolated horizons in more general space-times (which may admit radiation arbitrarily close to black holes). However, so far the detailed analysis has been restricted to nonrotating black holes (although it incorporated arbitrary distortion, as well as electromagnetic, Yang-Mills, and dilatonic charges). We now fill this gap by first introducing the notion of isolated horizon angular momentum and then extending the first law to the rotating case.

  9. Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)

  10. Pore-pressure gradients in the proximity of a submarine buried pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Magda, W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the two-dimensional finite-element modeling of the wave-induced pore-pressure field in the proximity of a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subject to continuous loading of regular surface waves. Neglecting inertial forces, a linear elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil, and Darcy`s law for the flow of pore-fluid are assumed. The model takes into account the compressibility of both components (i.e., pore-fluid and soil skeleton) of the two-phase medium. The results of numerical computations are discussed with respect to the hydraulic gradient in the upper part of seabed sediments just above the buried submarine pipeline. The pore-pressure gradient is studied as a function of geometry (depth of burial) as well as soil and pore-fluid compressibility parameters where the later of which is defined in terms of soil saturation conditions.

  11. A Buried Precambrian Impact Crater in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Field evidence indicates that the source of the Stac Fada impact deposit (Mesoproterozoic) in NW Scotland was to the east, and that the now buried crater is represented by the 40+ km diameter Lairg Gravity Low.

  12. Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

    2006-12-01

    Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000

  13. HORIZON SENSING (PROPOSAL No.51)

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-04-30

    Real-time horizon sensing on continuous mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (U.S.) and IEC (International) certification.

  14. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval.

  15. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  16. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  17. Seasonal factors influencing the failure of buried water reticulation pipes.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J F; Boulaire, F A; Burn, S; Zhao, X L; Kodikara, J K

    2011-01-01

    While the use of environmental factors in the analysis and prediction of failures of buried reticulation pipes in cold environments has been the focus of extensive work, the same cannot be said for failures occurring on pipes in other (non-freezing) environments. A novel analysis of pipe failures in such an environment is the subject of this paper. An exploratory statistical analysis was undertaken, identifying a peak in failure rates during mid to late summer. This peak was found to correspond to a peak in the rate of circumferential failures, whilst the rate of longitudinal failures remained constant. Investigation into the effect of climate on failure rates revealed that the peak in failure rates occurs due to differential soil movement as the result of shrinkage in expansive soils. PMID:22049766

  18. Buried structural traps in upper paleozoic strata of the Orenburg region and their petroleum prospects. [USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Orel, A.V.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of drilling data within the Orenburg sector of the northern marginal zone of the Caspian Basin and the Sol'-Ilets rise has shown that horizons of the Moscovian Stage of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian age rest on an eroded surface of Bashkirian deposits in a transgressive succession.Changes in thicknesses in the upper Paleozoic stratigraphic complexes indicate a significant discordance between the structural plans of the Artinskian and Bashkirian deposits and the possibility of discovering buried traps here, promising in the search for oil and gas.

  19. Priming in permafrost soils: High vulnerability of arctic soil organic carbon to increased input of plant-derived compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Alves, Ricardo; Barta, Jiri; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Knoltsch, Anna; Mikutta, Robert; Santruckova, Hana; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Richter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, resulting in a stimulation of both plant primary production and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to this direct stimulation, SOM decomposition might also be indirectly affected by rising temperatures mediated by the increase in plant productivity. Higher root litter production for instance might decrease SOM decomposition by providing soil microorganisms with alternative C and N sources ("negative priming"), or might increase SOM decomposition by facilitating microbial growth and enzyme production ("positive priming"). With about 1,700 Pg of organic C stored in arctic soils, and 88% of that in horizons deeper than 30 cm, it is crucial to understand the controls on SOM decomposition in different horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and thus the vulnerability of SOM to changes in C and N availability in a future climate. We here report on the vulnerability of SOM in arctic permafrost soils to an increased input of plant-derived organic compounds, and on its variability across soil horizons and sites. We simulated an increased input of plant-derived compounds by amending soil samples with 13C-labelled cellulose or protein, and compared the mineralization of native, unlabelled soil organic C (SOC) to unamended control samples. Our experiment included 119 individual samples of arctic permafrost soils, covering four sites across the Siberian Arctic, and five soil horizons, i.e., organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material (topsoil material buried in the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) from the active layer, as well as thawed material from the upper permafrost. Our findings suggest that changes in C and N availability in Arctic soils, such as mediated by plants, have a high potential to alter the decomposition of SOM, but also point at fundamental differences between soil horizons. In the organic topsoil, SOC mineralization increased by 51% after addition of protein, but was not

  20. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  1. Soil Warming and Rhizosphere Effects on Root Litter Decomposition at Two Depths in a Mediterranean Grassland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanha, C.; Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate understanding of soil processes is critical for predicting climate-ecosystem feedbacks. We investigated the effects of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on decomposition of 13C-labeled roots buried at two soil depths at the field lysimeter facilities at Hopland Research and Extension Center, CA. The lysimeters contain soil columns 38-cm in diameter and 48-cm deep (0-15 cm A-horizon and 15-48 cm B-horizon, Laughlin soil) sown with an annual grassland mix. The experimental design includes three treatments: heated, ambient, and unplanted. In February 2014 we added 13C-labeled Avena fatua roots to either 8-12 cm or 38-42 cm. We measured loss of 13C in CO2 from the soil surface and in leachate as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over two growing seasons. At the end of each growing season we recovered the 13C remaining in the soil. In addition, we monitored plant productivity and soil temperature and moisture. The rates of both soil respiration and DOC losses were greatest in heated and least in unplanted plots, although respiration losses far outweighed leachate losses. Treatment affected timing of decomposition; added root litter was respired earlier in the ambient plots and later in the unplanted plots in both years. The litter addition stimulated native soil respiration in year 1 heated plots. The depth of the litter addition did not have an effect on soil respiration. However, after the first growing season, less added root litter remained in the A than in the B horizon (both in the visible root fraction and in the 2mm soil fraction), indicating lower overall decomposition rates at depth. These results, including 13C recovery following the 2nd growing season and soil microclimate variables, will be used to develop a mechanistic understanding of the impacts of soil warming, the rhizosphere, and soil depth on root decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics, and should improve our predictions of the feedbacks between climate change and carbon cycling

  2. Microbial community composition shapes enzyme patterns in topsoil and subsoil horizons along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Takriti, Mounir; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Hofer, Angelika; Klaus, Karoline; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil horizons below 30 cm depth contain about 60% of the organic carbon stored in soils. Although insight into the physical and chemical stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and into microbial community composition in these horizons is being gained, information on microbial functions of subsoil microbial communities and on associated microbially-mediated processes remains sparse. To identify possible controls on enzyme patterns, we correlated enzyme patterns with biotic and abiotic soil parameters, as well as with microbial community composition, estimated using phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Enzyme patterns (i.e. distance-matrixes calculated from these enzyme activities) were calculated from the activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase), which had been measured in soil samples from organic topsoil horizons, mineral topsoil horizons, and mineral subsoil horizons from seven ecosystems along a 1500 km latitudinal transect in Western Siberia. We found that hydrolytic enzyme activities decreased rapidly with depth, whereas oxidative enzyme activities in mineral horizons were as high as, or higher than in organic topsoil horizons. Enzyme patterns varied more strongly between ecosystems in mineral subsoil horizons than in organic topsoils. The enzyme patterns in topsoil horizons were correlated with SOM content (i.e., C and N content) and microbial community composition. In contrast, the enzyme patterns in mineral subsoil horizons were related to water content, soil pH and microbial community composition. The lack of correlation between enzyme patterns and SOM quantity in the mineral subsoils suggests that SOM chemistry, spatial separation or physical stabilization of SOM rather than SOM content might determine substrate availability for enzymatic breakdown. The correlation of microbial community composition and enzyme patterns in all horizons

  3. Transformation of polymetallic dust in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (field experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with an X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that the ash matter from the organic horizons (after ignition) of control and experimental plots mainly (>85%) consists of different soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (particularly magnetite). From 10% to 15% of particles in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (Albic Rustic Podzol) of the experimental plot were represented by polymetallic ball-shaped dust particles that were preserved in the soil without significant transformation for 14 years after their artificial application. The total contents of Cu, Pb, As, and Ni in the organic horizon on the experimental plot were 22-100 times higher than those in the control; the contents of Zn and Fe were 2-5 times higher. The sequence of chemical elements according to their total contents in the samples of control and experimental plots was different. The portion of available forms of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, and Co) compounds extractable with 1.0 M HCl averaged 20-30% of their total contents in the soil. More than 80% of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals were concentrated in the organic horizon of contaminated podzol soil, which represents the biogeochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants down the soil profile. Durable fixation of heavy metals in the organic horizon and their weak migration into the mineral soil layers significantly hamper the processes of self-purification of contaminated soils.

  4. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  5. Comparison of broadband and hyperspectral thermal infrared imaging of buried threat objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve B.; Diaz, Alejandra U.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2013-06-01

    Previous research by many groups has shown that broad-band thermal infrared (TIR) imagers can detect buried explosive threat devices, such as unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Broad-band detection measures the apparent temperature - an average over the wave band of the product of the true soil surface temperature and the emissivity. Broad-band detection suffers from inconsistent performance (low signal, high clutter rates), due in part to diurnal variations, environmental and meteorological conditions, and soil surface effects. It has been suggested that hyperspectral TIR imaging might have improved performance since it can, in principle, allow extraction of the wavelength-dependent emissivity and the true soil surface temperature. This would allow the surface disturbance effects to be separated from the soil column (bulk) effects. A significant, and as yet unanswered, question is whether hyperspectral TIR images provide better detection capability (higher probability of detection and/or lower false alarm rate) than do broad-band thermal images. TIR hyperspectral image data of threat objects, buried and surface-laid in bare soil, were obtained in arid, desert-like conditions over full diurnal cycles for several days. Regions of interest containing threat objects and backgrounds were extracted throughout the time period. Simulated broad-band images were derived from the hyperspectral images. The diurnal variation of the images was studied. Hyperspectral was found to provide some advantage over broad-band imaging in detection of buried threat objects for the limited data set studied.

  6. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  7. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  8. Decoding implicit information from the soil map of Belgium and implications for spatial modelling and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Legrain, Xavier; Colinet, Gilles; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    (Anthrosols) are distinguished for their specific profile development (code "..m"). Obviously, when assessing soil organic carbon content these soil types need particular consideration. Soils in the Campine region with anthropogenic layers only 30 to 40 cm thick, not being Anthrosols, got a specific suffix code ("…3"). Still, as these soils may have a buried Ah horizon of up to 20 cm, their soil organic carbon content can be comparable to those of Anthrosols. The buried Ah horizon is however not explicitly mapped; its presence needs to be inferred from other environmental information. In conclusion, conventional soil maps convey more information than what transpires from just the explicit legend's semantics. Although a challenge, decoding the implicit information should be particularly useful for spatial modeling. The cases also point to the importance of classifying soil characteristics explicitly, wherever possible, and in particularly when soil maps are integrated into geographical information systems.

  9. Deepwater Horizon Situation Report #5

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-10

    At approximately 11:00 pm EDT April 20, 2010 an explosion occurred aboard the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) located 52 miles Southeast of Venice, LA and 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, LA. The MODU was drilling an exploratory well and was not producing oil at the time of the incident. The Deepwater Horizon MODU sank 1,500 feet northwest of the well site. Detailed information on response and recovery operations can be found at: http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/

  10. Geochronology of initial soils in Late-Holocene polycyclic drift-sand deposits (Weerterbergen, S.E. Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van mourik, J. M.; Wallinga, J.

    2012-04-01

    Late glacial aeolian coversand dominates the surface geology of the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant (Netherlands). During prehistoric and early historic time, forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation gradually transformed natural forest into heath land. During the 11th - 13th century, commercial clear cutting of forests caused sand drifting. Farmers protected the heath against drift sand and continued till 1750 AD with shallow stable management. In the course of the 18th century deep stable management was introduced and farmers started with sod digging on the heath to increase the total amount of manure. Sod digging resulted in a second period of extension of driftsand landscapes with characteristic 'cultural' landforms and soils. Polycyclic driftsand deposits are paleoecological records of alternating instable (sand drifting) and stable (soil formation) phases in landscape development. Interpretation of paleoecological information, derived from these records, requires accurate knowledge of the geochronology. Radiocarbon dating, applied on extracted soil organic matter from humic buried AE horizons is not reliable. Calibrated 14C ages of seven selected buried 'micropodzols' range from 340 - 1950 AD. To understand the geochronology of polycyclic sequences, we applied soil micromorphology to improve our knowledge about the organic matrix of micropodzols and OSL dating. Micromorphological analysis of thin sections of micropodzols provide more information about the composition of SOM of the humic horizons. SOM consists of post sedimentary compounds, related to soil formation. We can identify soil fungi, fragmented litter and fecal pellets as the results of litter decomposition. But SOM contains also sin sedimentary compounds, related to sand drifting. We can identify transported and rounded organic aggregates, mineral grains with organic cutans and charcoal fragments, originating from eroded (older) soil horizons. Consequently, the 14C dates of

  11. Physical Modelling on Detecting Buried Object Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of electrical resistivity method (ERM) for buried object detection and its relationship due to the different stiffness of material. In the past, the conventional method to detect the buried structure was face some limitation due to the time and cost. For example, previous approach related to the trial and error excavation has always expose to some risky outcome due to the uncertainties of the buried object location. Hence, this study introduced an alternative technique with particular reference to resistivity method to detect and evaluate the buried object with different strength of stiffness. The experiment was performed based on field miniature model (small scale study) using soil trial embankment made by lateritic soil and various concrete cube strengths (grade 20, 25 and 30) representing buried object with different conditions. 2D electrical resistivity test (electrical resistivity imaging) was perform using ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 during the data acquisition while the raw data was process using RES2DINV software. It was found that the electrical resistivity method was able to detect the buried concrete structures targeted based on the contrast of the electrical resistivity image produced. Moreover, three different strength of concrete cube were able to be differentiated based on the electrical resistivity values (ERV) obtained. This study found that the ERV of concrete cube for grade 20, 25 and 30 were 170 Ωm, 227 Ωm and 503 Ωm, respectively. Hence, this study shows that the ERV has a strong relationship with different stiffness of material thus applicable to be a useful alternative tool in underground structure detection.

  12. Modeling physical and biogeochemical controls over carbon accumulation in a boreal forest soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrasco, J.J.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Boreal soils are important to the global C cycle owing to large C stocks, repeated disturbance from fire, and the potential for permafrost thaw to expose previously stable, buried C. To evaluate the primary mechanisms responsible for both short- and long-term C accumulation in boreal soils, we developed a multi-isotope (12,14C) Soil C model with dynamic soil layers that develop through time as soil organic matter burns and reaccumulates. We then evaluated the mechanisms that control organic matter turnover in boreal regions including carbon input rates, substrate recalcitrance, soil moisture and temperature, and the presence of historical permafrost to assess the importance of these factors in boreal C accumulation. Results indicate that total C accumulation is controlled by the rate of carbon input, decomposition rates, and the presence of historical permafrost. However, unlike more temperate ecosystems, one of the key mechanisms involved in C preservation in boreal soils examined here is the cooling of subsurface soil layers as soil depth increases rather than increasing recalcitrance in subsurface soils. The propagation of the 14C bomb spike into soils also illustrates the importance of historical permafrost and twentieth century warming in contemporary boreal soil respiration fluxes. Both 14C and total C simulation data also strongly suggest that boreal SOM need not be recalcitrant to accumulate; the strong role of soil temperature controls on boreal C accumulation at our modeling test site in Manitoba, Canada, indicates that carbon in the deep organic soil horizons is probably relatively labile and thus subject to perturbations that result from changing climatic conditions in the future. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  14. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  15. Limited Panniculectomy for Adult Buried Penis Repair.

    PubMed

    Figler, Bradley D; Chery, Lisly; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with buried or hidden penis may be unable to carry out normal hygiene, void with a directable urine stream, or be sexually active as a result of the condition. Although these patients are nearly always obese, weight loss often does not reverse the problem, as the mons pannus may remain after weight loss. Furthermore, associated penile skin changes such as lichen sclerosus or stenosis of the penile shaft skin are often irreversible. Treatment includes removal of the diseased shaft skin surrounding the penis, in combination with a limited panniculectomy. The authors present their technique for this procedure in a typical patient with buried penis that prevented him from voiding effectively. PMID:26182174

  16. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  17. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  18. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  19. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  20. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration test objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Heard, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technology solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1991. This document provides the test objectives against which the demonstrations will be tested during FY-93.

  1. In-situ vitrification of soil

    DOEpatents

    Brouns, Richard A.; Buelt, James L.; Bonner, William F.

    1983-01-01

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  2. Using the ARP-03 for high-resolution mapping of calcic horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, S.; Fantappič, M.; Magini, S.; Costantini, E. A. C.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to present a fast and cheap method for high-resolutionmapping of calcic horizons in vineyards based on geoelectrical proximal sensing. The study area, 45 ha located in southern Sicily (Italy), was characterized by an old, partially dismantled marine terrace and soils with a calcic horizon at different depths. The geoelectrical investigation consisted of a survey of the soil electrical resistivity recorded with the Automatic Resistivity Profiling-03 sensor. The electrical resistivity values at three pseudo-depths, 0-50, 0-100 and 0-170 cm, were spatialized by means of ordinary kriging. A principal component analysis of the three electrical resistivity maps was carried out. During the survey, 18 boreholes, located at different electrical resistivity values, were made for soil description and sampling. The depth to the calcic horizon showed a strong correlation with electrical resistivity. The regression model between calcic horizon and the principal component analysis factors with the highest correlation coefficients was selected to spatialise the calcic horizon values. An Normalized Difference Vegetation Index map was used to validate the calcic horizon map in terms of crop response to different soil rooting depths. The strengths of this method are the quick, non-invasive kind of survey, the relevance for vine vigour, and the high spatial resolution of the final map.

  3. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  4. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  5. Assessing bioturbation using micromorphology and biosilicate evidence: A case study of the early-Holocene Brady Soil, central Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodburn, T. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Old Wauneta Roadcut site in southwestern Nebraska exhibits a 1.2 meter-thick exposure of the Brady Soil, a buried paleosol which formed within loess during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Excavation of the loess-paleosol sequence has revealed considerable bioturbation by plant roots, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Bioturbation was not restricted to a single time period, but occurred continually throughout soil development, as evidenced by differing sediment fills and crosscutting relationships. The Brady Soil is an accretionary soil within the uppermost part of the Last Glacial Maximum Peoria Loess. At the base of the solum, the Bkb horizon exhibits an increased illuvial clay and carbonate content, and contains extensive, small (~2cm width), backfilled burrows typically produced by cicada nymphs (Cicadidae) or beetle larvae. The most stable period of the Brady Soil is expressed by the dark (9.8 YR 4/1), thick Ab horizon. This is overlain by an ACb horizon, where soil formation was being extinguished by the onset of Holocene-age Bignell Loess deposition. Within the upper solum and Bignell Loess, a shift in biota activity occurs as indicated by the large burrow (6-12 cm width) and chamber (30-40 cm width) systems observed. Trace sizes suggest that a burrowing rodent, such as the prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) or ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp.), was responsible for their creation. Soil micromorphology was used to distinguish sediment-size classes, mineralogy, and clay morphology of specific loess deposits and soil horizons in order to track displacement of sediment through the profile due to bioturbation. Five block samples were taken in undisturbed sediment and soil horizons for thin-section analysis. Twelve additional samples of burrow cross-sections or bioturbated sediment were analyzed for comparison. Soil features produced by faunal and floral activity were differentiated from features produced by pedologic processes through the identification and

  6. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  7. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    ScienceCinema

    Brian Cox

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  8. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  9. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai Chan); "Critical…

  10. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Cox

    2010-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  11. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  12. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material used...) Nonmetallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission...

  13. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  14. Preputial flaps to correct buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Loh, Ih-Wei; Chen, Ke-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The authors developed a preputial skin flap technique to correct the buried penis which was simple and practical. This simple procedure can be applied to most boys with buried penis. In the last 3 years, we have seen 12 boys with buried penis and have been treated by using preputial flaps. The mean age is about 5.1 (from 3 to 12). By making a longitudinal incision on the ventral side of penis, the tightness of the foreskin is released and leave a diamond-shaped skin defect. It allows the penile shaft to extend out. A circumferential incision is made about 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus. Pedicled preputial flaps are obtained leaving optimal penile skin on the dorsal side. The preputial skin flaps are rotated onto the ventral side and tailored to cover the defect. All patients are followed for at least 3 months. Edema and swelling on the flaps are common, but improves with time. None of our patients need a second operation. The preputial flaps technique is a simple technique which allows surgeons to deal with most cases of buried penis by tailoring the flaps providing good cosmetic and functional results.

  15. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

  16. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca.

  17. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

  18. Subcritical scattering from buried elastic shells.

    PubMed

    Lucifredi, Irena; Schmidt, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    Buried objects have been largely undetectable by traditional high-frequency sonars due to their insignificant bottom penetration. Further, even a high grazing angle sonar approach is vastly limited by the coverage rate dictated by the finite water depth, making the detection and classification of buried objects using low frequency, subcritical sonar an interesting alternative. On the other hand, such a concept would require classification clues different from the traditional high-resolution imaging and shadows to maintain low false alarm rates. A potential alternative, even for buried targets, is classification based on the acoustic signatures of man-made elastic targets. However, the elastic responses of buried and proud targets are significantly different. The objective of this work is to identify, analyze, and explain some of the effects of the sediment and the proximity of the seabed interface on the scattering of sound from completely and partially buried elastic shells. The analysis was performed using focused array processing of data from the GOATS98 experiment carried out jointly by MIT and SACLANTCEN, and a new hybrid modeling capability combining a virtual source-or wave-field superposition-approach with an exact spectral integral representation of the Green's functions for a stratified ocean waveguide, incorporating all multiple scattering between the object and the seabed. Among the principal results is the demonstration of the significant role of structural circumferential waves in converting incident, evanescent waves into backscattered body waves, emanating to the receivers at supercritical grazing angles, in effect making the target appear closer to the sonar than predicted by traditional ray theory.

  19. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

    2011-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  20. Preservation of daily tidal cycles and stacked alluvial swamp deposits: Depositional response to early compaction of buried peat bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, T.M.; Gastaldo, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The character of the clastic depositional environments represented in the lower Mary Lee coal zone of the Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the Warrior basin Alabama (tidally influenced mud flats and alluvial swamps) was controlled by the compaction of buried peat bodies. The lowest mineable coal in the Mary Lee coal zone, the Jagger, is overlain by laminated shale and sandstone exhibiting pronounced cycle bedding. This bedding records daily tidal cyclicity in the form of sand-mud couplets. These correspond to flood-current deposition of the coarser fraction followed by fallout of the finer grained fraction during ensuing slack-water periods. These couplets are cyclically bundled-sandier bundles corresponding to spring tides and muddier bundles to neap tides (lamination counts suggest a 24-30-day cycle). The clastic sequence above the overlying Blue Creek coal is characterized by a series of stacked alluvial swamp horizons. These can be identified by autochthonous fossil plants and pedological features indicative of gleyed paleosols. Catastrophic flooding buried and preserved these horizons. The rapid, early compaction of the buried Jagger and Blue Creek peat bodies created accommodation space that allowed both the preservation of tidalites in the Jagger coal to Blue Creek coal interval and the stacking of alluvial swamp paleosols above the Blue Creek seam. Carboniferous peats were comprised of highly compressible plant parts and hence, were sensitive to sediment loading. Once the peat bodies had compressed to a certain extent, stability of the overlying sediment surface created conditions amenable to resumption of peat accumulation.

  1. The Malcolm horizon: History and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Malcolm Horizon, a peripheral vision horizon used in flight simulation, is discussed. A history of the horizon display is presented as well as a brief overview of vision physiology, and the role balance plays is spatial orientation. Avenues of continued research in subconscious cockpit instrumentation are examined.

  2. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  3. Use of microcomputer in mapping depth of stratigraphic horizons in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    REGIONAL MAPPER is a menu-driven system in the BASIC language for computing and plotting (1) time, depth, and average velocity to geologic horizons, (2) interval time, thickness, and interval velocity of stratigraphic intervals, and (3) subcropping and onlapping intervals at unconformities. The system consists of three programs: FILER, TRAVERSER, and PLOTTER. A control point is a shot point with velocity analysis or a shot point at or near a well with velocity check-shot survey. Reflection time to and code number of seismic horizons are filed by digitizing tablet from record sections. TRAVERSER starts at a point of geologic control and, in traversing to another, parallels seismic events, records loss of horizons by onlap and truncation, and stores reflection time for geologic horizons at traversed shot points. TRAVERSER is basically a phantoming procedure. Permafrost thickness and velocity variations, buried canyons with low-velocity fill, and error in seismically derived velocity cause velocity anomalies that complicate depth mapping. Two depths to the top of the pebble is based shale are computed for each control point. One depth, designated Zs on seismically derived velocity. The other (Zw) is based on interval velocity interpolated linearly between wells and multiplied by interval time (isochron) to give interval thickness. Z w is computed for all geologic horizons by downward summation of interval thickness. Unknown true depth (Z) to the pebble shale may be expressed as Z = Zs + es and Z = Zw + ew where the e terms represent error. Equating the two expressions gives the depth difference D = Zs + Zw = ew + es A plot of D for the top of the pebble shale is readily contourable but smoothing is required to produce a reasonably simple surface. Seismically derived velocity used in computing Zs includes the effect of velocity anomalies but is subject to some large randomly distributed errors resulting in depth errors (es). Well-derived velocity used in computing Zw

  4. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  5. Fermion tunneling from dynamical horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, R.; Vanzo, L.

    2008-06-01

    The instability against emission of fermionic particles by the trapping horizon of an evolving black hole is analyzed and confirmed using the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method. This method automatically selects one special expression for the surface gravity of a changing horizon. The results also apply to point masses embedded in an expanding universe. As a bonus of the tunneling method, we gain the insight that the surface gravity still defines a temperature parameter as long as the evolution is sufficiently slow that the black-hole pass through a sequence of quasi-equilibrium states, and that black holes should be semi-classically unstable even in a hypothetical world without bosonic fields.

  6. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  7. Carbon stored in peatlands formed by terrestrialization: the importance of buried lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    A lot of efforts have been made over the last few decades to quantify the amount of carbon stored in soils, including in peat-producing systems. Estimates of soil carbon storage at the landscape scale has to take into account all buried carbon pools, including deep-buried lake sediments found under many peatlands that formed by terrestrialization. To illustrate the importance of buried lake sediments in the overall carbon storage of a peatland site, we studied a small peat swamp located in Gatineau Park (Quebec, Canada), the Folly peatland (45°27'18.12"N 75°46'57.38''W). This 7 ha peatland developed from a small lake that appeared after the postglacial Champlain Sea receded from the region, about 12 200 years ago. Its development followed a classical terrestrialization sequence and its hydrology has been stable since peat inception. A profile of over 8.5 m of organic matter was collected at the site, of which 2.5 m is peat and the rest is composed of lake sediments (gyttja). With the exception of a few tephra layers, the organic matter content exceeds 75 % of dry weight for the entire profile. Although it constitutes only 30 % of the profile depth, peat contains 48 % of the buried carbon because of its higher bulk density, and peat carbon accumulated at a rate of 88 g C m-2 yr-1. Overall, the site carbon density (including buried lake sediments) is 172 kg C m-2, a value comparable to the carbon density of many peatlands with much deeper peat profiles. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of global peatland carbon inventories and peatland biogeochemistry.

  8. Toroidal horizons in binary black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2016-09-01

    We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It has been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology. However, such a phase has never been seen in numerical simulations. Instead, in all previous simulations, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We find a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon, thus reconciling the numerical work with theoretical expectations. The demonstration requires extremely high numerical precision, which is made possible by a new event horizon code described in a companion paper. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.

  9. Modelling and interpreting biologically crusted dryland soil sub-surface structure using automated micropenetrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon, Stephen R.; Felde, Vincent J. M. N. L.; Drahorad, Sylvie L.; Felix-Henningsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    laboratory, and in-situ field studies. In particular, we discuss the nature and detection of surface and buried (fossil) subsurface Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs), voids, macroscopic particles and compositional layers. The strength of surface BSCs and the occurrence of buried BSCs and layers has been detected at sub millimetre scales to depths of 40mm. Our measurements and field observations of PR show the importance of morphological layering to overall BSC functions (Felde et al. 2015). We also discuss the effect of penetrometer shaft and probe-tip profiles upon the theoretical and experimental curves, EMP resolution and reproducibility, demonstrating how the model enables voids, buried biological soil crusts, exotic particles, soil horizons and layers to be distinguished one from another. This represents a potentially important contribution to advancing understanding of the relationship between BSCs and dryland soil structure. References: Drahorad SL, Felix-Henningsen P. (2012) An electronic micropenetrometer (EMP) for field measurements of biological soil crust stability, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 175, 519-520 Felde V.J.M.N.L., Drahorad S.L., Felix-Henningsen P., Hoon S.R. (2015) Ongoing oversanding induces biological soil crust layering - a new approach for BSC structure elucidation determined from high resolution penetration resistance data (submitted) Grunwald, S., Rooney D.J., McSweeney K., Lowery B. (2001) Development of pedotransfer functions for a profile cone penetrometer, Geoderma, 100, 25-47 Van Herwijnen A., Bellaire S., Schweizer J. (2009) Comparison of micro-structural snowpack parameters derived from penetration resistance measurements with fracture character observations from compression tests, Cold Regions Sci. {& Technol.}, 59, 193-201

  10. Soil organic matter in the Moscow State University botanical garden on the Vorob'evy Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanova, M. S.; Prokof'eva, T. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Rakhleeva, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Humification conditions and humus status parameters in arboretum soils of the Moscow State University botanical garden on the Vorob'evy Hills have been studied. Although microbiological activity is reduced, the warm and mild climate in the city, the eutrophication of soils (due to atmospheric fallouts and dissolution of construction waste inclusions), the retention of plant waste on the soil surface, and the presence of abundant primary destructors (mesofauna) have resulted in the formation of organic matter with specific characteristics. During the 60 years that have elapsed since the arboretum establishment, soils with a high content (up to 10-14%) of humate humus (CHA/CFA > 1) characterized by a higher degree of humification than in the control soils under herbaceous vegetation have been developed in the area. Large reserves of organic carbon have been noted not only in the upper 30-cm-thick soil layer, but also in the 1-m-thick layer due to organic matter of buried and technogenic horizons.

  11. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  12. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology`s threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  14. Carbon and nitrogen compounds and emission of greenhouse gases in ancient and modern soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the Steppe Trans-Ural Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inubushi, K.; Prikhodko, V. E.; Nagano, Kh.; Manakhov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen compounds and the emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O were studied in the ancient buried and modern background soils developed from different parent materials in the Arkaim Reserve of Chelyabinsk oblast. The studies were performed after an 18-year-long period of absence of anthropogenic loads on the local ecosystems. Element contents in the humus horizons of the chernozems of the former plowland and pastures and of the forest soil reach 28-45.6 g/kg for Corg, 2.5-4.5 g/kg for Ntot, 140-423 mg/kg for labile carbon (Cl), 32-73 mg/kg for labile nitrogen (Nl), 350-952 mg/kg for carbon of microbial biomass (Cmic), and 38-85 mg/kg for nitrogen of microbial biomass (Nmic). The contents of different forms of C and N depend on the soil type and texture and on the type of land use, including that before reservation of the territory. The emission of greenhouse gases was examined in this area for the first time. The production of CO2 by the soil buried about 4000 years ago is an order of magnitude lower than that by the modern soil. The emission and sink of N2O are small in both modern and ancient soils. The behavior of methane is clearly different in the automorphic and hydromorphic soils: the former serve as methane sinks, whereas the latter act as methane sources. The rate of the CO2 emission from the soils is controlled by many factors, including the soil type, texture, degree of hydromorphism, composition of parent materials, and type of land use.

  15. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  16. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age. PMID:17842285

  17. Layerwise reaction at a buried interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.A.; DeVries, B. ); Robinson, I.K.; Eng, P.J. )

    1992-10-26

    X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the {ital in} {ital situ} reaction of Pd deposited on Si(111) at room temperature. An ordered silicide forms spontaneously beneath a poorly ordered overlayer. It is commensurate and strained at low coverage, but relaxes to an unstrained state above a critical thickness of 18 A. During both phases of growth sustained intensity oscillations are seen that correspond to a layerwise consumption of the substrate at the buried interface.

  18. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  19. Nutrient hotspots and O horizon runoff in a Sierra Nevada Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. W.; Miller, W. W.; Meadows, M.; Rau, B.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the extremely dry summers, rooting is entirely absent in the O horizons of many forest ecosystems in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains of Nevada and California. Thus, decomposition/N mineralization and vegetation uptake processes are spatially discoupled, and the intense competition for N between roots and decomposers in the O horizon which characterizes more humid forest ecosystems is absent. Because of this discoupling, the N returned in littterfall is not recycled to the trees until: 1) N supply exceeds microbial demand, and 2) N is leached to lower horizons where roots are present. Both O horizons and the mineral soil surface in these ecosystems are extremely hydrophobic in summer, restricting the ability of summer rainfall to wet underlying mineral soils except via preferential flowpaths. Recent studies have found very high concentrations of ionic forms of N in O horizon interflow solutions that flow over the top of mineral soils. We hypothesize that this O horizon interflow creates biogeochemical “hot spots” and “hot moments” (Schimel and Bennett, 2004) where it infiltrates into preferential flowpaths present in the mineral soil. This paper reports the initial results of a study aimed at detecting O horizon runoff and nutrient hot spots in soils of the King’s River Experimental Watershed (KREW) in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, one of the Critical Zone Observatory sites. We hypothesized that 1) nutrient rich runoff would occur in the KREW watersheds, as in the eastern Sierra; and 2) this runoff would contribute to the presence of nutrient hotspots on a centimeter scale in the soil. Testing Hypothesis 1) was straightforward: we installed O horizon runoff collectors in the KREW watersheds and found substantial amounts of runoff did occur, but the runoff waters were somewhat less nutrient-rich than in the drier forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada. Testing Hypothesis 2 was less straightforward because the most precise

  20. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  1. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  2. How Burying Biomass Can Contribute to CO2 Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B.; Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B.; Gregg, J.

    2008-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  3. Gravitational radiations of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons from asymptotic expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, C.-H.

    2009-09-15

    Instead of using a three-dimensional analysis on quasilocal horizons, we adopt a four-dimensional asymptotic expansion analysis to study the next order contributions from the nonlinearity of general relativity. From the similarity between null infinity and horizons, the proper reference frames are chosen from the compatible constant spinors for an observer to measure the energy-momentum and flux near quasilocal horizons. In particular, we focus on the similarity of Bondi-Sachs gravitational radiation for the quasilocal horizons and compare our results with Ashtekar-Kirshnan flux formula. The quasilocal energy-momentum and flux of generic isolated horizons and nonrotating dynamical horizons are discussed in this paper.

  4. [Viability of buried plant seeds from alpine plant communities (Northwest Caucasus): results of a five year experiment].

    PubMed

    Adzhiev, R K; Onipchenko, V G; Tekeev, D K

    2012-01-01

    The experiment with seeds buried in soil has been carried out for 63 alpine plant species from the Northwest Caucasus. Seeds were mixed with native soils and placed in soil at the depth of 8-10 cm for five years. After excavation, seeds of 45 species did not germinate at all. Viability of eight species, four Carex species among them, exceeded 10%. These species are typical of Geranium-Hedysarum meadows and alpine snowbeds and form the main part of soil seed banks in these communities.

  5. Topological deformation of isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Liko, Tomas

    2008-03-15

    We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can have physical effects in four dimensions. Specifically, the entropy of a black hole acquires a correction term that is proportional to the Euler characteristic of the cross sections of the horizon. While this term is constant for a single black hole, it will be a nontrivial function for a system with dynamical topologies such as black-hole mergers: it is shown that for certain values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the second law of black-hole mechanics can be violated.

  6. Geochemical characterization of loess-soil complexes on the Terek-Kuma Plain and the Azov-Kuban' Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, P. I.; Alekseev, A. O.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the material composition of the buried soils and loesses in relation to the dynamics of the climate and sediment accumulation were studied for revealing the pedogenetic features and assessing the natural conditions in the steppe zone of the southern Russian Plain. A comparative analysis of the chemical compositions of the different-aged Pleistocene loess-soil complexes (the Otkaznoe, Port-Katon, and Shabel'skoe profiles) on the Terek-Kuma Plain and the Azov-Kuban' Lowland was performed. An increase in the concentrations of Fe and Mn, which are intensively involved in the biological cycle, and Rb, which is accumulated due to the activation of weathering processes, was observed in the paleosols that developed in interglacial periods of activation of pedogenesis. Increased coefficients of weathering (chemical index of alteration (CIA)) = [Al/(Al + Ca + Na + K)] 100, Al/(Al + Ca + Na + Mg), Rb/Sr, and Mn/Sr), leaching (Ba/Sr), and biological activity and bioproductivity (Mn/Fe, Mn/Al) were also noted for the paleosol horizons as compared with the loess horizons. It is argued that geochemical coefficients can be used as an efficient tool in the soil and paleogeographic studies aimed at the reconstruction and refinement of the schemes of changes in the bioclimatic conditions during the Pleistocene.

  7. Hall scrambling on black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Willy; Kundu, Sandipan

    2015-08-01

    We explore the effect of the electrodynamics θ angle on the macroscopic properties of black hole horizons. Using only classical Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in (3 +1 ) dimensions, in the form of the membrane paradigm, we show that in the presence of the θ term, a black hole horizon behaves as a Hall conductor, for an observer hovering outside. We study how localized perturbations created on the stretched horizon scramble on the horizon by dropping a charged particle. We show that the θ angle affects the way perturbations scramble on the horizon, in particular, it introduces vortices without changing the scrambling time. This Hall scrambling of information is also expected to occur on cosmological horizons.

  8. Holography beyond the horizon and cosmic censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Thomas S.; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate the description of the region behind the event horizon in rotating black holes in the AdS conformal field theory correspondence, using the rotating Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole as a concrete example. We extend a technique introduced by Kraus, Ooguri, and Shenker, based on analytically continuing amplitudes defined in a Euclidean space, to include rotation. In the rotating case, boundary amplitudes again have two different bulk descriptions, involving either integration only over the regions outside the black holes’ event horizon, or integration over this region and the region between the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon (inner horizon). We argue that generally, the holographic map will relate the field theory to the region bounded by the Cauchy horizons in spacetime. We also argue that these results suggest that the holographic description of black holes will satisfy strong cosmic censorship.

  9. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  10. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium

    DOE PAGES

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.; Seleson, Pablo

    2015-12-10

    Here, a notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with variable horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties unchanged. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under a homogeneous deformation. These artifacts depend on the second derivative of the horizon and can be reduced by employing a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress. Bodies with piecewise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forcesmore » by using a simpler technique called a splice. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both the partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.« less

  11. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.; Seleson, Pablo

    2015-12-10

    Here, a notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with variable horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties unchanged. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under a homogeneous deformation. These artifacts depend on the second derivative of the horizon and can be reduced by employing a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress. Bodies with piecewise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a simpler technique called a splice. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both the partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  12. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  13. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.

  14. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    clearly shown by increased amounts of aliphatic C in these small POM fractions. As revealed by 13C CPMAS NMR, with advancing soil age increasing aliphaticity was also detected in occluded small POM fractions. By 14C dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the microscale elemental distributions, using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) showed the initial formation of aggregates and organo-mineral interfaces in the studied permafrost soils.

  15. Horizon entropy with loop quantum gravity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzetti, Daniele; Sahlmann, Hanno

    2015-06-01

    We show that the spherically symmetric isolated horizon can be described in terms of an SU (2) connection and an su (2)-valued one-form, obeying certain constraints. The horizon symplectic structure is precisely the one of 3d gravity in a first order formulation. We quantize the horizon degrees of freedom in the framework of loop quantum gravity, with methods recently developed for 3d gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant. Bulk excitations ending on the horizon act very similarly to particles in 3d gravity. The Bekenstein-Hawking law is recovered in the limit of imaginary Barbero-Immirzi parameter. Alternative methods of quantization are also discussed.

  16. Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein (Phys Rev D 7:2333, 1973). We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizons which exists in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our method based on the tunneling method also indicates that the entropy quantum of black hole horizons is closely related to Hawking temperature.

  17. Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal

    2011-05-15

    This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  18. Generation of Acoustic Signals from Buried Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Reinke, R.; Waxler, R.; Lenox, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried explosions generate both seismic and acoustic signals. The mechanism for the acoustic generation is generally assumed to be large ground motions above the source region that cause atmospheric pressure disturbances which can propagate locally or regionally depending on source size and weather conditions. In order to better understand the factors that control acoustic generation from buried explosions, we conducted a series of 200 lb explosions detonated in and above the dry alluvium and limestones of Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. In this experiment, nicknamed HUMBLE REDWOOD III, we detonated charges at heights of burst of 2 m (no crater) and depths of burst of 7 m (fully confined). The seismic and acoustic signals were recorded on a network of near-source (< 90 m) co-located accelerometer and overpressure sensors, circular rings of acoustic sensors at 0.3 and 1 km, and multiple seismic and infrasound sensors at local-to-regional distances. Near-source acoustic signals for the 200 lb buried explosion in limestone show an impulsive, short-duration (0.04 s) initial peak, followed by a broad duration (0.3 s) negative pressure trough, and finally a second positive pulse (0.18 s duration). The entire width of the acoustic signal generated by this small buried explosion is 0.5 s and results in a 2 Hz peak in spectral energy. High-velocity wind conditions quickly attenuate the signal with few observations beyond 1 km. We have attempted to model these acoustic waveforms by estimating near-source ground motion using synthetic spall seismograms. Spall seismograms have similar characteristics as the observed acoustics and usually include an initial positive motion P wave, followed by -1 g acceleration due to the ballistic free fall of the near surface rock units, and ends with positive accelerations due to "slapdown" of the material. Spall seismograms were synthesized using emplacement media parameters and high-speed video observations of the surface movements. We present a

  19. Fabrication of Buried Nanochannels From Nanowire Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Daniel; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating channels having widths of tens of nanometers in silicon substrates and burying the channels under overlying layers of dielectric materials has been demonstrated. With further refinement, the method might be useful for fabricating nanochannels for manipulation and analysis of large biomolecules at single-molecule resolution. Unlike in prior methods, burying the channels does not involve bonding of flat wafers to the silicon substrates to cover exposed channels in the substrates. Instead, the formation and burying of the channels are accomplished in a more sophisticated process that is less vulnerable to defects in the substrates and less likely to result in clogging of, or leakage from, the channels. In this method, the first step is to establish the channel pattern by forming an array of sacrificial metal nanowires on an SiO2-on-Si substrate. In particular, the wire pattern is made by use of focused-ion-beam (FIB) lithography and a subsequent metallization/lift-off process. The pattern of metal nanowires is then transferred onto the SiO2 layer by reactive-ion etching, which yields sacrificial SiO2 nanowires covered by metal. After removal of the metal covering the SiO2 nanowires, what remains are SiO2 nanowires on an Si substrate. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is used to form a layer of a dielectric material over the Si substrate and over the SiO2 wires on the surface of the substrate. FIB milling is then performed to form trenches at both ends of each SiO2 wire. The trenches serve as openings for the entry of chemicals that etch SiO2 much faster than they etch Si. Provided that the nanowires are not so long that the diffusion of the etching chemicals is blocked, the sacrificial SiO2 nanowires become etched out from between the dielectric material and the Si substrate, leaving buried channels. At the time of reporting the information for this article, channels 3 m long, 20 nm deep, and 80 nm wide (see figure) had been

  20. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed.

  1. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed. PMID:26796472

  2. Implications of the sedimentology and isotope geochemistry of calcic horizons in the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene St. David Fm. , Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science); Wang, Y.; Cerling, T.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Two types of calcic horizons occur in pedogenically modified alluvial mudstones of the Plio-Pleistocene St. David Fm.: (1) nodular-carbonate zones (stage 2 morphology) with downward decreasing carbonate abundance, located below leached red muds; (2) massive to nodular zones (stage 3) with sharp bases, upward decrease in carbonate abundance, associated with variably leached muds typically exhibiting green mottles. Type 1 horizons are traceable for hundreds of meters; type 2 horizons vary in thickness and carbonate content over distances as short at 15 m. and are laterally contiguous with pond deposits. Type 1 horizons are interpreted as vadose aridosol calcic horizons, whereas type 2 horizons are partly gleyed hydromorphic soils with calcite derived from groundwater as well as from leaching within the soil. O and C isotopic compositions of age-equivalent 1 and 2 carbonates are similar suggesting that type 2 calcite formed in the unsaturated zone, probably in the capillary fringe above the water table. These latter horizons define a limited time of elevated water table, which corresponds to a cooler/wetter climate and higher sedimentation rates. If the distinction between these two soil types was not made, the greater morphological maturity'' of type 2 horizons would lead to misinterpretation of more arid climatic conditions or lower sedimentation rates. Type 1 horizons occur within parallel piedmont-facies belts representing channel/channel margin and floodplain deposition. Paleosols are morphologically similar, although floodplain soils are more clay rich. C-isotope analyses suggest, however, different vegetational histories for the two depositional tracts that reflect different responses of channel-margin and floodplain settings to increasing seasonality of precipitation during the late Pliocene.

  3. Response of CO2 Concentration in Andisol to Rainfall Events by Using Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Toshifumi; Tokida, Takeshi; Imoto, Hiromi; Nishimura, Taku; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of continuous soil CO2 gas monitoring, gas permeable resins were evaluated. Among polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE), polyfluoroethylene propylene (PFEP) and silicone, the silicone rubber tube had highest permeability for oxygen gas. Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System (BT-GMS) consisting of silicone rubber tube connected to a Non-diffuse infrared (NDIR) -CO2 gas and galvanic cell O2 gas sensors were constructed, and buried into an Andisol upland field at a depth of 20cm. Thermo-couples and EC-5 soil moisture sensors were inserted into 10 and 20cm deep layers. Soil CO2 gas concentration, temperature and moisture were continuously monitored for 5 months. Soil CO2 concentration was sensitive to rainfall events and soil moisture change. Responses were keen during summer until early autumn when soil temperature was higher than 20°C. Then, when soil temperature got lower the response tended to be dull. This suggested quick CO2 gas concentration change following a rainfall event was mostly due to enhancement in soil respiration with soil moisture rise.

  4. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  5. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  6. Healing from incest: resurrecting the buried self.

    PubMed

    Godbey, J K; Hutchinson, S A

    1996-10-01

    Writers on the incest experience estimate conservatively that 10% to 30% of all girls and 30% of all boys have had at least one childhood experience of incest. Incest is emotionally devastating to a child as it involves betrayal, and the irretrievable loss of trust in the adults in the child's life. Little is written about the healing processes of incest survivors. The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive grounded theory that provides an explanatory schema for understanding the healing process of adult female incest survivors. The sample consisted of 10 adult women who had a history of incest and who volunteered to participate in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Data analysis revealed that these women had buried an integral part of the self because of the trauma of incest; The healing process required resurrecting the buried self through a series of seven phases. The model generated from this research provides a heuristic for nurse therapists that assists in assessing and counseling incest survivors.

  7. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  8. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  9. Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

  10. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential

  11. Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami

    2011-01-01

    This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…

  12. Horizon Report: 2009 Economic Development Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Scott, C.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's Horizon Project is an ongoing research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact in education and other industries around the world over a five-year time period. The chief products of the project are the "Horizon Reports", an annual series of publications that…

  13. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This "2015 Horizon…

  14. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

  15. Project Horizon: How Utah Is Reducing Recidivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daimar

    2000-01-01

    Project Horizon, Utah's statute to reduce the economic and social cost of recidivism, shifted funding for correctional education to the state education agency. Parolees who participated in Project Horizon had an 18-20 percent lower recidivism rate than nonparticipants and found post-release jobs 89 percent of the time. (JOW)

  16. The NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The internationally recognized "NMC Horizon Report" series and regional "NMC Technology Outlooks" are part of the NMC Horizon Project, a 12-year effort established in 2002 that annually identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years in every sector of education around the…

  17. The Horizon Report: 2010 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Witchey, H.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2010-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2010 Horizon…

  18. Something special at the event horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eune, Myungseok; Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the free-fall energy density of scalar fields semiclassically by employing the trace anomaly on a two-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole with respect to various black hole states in order to clarify whether something special at the horizon happens or not. For the Boulware state, the energy density at the horizon is always negative divergent, which is independent of initial free-fall positions. However, in the Unruh state the initial free-fall position is responsible for the energy density at the horizon and there is a critical point to determine the sign of the energy density at the horizon. In particular, a huge negative energy density appears when the freely falling observer is dropped just near the horizon. For the Hartle-Hawking state, it may also be positive or negative depending on the initial free-fall position, but it is always finite. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of these calculations.

  19. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  20. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  1. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  2. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  3. Scattering by buried dielectric cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vico, M.; Frezza, F.; Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.

    2005-12-01

    An analytical-numerical technique for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane wave scattering by a finite set of dielectric circular cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space is presented. The problem is solved for both the near- and far-field regions, for transverse magnetic and transverse electric polarizations. The scattered field is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves, and use is made of the plane wave spectrum to take into account the reflection and transmission of such waves by the interface. The validity of the approach is confirmed by comparisons with results available in the literature, with very good agreement, and by self-consistency tests. Applications of the method to objects of arbitrary cross section simulated by suitable configurations of circular cylinders are shown.

  4. Ferromanganese crusts from Necker Ridge, Horizon Guyot and S.P. Lee Guyot: Geological considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Manheim, F. T.; Schwab, W.C.; Davis, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Necker Ridge, Horizon Guyot and S.P. Lee Guyot in the Central Pacific were sampled, seismically surveyed, and photographed by bottom cameras in order to better understand the distribution, origin, and evolution of ferromanganese crusts. Necker Ridge is over 600 km long with a rugged crest, pods of sediment to 146 m thick, slopes that average 12?? to 20??, and debris aprons that cover some of the lower flanks. Substrate lithologies are mostly hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic breccia, and minor alkalic basalt. Horizon Guyot, 300 km long and 75 km wide, is capped by at least 160 m of sediment, which buries stepped terraces. Substrate lithologies are similar to those on Necker Ridge, although previous workers sampled much tholeiitic basalt on Horizon. S.P. Lee Guyot, 125 km long and 80 km wide, is capped by at least 300 m of sediment, and contains talus aprons along its lower flanks. Ferromanganese-encrusted rocks were recovered in every dredge and are thickest on Necker Ridge. Crust thicknesses average about 2.5, 1.5, and 0.8 cm for Necker, Horizon, and S.P. Lee, respectively. Crusts range from smooth or porous surfaces to knobby and botryoidal. The entire crust is laminated, however, two distinct layers commonly exist, separated by a paper-thin layer of phosphorite. The dominant mineral of all crusts is vernadite (??-MnO2), while quartz, feldspar, apatite, and, in three rocks todorokite, are minor phases. Quartz and feldspar decrease with decreasing latitude of occurrence, and is suggested to be related to eolian input. On the average, apatite also increases within the crusts with decreasing latitude of occurrence, which may be related to high biological productivity in the zone of equatorial upwelling. Phosphorite substrates are more abundant on Necker Ridge and S.P. Lee Guyot than they are on Horizon Guyot. Seamount ferromanganese nodules are distinct from abyssal nodules in their chemistry and internal structure. ?? 1985.

  5. Mechanics of buried chilled gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Hu, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the factors influencing the modelling of soil-pipeline interaction for a pipeline which is used to transport chilled gas. The soil-pipeline interaction is induced by the generation of discontinuous frost heave at a boundary between soils with differing frost susceptibility. The three-dimensional modelling takes into consideration the time-dependent evolution of frost heave due to moisture migration, the creep and elastic behavior of the frozen soil and flexural behavior of the embedded pipeline. The results of the computational model are compared with experimental results obtained from the frost heave induced soil-pipeline interaction test performed at the full scale test facilities in Caen, France.

  6. Quasilocal approach to general universal horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Theories of gravity with a preferred foliation usually display arbitrarily fast signal propagation, changing the black hole definition. A new inescapable barrier, the universal horizon, has been defined and many static and spherically symmetric examples have been studied in the literature. Here, we translate the usual definition of the universal horizon in terms of an optical scalar built with the preferred flow defined by the preferred spacetime foliation. The new expression has the advantages of being of quasilocal nature and independent of specific spacetime symmetries in order to be well defined. Therefore, we propose it as a definition for general quasilocal universal horizons. Using the new formalism, we show that there is no universal analog of cosmological horizons for Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models for any scale factor function, and we also state that quasilocal universal horizons are restricted to trapped regions of the spacetime. Using the evolution equation, we analyze the formation of universal horizons under a truncated Hořava-Lifshitz theory, in spherical symmetry, showing the existence of regions in parameter space where the universal horizon formation cannot be smooth from the center, under some physically reasonable assumptions. We conclude with our view on the next steps for the understanding of black holes in nonrelativistic gravity theories.

  7. The fate of organic carbon in colluvial soils in a subtropical agricultural catchment (Arvorezinha, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Broek, Marijn; Van Oost, Kristof; Minella, Jean; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    One of the main reasons as to why soil erosion is considered to be a carbon sink for the atmosphere is that eroded carbon is often redeposited and buried in depositional environments. However, the quantification of the magnitude of this effect is still uncertain because the residence time of soil organic carbon in depositional environments is ill defined. The latter is especially true for tropical and subtropical areas as field data for these climatic zones are largely lacking. This is an important hiatus as ca. 40% of the total global arable land is located in the (sub-)tropics [1]. We collected samples from four depositional and one stable agricultural profile in a small agricultural catchment in Arvorezinha (Brazil) where deforestation started ca. 90 yrs ago. δ13C depth profiles allowed to identify the bottom of the original A-horizon: this is because δ13C values of the buried forest soils are significantly heavier than those of the colluvial deposits. The results show that soil organic carbon contents systematically decrease with depth below the actual plough layer. This is due to the fact that a significant fraction of the organic carbon that was originally deposited is removed by mineralization from these soils over decadal time scales. As the time of deforestation is known, age-depth curves could be established. Combining this information with SOC measurements allowed for a first estimate of carbon preservation rates and showed that after 70 years ca. 25% of the deposited organic carbon is released to the atmosphere: results were very consistent across profiles. In temperate environments, the time necessary for this fraction of the deposited carbon to be mineralized is somewhat longer, i.e. 100 years [2]. This suggests that soil organic carbon may be decomposed faster in sub-tropical environments in comparison to temperate environments. This is not unexpected, given the fact that average soil temperatures are higher and soils are, in this climate

  8. [Basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity in two subtropical forest soils].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-bi; Su, Yi-rong; He, Xun-yang; Hu, Le-ning; Liang, Yue-ming; Feng, Shu-zhen; Ge, Yun-hui; Xiao, Wei

    2011-10-01

    As one of the key enzymes involved in lignin decomposition of forest litter, laccase plays an important role in the carbon cycling in forest ecosystem. By using TA cloning and sequencing, a comparative study was conducted on the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity in the O horizon (litter layer) and A horizon (surface soil layer, 0-20 cm) in two subtropical forests (a primeval evergreen deciduous broadleaved mixed forest and an artificial masson pine forest). For the same soil horizons, the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity and richness were higher in the primeval forest than in the masson pine forest; for the same forest ecosystems, the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity and richness in the primeval forest were slightly higher in O horizon than in A horizon, but those in the masson pine forest were apparently lower in O horizon than in A horizon. The two forest soils had the same dominant laccase gene-containing basidiomycetous populations, and most of the populations had high similarity of amino acid sequence to Mycena sp. or Pleurotus sp. belonging to Agaricales. Comparing with the A horizon in primeval forest and the O horizon in masson pine forest, the O horizon in primeval forest and the A horizon in masson pine forest had a relatively uniform distribution of basidiomycetous populations. The nucleotide sequence similarity of basidiomycetous laccase gene between the O and A horizons in the masson pine forest was higher than that in the primeval forest. This study showed that vegetation and soil horizon had significant effects on the basidiomycetous laccase gene diversity and community structure, and the discrepancies in the substrate availability for basidiomycetes and in the soil pH induced by the vegetation and soil horizon could be the driving forces.

  9. Unruh effect without Rindler horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaevici, Nistor

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the Unruh effect for a massless scalar field in the two-dimensional Minkowski space in the presence of a uniformly accelerated perfect mirror, with the trajectory of the mirror chosen in such a way that the mirror completely masks the Rindler horizon from the space-time region of interest. We find that the characteristic thermodynamical properties of the effect remain unchanged, i.e. the response of a uniformly co-accelerated Unruh detector and the distribution of the Rindler particles retain their thermal form. However, since in this setup there are no unobserved degrees of freedom of the field, the thermal statistics of the Rindler particles are inconsistent with an initial pure vacuum, which leads us to reconsider the problem for the more physical case when the mirror is inertial in the past. In these conditions we find that the distribution of the Rindler particles is non-thermal even in the limit of infinite acceleration times, but effective thermal statistics can be recovered provided that one is restricted to the expectation values of smeared operators associated with finite norm Rindler states. We explain how the thermal statistics in our problem can be understood in analogy with those in the conventional version of the effect.

  10. Horizon supertranslation and degenerate black hole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-09-01

    In this note we first review the degenerate vacua arising from the BMS symmetries. According to the discussion in [1] one can define BMS-analogous supertranslation and superrotation for spacetime with black hole in Gaussian null coordinates. In the leading and subleading orders of near horizon approximation, the infinitely degenerate black hole solutions are derived by considering Einstein equations with or without cosmological constant, and they are related to each other by the diffeomorphism generated by horizon supertranslation. Higher order results and degenerate Rindler horizon solutions also are given in appendices.

  11. Black hole entropy and isolated horizons thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amit; Perez, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    We present a statistical mechanical calculation of the thermodynamical properties of (nonrotating) isolated horizons. The introduction of the Planck scale allows for the definition of a universal horizon temperature (independent of the mass of the black hole) and a well-defined notion of energy (as measured by suitable local observers) proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. The microcanonical and canonical ensembles associated with the system are introduced. Black hole entropy and other thermodynamical quantities can be consistently computed in both ensembles and results are in agreement with Hawking's semiclassical analysis for all values of the Immirzi parameter.

  12. Speciation and distribution of cadmium and lead in salinized horizons of antrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgariu, D.; Bulgariu, L.; Astefanei, D.

    2009-04-01

    The utilization of intensive technologies for the vegetable cultivation in glass houses by the administration of high doses of organic fertilizes, the supra-dimensional irrigation and the maintaining of soil at high humidity state, in special in case of vicious drainage have as result the rapid degradation of morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils, concretized by: (i) decrease of structural aggregates stability; (ii) more dense packing of soil; (iii) accumulation of easy soluble salts (in special at superior horizons level); (iv) limitation of organic compounds and micro-elements biodisponibility. All these determined a significant reduction of productivity and of exploitation duration of soils from glass houses. These phenomena modified continuously the dynamic of speciation processes and inter-phases distribution, of heavy metals in soils from glass houses, and can determined a non-controlled accumulation of heavy metals, in special as mobile forms with high biodisponibility. Ours studied have been performed using soil profiles drawing from Copou-glass house, Iasi (Romania). Has been followed the modification of distribution for speciation forms of cadmium and lead (two heavy metals with high toxicity degree), between hortic antrosol horizons, and between chemical-mineralogical components of this, with the progressive salinization of superior horizons, in 2007-2008 period. The separation, differentiation and determination of cadmium and lead speciation forms was done by combined solid-liquid sequential extraction (SPE) and extraction in aqueous polymer-inorganic salt two-phase systems (ABS) procedure, presented in some of ours previous studies. After extraction, the total contents of the two heavy metals and fractions from these differential bonded by mineral and organic components of hortic antrosol have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The specific interaction mechanisms of Cd and Pb with organic-mineral components of

  13. Investigation of guided wave propagation and attenuation in pipe buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Long-range guided wave testing is a well-established method for detection of corrosion defects in pipelines. The method is currently used routinely for above ground pipelines in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised and unpredictable due to attenuation of the guided wave resulting from energy leakage into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in an 8 in. pipe buried in sand are investigated using a laboratory full-scale experimental rig and model predictions. We report measurements of attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, mechanically compacted, water saturated and drained. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1.65-5.5 dB/m and 0.98-3.2 dB/m for the torsional and longitudinal modes, respectively, over the frequency of 11-34 kHz. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. Mechanical compaction of the sand yields similar attenuation values to those obtained with applied overburden pressure. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, and increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for compacted sand. Attenuation measurements are compared with Disperse software model predictions and confirm that the attenuation phenomenon in buried pipes is essentially governed by the bulk shear velocity in the sand. The attenuation behaviour of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  14. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  15. Occurrence of perched saturation and interflow over an argillic horizon in a low relief hillslope.

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, James; Jackson, Rhett, C.

    2009-03-01

    Abstract. Many of the soils in the south-eastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to 100 cen-timeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. Interflow, or throughflow, is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-6%) hillsides causes interflow to oc-cur. Research is being conducted at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, on a small zero-order watershed. In the first phase of this research, a high resolution topographic map of the clay layer was developed. This map will be used to instrument designated “low” spots with max rise piezo-meters in order to determine if there is channelized subsurface flow. In situ conductivities of the clay layer and the surface horizons were measured using an Amoozegar meter, and bulk density samples were taken and measured. Along with soil topographic measurements, data-logging piezometers have been installed to measure the piezometric head above, in, and below the argillic horizon to further investigate interflow as a potential hydraulic routing mechanism. The stream that drains the catchment was instrumented with a 2’ H flume and data-logging pressure transducer to measure stream flow. Climate data including precipitation, barometric pressure and temperature, are being continuously collected in an open area approximately ¼ mile from the study site. Combining the shallow surface and subsurface piezometric heads with stream flow rates, we should be able to determine if and when the clay layer is contributing to inter-flow.

  16. Sex, offspring and carcass determine antimicrobial peptide expression in the burying beetle

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Chris G. C.; Steiger, Sandra; Heckel, David G.; Wielsch, Natalie; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides has emerged as a model system for the investigation of adaptations that allow the utilization of carrion as a diet and as a resource for reproduction. The survival of beetles and their offspring given their exposure to soil-dwelling and cadaver-borne microbes requires mechanisms that reduce bacterial contamination in the diet and that achieve sanitation of the microhabitat. To explore the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in this context, we analyzed burying beetle males and females at different stages of their breeding cycle using the RNA-Seq and proteomics approaches. To address variation in immune functions, we investigated the impact of adult sex, the presence or absence of offspring (social context), and the presence of carrion (environmental context) on the expression of the identified immune effector genes. We found that particular AMPs are sex-specific and tightly regulated by the presence of a carcass or offspring and identified the two most context-dependent antimicrobial proteins in anal secretions. The context-specific expression dynamics of particular AMPs and lysozymes reveals a complex regulatory system, reflecting adaptations to specific ecological niches. This study highlights how burying beetles cope with microorganisms found on carrion and identifies candidates for both internal and external immunity. PMID:27139635

  17. Littoral assessment of mine burial signatures (LAMBS): buried landmine/background spectral-signature analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenton, Arthur C.; Geci, Duane M.; Ray, Kristofer J.; Thomas, Clayton M.; Salisbury, John W.; Mars, John C.; Crowley, James K.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 μm) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites. We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  18. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  19. Discovery, mapping and interpretation of buried cultural resources non-invasively with ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conyers, Lawrence B.

    2011-09-01

    Ground-penetrating radar is an extremely useful tool for the mapping and interpretation of buried cultural remains within 2-3 metres of the surface, especially when the stratigraphy is complex. Standard reflection profiles can be processed to correct for depth and distance, and also filtered and processed to make cultural features visible. When many profiles are collected in closely spaced transects in a grid, reflections can be re-sampled and displayed in amplitude slice-maps, and isosurface renderings to make buried features visible. Sometimes, however, the abundance and complexity of subsurface reflections is so complex that each individual profile must be interpreted manually, which necessitates an understanding of radar wave propagation, reflection, refraction and attenuation in the ground. In order to differentiate reflections from cultural features this understanding of radar energy must be merged with an understanding of the chemistry of the ground, soil and geological stratigraphy, and how those variables affect radar reflections. When taken as a package of visualization tools, GPR can be used as an effective tool for interpreting aspects of history and culture at buried sites in ways not possible using traditional archaeological methods.

  20. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  1. Simplified dispersion relationships for fluid-dominated axisymmetric wave motion in buried fluid-filled pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Sui, Fusheng; Muggleton, Jennifer M.; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The dispersion characteristics of axisymmetric (n=0) waves offer a way to gain physical insight into the low-frequency vibrational behaviour of underground pipe systems. Whilst these can be found in the literature, they are generally calculated numerically. Coupled equations of motion for the n=0 waves that propagate in a buried fluid-filled pipe are presented in this paper and, from this, an analytical solution is developed for the fluid-dominated (s=1) wavenumber. The effect of the frictional stress at the pipe-soil interface on the dispersion behaviour of the s=1 wave is characterised by adopting a soil loading matrix. Overall, the fluid loading has a greater effect on the propagation wavespeed compared with the soil loading: for metal pipes, the effect of soil loading is negligible; for plastic pipes, however, simply neglecting the effect of soil loading can lead to a considerable underestimation in the calculation of the wavespeed. The wave attenuation increases significantly at higher frequencies regardless of pipe material resulting from the added damping due to radiation into the soil. Theoretical predictions of the s=1 wavenumber are compared with experimental data measured on an MDPE water pipe. The degree of agreement between prediction and experiment makes clear that, although the wavespeed is only slightly affected by the presence of the frictional stress, the frictional stress at the pipe-soil interface needs to be appropriately taken into account for attenuation predictions.

  2. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  3. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates.

    PubMed

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-27

    We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one. PMID:27284642

  4. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates.

    PubMed

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-27

    We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one.

  5. The first data on the vertical REE distribution in taiga soils of the Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryanin, S. V.; Sorokina, O. A.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse humic brown soils formed on different rocks under natural conditions of southern taiga of the Upper Priamur'e were studied. Concentration and distribution of REE in organic-mineral and metamorphic soil horizons were estimated. Soils inherit REE distribution in underlying rocks sitll at lower concentrations. The maximal REE concentrations are found in metamorphic soil horizon and the lowest ones in humic-accumulative. Soil formation processes have an effect on REE concentration in soils, but do not change their distribution.

  6. Effects of Experimental Drought on Soil Respiration and Radiocarbon Efflux from a Temperate Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borken, W.; Savage, K.; Davidson, E. A.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2002-12-01

    Soil respiration is affected by the water content of both mineral soil and organic horizons. A throughfall exclusion experiment was established at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts to quantify the importance of this variation. Weekly measurements of soil respiration began in the spring of 2001, with 4 manual flux chambers installed in each of 6 plots (5 x 5 m). In July 2001, sub-canopy roofs with translucent plastic panels were installed in 3 of the plots, while the other 3 control plots were left open. Temperature probes, TDR probes, and gas tubes were buried at 4 depths in each plot. DC half-bridges for measuring water content of organic material were installed in the O horizons. The roofs were removed in the autumn to allow leaf-fall and snowfall and were reinstalled in the spring of 2002. Hourly automated flux measurements, with one chamber in each of the 6 plots, were also started in the spring of 2002. Radiocarbon contents of CO2 emissions and concentrations within the soil have been measured periodically. Soil respiration rates were similar in control and treatment plots throughout June 2001, but once throughfall exclusion began in July, the fluxes declined in the exclusion plots. During the 84 days of 2001 that the roofs were in place, 168 mm of throughfall was diverted, and the cumulative soil respiration was 30% lower in exclusion plots compared to control plots (241 and 341 g C m-2, respectively). The automated chamber system revealed an increase in soil respiration in the control plots within minutes of a precipitation event. Soil respiration declined to pre-wetting values at the same time that the litter layer dried, about 48 hours after wetting. The Δ14CO2 from soil respiration ranged from 95 to 141‰ in the control plots and from 88 to 263‰ in the exclusion plots. The Δ14CO2 from root respiration and recently fixed carbon (within 1 year) should be 77‰ (the value of the atmosphere in 2001), so the observed values indicate that the

  7. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. ); Luey, J.K. )

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  8. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A.; Luey, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  9. Simulation of EUV multilayer mirror buried defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukman, Matthew J.; Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2000-07-01

    A new interface has been created to link existing deposition/etching and electromagnetic simulation software, allowing the user to program deposition and etching conditions and then find the reflective properties of the resultant structure. The application studied in this paper is the problem of three-dimensional defects which become buried during fabrication of multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The software link reads in surface information in the form of linked triangles, determines all nodes within the triangles, and then creates nodes lying between triangles of different layers to create a 3- dimensional inhomogeneous matrix containing the materials' indices of refraction. This allows etching and depositions to be input into SAMPLE-3D, a multi-surface topology to be generated, and then the electromagnetic properties of the structure to be assessed with TEMPEST. This capability was used to study substrate defects in multilayer mirrors by programming a defect and then sputter-depositing some forty layers on top of the defect. Specifically examined was how the topography depended on sputter conditions and determined the defects' impact on the mirrors' imaging properties. While this research was focused on application to EUV lithography, the general technique may be extended to other optical processes such as alignment and mask defects.

  10. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  11. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum.

  12. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  13. Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Laversenne, L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pollnau, M.; Moretti, P.; Mugnier, J.

    2004-11-29

    Buried and stacked planar as well as buried single and parallel channel waveguides are fabricated in sapphire by proton implantation. Good control of the implantation parameters provides excellent confinement of the guided light in each structure. Low propagation losses are obtained in fundamental-mode, buried channel waveguides without postimplantation annealing. Choice of the implantation parameters allows one to design mode shapes with different ellipticity and/or mode asymmetry in each orthogonal direction, thus demonstrating the versatility of the fabrication method. Horizontal and vertical parallelization is demonstrated for the design of one- or two-dimensional waveguide arrays in hard crystalline materials.

  14. Computer vision and sensor fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.; Buhl, M.R.; Kane, R.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1992-10-01

    Given multiple images of the surface of the earth from dual-band infrared sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. Supervised learning pattern classifiers (including neural networks,) are used. We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing information from multiple sensor types. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  15. Imaging tropical peatlands in Indonesia using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI): implications for carbon stock estimates and peat soil characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Terry, N.; Slater, L.; Warren, M.; Kolka, R.; Kristiyono, A.; Sudiana, N.; Nurjaman, D.; Darusman, T.

    2015-05-01

    Current estimates of carbon (C) storage in peatland systems worldwide indicate that tropical peatlands comprise about 15% of the global peat carbon pool. Such estimates are uncertain due to data gaps regarding organic peat soil thickness, volume and C content. We combined a set of indirect geophysical methods (ground-penetrating radar, GPR, and electrical resistivity imaging, ERI) with direct observations using core sampling and C analysis to determine how geophysical imaging may enhance traditional coring methods for estimating peat thickness and C storage in a tropical peatland system in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both GPR and ERI methods demonstrated their capability to estimate peat thickness in tropical peat soils at a spatial resolution not feasible with traditional coring methods. GPR is able to capture peat thickness variability at centimeter-scale vertical resolution, although peat thickness determination was difficult for peat columns exceeding 5 m in the areas studied, due to signal attenuation associated with thick clay-rich transitional horizons at the peat-mineral soil interface. ERI methods were more successful for imaging deeper peatlands with thick organomineral layers between peat and underlying mineral soil. Results obtained using GPR methods indicate less than 3% variation in peat thickness (when compared to coring methods) over low peat-mineral soil interface gradients (i.e., below 0.02°) and show substantial impacts in C storage estimates (i.e., up to 37 MgC ha-1 even for transects showing a difference between GPR and coring estimates of 0.07 m in average peat thickness). The geophysical data also provide information on peat matrix attributes such as thickness of organomineral horizons between peat and underlying substrate, the presence of buried wood, buttressed trees or tip-up pools and soil type. The use of GPR and ERI methods to image peat profiles at high resolution can be used to further constrain quantification of peat C pools and

  16. Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) seed viability in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benghal dayflower is a challenging weed to manage in agricultural settings. Research was conducted in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to evaluate the longevity of buried Benghal dayflower seeds. Seeds were buried for 2 to 60 months at a depth of 20 cm in mesh bags containing soil native to eac...

  17. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  18. Mars - Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region.

  19. Resolution requirements for thermal detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soelberg, Pierre; Storm, Jesper; Stage, Bjarne; Sorensen, Helge B.

    2000-08-01

    The thermal properties and shape of a buried land mine can, by natural means such as diurnal cycles, result in a temperature profile on the ground surface. By exploiting the presence of this thermal signature, IR imaging has demonstrated the ability to detect buried mine-like objects. Of importance to the practical success of this technology is the ability to obtain a spatial resolution which allows discrimination of mine signatures from background clutter. This paper describes findings from a study conducted to establish the clutter statistics of natural occurring backgrounds. A novel approach is presented: the use of 2D autoregressive models to detect the unnatural variations in the background caused by buried miens. With this knowledge we have developed a process to estimate the camera resolution necessary to reliably detect and discriminate a thermal signature originating from a buried mine-like object in various terrain types.

  20. Carbon limitation patterns in buried and open urban streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams alternate between darkened buried segments dominated by heterotrophic processes and lighted open segments dominated by autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that labile carbon leaking from autotrophic cells would reduce heterotrophic carbon limitation in open chan...

  1. [Effect of Biochar Application on Soil Aggregates Distribution and Moisture Retention in Orchard Soil].

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Shi-xiang; Wang, Xu-dong

    2016-01-15

    Applying biochar to soil has been considered to be one of the important practices in improving soil properties and increasing carbon sequestration. In order to investigate the effects of biochar application on soil aggregates distribution and its organic matter content and soil moisture constant in different size aggregates, various particle-size fractions of soil aggregates were obtained with the dry-screening method. The results showed that, compared to the treatment without biochar (CK), the application of biochar reduced the mass content of 5-8 mm and < 0.25 mm soil aggregates at 0-10 cm soil horizon, while increased the content of 1-2 mm and 2-5 mm soil aggregates at this horizon, and the content of 1-2 mm aggregates significantly increased along with the rates of biochar application. The mean diameter of soil aggregates was reduced by biochar application at 0-10 cm soil horizon. However, the effect of biochar application on the mean diameter of soil aggregates at 10-20 cm soil horizon was not significant. Compared to CK, biochar application significantly increased soil organic carbon content in aggregates, especially in 1-2 mm aggregates which was increased by > 70% compared to CK. Both the water holding capacity and soil porosity were significantly increased by biochar application. Furthermore, the neutral biochar was more effective than alkaline biochar in increasing soil moisture. PMID:27078970

  2. [Effect of Biochar Application on Soil Aggregates Distribution and Moisture Retention in Orchard Soil].

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Shi-xiang; Wang, Xu-dong

    2016-01-15

    Applying biochar to soil has been considered to be one of the important practices in improving soil properties and increasing carbon sequestration. In order to investigate the effects of biochar application on soil aggregates distribution and its organic matter content and soil moisture constant in different size aggregates, various particle-size fractions of soil aggregates were obtained with the dry-screening method. The results showed that, compared to the treatment without biochar (CK), the application of biochar reduced the mass content of 5-8 mm and < 0.25 mm soil aggregates at 0-10 cm soil horizon, while increased the content of 1-2 mm and 2-5 mm soil aggregates at this horizon, and the content of 1-2 mm aggregates significantly increased along with the rates of biochar application. The mean diameter of soil aggregates was reduced by biochar application at 0-10 cm soil horizon. However, the effect of biochar application on the mean diameter of soil aggregates at 10-20 cm soil horizon was not significant. Compared to CK, biochar application significantly increased soil organic carbon content in aggregates, especially in 1-2 mm aggregates which was increased by > 70% compared to CK. Both the water holding capacity and soil porosity were significantly increased by biochar application. Furthermore, the neutral biochar was more effective than alkaline biochar in increasing soil moisture.

  3. 78 FR 70976 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... will include both institutional and retail investors.\\21\\ The price at which Shares trade will be... COMMISSION Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application November 21, 2013... management investment companies to issue shares (``Shares'') redeemable in large aggregations...

  4. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  5. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  6. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  7. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported. PMID:23942265

  8. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  9. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  10. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Study of near-source earthquake effects on flexible buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Craig Alan

    2000-10-01

    An investigation is carried out, using strong ground motion recordings, field measurements, and new analytical models, on large diameter flexible buried pipes shaken in the 1994 Northridge earthquake near field. Case studies are presented for corrugated metal pipes (CMP) in the Van Norman Complex (VNC) vicinity in Los Angeles, California. In 1994 the VNC yielded an unprecedented number of strong motion recordings with high acceleration and velocity. These recordings contain forward directivity pulses and provided the largest velocity ever instrumentally recorded (180 cm/s). The recorded motions were significantly different in the longitudinal and transverse directions and had approximately half the amplitude at the VNC center than on the north and south ends. The seismic performances of 61 underground CMPs are presented, beginning with detailed studies of a 2.4 m diameter pipe that suffered complete lateral buckling collapse at the Lower San Fernando Dam (LSFD). The case histories identify factors controlling large diameter CMP seismic performances that are incorporated into several newly developed models for the analysis and design of buried structures. Each model progressively improves the understanding of buried pipe behavior. Simple acceleration- and strain-based pseudo-static models are initially developed to identify main causes for CMP damage. Elasto-dynamic models for transverse SV waves are later used to understand flexible pipe response in the frequency and time domains and are compared with existing solutions. Finally, pseudo-static models, which analyze pipe responses in terms of free-field strains, are formulated to account for dynamic amplification, non-vertical wave incidence, soil layering, and trench backfill soil stiffness. The elastic models are used to investigate soil-pipe interface shear stress and non-linear soil behavior and show that the maximum pipe hoop force is best characterized by assuming no interface slippage. The models explain the

  12. Probabilistic Modeling of Landfill Subsidence Introduced by Buried Structure Collapse - 13229

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin; Soong, Te-Yang

    2013-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass and buried structure placement. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties, especially discontinuous inclusions, which control differential settlement. An alternative is to use a probabilistic model to capture the non-uniform collapse of cover soils and buried structures and the subsequent effect of that collapse on the final cover system. Both techniques are applied to the problem of two side-by-side waste trenches with collapsible voids. The results show how this analytical technique can be used to connect a metric of final cover performance (inundation area) to the susceptibility of the sub-grade to collapse and the effective thickness of the cover soils. This approach allows designers to specify cover thickness, reinforcement, and slope to meet the demands imposed by the settlement of the underlying waste trenches. (authors)

  13. On the Bartnik mass of apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantoulidis, Christos; Schoen, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we characterize the intrinsic geometry of apparent horizons (outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces) in asymptotically flat spacetimes; that is, the Riemannian metrics on the two sphere which can arise. Furthermore we determine the minimal ADM mass of a spacetime containing such an apparent horizon. The results are conveniently formulated in terms of the quasi-local mass introduced by Bartnik (1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2346-8). The Hawking mass provides a lower bound for Bartnik’s quasilocal mass on apparent horizons by way of Penrose’s conjecture on time symmetric slices, proven in 1997 by Huisken and Ilmanen (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 353-437) and in full generality in 1999 by Bray (2001 J. Differ. Geom. 59 177-267). We compute Bartnik’s mass for all non-degenerate apparent horizons and show that it coincides with the Hawking mass. As a corollary we disprove a conjecture due to Gibbons in the spirit of Thorne’s hoop conjecture (Gibbons 2009 arXiv:0903.1580), and construct a new large class of examples of apparent horizons with the integral of the negative part of the Gauss curvature arbitrarily large.

  14. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  15. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  16. Investigation of factors affecting gaseous mercury concentrations in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Castro, Mark S

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soil temperature, soil moisture, redox potential (Eh) and soil organic matter (SOM) on the total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in background soils. Our measurements were made in a grass field and deciduous forest at the Piney Reservoir Ambient Air Monitoring Station (PRAAMS) in Garrett County, Maryland. Three plots in each area were sampled every third week from July 2009 to June 2010 at the Oe-A soil horizon interface, the A-E soil horizon interface, and 5 and 10 cm into the E soil horizon. The mean soil TGM concentration for all depths in the forest (2.3 ± 2.2 ng m(-3)) was significantly higher than the mean soil TGM concentration in the grass field (1.5 ± 1.9 ng m(-3)). Soil TGM at all depths was most strongly and consistently correlated to soil temperature. The soil TGM concentrations were highest and most variable at the forest Oe-A soil horizon interface (4.1 ± 2.0 ng m(-3)), ranging from 1.5 to 8.4 ng m(-3). This soil horizon interface had 11 to 26% more SOM and the soil Eh was 100 to 400 mV lower than the other soil depths. Our results suggest that soil temperature, soil Eh and SOM are significant factors affecting TGM concentrations in forest soils. Future studies of TGM dynamics in background soils may benefit from closely monitoring the organic soil horizon.

  17. Seismic and DC resistivity imaging of a buried channel, NW Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Rokosh, C. D.; Pawlowicz, J.; Plouffe, A.

    2005-12-01

    Buried channels are often filled with a variety of porous and permeable sediments which can act as water and hydrocarbons reservoirs. Shallow methane deposits within these channels (less than 50-m deep) represent a significant drilling hazard in some areas. A joint high resolution seismic reflection and DC resistivity 10 km long profiles were acquired in northwest Alberta to define the position and geological setting of a buried channel. Due to the near surface nature (50-m to 300-m) of the target, a high spatial and temporal resolution seismic profile was collected using a 240 channel semi-distributed seismic acquisition system recording 40 Hz geophones placed at a 4-m spacing. A high-frequency seismic vibrator provided a 20-250 Hz source sweep. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data was acquired using a 15-m electrode spacing. At its deepest point, the channel cuts through more than 300-m of Cretaceous sands and shales through a regional unconformity into higher velocity carbonates. The channel fill materials have generally lower seismic velocities and are more resistive than the flanking undisturbed Cretaceous formations. These contrasts allow the channel to be detected on the basis of both refraction and resistivity analysis, which is in good agreement with geology. The resistivity profile further shows highly resistive zones that may be indicative of shallow gas which correspond to a known producing horizon. These filled incised valley sediments were may have been deposited during different periods of glaciation. Geochemical analyses of shallow gas from wells within the channel indicates a thermogenic origin and suggests that the channel both breeches the source zone and serves as a conduit for escaping methane.

  18. How small is pedogenic magnetite? Size estimates for loessic soils based on remanence and hysteresis measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, C. E.; Machac, T.

    2005-12-01

    Pedogenic magnetite (or maghemite) is generally believed to be fine-grained, consisting mainly of superparamagnetic (SP) and single-domain (SD) particles. These grain size estimates are based on increased values of ARM/IRM or frequency dependent susceptibility (χFD) in the magnetically enhanced horizons. However, these changes in grain size dependent parameters are generally quite small, compared to the often large increase in concentration dependent parameters, such as low field susceptibility, saturation magnetization (J_S), or various remanence parameters (RM). In addition, a recent study by Dunlop (2002b) suggested that hysteresis properties of several Chinese soils (modern and buried) do not suggest a fining of the magnetic component in the magnetically enhanced soil horizons. We used the model of Dunlop (2002a)to analyze hysteresis data from twenty modern soil profiles from the Midwestern United States. In contrast to the data analyzed by Dunlop (2002b), our data can be modeled equally well with binary mixtures of SD-MD and SD-SP particles. To complement the ambiguous hysteresis data we generated a simple mixing model to constrain the size distribution of pedogenic magnetite. Our model assumes remanence acquisition efficiencies f = RM / J_S for coarse (MD - PSD) and fine (SD-SP) magnetite for ARM and IRM. It then uses ARM/IRM ratios to estimate the relative abundances of coarse and fine magnetite. The validity of our grain size distribution estimates can be checked by comparing measured J_S values to J_S calculated from our model output and measured values of IRM (or ARM). A comparison of our ARM/IRM modeling and hysteresis data shows that the magnetic properties of magnetically enhanced soil horizons can be explained with the addition of a fine grained magnetite component. This component, however, has a wide grain size distribution which includes SP, SD and likely PSD particles. Dunlop, D. J. (2002a). Theory and application of the Day plot (Mrs/M_s versus

  19. Evolving Hořava cosmological horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Mohsen; Mohseni, Morteza

    2016-09-01

    Several sets of radially propagating null congruence generators are exploited in order to form 3-dimensional marginally trapped surfaces, referred to as black hole and cosmological apparent horizons in a Hořava universe. Based on this method, we deal with the characteristics of the 2-dimensional space-like spheres of symmetry and the peculiarities of having trapping horizons. Moreover, we apply this method in standard expanding and contracting FLRW cosmological models of a Hořava universe to investigate the conditions under which the extra parameters of the theory may lead to trapped/anti-trapped surfaces both in the future and in the past. We also include the cases of negative time, referred to as the finite past, and discuss the formation of anti-trapped surfaces inside the cosmological apparent horizons.

  20. Field tests and computational simulations of the explosion of buried charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Eve; Loret, Benjamin; Calvel, Jean Paul

    2015-09-01

    Modelling buried explosion is a matter of concern for vehicle protection. Indeed, in the battlefield, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are one of the major threats for land vehicles and, more specifically, for their underbelly. Two series of field tests using several masses of explosives have been performed, varying certain geometrical parameters, the nature and the physical properties of the soil. These controlled tests have shown that the impulse transmitted to the vehicle is a function of the saturation of the soil as well as of depth of burial of the explosive. In an effort to simulate the phenomena that take place during the explosions, these tests have been used to feed the data requested in computational simulations in a finite element context. Soil modelling presents its own difficulties, especially because soil is a porous medium and the three phases (solid grains, water and air) must be considered. A non linear viscoplastic cap model has been developed where the degree of saturation is variable. The yield surface includes a failure part, a cap and a tension cutoff. Soil stiffening associated with the air expulsion has been observed to be an important aspect of the model.

  1. Hair-brane ideas on the horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Emil J.; Niehoff, Ben E.

    2015-11-01

    We continue an examination of the microstate geometries program begun in arXiv:1409.6017, focussing on the role of branes that wrap the cycles which degenerate when a throat in the geometry deepens and a horizon forms. An associated quiver quantum mechanical model of minimally wrapped branes exhibits a non-negligible fraction of the gravitational entropy, which scales correctly as a function of the charges. The results suggest a picture of AdS3/CFT2 duality wherein the long string that accounts for BTZ black hole entropy in the CFT description, can also be seen to inhabit the horizon of BPS black holes on the gravity side.

  2. Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

  3. East Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A high point on the distant eastern rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon in this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars.

    That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 34 kilometers (21 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  4. North Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A northern portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon of this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 7, 2009, during the 1,820st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars.

    That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  5. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barriers which prevent women from entering math-and science-based careers. The Expanding Your Horizons conferences were presented on 77 college, university and high school campuses across the United States. This year, these unique one day conferences reached 15,500 students, 3,000 parents and educators, and involved 3,000 career women who volunteered their services as conference planners, workshop leaders, speakers, and role models.

  6. Horizons and plane waves: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-11-06

    We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.

  7. Evidence for a sedimentary siloxane horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Pellenbarg, R.E.; Tevault, D.E.

    1986-07-01

    Selected samples from two Puget Sound sediment cores have been analyzed for poly(organo)siloxanes(silicones). One core was 60 years old at 30-cm depth (ages by lead-210 dating) and showed no evidence for silicones there. The second, 15 years old at depth, exhibited silicones at depth. Clearly shown is evidence for a siloxane horizon in theses two cores, with the presence of the horizon directly related to the fact that silicones have been in widespread use only since World War II. All samples were analyzed by solvent extraction and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Biochar reduces short-term nitrate leaching from a horizon in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Sorrenti, G; Panzacchi, P; George, E; Tonon, G

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen leaching in croplands is a worldwide problem with implications both on human health and on the environment. Efforts should be taken to increase nutrient use efficiency and minimize N losses from terrestrial to water ecosystems. Soil-applied biochar has been reported to increase soil fertility and decrease nutrient leaching in tropical soils and under laboratory conditions. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of biochar addition on short-term N leaching from A soil horizon in a mature apple orchard growing on subalkaline soils located in the Po Valley (Italy). In spring 2009, 10 Mg of biochar per hectare was incorporated into the surface 20-cm soil layer by soil plowing. Cumulative nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH) leaching was measured in treated and control plots 4 mo after the addition of biochar and the following year by using ion-exchange resin lysimeters installed below the plowed soil layer. Cumulative NO leaching was not affected by biochar after 4 mo, whereas in the following year it was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced by 75% over the control (from 5.5 to 1.4 kg ha). Conversely, NH leaching was very low and unaffected by soil biochar treatment. The present study shows that soil biochar addition can significantly decrease short-term nitrate leaching from the surface layer of a subalkaline soil under temperate climatic conditions.

  9. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  10. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil.

  11. Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

  12. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  13. New Concepts on the Educational Horizon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrist, Robert S.; Mitchell, Edna

    Four dimensions in education provide a basis for discussing future horizons: (1) curriculum development, (2) teacher education, (3) administration and organization, and (4) research and development. These areas are interdependent, and one cannot be improved or changed without affecting the other areas. Within these areas, some of the broad changes…

  14. Time Horizon in Students' Predictions of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manger, Terje; Teigen, Karl Halvor

    1988-01-01

    Eight and two months before their final exam, 252 undergraduates in Norway stated their expectations and hopes for examination grades. Correlations between expected and obtained grades were low. A shift from optimism to pessimism occurred. Results confirm the time horizon's crucial role in the prediction of academic achievement. (TJH)

  15. The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Freeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition," is a co-production with the Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA), and examines six emerging technologies for their potential impact on and use in education and interpretation within the museum environment: BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), crowdsourcing, electronic…

  16. Falling through the black hole horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a "stick", as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking's quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a "firewall", the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking's model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the train exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  17. Gateway's Horizon: A Center of Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Jayne; Colony, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Gateway Technical College's Horizon Center for Transportation Technology, located in Kenosha, Wisconsin, which was the product of collaboration with business and industry, community support and a U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) grant. The center, which opened this fall, is a prime example of a sustainable community…

  18. On the differentiability order of horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeghy, D.

    2016-06-01

    Let M be a time oriented Lorentzian manifold and H\\subset M a horizon. We will show that the differentiability order of the horizon can change only once along a generator, i.e. the following holds. If γ :I\\to H is a generator, thus, an inextendable past directed light-like geodesic on the horizon, where I=(α ,β ) or [α ,β ), then there exists a unique parameter {t}0\\in [α ,β ] and a positive integer k≥slant 1 such that the following is true. The horizon H is exactly of class {C}k at γ (t), for every t\\in ({t}0,β ), moreover H is only differentiable, but not of class {C}1 at every point γ (t), for which t\\in (α ,{t}0]. Moreover, if γ (α ) is the endpoint of only one generator then for a suitable space-like submanifold R\\subset H the first cut point of R along γ is γ (α ). Furthermore, all the points γ (t), for which t\\in [α ,{t}0], are non-injectivity points of R along γ . Moreover, if H is smooth at an interior point of γ, then H is smooth at every point of γ. MSC 53C50

  19. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

  20. Electrogeochemical sampling with NEOCHIM - results of tests over buried gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Fey, D.L.; Smith, D.B.; Patterson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Electrogeochemical extraction methods are based on the migration of ions in an electric field. Ions present in soil moisture are transported by an applied current into fluids contained in special electrodes placed on the soil. The fluids are then collected and analyzed. Extractions are governed by Faraday's and Ohm's laws and are modeled by the operation of a simple Hittord transference apparatus. Calculations show that the volume of soil sampled in an ideal electrogeochemical extraction can be orders of magnitude greater than the volumes used in more popular geochemical extraction methods, although this has not been verified experimentally. CHIM is a method of in-situ electrogeochemical extraction that was developed in the former Soviet Union and has been tested and applied internationally to exploration for buried mineral deposits. Tests carried out at the US Geological Survey (USGS) indicated that there were problems inherent in the use of CHIM technology. The cause of the problems was determined to be the diffusion of acid from the conventional electrode into the soil. The NEOCHIM electrode incorporates two compartments and a salt bridge in a design that inhibits diffusion of acid and enables the collection of anions or cations. Tests over a gold-enriched vein in Colorado and over buried, Carlin-type, disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada show that there are similarities and differences between NEOCHIM results and those by partial extractions of soils which include simple extractions with water, dilute acids and solutions of salts used as collector fluids in the electrodes. Results of both differ from the results obtained by total chemical digestion. The results indicate that NEOCHIM responds to mineralized faults associated with disseminated gold deposits whereas partial and total chemical extraction methods do not. This suggests that faults are favored channels for the upward migration of metals and that NEOCHIM may be more effective in exploration

  1. Algorithm development for deeply buried threat detection in GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichman, Daniël.; Malof, Jordan M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2016-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a popular remote sensing modality for buried threat detection. Many algorithms have been developed to detect buried threats using GPR data. One on-going challenge with GPR is the detection of very deeply buried targets. In this work a detection approach is proposed that improves the detection of very deeply buried targets, and interestingly, shallow targets as well. First, it is shown that the signal of a target (the target "signature") is well localized in time, and well correlated with the target's burial depth. This motivates the proposed approach, where GPR data is split into two disjoint subsets: an early and late portion corresponding to the time at which shallow and deep target signatures appear, respectively. Experiments are conducted on real GPR data using the previously published histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) prescreener: a fast supervised processing method operated on HOG features. The results show substantial improvements in detection of very deeply buried targets (4.1% to 17.2%) and in overall detection performance (81.1% to 83.9%). Further, it is shown that the performance of the proposed approach is relatively insensitive to the time at which the data is split. These results suggest that other detection methods may benefit from depth-based processing as well.

  2. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  3. Radiometric Study of Soil Profiles in the Infrared Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, T. V.; Ponomarev, E. I.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of radiometric survey of soil profiles in the infrared range for the analysis of soil physical properties was studied. Radiometric data were obtained for different dates of the growing season for a number of soil profiles. The specificity of temperature profiles of texture-differentiated soils (Luvisols and Retisols) as related to weather conditions of the growing season was examined. The correlation analysis showed a close relationship between the air and surface soil temperatures and between the radiometric and thermodynamic soil temperatures in the upper 10 cm. In the studied profiles, the gradient of radiometric temperatures reached 0.5-0.8°C/cm in the humus horizons and sharply decreased at the depth of more than 15-20 cm. The gradient analysis of radiometric images made it possible to outline the boundaries of soil horizons. For the texture-differentiated soils, the most distinct boundaries were established between the gray-humus AY horizon and the underlying eluvial EL horizon in podzolic soils and between the AY horizon and the underlying humus-eluvial AEL horizon in gray soils.

  4. Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie

    Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent

  5. Influence of soil surface characteristics and water repellence on soil infiltration and soil loss of Andisols (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción, Jiménez; Jonay, Neris; Josué, Fuentes; Marisa, Tejedor

    2010-05-01

    Infiltration is a crucial process in the hydrological cycle, since it controls - among other things - the generation of run-off, erosion and aquifer recharge. Undisturbed Andisols are considered resistant to water erosion; a characteristic closely associated with their high porosity that permits a rapid rainfall infiltration and high structural stability. In spite of that, the high content of organic C on this type of soils, and the positive relation between this property and water repellence, could allow the presence of some soil surface characteristics that may change this behaviour. The aim of this work was to study the influence of these hydrophobic layers on water infiltration and soil loss on Andisols of Tenerife. Twelve sites were chosen, all of which are located on the northern side of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), between 825-1400 m.a.s.l. The soils are allophanic Andisols (Typic/Lithic Hapludands and Typic Haplustands) and vitric Andisols (Typic Udivitrands) under pine forest. In each site, soil surface features with potential hydrological implications were described. To determine infiltration, a rainfall simulator with the following characteristics was used: 35 x 25 x 30 cm metal box with nozzles in the bottom, 2.5 cm apart (diameter of drops = 2-3 mm). The 4 box adjustable legs were set at 2 m height. Prior to installing the rainfall simulator, study zones were marked out using 30 cm-tall metal sheets. Each area measured approximately 875 cm2 and measurements were taken for slopes of 10 and 30% when it was possible. At the end of the slope a 25 cm-wide collector was semi-buried to collect runoff and sediment. Rainfall of variable intensity between 50-70 mmh-1 was simulated for periods of 30-45 minutes. Time to runoff (TR), volume to runoff (VR), steady-state infiltration rate (IR), runoff/rainfall ratio (RR), soil loss rate (SED) and sediment concentration (CSED) were measured. For some of the studied soils, the formation of horizons

  6. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species.

  7. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ..., or treasury bills. 2. Horizons, a Delaware limited liability company registered with the Commission... investment company from suspending the right of redemption or postponing the date of payment of...

  8. An Integration of Geophysical Methods to Explore Buried Structures on the Bench and in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booterbaugh, A. P.; Lachhab, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the following study, an integration of geophysical methods and devices were implemented on the bench and in the field to accurately identify buried structures. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods, including both a fabricated electrical resistivity apparatus and an electrical resistivity device were all used in this study. The primary goal of the study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the apparatus which costs a fraction of the price of a commercially sold resistivity instrument. The apparatus consists of four electrodes, two multimeters, a 12-volt battery, a DC to AC inverter and wires. Using this apparatus, an electrical current, is injected into earth material through the outer electrodes and the potential voltage is measured across the inner electrodes using a multimeter. The recorded potential and the intensity of the current can then be used to calculate the apparent resistivity of a given material. In this study the Wenner array, which consists of four equally spaced electrodes, was used due to its higher accuracy and greater resolution when investigating lateral variations of resistivity in shallow depths. In addition, the apparatus was used with an electrical resistivity device and a ground penetrating radar unit to explore the buried building foundation of Gustavus Adolphus Hall located on Susquehanna University Campus, Selinsgrove, PA. The apparatus successfully produced consistent results on the bench level revealing the location of small bricks buried under a soil material. In the summer of 2010, seventeen electrical resistivity transects were conducted on the Gustavus Adolphus site where and revealed remnants of the foundation. In the summer of 2011, a ground penetrating radar survey and an electrical resistivity tomography survey were conducted to further explore the site. Together these methods identified the location of the foundation and proved that the apparatus was a reliable tool for regular use on the bench

  9. A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

  10. The Pluto System As Seen By New Horizons Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Pluto system as NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft saw it in July 2015. This animation, made with real images taken by New Horizons, begins with Pluto flying in for its close-up on July 14; we then...

  11. SETAC launches global horizon scanning/research prioritization project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SETAC World Council is pleased to announce the initiation of a Global Horizon Scanning and Prioritization Project aimed at identifying geographically specific research needs to address stressor impacts on environmental quality. In recent years, horizon scanning and research ...

  12. Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-06-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out on the volcanic soils involved in the landslide phenomena that occurred in 2006 at Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (southern Italy). Chemical (soil pH, organic carbon content, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, Na adsorption ratio and Al, Fe and Si forms), physical (particle and pore size distribution, pore structure), hydrological (soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), mineralogical and micromorphological analyses were carried out for three soil profiles selected in two of the main head scarps. The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties at the interface with a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon), that was only marginally involved in the sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. When compared to the overlying horizons, 2C showed (i) fine grey ash that is almost pumice free, with the silt content increasing by 20 %; (ii) ks values 1 order of magnitude lower; (iii) a pore distribution concentrated into small (15-30 μm modal class) pores characterised by a very low percolation threshold (approximately 15-25 μm); (iv) the presence of expandable clay minerals; and (v) increasing Na content in the exchange complex. Most of these properties indicated that 2C was a lower permeability horizon compared to the overlying ones. Nevertheless, it was possible to assume this interface to be an impeding layer to vertical water fluxes only by the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer, on top of 2C, and of the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on top of the layer. Although Mt. Vezzi's soil environment has many properties in common with those of other Campania debris-mudflows (e.g. high gradient, north-facing slope, similar forestry, and volcanic origin of the parent material), the results of this study suggest a more complex relationship between soil

  13. Taking into account the heterogeneity and the temporal variability of the soil structure to implement relevant soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Isabelle; Tetegan, Marion; Chabbi, Abad; Korboulewski, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Due to its position at the interface between the atmosphere and the vadose zone, the soil significantly contributes to the partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and overland flow, and, as a consequence, to the water feeding to plants and to the water aquifer level. The characteristics of the soil are usually described at the scale of the horizon, the latter being considered as the elementary component of the pedological maps and soil databases. As far as hydraulic properties are concerned - the water retention curve and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, the two essential soil characteristics for the description of soil water transfers -, their estimation at the horizon scale is then of major interest. Nevertheless, even at this scale, the horizon can usually not be considered neither as a homogeneous volume, nor as a time-stable system. As a consequence, methodologies have to be developed to characterize i) the degree of heterogeneity of the soil structure, ii) the evolution of the structure with time, and iii) if possible, the equivalent properties of such heterogeneous horizons. The surface horizons and the stony horizons can be considered as representative models of soil horizons to test these methodologies: the first ones because their fine structure evolves rapidly, under the effect of human agricultural activities - compaction by wheeling, fragmentation by tillage - of climate, or of faunal and vegetal actions; the second ones because the strong difference in material and in bulk density between fine earth and rock fragments lead to complex hydric behaviors. Based on several examples, the objectives of this presentation will then be i) to describe the temporal evolution of soil hydraulic properties in cultivated horizons, ii) to present methodologies for the estimation of equivalent soil hydraulic properties in stony horizons, and iii) to discuss the contribution of this new methodologies compared to old ones to better estimate the soil hydric

  14. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  15. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  16. Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

    2012-11-01

    In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable

  17. Forensic GPR: finite-difference simulations of responses from buried human remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammon, William S.; McMechan, George A.; Zeng, Xiaoxian

    2000-10-01

    Time domain 2.5-D finite-difference simulations of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses from models of buried human remains suggest the potential of GPR for detailed non-destructive forensic site investigation. Extraction of information beyond simple detection of cadavers in forensic investigations should be possible with current GPR technology. GPR responses are simulated for various body cross-sections with different depths of burial, soil types, soil moisture contents, survey frequencies and antenna separations. Biological tissues have high electrical conductivity so diagnostic features for the imaging of human bodies are restricted to the soil/skin interface and shallow tissue interfaces. A low amplitude reflection shadow zone occurs beneath a body because of high GPR attenuation within the body. Resolution of diagnostic features of a human target requires a survey frequency of 900 MHz or greater and an increment between recording stations of 10 cm or less. Depth migration focuses field GPR data into an image that reveals accurate information on the number, dimensions, locations and orientations of body elements. The main limitation on image quality is attenuation in the surrounding soil and within the body. 3-D imaging is also feasible.

  18. Linear and Nonlinear Acoustic Measurements of Buried Landmines: Detection Schemes Near Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.

    2003-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic impedance of an anti-personnel and anti-tank plastic, blast-hardened landmines reveal resonances in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 Hz. The top surface resonances are due to its complicated mechanical structure vibrating in air. The lowest mode results from the blast hardened design of the landmine. Typically, a portion or cavity of the landmine is designed to absorb the shock from an explosion that is intended to detonate the landmine but still allow the landmine to trigger its explosive device when a slow steady pressure is applied. The mechanical design of the blast hardened aspects results in a high Q simple harmonic oscillator resonance of the top surface. At higher frequencies the top surface behaves like thin circular plate acoustic modes. When these landmines are buried in soils, the modes are mass loaded. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity are used for detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds to pressure fluctuations nonlinearly, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for new methods of landmine detection not previously exploited.

  19. Rindler-like Horizon in Spherically Symmetric Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinbo; He, Tangmei; Zhang, Jingyi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Rindler-like horizon in a spherically symmetric spacetime is proposed. It is showed that just like the Rindler horizon in Minkowski spacetimes, there is also a Rindler-like horizon to a family of special observers in general spherically symmetric spacetimes. The entropy of this type of horizon is calculated with the thin film brick-wall model. The significance of entropy is discussed. Our results imply some connection between Bekeinstein-Hawking entropy and entanglement entropy.

  20. Sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.

    1990-04-01

    We are investigation a sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines. Our primary approach is sensor intrafusion. Our dual-channel passive IR methodology decouples true (corrected) surface temperature variations of 0.2{degree}C from spatially dependent surface emissivity noise. It produces surface temperature maps showing patterns of conducted heat from buried objects which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Our methodology exploits Planck's radiation law. It produces separate maps of surface emissivity variations which allow us to reduce false alarms. Our secondary approach is sensor interfusion using other methodologies. For example, an active IR CO{sub 2} laser reflectance channel helps distinguish surface targets unrelated to buried land mines at night when photographic methods are ineffective. Also, the interfusion of ground penetrating radar provides depth information for confirming the site of buried objects. Together with EG G in Las Vegas, we flew a mission at Nellis AFB using the Daedalus dual-channel (5 and 10 micron) IR scanner mounted on a helicopter platform at an elevation of 60 m above the desert sand. We detected surface temperature patterns associated with buried (inert) land mines covered by as much as 10 cm of dry sand. The respective spatial, spectral, thermal, emissivity and temporal signatures associated with buried targets differed from those associated with surface vegetation, rocks and manmade objects. Our results were consistent with predictions based on the annual Temperature Wave Model.They were confirmed by field measurements. The dual-channel sensor fusion methodology is expected to enhance the capabilities of the military and industrial community for standoff mine detection. Other important potential applications are open skies, drug traffic control and environmental restoration at waste burial sites. 11 figs.

  1. Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

  2. The tri-soil experiment: do plants discriminate among vegetation soil types?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested if rooting mass and root nutrient uptake of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) or creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) were influenced by vegetation soil type. Three soil types (A horizons), similar in gross physical and chemical properties, were freshly-collected. The soils varied in the veget...

  3. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  4. Surface Localization of Buried III-V Semiconductor Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Alonso-González, P; González, L; Fuster, D; Martín-Sánchez, J; González, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the top surface localization of InAs quantum dots once capped by a GaAs layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At the used growth conditions, the underneath nanostructures are revealed at the top surface as mounding features that match their density with independence of the cap layer thickness explored (from 25 to 100 nm). The correspondence between these mounds and the buried nanostructures is confirmed by posterior selective strain-driven formation of new nanostructures on top of them, when the distance between the buried and the superficial nanostructures is short enough (d = 25 nm).

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration commercialization actions plans. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Glore, D.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE complex. BWID evaluates, validates, and demonstrates technologies and transfers this information throughout DOE and private industry to support DOE. remediation planning and implementation activities. This report documents commercialization action plans for five technologies with near-term commercialization/ implementation potential as well as provides a status of commercial and academic partners for each technology.

  6. The effect of bioturbation on soil formation; Simulations and measurement in a Belgian loess area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Peter; Opelot, Emmanuel; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Seppe; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Spatial patterns of soil often do not reflect those of topographic controls. We attempted to identify possible causes of this by comparing observed and simulated soil horizon depths. Observed depths of E, Bt, BC, C1, and C2 horizons in loess-derived soils in Belgium showed a weak to absent relation to terrain attributes in a sloping area. We applied the soil genesis model SoilGen2.16 onto 108 1 × 1 m2 locations in a 1329 ha area to find possible causes. Two scenarios were simulated. Model 1 simulated soil development under undisturbed conditions, taking slope, aspect, and loess thickness as the only sources of variations. Model 2 additionally included a stochastic submodel to generate tree-uprooting events based on the exposure of trees to the wind. Outputs of both models were converted to depths of transitions between horizons, using an algorithm calibrated to horizon depths observed in the field. Model 1 showed strong correlations between terrain attributes and depths for all horizons, although surprisingly, regression kriging was not able to model all variations. Model 2 showed a weak to absent correlation for the upper horizons but still a strong correlation for the deeper horizons BC, C1, and C2. For the upper horizons the spatial variation strongly resembled that of the measurements. This is a strong indication that bioturbation in the course of soil formation due to treefalls influences spatial patterns of horizon depths.

  7. Status of the JPL Horizons Ephemeris System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Jon D.

    2015-08-01

    Since 1996, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on-line Horizons system has provided open access to the latest JPL orbit solutions through customizable ephemeris generation and searches. Currently, high-precision ephemerides for more than 683,000 objects are available: all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, system barycenters, and some libration points.Since inception, Horizons has produced 150 million ephemeris products in response to 70.4 million connections by 800,000 unique IP addresses. Recent usage is typically 6000 unique users requesting 4,000,000 ephemeris products per month.Horizons is freely accessible without an account and may be used and automated through any of three interfaces: interactive telnet connection, web-browser form, or by sending e-mail command-files.Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated on request using JPL's DASTCOM5 database of initial conditions which is kept current by a separate process; as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center, they are automatically processed into new JPL orbit solutions. Radar targets and other objects of high interest have their orbit solutions manually examined and updated into the database.For asteroids and comets, SPK files may be dynamically created using Horizons. This is effectively a recording of the integrator output. The binary files may then be efficiently interpolated by user software to exactly reproduce the trajectory without having to duplicate the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion.Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, and close-approach tables. More than one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For asteroids and comets, statistical uncertainties can be mapped to output times to assess position and motion uncertainties.Horizons is consistent with the DE431 solar system solution

  8. Standoff detection of explosives and buried landmines using fluorescent bacterial sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Kabessa, Yossef; Eyal, Ori; Bar-On, Ofer; Korouma, Victor; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Agranat, Aharon J

    2016-05-15

    A standoff detection scheme for buried landmines and concealed explosive charges is presented. The detection procedure consists of the following: Live bacterial sensor strains, genetically engineered to produce a dose-dependent amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of explosives' vapors, are encapsulated and spread on the suspected area. The fluorescence produced by the bacteria in response to traces of the explosive material in their microenvironment is remotely detected by a phase-locked optoelectronic sampling system. This scheme enables fast direct access to a large minefield area, while obviating the need to endanger personnel and equipment. Moreover, the employment of phase locking detection efficiently isolates the bacterial sensors' fluorescent output from the background optical signals. This facilitates the application of bacterial sensors in an outdoor environment, where control of background illumination is not possible. Using this system, we demonstrate standoff detection of 2,4-DNT both in aqueous solution and when buried in soil, by sensor bacteria either in liquid culture or agar-immobilized, respectively, at a distance of 50 m in a realistic optically noisy environment. PMID:26774094

  9. Standoff detection of explosives and buried landmines using fluorescent bacterial sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Kabessa, Yossef; Eyal, Ori; Bar-On, Ofer; Korouma, Victor; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Agranat, Aharon J

    2016-05-15

    A standoff detection scheme for buried landmines and concealed explosive charges is presented. The detection procedure consists of the following: Live bacterial sensor strains, genetically engineered to produce a dose-dependent amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of explosives' vapors, are encapsulated and spread on the suspected area. The fluorescence produced by the bacteria in response to traces of the explosive material in their microenvironment is remotely detected by a phase-locked optoelectronic sampling system. This scheme enables fast direct access to a large minefield area, while obviating the need to endanger personnel and equipment. Moreover, the employment of phase locking detection efficiently isolates the bacterial sensors' fluorescent output from the background optical signals. This facilitates the application of bacterial sensors in an outdoor environment, where control of background illumination is not possible. Using this system, we demonstrate standoff detection of 2,4-DNT both in aqueous solution and when buried in soil, by sensor bacteria either in liquid culture or agar-immobilized, respectively, at a distance of 50 m in a realistic optically noisy environment.

  10. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  11. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    laboratory data that emulate buried objects in the ocean and where the data are very limited and the environment is highly attenuative. The forward model is employed with an integral equation approach. The inverse scattering algorithm uses the level set method as well as a binary specialized contrast source method. Though computationally intensive these approaches are expected to be effective whenever linearization of the inversion fails. Two types of antennae were tested out in the experiment, a small one and a larger one. It is found, in particular, that the smaller antenna reproduces the modelled result better than the larger one. • X Feng and M Sato, in `Pre-stack migration applied to GPR for landmine detection', investigate the testing of a ground penetrating radar with synthetic aperture, acquiring mid-point multi-offset data in the demanding situations (strong clutter) of inhomogeneous soil and rough ground and/or of steeply oblique landmines. This is done in practice with experimental data, and is thoroughly illustrated by numerical experiments in the framework of migration techniques. These techniques are tailored to provide an approximate but robust solution to the highly involved three-dimensional vector wave-field inversion problem which is relevant here. • A Kirsch, in `The factorization method for Maxwell's equations', shows how the theory of the recently introduced and much considered factorization method can be developed in a sound theoretical fashion for the time-harmonic three-dimensional Maxwell system when far-field scattering patterns are known—by constructing a binary criterion which tells whether, if a given point lies inside or outside an unknown obstacle, the shape of which is to be retrieved. The vector nature of the electromagnetic field is fully considered in this paper. This is investigated in depth both for a lossy obstacle (with lower-bounded imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity) and for a lossless one (albeit with smoothly

  12. Polarimetry with the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Doeleman, Sheperd; Fish, Vincent L.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Kosowsky, Michael; Wardle, John F. C.; Lu, Rusen

    2014-06-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is an effort to develop millimeter and submillimeter VLBI to image nearby black holes at resolutions comparable to their event horizons. Past work with the EHT has measured compact emission on such scales for Sgr A* and M87, and has also measured sub-parsec structure in more distant quasars. Polarimetry with the EHT enables a powerful extension of this work, mapping magnetic field structures via the highly polarized synchrotron emission. Polarization is also an excellent probe of rapid variability, especially for Sgr A*, and can convey rich astrometric information even with incomplete imaging. We report on results from our 2013 campaign, which demonstrate a sharp increase in the linear polarization fraction and variability with increasing baseline, and we demonstrate that current EHT data can potentially achieve microarcsecond relative astrometry of flaring regions on timescales of minutes.

  13. Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam

    2003-09-26

    We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62). PMID:14525296

  14. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    DOE PAGES

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-deSitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $N = 4$ super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincare´ horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanishmore » with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. Lastly, the condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.« less

  15. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-de Sitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincaré horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanish with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. The condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.

  16. Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam

    2003-09-26

    We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62).

  17. Quantum correlations across the black hole horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetzhold, Ralf; Unruh, William G.

    2010-06-15

    Inspired by the condensed-matter analogues of black holes, we study the quantum correlations across the event horizon reflecting the entanglement between the outgoing particles of the Hawking radiation and their in-falling partners. For a perfectly covariant theory, the total correlation is conserved in time and piles up arbitrary close to the horizon in the past, where it merges into the singularity of the vacuum two-point function at the light cone. After modifying the dispersion relation (i.e., breaking Lorentz invariance) for large k, on the other hand, the light cone is smeared out and the entanglement is not conserved but actually created in a given rate per unit time.

  18. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone

  19. New Horizons Pluto Flyby Guest Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M.; Turney, D.; Fisher, S.; Carr, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 14, 2015, after 9.5 years of cruise, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past the Pluto system to gather first images humankind had ever seen on Pluto and its five moons. While much has been discovered about the Pluto system since New Horizons launch in 2006, the system has never been imaged at high resolution and anticipation of the "First Light" of the Pluto system had been anticipated by planetary enthusiasts for decades. The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), which built and operates New Horizons, was the focal point for gathering three distinct groups: science and engineering team members; media and public affairs representatives; and invited public, including VIP's. Guest operations activities were focused on providing information primarily to the invited public and VIP's. High level objectives for the Guest Operations team was set to entertain and inform the general public, offer media reaction shots, and to deconflict activities for the guests from media activities wherever possible. Over 2000 people arrived at APL in the days surrounding closest approach for guest, science or media operations tracks. Reaction and coverage of the Guest Operations events was universally positive and global in impact: iconic pictures of the auditorium waving flags during the moment of closest approach were published in media outlets on every continent. Media relations activities ensured coverage in all key media publications targeted for release, such as the New York Times, Science, Le Monde, and Nature. Social and traditional media coverage of the events spanned the globe. Guest operations activities are designed to ensure that a guest has a memorable experience and leaves with a lifelong memory of the mission and their partnership in the activity. Results, lessons learned, and other data from the New Horizons guest operations activity will be presented and analyzed.

  20. Quantum amplification effect in a horizon fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Mohammad H.

    2010-05-15

    The appearance of a few unevenly spaced bright flashes of light on top of Hawking radiation is the sign of the amplification effect in black hole horizon fluctuations. Previous studies on this problem suffer from the lack of considering all emitted photons in the theoretical spectroscopy of these fluctuations. In this paper, we include all of the physical transition weights and present a consistent intensity formula. This modifies a black hole radiation pattern.

  1. New Horizons Imaging of Jupiter's Main Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.; Showalter, Mark Robert; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Hamilton, D. P.; Weaver, Harold A.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Catherine B.; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    New Horizons took roughly 520 visible-light images of Jupiter's ring system during its 2007 flyby, using the spacecraft's Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). These observations were taken over nine days surrounding Jupiter close-approach. They span a range in distance of 30 - 100 RJ, and a phase angle range of 20 - 174 degrees. The highest resolution images -- more than 200 frames -- were taken at a resolution approaching 20 km/pix.We will present an analysis of this dataset, much of which has not been studied in detail before. Our results include New Horizons' first quantitative measurements of the ring's intrinsic brightness and variability. We will also present results on the ring's azimuthal and radial structure. Our measurements of the ring's phase curve will be used to infer properties of the ring's dust grains.Our results build on the only previous analysis of the New Horizons Jupiter ring data set, presented in Showalter et al (2007, Science 318, 232-234), which detected ring clumps and placed a lower limit on the population of undetected ring-moons.This work was supported by NASA's OPR program.

  2. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  3. Emergent horizons and causal structures in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-09-01

    The open string metric arises kinematically in studying fluctuations of open string degrees of freedom on a D-brane. An observer, living on a probe D-brane, can send signals through the spacetime by using such fluctuations on the probe, that propagate in accordance with a metric which is conformal to the open string metric. Event horizons can emerge in the open string metric when one considers a D-brane with an electric field on its worldvolume. Here, we emphasize the role of and investigate, in details, the causal structure of the resulting open string event horizon and demonstrate, among other things, its close similarities to an usual black hole event horizon in asymptotically AdS-spaces. To that end, we analyze relevant geodesics, Penrose diagrams and various causal holographic observables for a given open string metric. For analytical control, most of our calculations are performed in an asymptotically AdS3-background, however, we argue that the physics is qualitatively the same in higher dimensions. We also discuss how this open string metric arises from an underlying D-brane configuration in string theory.

  4. Operation Hardtack. Project 1. 9. Loading on buried simulated structures in high-overpressure regions. Report for April-October 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Bultmann, E.H.; McDonough, G.F.; Sinnamon, G.K.

    1984-10-31

    The objective of this project was to study some of the factors affecting the transmission of air-blast-induced pressure through soil and the loading produced on buried structures by such pressures in the high-pressure region (approximately 250 psi). Factors studied were: (1) the attenuation of pressure in a sand deposit when the water table is a few feet below the ground surface; (2) the effect of duration of positive phase of blast on the pressure transmitted through such a soil; (3) the effect of structure flexibility on the pressure acting on structures buried in such a soil; and (4) the relationship between horizontal and vertical pressures in such a soil. The project employed 43 devices, each a rigid cylinder having one rigid end and one deformable-diaphragm end. The devices were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 20 feet at each of two locations at the Eniwetok Proving Ground. The locations were chosen to give a predicted ground surface overpressure of about 250 psi from each of two shots, Cactus and Koa.

  5. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  8. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  10. Mars: Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis Montes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region. ?? 1981.

  11. Modeling Blast Loading on Buried Reinforced Concrete Structures with Zapotec

    DOE PAGES

    Bessette, Greg C.

    2008-01-01

    A coupled Euler-Lagrange solution approach is used to model the response of a buried reinforced concrete structure subjected to a close-in detonation of a high explosive charge. The coupling algorithm is discussed along with a set of benchmark calculations involving detonations in clay and sand.

  12. Buried mine detection using ground-penetrating impulse radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sargis, P.D.

    1995-03-01

    LLNL is developing a side-looking, ground-penetrating impulse radar system that can eventually be mounted on a robotic vehicle or an airborne platform to locate buried land mines. The system is described and results from field experiments are presented.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  14. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  15. [The buried penis : Indications, a new technique and the results].

    PubMed

    Riechardt, S; Fisch, M

    2013-10-01

    The buried penis describes a bunch etiologies and clinical presentations of which the congenital form is rare. In the past different techniques had been described, using inner prepuce after mobilization to cover the penile shaft. This can lead to persistent edema of the skin. We developed a new technique to reduce the rate of postoperative edema.

  16. Mapping suspected buried channels using gravity: Examples from southwest Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Keighley, K.E.; Atekwana, E.A.; Sauck, W.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    This study documents the successful application of the gravity method in mapping suspected buried bedrock valleys at three sites in southwest Michigan. The first site is located in Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Gravity surveys were conducted along the Jean Klock Park as part of an ongoing coastal research study of the Lake Michigan shoreline. Previous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) studies at this site had suggested the presence of a buried valley. The results of the gravity survey confirmed the existence of a buried valley approximately 30--40 m deep and at least 2,000 m wide, which is in good agreement with information from drill cores suggesting a possible ancient river system. A detailed gravity survey was conducted at the second site located in Schoolcraft Township, Kalamazoo County, where the heavy use of pesticides has resulted in the contamination of the upper aquifers. Preliminary results suggest the presence of a broad shallow valley at least 25 m deep. Gravity surveys at the third site located southeast of the Kavco Landfill, Barry County also suggests the presence of a buried valley oriented NE-SW, confirming the interpretations of an earlier electrical resistivity study. It is possible that this channel controls groundwater flow and facilitates the transport of contaminants from the landfill to the surrounding areas.

  17. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  18. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  19. Comparison of groundwater colloids in adjoining soils of Florida flatwoods

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Z.X.; Harris, W.G.; Ma, L.Q.

    2000-02-01

    Colloids in soil water are a constituent of natural geochemical fluxes and have the potential to facilitate contaminant transport, but few data are available on their composition and concentration. This study addresses how the composition and concentration of groundwater solids relate to hydrological and soil morphological variables of the Florida flatwoods landscape. Groundwater from saturated soil horizons was sampled biweekly for 1 year along an Aquod/Udult boundary using piezometers designed specifically to minimize disturbance and to permit the valid assessment of suspended solids. Readily dispersible clay from core samples of soil horizons was collected and quantified. Groundwater and soil colloids were analyzed physically, chemically, and mineralogically. Aquod groundwater had consistently lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and more total solids (TS) and organic carbon (OC) than did Udult groundwater. Significant decreases in both TS and OC concentrations in groundwater occurred with depth for both soils. In contrast, the mineralogy of groundwater colloids was insensitive to soil and horizon differences. Quartz dominated inorganic colloid fractions in groundwater samples from all horizons, even in argillic horizons where clay fractions contained little or no quartz. No statistical correlations were found between masses of groundwater colloids and soil water-dispersible clay. However, the proportion of organic carbon was higher in groundwater than in soil matrices. Results are consistent with carbon and colloidal quartz movement in shallow groundwater of the soil studied and document that natural colloid and solute fluxes can be highly soil specific.

  20. Exploiting sparsity and field conditioning in subsurface microwave imaging of nonweak buried targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevacqua, Martina; Crocco, Lorenzo; Donato, Loreto Di; Isernia, Tommaso; Palmeri, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    An efficient inverse scattering strategy is proposed to achieve dielectric characterization of buried objects in lossy soils. The approach takes advantage of Virtual Experiments and Compressive Sensing to obtain quantitative reconstructions of nonweak targets which are nonsparse in the pixel representation basis, commonly adopted in microwave imaging. In addition, an original strategy is adopted to overcome the relevant information lack arising when data are gathered under aspect-limited configurations, such as in ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The proposed strategy significantly outperforms the results achievable with the "state of the art" standard approaches since it allows to achieve nearly optimal reconstructions within a linear framework and without increasing the overall computational burden. Numerical examples with simulated data are given to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  1. Standard KDF0C4 Fallout Calculations for Buried Nuclear Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Serduke, F J D

    2001-09-14

    The collateral damage caused by fallout from shallow-buried nuclear devices is of considerable interest. In this paper, we present results for ''standard'' calculations using the KDFOC4 fallout computer code. Results are presented for a parametric range of yields from 0.1 kt to 1 Mt in equally-spaced logarithmic increments and for emplacement depths of 5 meters in hard, dry rock and 20 meters in moist soil. We will see that for low yields, this emplacement depth has a marked influence on the shape of the fallout patterns but for the highest yields, the fallout patterns are insensitive to the emplacement medium and depth. We look at two categories of doses: (1) Those for which health effects begin to be serious and range upward to lethal, and (2) Doses that are politically very sensitive but for which any deleterious health effects are difficult to prove.

  2. Gravitational memory charges of supertranslation and superrotation on Rindler horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Trevison, Jose; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2016-10-01

    In a Rindler-type coordinate system spanned in a region outside of a black hole horizon, we have nonvanishing classical holographic charges as soft hairs on the horizon for stationary black holes. Taking a large black hole mass limit, the spacetimes with the charges are described by asymptotic Rindler metrics. We construct a general theory of gravitational holographic charges for a (1 +3 )-dimensional linearized gravity field in the Minkowski background with Rindler horizons. Although matter crossing a Rindler horizon causes horizon deformation and a time-dependent coordinate shift—that is, gravitational memory—the supertranslation and superrotation charges on the horizon can be defined during and after its passage through the horizon. It is generally proven that holographic states on the horizon cannot store any information about absorbed perturbative gravitational waves. However, matter crossing the horizon really excites holographic states. By using gravitational memory operators, which consist of the holographic charge operators, we suggest a resolution of the no-cloning paradox of quantum information between matter falling into the horizon and holographic charges on the horizon from the viewpoint of the contextuality of quantum measurement.

  3. Soil bioturbation. A commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Wilkinson, Marshall

    2010-05-01

    Organisms such as trees, ants, earthworms, termites are important components of the earth systems that have dominantly been thought of as abiotic. Despite an early focus on soil bioturbation by heavy-weights such as Charles Darwin and Nathanial Shaler in the late 19th century, sporadic attention to this theme has subsequently followed. Recent compilations demonstrate that soil bioturbation by fauna and flora is widespread across Earths terrestrial surface, and operates at geologically rapid rates that warrant further attention. Such biotic activity contributes to soil creep, soil carbon dynamics, and is critical in engineering the medium through which ecosystems draw their abiotic requirements. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the Earth System. However, soil scientist focussed on the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution, and bioturbation was relegated. In fact, bioturbation is still not widely appreciated within the soil and earth system research community. Nevertheless, within the last decade a review of the impact of bioturbation was launched by authors such as Geoff S. Humphreys. Bioturbation is a complex process as new soil is formed, mounds are developed, soil is buried and a downslope transport of material is done. Bioturbation modify the soil texture and porosity, increase the nutrients and encourage the soil creep flux. A review of the State-of-the-Art of Bioturbation will be presented.

  4. Spatial arrangement of soil mantle in Glacis de Buenavista, Mexico as a product and record of landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Ortega, J.; Solleiro-Rebolledo, E.; Sedov, S.

    2011-12-01

    Factors controlling spatial soil organization have recently attracted the attention of soil scientists because they can contribute to regional management of soil resources. We present here a case study in the Glacis de Buenavista (Mexico), an extended volcanic piedmont, in order to develop an integral understanding of its soil cover as a product and, at the same time, as a record of the main stages of landscape evolution. Three phenomena were considered: Luvisol and Vertisol type soils, and pedosediments, all of them analyzed in terms of their development degree (clay content, macro and micromorphology, selective extractions of Fe (Fe d, Fe o), silicon (Si o) and aluminum (Al o), weathering index and clay mineralogy). Luvisols, represented in the Ahuatenco, Mexicapa and Buenavista sections, are located in the northern and central part of the area. They are red-clayey, polygenetic soils that show strong weathering (with high kaolinitic clay content and high weathering index values), clay illuviation, and reductomorphic processes, combined with vertic features in some parts of the profiles. Vertisols dominate the central and southern portion of the Glacis. They exhibit cracking, angular blocks with wedge-like shapes, slickensides and stress-cutans. The pedogenesis of the Vertisol type is clearly associated with the presence of smectitic minerals in the clay fraction as a product of neoformation. Factors controlling this pedodiversity are: relief, which affects bioclimatic differentiation within the studied landsurface and defines the lateral redistribution of moisture and dissolved substances; and time. Luvisols represent a longer pedogenetic phase that started in the Late Pleistocene, according to the age of buried paleosols, while Vertisols mainly originated in the Late Holocene (according to the age of buried organic horizons). Pedosediments are located in the central area of the Glacis. Here, past and present geomorphic processes interact to produce the greatest

  5. Biogeochemical Controls on Microbial CO2 and CH4 Production in Polygonal Soils From the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water quantity and geochemistry, and available electron acceptors. Significant amounts of iron(II) ions in organic and mineral soils of the active layer in low-centered ice wedge polygons indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in terrestrial ecosystem models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Using microcosm incubations at fixed temperatures and controlled thawing systems for frozen soil cores, we investigated the microbiological processes and rates of soil organic matter degradation and greenhouse gas production under anoxic conditions, at ecologically relevant temperatures of -2, +4 or +8 °C. In contrast to the low-centered polygon incubations representing in situ water-saturated conditions, microcosms with unsaturated high-centered polygon samples displayed lower carbon mineralization as either CH4 or CO2. Substantial differences in CH4 and CO2 response curves from different microtopographic samples separate the thermodynamic controls on biological activity from the kinetic controls of microbial growth and migration that together determine the temperature response for greenhouse gas emissions in a warming Arctic.

  6. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  7. Study Of Functioning of Bacterial Complexes in East Antarctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Churilin, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Studies of bacterial communities in the samples of Antarctic soils by different methods showed that, both in liquid soil suspensions and in situ, microbial complexes are functioning presumably by forming biofilms - the phenomenon that is more expressed in such habitat than in soils of temperate zones. Functional (trophic) diversity and physiological state of hydrolytic bacteria was studied in the samples at the upper layer (0-2 cm) of gravel pavement with algae, in the underlying peat horizon (2-4 cm) with inclusions of dead biomass and its underlying mineral horizon (4-10 cm) with signs of fungal mycelium. The investigated samples of Antarctic soils revealed different trophic diversity and the maximum specific growth rate on mineral medium with different biopolymers as the sole carbon source (starch, chitin, pectin, xylan, dextran-500, tween-20, casein); this can testify to differences in the physiological state of hydrolytic bacteria in various soil horizons and their readiness for growth. The most remarkable characteristics of the studied Antarctic soil as compared to the soils of temperate zone, was the unusual ability of hydrolytic community to consume chitin in the mineral horizon; this can be explained by the presence of fungal mycelium. Also, an almost complete lack in consumption of tween-20 (a water-soluble analogue of fat) by bacterial community of Arctic soil horizons are not explained and needs further verification. The higher functional diversity was detected in the upper horizon of the gravel pavement, which "protects" microorganisms from exposure to extreme temperatures, UV radiation, and desiccation, but the maximum specific growth rate was higher in the lower mineral horizon; this can be explained by the specificity of bacterial colonizing processes and unique formation of Antarctic soil microprofiles in the Larsemann oasis. The obtained data indicate a specific environmental strategy in the samples of Antarctic soils: development in lower mineral

  8. GPR Imaging for Deeply Buried Objects: A Comparative Study Based on FDTD Models and Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, roger; Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak; Sadjadpour, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Conventional use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is hampered by variations in background environmental conditions, such as water content in soil, resulting in poor repeatability of results over long periods of time when the radar pulse characteristics are kept the same. Target objects types might include voids, tunnels, unexploded ordinance, etc. The long-term objective of this work is to develop methods that would extend the use of GPR under various environmental and soil conditions provided an optimal set of radar parameters (such as frequency, bandwidth, and sensor configuration) are adaptively employed based on the ground conditions. Towards that objective, developing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) GPR models, verified by experimental results, would allow us to develop analytical and experimental techniques to control radar parameters to obtain consistent GPR images with changing ground conditions. Reported here is an attempt at developing 20 and 3D FDTD models of buried targets verified by two different radar systems capable of operating over different soil conditions. Experimental radar data employed were from a custom designed high-frequency (200 MHz) multi-static sensor platform capable of producing 3-D images, and longer wavelength (25 MHz) COTS radar (Pulse EKKO 100) capable of producing 2-D images. Our results indicate different types of radar can produce consistent images.

  9. The Changing Model of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  10. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    PubMed

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ondřej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring.

  11. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    PubMed

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ondřej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring. PMID:26084557

  12. Hydric soils in a southeastern Oregon vernal pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clausnitzer, D.; Huddleston, J.H.; Horn, E.; Keller, Michael; Leet, C.

    2003-01-01

    Vernal pools on the High Lava Plain of the northern Great Basin become ponded in most years, but their soils exhibit weak redoximorphic features indicative of hydric conditions. We studied the hydrology, temperature, redox potentials, soil chemistry, and soil morphology of a vernal pool to determine if the soils are hydric, and to evaluate hydric soil field indicators. We collected data for 3 yr from piezometers, Pt electrodes, and thermocouples. Soil and water samples were analyzed for pH, organic C, and extractable Fe and Mn. Soils were ponded from January through April or May, but subsurface saturation was never detected. Soil temperatures 50 cm below the surface rose above 5??C by March. Clayey Bt horizons perched water and limited saturation to the upper 10 cm. Redox potentials at a 5-cm depth were often between 200 and 300 mV, indicating anaerobic conditions, but producing soluble Fe2+ concentrations <1 mg L-1. Extractable soil Fe contents indicated Fe depletion from pool surface horizons and accumulation at or near the upper Bt1 horizon. Depletions and concentrations did not satisfy the criteria of any current hydric soil indicators. We recommend development of new indicators based on acceptance of fewer, less distinct redox concentrations for recognition of a depleted A horizon, and on presence of a thin zone containing redox concentrations located in the upper part of the near-surface perching horizon.

  13. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  14. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  18. Hydrological behavior of a Vertisol under different soil management systems in a rain-fed olive orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, Jose Manuel; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil water availability is a major subject in Mediterranean agricultural systems, mainly due to the limited and highly variable annual rainfall, high evaporative demand, and soil hydrological characteristics. The recent expansion of olive cultivation in the rolling-plains of the Guadalquivir valley, due to the higher profitability of new intensive olive orchards, expanded the presence of olive orchards on Vertisols, soils traditionally used for annual rain-fed crops. These soils have a high content of smectitic clays, which give them a high water storage capacity, and are characterized by vertical and deep shrinkage cracks in the dry season, associated to low soil moisture. Farmers make several tillage passes in these olive groves during the summer, in order to cover the cracks and thus reduce soil water loss by evaporation, which will impact especially in rain-fed in the next olive yield. This tillage practice involves removal of plant residues from the soil surface, as well as burying seeds produced by the plants, so this will remain bared at the beginning of the rainy season, when in the Mediterranean climate is frequent occurrence of high-intensity rainfall, which are ideal conditions for soil loss by water erosion, one of the most serious problems for the sustainability of olive cultivation in Andalusia. Although there are some studies showing that water loss by evaporation from deep horizons of a vertic soil might be elevated (eg. Ritchie and Adams, 1974), the presence of plant residues on the soil surface drastically reduced soil water loss (eg Adams et al., 1969). Thus the aim of this study was to assess of soil moisture dynamics in a rain-fed olive orchard growing on a Vertisol under different soil management practices, in Andalusia (southern Spain). Four different soil management treatments were applied, which combined a cover crop (Bromus rubens L.) or bare soil throughout the year by applying herbicides, with tillage in summer to cover the cracks or non

  19. Variation in seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 24.7 years of burial: the concept of buried seed safe sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seeds were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7,19.7 and 24.7 yr later. Viability was determined using germination and tetrazolium tests. By ...

  20. Plant-Available Silica in Soils: A Mass Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyerson, P. E.; Jacobs, P. M.; Mason, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the quantity of high solubility soil silica available for plant uptake (plant-available silica, or PAS, operationally defined using a chemical extraction method); estimate gains and losses (mass balance) of PAS; and identify forms of PAS in soils. We used a coupled chemical extraction-spectrometry technique to measure PAS levels in soils. Gains and losses of PAS were achieved by comparing concentrations of an immobile element by horizon, in this case Zr. Forms of PAS were identified by light microscopy. Two Alfisol soils formed in thick loess were used for this study, one from southeastern Minnesota and the other from west-central Illinois. We identified two distinct origins for PAS: that which is inherited from the parent material, and that which is formed from in situ silicate mineral weathering. We further identified two general forms of PAS: biogenic (e.g. phytoliths) and nonbiogenic (e.g. dissolved silica, cristobalite). Measured, relative PAS levels were found to “spike” in B horizons of both soils, while A and C horizons were much lower. Absolute PAS levels differed between the two soils: The Minnesota soil yielded much higher levels throughout the profile than the Illinois soil, which we attributed to a large amount of inherited nonbiogenic PAS in the former soil. Mass balance data indicated loss of PAS in A horizons, probably due to leaching. A large positive flux of PAS was recorded in B horizons indicating downward movement of PAS and/or in situ weathering of silicate minerals. Forms of PAS vary by horizon as well, with different processes dominating over vertical space. Biologic processes were found to be dominant in A horizons, while chemical weathering and illuviation were dominant in B horizons.