Science.gov

Sample records for buried steel piping

  1. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

  2. CORROSION OF BURIED PIPES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in excellent condition. Extreme care was necessary during installation to prevent cuts or nicks in the tape. The black steel pipes protected by bituminous coating, cured gilsonite , and uncured gilsonite had deteriorated badly.

  3. Ultrasonic isolation of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is used routinely for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to above ground configurations due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this paper, the effect of pipe coatings on the guided wave attenuation is investigated with the aim of increasing test ranges for buried pipelines. The attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes is measured using a full-scale experimental apparatus in a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8 in. pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand. Tests are performed over a frequency range typically used in GWT of 10-35 kHz and compared with model predictions. It is shown that the application of a low impedance coating between the FBE layer and the sand effectively decouples the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. Ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe is demonstrated by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both the pipe and sand, and has the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is found to be substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dB m-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to measured attenuation of 1.7-4.7 dB m-1 in the buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry and incorporated into model predictions of guided wave propagation in buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the experimental measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges; such

  4. Instrumentation for monitoring buried pipe behavior during backfilling

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, T.J.; Selig, E.T.; Webb, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    An extensive instrumentation plan was devised to monitor buried pipe behavior, soil behavior and pipe-soil interaction during backfilling. The emphasis of the instrumentation plan was to monitor these parameters under different installation techniques without impeding construction operations. Different types and sizes of pipe were selected for installation in trenches excavated in undisturbed in situ soil conditions. Installation variables included in situ soil conditions, trench widths, backfill material (including controlled low strength material), haunching effort, and compaction methods. A total of fourteen tests, each including reinforced concrete, corrugated steel, and corrugated HDPE, were conducted. Eleven of the installations were conducted with 900 mm inside diameter pipe and three with 1,500 mm inside diameter pipe. The pipes were buried to a cover depth of 1.2 m. Measurements of pipe shape, pipe strains, pipe-soil interface pressures, soil density, soil stresses, and soil strains were collected. Pipe shape changes were measured by a custom built profilometer. Custom designed bending beam pressure transducers were used in the steel pipe to measure interface pressures. Most of the instrumentation performed well and measured results were within the range expected. Pipe-soil interaction effects were effectively measured with the instruments selected. Pipe shape changes were a very valuable parameter for investigating pipe-soil interaction.

  5. Common causes of material degradation in buried piping

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-20

    Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

  6. Buried plastic pipe technology: 2nd Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this symposium was to provide an update in the technology of buried plastic pipe. Papers are divided into five sections: Field testing; Design and installation; Rehabilitation; Laboratory testing; and Trenchless construction. Twelve of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  8. Modeling the GPR response of leaking, buried pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.H.; Olhoeft, G.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using a 2.5D, dispersive, full waveform GPR modeling program that generates complete GPR response profiles in minutes on a Pentium PC, the effects of leaking versus non-leaking buried pipes are examined. The program accounts for the dispersive, lossy nature of subsurface materials to GPR wave propagation, and accepts complex functions of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability versus frequency through Cole-Cole parameters fit to laboratory data. Steel and plastic pipes containing a DNAPL chlorinated solvent, an LNAPL hydrocarbon, and natural gas are modeled in a surrounding medium of wet, moist, and dry sand. Leaking fluids are found to be more detectable when the sand around the pipes is fully water saturated. The short runtimes of the modeling program and its execution on a PC make it a useful tool for exploring various subsurface models.

  9. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  10. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  11. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  12. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  13. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  14. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  15. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  16. GPR characterization of buried tanks and pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; McMechan, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    Ray-based numerical simulations of monostatic and bistatic GPR responses for several tank and pipe configurations reveal the potential for noninvasive diagnostic evaluations. Examples include discrimination of the material from which a tank is constructed, its size, contents, fluid levels, and shape changes. Ambiguities occur when different configurations give similar responses, and evaluations become less reliable as noise increases. Simulations are able to reproduce the salient features of field GPR data recorded over a metal pipe, and over plastic pipes filled with air, fresh water, and salt water.

  17. Demonstration and Validation of Controlled Low-Strength Materials for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Steel Pipes: Final Report on Project F09-A17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    after exposure with cathodic protection in native soil (top); soil cement (bottom left); and flowable fill (bottom right) Approved for public...steel surfaces. Two different CLSM blends were tested. Both used cement and a flowability admixture, but one used native soil instead of standard...the soil cement specimens were improperly installed, resembling isolated corrosion that also appeared on flowable fill specimens without CP. The

  18. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  19. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  20. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  1. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  2. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  3. Responses of buried corrugated metal pipes to earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.A.; Bardet, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study describes the results of field investigations and analyses carried out on 61 corrugated metal pipes (CMP) that were shaken by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. These CMPs, which include 29 small-diameter (below 107 cm) CMPs and 32 large-diameter (above 107 cm) CMPs, are located within a 10 km{sup 2} area encompassing the Van Normal Complex in the Northern San Fernando Valley, in Los Angeles, California. During the Northridge earthquake, ground movements were extensively recorded within the study area. Twenty-eight of the small-diameter CMPs performed well while the 32 large-diameter CMPs underwent performances ranging from no damage to complete collapse. The main cause of damage to the large-diameter CMPs was found to be the large ground strains. Based on this unprecedented data set, the factors controlling the seismic performance of the 32 large-diameter CMPs were identified and framed into a pseudostatic analysis method for evaluating the response of large diameter flexible underground pipes subjected to ground strain. The proposed analysis, which is applicable to transient and permanent strains, is capable of describing the observed performance of large-diameter CMPs during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. It indicates that peak ground velocity is a more reliable parameter for analyzing pipe damage than is peak ground acceleration. Results of this field investigation and analysis are useful for the seismic design and strengthening of flexible buried conduits.

  4. Beam and shell modes of buckling of buried pipes induced by compressive ground failure

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Y.J.; Chi, S.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The buckling of buried pipeline induced by compressive ground failure was investigated. Both the beam mode of buckling and local shell mode of buckling, and their interactions were studied. The pipeline response was analyzed numerically. The results agree qualitatively with past researches and possess satisfactory comparisons with actual case histories. The relations of critical buried depth versus ratio of pipe diameter to thickness for buried pipe with different imperfections and various soil foundations were established.

  5. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  6. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  7. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  8. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  9. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  10. Natural convection from a buried pipe with external baffles

    SciTech Connect

    Facas, G.N.

    1995-05-01

    Numerical solutions are presented for the natural convection heat transfer from a pipe with two baffles attached along its surface buried beneath a semi-infinite, saturated, porous medium. The surface of the medium is assumed to be permeable. The governing equations for Darcy flow are solved using finite differences. The complicated geometry is handled through the use of a body-fitted curvilinear coordinate system. Results are presented for three baffle lengths and a range of burial depths and Rayleigh numbers. The numerical simulations indicate that substantial energy savings can be realized if baffles are used. The results obtained in terms of the Nusselt number for the case of no-baffles are used. The results obtained in terms of the Nusselt number for the case of no-baffle are in excellent agreement with analytical and experimental results available in the literature. A simple correlation for {ovr Nu} has been developed as a function or Ra, pipe burial depth h/R, and baffle length l/R.

  11. Installation Of Service Connections For Sensors Or Transmitters In Buried Water Pipes

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K.; Cooper, John F.

    2006-02-21

    A system for installing warning units in a buried pipeline. A small hole is drilled in the ground to the pipeline. A collar is affixed to one of the pipes of the pipeline. A valve with an internal passage is connected to the collar. A hole is drilled in the pipe. A warning unit is installed in the pipe by moving the warning unit through the internal passage, the collar, and the hole in the pipe.

  12. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  13. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  14. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  15. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  16. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  17. Numerical Modeling for Impact-resistant Pipes Buried at Shallow Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Jong; Hsu, Jung-Fu

    2010-05-01

    The plastic pipes buried at shallow depth are popular for underground telecommunication lines. To assess their impact-worthiness under loads from heavy traffics, the study establishes a numerical model to correlate with field data. Field impact tests were carried out where a 50-kg mass free-falling at 2.2 m height was dropped onto the soil backfill directly above a buried pipe. A contact-impact model incorporating finite elements of disjoined material regions is developed to simulate the phenomena of mass-soil-pipe interaction and soil dent. Plastic soil deformations are accounted for. Also implemented is a new erosion scheme for dealing with numerical instability caused by crumpled elements during heavy impact. Reasonable agreements can be observed between the analyzed and measured soil dent. This model is versatile in making design evaluations for buried pipes to withstand impact loads. It has potential applications to cemented soil fills and blast loads.

  18. Evaluation of Buried, Concrete-Lined Corrugated Metal Pipe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    rehabilitation measure, was also inspected. Based on this field study, concrete-lined, corrugated metal pipe appears to be an acceptable drainage product when...proper production and installation quality controls are used. Keywords: Concrete coatings, Drainage pipes.

  19. Ultimate bending capacity of strain hardening steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-fei; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Based on Hencky's total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.

  20. Morbidity profile of steel pipe production workers.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Kirti; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2008-08-01

    To study the different morbid conditions among steel pipe producing workers. The present cross-sectional study has been carried out among the workers of one of the steel pipes and tubes manufacturing factory of Gujarat. Hundred workers from the four major departments of the steel pipe production plant, namely welding, pressing machine, X-ray welding and loading/transportation department were covered. The information regarding demographic, occupational, clinical characteristics and diagnosis were recorded on a pre-designed proforma. Statistical analysis included calculation of percentages and proportions and was carried out using the statistical software Epi Info Version 3.3.2. The mean age of the study subjects was found to be 38.7+/-7.1 years. The mean duration of exposure was found to be 9.0+/-3.4 years. Forty-four percent of the subjects had an upper respiratory tract infection, as evidenced by symptoms like dry cough, cough with rhinitis and cough with fever. Symptoms suggestive of allergic bronchitis were observed in 12% of the subjects while symptoms suggestive of heat stress such as prickly heat, dehydration, perspiration and pyrexia were observed in 13% of the subjects.

  1. Morbidity profile of steel pipe production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Kirti; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the different morbid conditions among steel pipe producing workers. Methods: The present cross-sectional study has been carried out among the workers of one of the steel pipes and tubes manufacturing factory of Gujarat. Hundred workers from the four major departments of the steel pipe production plant, namely welding, pressing machine, X-ray welding and loading/transportation department were covered. The information regarding demographic, occupational, clinical characteristics and diagnosis were recorded on a pre-designed proforma. Statistical analysis included calculation of percentages and proportions and was carried out using the statistical software Epi Info Version 3.3.2. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was found to be 38.7±7.1 years. The mean duration of exposure was found to be 9.0±3.4 years. Forty-four percent of the subjects had an upper respiratory tract infection, as evidenced by symptoms like dry cough, cough with rhinitis and cough with fever. Symptoms suggestive of allergic bronchitis were observed in 12% of the subjects while symptoms suggestive of heat stress such as prickly heat, dehydration, perspiration and pyrexia were observed in 13% of the subjects. PMID:20040985

  2. A novel sensor for measuring the acoustic pressure in buried plastic water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Pinnington, R. J.; Gao, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Acoustic techniques are widely used to locate leaks in buried water pipes. However, difficulties are often encountered when attempting to detect a leak in a plastic pipe, as the leak noise signals attenuate very rapidly away from the leak. Identifying suitable sensors which can be easily deployed and are sufficiently sensitive has been problematic. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) wire ring sensors have been proposed and demonstrated successfully in laboratory conditions previously. Here it is proposed that the ring sensor is used in a modified configuration: a flexible hose instrumented with the ring sensor is connected to the pipe, via a fire hydrant or other standard access point. Some theoretical modelling has been carried out, which predicts that the acoustic pressure in the main pipe transmits well into the sidebranch, whilst the pressure in the main pipe is largely unaffected. This suggests that PVDF wire located on the sidebranch will effectively monitor the pressure in the main pipe. Moreover, if the sidebranch is sufficiently flexible, substantial sensitivity gains can be made using this configuration compared with locating the wire on the main pipe. Measurements made in the laboratory on a medium density polyethylene (MDPE) finite pipe with a polythene sidebranch connected to it confirm that the acoustic pressure in the main pipe can indeed be measured on the sidebranch. The expected sensitivity gains were not fully realized, and a number of different reasons for this are proposed.

  3. Effects of Military Traffic on Buried, High-Pressure Pipe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Observation Pit Samples, 3/7/83 Weight, g Yw Yd wSample No. Material Wet Dry Water pcf pLf Percent 3 Backfill 380.27 343.49 36.28 79 72 10.5 10 Virgin...content, surface material, roadway crown Weight (g) w Sample No. Location Wet Dry Water Percent 103 5 ft south of pipe 268.6 256.9 11.7 4.6 133 Directly...tubes, oven dry, roadway crown Sample Weight (g) Yw Yd w No. Location Wet Dry Water pcf pcf Percent 183 5 ft south of pipe 550.8 533.9 16.9 114.7 111.2

  4. INL Reactor Technology Complex Out-of-Service Buried Piping Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2008-05-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) buried piping and components are being characterized to determine if they should be managed as hazardous waste and subject to the Hazardous Waste Management Act /Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RTC buried piping and components involve both active piping and components from currently operating nuclear facilities, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and inactive lines from facilities undergoing D&D activities. The issue exists as to the proper methods to analyze and control hazards associated with D&D activities on facilities collocated with existing operating nuclear facilities, or future collocated facilities being considered with the resurgent nuclear industry. During initial characterization activities, it was determined that residual radioactive material in several inactive RTC lines and components could potentially exceed hazard category (HC) 3 thresholds. In addition, concerns were raised as to how to properly isolate active nuclear facility piping and components from those inactive lines undergoing RCRA actions, and whether the operating facility safety basis could be impacted. Work was stopped, and a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA) was declared, even though no clear safety basis existed for the inactive, abandoned lines and equipment. An unreviewed safety question (USQ) and an occurrence report resulted. A HC 3 or greater Nuclear Facility/Activity for the buried piping and components was also declared in the occurrence report. A qualitative hazard assessment was developed to evaluate the potential hazards associated with characterization activities, and any potential effects on the safety basis of the collocated RTC operating nuclear facilities. The hazard assessment clearly demonstrated the low hazards associated with the activities based on form and dispersiblity of the radioactive material in the piping and components. The hazard assessment developed

  5. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  6. Simplified dispersion relationships for fluid-dominated axisymmetric wave motion in buried fluid-filled pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Sui, Fusheng; Muggleton, Jennifer M.; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The dispersion characteristics of axisymmetric (n=0) waves offer a way to gain physical insight into the low-frequency vibrational behaviour of underground pipe systems. Whilst these can be found in the literature, they are generally calculated numerically. Coupled equations of motion for the n=0 waves that propagate in a buried fluid-filled pipe are presented in this paper and, from this, an analytical solution is developed for the fluid-dominated (s=1) wavenumber. The effect of the frictional stress at the pipe-soil interface on the dispersion behaviour of the s=1 wave is characterised by adopting a soil loading matrix. Overall, the fluid loading has a greater effect on the propagation wavespeed compared with the soil loading: for metal pipes, the effect of soil loading is negligible; for plastic pipes, however, simply neglecting the effect of soil loading can lead to a considerable underestimation in the calculation of the wavespeed. The wave attenuation increases significantly at higher frequencies regardless of pipe material resulting from the added damping due to radiation into the soil. Theoretical predictions of the s=1 wavenumber are compared with experimental data measured on an MDPE water pipe. The degree of agreement between prediction and experiment makes clear that, although the wavespeed is only slightly affected by the presence of the frictional stress, the frictional stress at the pipe-soil interface needs to be appropriately taken into account for attenuation predictions.

  7. Bedding factors and E values for buried pipe installations backfilled with air-modified CLSM

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, T.J.; Hoopes, R.J.

    1998-10-01

    The use of controlled low strength material (CLSM) as a pipe bedding and backfill material requires characterization in terms of traditional design parameters such as bedding factors for rigid pipe and modulus of soil reaction, or E, values for flexible pipe. Triaxial compression and one-dimensional consolidation tests were conducted on two mixes of air-modified CLSM to establish parameters for use in finite element analyses of buried pipe installations. Both trial mixes contained 25 to 30% entrained air to provide flowability. The tests were conducted at ages of 16 hours, 7 days and 28 days to evaluate the change in strength and stiffness with time. Results of the tests were analyzed to fit parameters to the Duncan hyperbolic soil model with the Selig bulk modulus model. These parameters were then used in analyses of flexible and rigid pipe installations, backfilled with CLSM, to determine traditional installation design parameters. The finite element analyses indicate that bedding factors for rigid pipe installations range from 1.8, for trench installations backfilled at an age of 16 hours, to 2.5 for trench installations backfilled at an age of 28 days. Bedding factors for embankment installations of rigid pipe range from 2.5 to 4.8 for ages from 16 hours to 28 days, respectively. Values for the modulus of soil reaction (E) for installation of flexible pipe range from 7 MPa to 21 MPa (1,000 psi to 3,000 psi) for ages from 16 hours to 28 days respectively.

  8. Graphitic corrosion -- Don`t forget about buried cast iron pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.R.

    1999-08-01

    Graphitic corrosion is a form of de-alloying or selective leaching that occurs in cast iron material. This corrosion mechanism is unique to gray cast irons and is caused by the graphitic matrix present. The graphite is cathodic to the iron matrix. Exposure to an electrolyte results in leaching of the iron matrix, leaving behind a porous mass of graphite flakes. Graphite corrosion often occurs in buried gray cast iron pipes, although exposure to an aqueous environment is all that is necessary for the de-alloying to occur. The process of de-alloying in cast iron typically is long-term, taking several years to occur. In fact, many cases of graphitic corrosion-caused failure in cast iron piping occur in piping that has been in service for 50 years or more. Mechanical testing to determine the tensile strength of cast iron can provide information regarding the remaining strength of the pipe.

  9. Method and means of passive detection of leaks in buried pipes

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.

    1979-10-30

    A method and means for passive detection of a leak in a buried pipe containing fluid under pressure includes a plurality of acoustic detectors that are placed in contact with the pipe. Noise produced by the leak is detected by the detectors, and the detected signals are correlated to locate the leak. In one embodiment of the invention two detectors are placed at different locations to locate a leak between them. In an alternate embodiment two detectors of different waves are placed at substantially the same location to determine the distance of the leak from the location.

  10. Method and means of passive detection of leaks in buried pipes

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N.

    1981-01-01

    A method and means for passive detection of a leak in a buried pipe containing fluid under pressure includes a plurality of acoustic detectors that are placed in contact with the pipe. Noise produced by the leak is detected by the detectors, and the detected signals are correlated to locate the leak. In one embodiment of the invention two detectors are placed at different locations to locate a leak between them. In an alternate embodiment two detectors of different waves are placed at substantially the same location to determine the distance of the leak from the location.

  11. Effects of chloride and crevice on corrosion resistance of stainless steels buried in soil within Seoul Metropolitan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Youngmin; Kim, Heesan; Kim, Young-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Field and laboratory tests were conducted to find the factors affecting corrosion of stainless steels in soil. During one-year exposure, corrosion occurred within a joint and on the surface of type 304 pipe with the joint, which was buried at the site with a high chloride concentration of about 3680 ppm; however, corrosion was not observed at any of the other sites independent of the stainless steel grade and the presence of joints. At some sites, a seasonal fluctuation of corrosion potential was observed in the soil though corrosion did not occur. This observation may be due to the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria because a decrease of corrosion potential with the inoculated bacteria did not cause corrosion of stainless steels. These results indicate that both the level of chloride and the presence of crevices are the main factors affecting corrosion of stainless steels in soil but that the activity of bacteria is not. From measurements of pitting potential, a guideline for stainless steel use in soil is drawn as follows: Corrosion of stainless steels in soil occurs when the pitting potential of stainless steel under crevices in synthetic ground water that contains the same chloride concentration as the soil is less than the saddle potential. Finally, the guideline for stainless steels applications was provided in this paper according to this criterion.

  12. Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.F.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

  13. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This

  14. EXCITATION OF A BURIED MAGMATIC PIPE: A SEISMIC SOURCE MODEL FOR VOLCANIC TREMOR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    A model of volcanic tremor is presented in which the modes of vibration of a volcanic pipe are excited by the motion of the fluid within the pipe in response to a short-term perturbation in pressure. The model shows the relative importance of the various parts constituting this composite source in the radiated elastic field at near and intermediate distances. The paper starts with the presentation of the elastic field radiated by the source, and proceeds with an analysis of the energy balance between hydraulic and elastic motions. Next, the hydraulic excitation of the source is addressed and, finally, the ground response to this excitation is analyzed in the simple case of a pipe buried in a homogeneous half space.

  15. Trenchless rehabilitation of buried pipelines via cured-in-place pipe -- an environmentally friendly solution

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.L.; Sorrell, P.

    1995-09-01

    Refiners and petrochemical producers are faced with a number of issues related to aging infrastructure in their processing facilities. Many of these facilities were initially constructed in the 1960s or earlier and have a large number of plant-wide utilities, general facilities and underground piping systems that are at least 30 years old. Many underground piping systems are approaching the end of their useful life which can be extended only by substantial reconstruction or rehabilitation. This paper will focus on the rehabilitation of underground effluent piping systems such as process sewers, contaminated storm sewers, low-pressure effluent force mains and sanitary sewers. While the technology that will be discussed is also used to rehabilitate water lines in raw, treated and cooling water service, the environmental issues involved with these effluent piping systems justify this focus. A number of options for reconstruction or rehabilitation of process effluent piping will be reviewed briefly. The rehabilitation method that will be discussed in detail is the trenchless or so-called no dig technique using a Cured-In-Place Pipe (CIPP). This technology was originally developed in the early 1970s for rehabilitating municipal sewer lines and has been adapted or further developed for industrial use. Since then, the technology has been used to rehabilitate more than 22 million feet of buried pipelines, including more than 200,000 feet of industrial effluent lines in the past three years.

  16. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of... welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of 0.375 inch or more, but not over 16...

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  18. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  19. Investigation of guided wave propagation and attenuation in pipe buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Long-range guided wave testing is a well-established method for detection of corrosion defects in pipelines. The method is currently used routinely for above ground pipelines in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised and unpredictable due to attenuation of the guided wave resulting from energy leakage into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in an 8 in. pipe buried in sand are investigated using a laboratory full-scale experimental rig and model predictions. We report measurements of attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, mechanically compacted, water saturated and drained. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1.65-5.5 dB/m and 0.98-3.2 dB/m for the torsional and longitudinal modes, respectively, over the frequency of 11-34 kHz. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. Mechanical compaction of the sand yields similar attenuation values to those obtained with applied overburden pressure. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, and increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for compacted sand. Attenuation measurements are compared with Disperse software model predictions and confirm that the attenuation phenomenon in buried pipes is essentially governed by the bulk shear velocity in the sand. The attenuation behaviour of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  20. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  1. 75 FR 32911 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  2. 76 FR 33210 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  3. Development of cryogenic thermal control heat pipes. [of stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of thermal control heat pipes that are applicable to the low temperature to cryogenic range was investigated. A previous effort demonstrated that stainless steel axially grooved tubing which met performance requirements could be fabricated. Three heat pipe designs utilizing stainless steel axially grooved tubing were fabricated and tested. One is a liquid trap diode heat pipe which conforms to the configuration and performance requirements of the Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP). The HEPP is scheduled for flight aboard the Long Duration Flight Exposure Facility (LDEF). Another is a thermal switch heat pipe which is designed to permit energy transfer at the cooler of the two identical legs. The third thermal component is a hybrid variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP). The design incorporates both a conventional VCHP system and a liquid trap diode. The design, fabrication and thermal testing of these heat pipes is described. The demonstrated heat pipe behavior including start-up, forward mode transport, recovery after evaporator dry-out, diode performance and variable conductance control are discussed.

  4. Use of Dilute Flowable Backfill for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Pipe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Research Laboratory Dilute Flowable Backfill Properties Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) • Flowable Fill – pulverized aggregate, Portland cement...in flowable fill and native soil cement mixtures • Laboratory Analysis at ERDC-CERL – To provide comparative performance results – Evaluate several...Requirements: • Steel pipe segments to be embedded in a flowable fill and a soil-cement at Ft. Hood, TX • Periodic Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR

  5. 77 FR 65712 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From Vietnam; Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From Vietnam; Termination of Investigation AGENCY... investigation concerning circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Vietnam (investigation No....

  6. Axisymmetric guided wave scattering by cracks in welded steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, W.; Shah, A.H.; Datta, S.K.

    1997-11-01

    Scattering of axisymmetric guided waves by cracks and weldments of anisotropic bonding material in welded steel pipes is investigated in this paper by a hybrid method employing finite element and modal representation techniques. The study is motivated by the need to develop a quantitative ultrasonic technique to distinguish flaws and bonding materials in welded cylindrical structures. Numerical results for reflection coefficients are presented for a steel pipe with cracks and V-shaped weldments with and without cracks at the interface between the weldment and the steel pipe. It is shown that as the frequency increases, the coefficients of reflection exhibit resonant peaks at the cutoff frequencies of higher guided modes. These peaks become increasingly pronounced as the slope and the length of the crack increase. Numerical results presented have important applications in quantitative nondestructive evaluation.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata

    PubMed Central

    Han, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  8. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Han, C J

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  9. Experimental Verification of Steel Pipe Collapse under Vacuum Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.

    2016-11-01

    Steel pipes are used widely in hydroelectric systems and in pumping systems. Both systems are subject to hydraulic transient effects caused by changes in boundary conditions, such as sudden valve closures, pump failures, or accidents. Water column separation, and its associated vaporization pressure inside the pipe, can cause the collapse of thin walled steel pipes subject to atmospheric pressure, as happened during the well known Oigawa Power Plant accident in Japan, in 1950. The conditions under which thin walled pipes subject to external pressure can collapse have been studied mathematically since the second half of the XIX century, with classical authors Southwell and Von Mises obtaining definitive equations for long and short pipes in the second decade of the XX century, in which the fundamental variables are the diameter to thickness ratio D/t and the length to diameter ratio L/D. In this paper, the predicted critical D/t ratio for steel pipe collapse is verified experimentally, in a physical model able to reproduce hydraulic transients, generating vacuum pressures through rapid upstream valve closures.

  10. Wavenumber prediction and measurement of axisymmetric waves in buried fluid-filled pipes: Inclusion of shear coupling at a lubricated pipe/soil interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Yan, J.

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic methods have been widely used to detect water leaks in buried fluid-filled pipes, and these technologies also have the potential to locate buried pipes and cables. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, there is considerably more uncertainty with plastic pipes, as the wave propagation behaviour becomes highly coupled between the pipe wall, the contained fluid and surrounding medium. Based on the fully three-dimensional effect of the surrounding soil, pipe equations for n=0 axisymmetric wave motion are derived for a buried, fluid-filled pipe. The characteristics of propagation and attenuation are analysed for two n=0 waves, the s=1 wave and s=2 wave, which correspond to a predominantly fluid-borne wave and a compressional wave predominantly in the shell, respectively. At the pipe/soil interface, two extreme cases may be considered in order to investigate the effects of shear coupling: the "slip" condition representing lubricated contact; and the "no slip" condition representing compact contact. Here, the "slip" case is considered, for which, at low frequencies, analytical expressions can be derived for the two wavenumbers, corresponding to the s=1 and s=2 waves. These are both then compared with the situations in which there is no surrounding soil and in which the pipe is surrounded by fluid only, which cannot support shear. It is found that the predominant effect of shear at the pipe/soil interface is to add stiffness along with damping due to radiation. For the fluid-dominated wave, this causes the wavespeed to increase and increases the wave attenuation. For the shell-dominated wave there is little effect on the wavespeed but a marked increase in wave attenuation. Comparison with experimental measurements confirms the theoretical findings.

  11. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109 Section 192.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  12. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section...) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the... less must be used in the design formula in § 192.105 for steel pipe in Class 1 locations that:...

  13. 76 FR 76437 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan would... Publication 4280 (December 2011), entitled Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe from Korea and...

  14. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of...) order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008, period of review (POR). See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From...

  15. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section...) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the... less must be used in the design formula in § 192.105 for steel pipe in Class 1 locations that:...

  16. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section...) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the... less must be used in the design formula in § 192.105 for steel pipe in Class 1 locations that:...

  17. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109 Section 192.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  18. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109 Section 192.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  19. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section...) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the... less must be used in the design formula in § 192.105 for steel pipe in Class 1 locations that:...

  20. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109 Section 192.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  1. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section...) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the... less must be used in the design formula in § 192.105 for steel pipe in Class 1 locations that:...

  2. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109 Section 192.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  3. 78 FR 70069 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping and countervailing duty orders on circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from China would be... Publication 4435 (November 2013), entitled Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from China:...

  4. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  5. 77 FR 20782 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes have been made below normal value (NV) during the March...

  6. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304... USITC Publication 4190 (November 2010), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard,...

  7. 77 FR 19192 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative... being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular... Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the...

  8. Interior of north end entry, piping on upper left, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of north end entry, piping on upper left, steel door, bare bulb top center, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Operations & Message Center, Behind Facility No. 1, corner of Avenue E & Seventh Street, connected to Facility Nos. 1B & 1D by wooden bridges, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Lifetest investigations with stainless steel/water heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzel, W. D.; Kraehling, H.

    Life tests were conducted on water heat pipes, made from four different alloys of stainless steel, at operation temperatures of 120, 160, 220, and 320 C in a reflux boiler mode for more than 20,000 hr. Other parameters varied during the tests included capillary structure, pretreatment and cleaning of the components, additional oxidation of the inner surface, filling procedures, amoung of liquid change, the number of ventings, and the duration of the reaction runs. The best results were obtained with pipes containing stainless steels with molybdenum alloy additions and with carbon contents of greater than 0.03%; with components which formed a protective surface layer; with the use of double-distilled water that had been ultrasonically degassed; with repeated ventings during the initial reaction run of 500 hr minimum duration; and with the addition of gaseous oxygen into the heat pipe during the reaction run with subsequent venting.

  10. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY...-fair-value imports from China of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure... merchandise as ``* * * Certain seamless carbon and alloy steel (other than stainless steel) pipes and...

  11. 76 FR 27987 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final... on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand, which covered Saha Thai Steel Pipe... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

  12. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  13. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingwen; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  14. Statistical analyses of field corrosion data for ductile cast iron pipes buried in sandy marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyama, F.; Koyama, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Field corrosion studies were conducted on bare, ductile cast iron pipes buried 17 y in sandy marine sediment classified as sandy soil and containing iron bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and other bacteria. Chemical and biochemical analyses of the sediment were performed in the laboratory. Correlation between the maximum corrosion depth (P{sub max}) and 21 environmental factors was evaluated by applying a correlation analysis. On that basis, the factors controlling corrosion damage were considered by quantification theory analysis. A corrosion mechanism was presented to explain the corrosion phenomena. The corrosion site had a positive correlation with the anaerobic site, characterized by particularly high levels of water content and ferrous sulfide generated by SRB. Corrosion was classified as graphitic and attributed to formation of extensive tubercles resulting from high activity of iron bacteria in the bicarbonate enriched soil.

  15. A theoretical study of the fundamental torsional wave in buried pipes for pipeline condition assessment and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Kalkowski, M.; Gao, Y.; Rustighi, E.

    2016-07-01

    Waves that propagate at low frequencies in buried pipes are of considerable interest in a variety of practical scenarios, for example leak detection, remote pipe detection, and pipeline condition assessment and monitoring. Whilst there has been considerable research and commercial attention on the accurate location of pipe leakage for many years, the various causes of pipe failures and their identification, have not been well documented; moreover, there are still a number of gaps in the existing knowledge. Previous work has focused on two of the three axisymmetric wavetypes that can propagate: the s=1, fluid-dominated wave; and the s=2, shell-dominated wave. In this paper, the third axisymmetric wavetype, the s=0 torsional wave, is investigated. The effects of the surrounding soil on the characteristics of wave propagation and attenuation are analysed for a compact pipe/soil interface for which there is no relative motion between the pipe wall and the surrounding soil. An analytical dispersion relationship is derived for the torsional wavenumber from which both the wavespeed and wave attenuation can be obtained. How torsional waves can subsequently radiate to the ground surface is then investigated. Analytical expressions are derived for the ground surface displacement above the pipe resulting from torsional wave motion within the pipe wall. A numerical model is also included, primarily in order to validate some of the assumptions made whilst developing the analytical solutions, but also so that some comparison in the results may be made. Example results are presented for both a cast iron pipe and an MDPE pipe buried in two typical soil types.

  16. Corrosion failures of austenitic stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The safe and efficient operation of many chemical/industrial systems requires the continued integrity of the process piping; this is achieved through a complex series of interactions influenced by design, fabrication, construction, operation, inspection and lay-up requirements. Potential material-enviroment interactions are frequently, if evaluated at all, relegated to secondary considerations. This tendency virtually assures corrosion induced degradation of the process piping systems. Pitting, crevice attack, stress cracking, microbiologically influenced corrosion, intergranular attack and corrosion fatigue have caused leaks, cracks, failures and shutdown of numerous process systems. This paper uses the lessons learned from failure analysis to emphasize the importance of an integrated material program to system success. The necessity of continuing evaluation if also emphasized through examples of failures which were associated with materials-environment interactions caused by slight alterations of processes and/or systems.

  17. Fracture Analysis of Welded Type 304 Stainless Steel Pipe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    J.A. Joyce, "J-integral Tearing Instability Analyses for 8 in. Diameter ASTM A106 Steel Pipe", NUREG /CR 3740, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Complisat by Computer Control%, NUREG /CD-2257, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Comuission Report, March 1982. 9. Vassilaron, M.G. and E.M. Hackett, "J-Integral R...and R. Gamble, "Stabillty Analysis of Circumferential Cracks in Reactor Piping Systems", U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report, NUREG /CR-0838

  18. Friction Drilling of Stainless Steels Pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.

    2011-01-17

    This work describes the experimental study of the friction drilling process in stainless steel by means of an optimization of the machining conditions. For such purpose austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses were analyzed through controlled tests at different rotation speeds and feed rates. On one hand, the torque and the thrust force were computed and monitorized. On the other hand, the dimensional tolerances of the holes were evaluated, mainly the accuracy of the hole diameter and the burr thickness at different depths. Another topic of interest inherent to this special technique is the temperature level reached during the friction process which is crucial when it comes to development of microstructural transformations.

  19. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section 192.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... (S) for steel pipe. (a) For pipe that is manufactured in accordance with a specification listed...

  20. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section 192.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... (S) for steel pipe. (a) For pipe that is manufactured in accordance with a specification listed...

  1. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  2. Internal cathodic protection of cement-lined steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, F.O. ); Tems, R.D. )

    1988-07-01

    Internally coated, cement-lined, carbon steel pipes have been used extensively for ballast- and service-water systems offshore. Mechanical cracking of the lining, undercutting, and erosion have resulted in corrosion and system leaks. Cathodic protection is one alternative that has been evaluated as a solution. Cathodic protection normally gives limited protection when applied internally to a pipeline system. Tests have been performed to evaluate this hypothesis and the possibility of improved current distribution due to the cement lining. This paper presents the test results as well as a solution to the problem. Internally coated, cement-lined steel pipes are used for ballast-water, service-water, and fire-water systems in the offshore oil and gas production industry.

  3. Sensitization and IGSCC susceptibility prediction in stainless steel pipe weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Atteridge, D.G.; Simmons, J.W.; Li, Ming; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1991-11-01

    An analytical model, based on prediction of chromium depletion, has been developed for predicting thermomechanical effects on austenitic stainless steel intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility. Model development and validation is based on sensitization development analysis of over 30 Type 316 and 304 stainless steel heats. The data base included analysis of deformation effects on resultant sensitization development. Continuous Cooling sensitization behavior is examined and modelled with and without strain. Gas tungsten are (GTA) girth pipe weldments are also characterized by experimental measurements of heat affected zone (HAZ) temperatures, strains and sensitization during/after each pass; pass by pass thermal histories are also predicted. The model is then used to assess pipe chemistry changes on IGSCC resistance.

  4. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  5. 77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines Determination On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4337 (June 2012), entitled Stainless Steel...

  6. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe... injured or threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of welded stainless steel...

  7. 75 FR 973 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded stainless steel pipes (WSSP) from the... review covers one respondent, SeAH Steel Corporation (SeAH). We preliminarily determine that sales...

  8. 76 FR 64106 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and... duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe (specifically ASTM A-312 pipe) from Korea and...

  9. 75 FR 73033 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final... steel pipes and tubes (pipes and tubes) from Thailand, covering the period March 1, 2008 through... published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  10. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes (pipes and tubes) from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 74...

  11. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China... determination. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the...

  12. 77 FR 41967 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ..., and Turkey; Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea... pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and Turkey; (2) certain circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and Turkey, certain circular welded...

  13. 75 FR 33262 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Preliminary... order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube (``welded pipe and tube'') from Turkey. See... tube from Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From...

  14. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1997-02-01

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = {minus}0.3) loading history.

  15. On the acoustic filtering of the pipe and sensor in a buried plastic water pipe and its effect on leak detection: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

    2014-03-20

    Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors.

  16. Challenges and Capabilities for Inspection of Cast Stainless Steel Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-12-31

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of NDE techniques as related to the inservice inspec¬tion of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes results from recent assessments built upon early work with low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) coupled with synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) signal processing, and has subsequently evolved into an approach using low frequency phased array technology as applied from the outer diameter surface of the piping. In addition, eddy current examination as performed from the inner diameter surface of these piping welds is also reported. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping weldments and configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. The advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at low frequencies and composite volumetric images of the samples were generated with 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz arrays. Eddy current studies were conducted on the inner diameter surface of these piping welds using a commercially available instrument and a

  17. Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

  18. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  19. 49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. 192.113 Section 192.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... § 192.113 Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. The longitudinal joint factor to be used in...

  20. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  1. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  2. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  3. 49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. 192.113 Section 192.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... § 192.113 Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. The longitudinal joint factor to be used in...

  4. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  5. 49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. 192.113 Section 192.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... § 192.113 Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. The longitudinal joint factor to be used in...

  6. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  7. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  8. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  9. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  10. 78 FR 21105 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary... tubes from Thailand. This review covers two producers/exporters of the subject merchandise, Saha Thai... The products covered by the antidumping order are certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and...

  11. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey... carbon steel pipe and tube products from Turkey. See Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Welded Carbon...

  12. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  13. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy... 2012), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from...

  14. Changes in the fracture strength parameters of ferritic-bainitic and bainitic pipe steels during operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikeev, V. N.; Filippov, G. A.; Shabalov, I. P.; Livanova, O. V.; Solov'ev, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    The fracture strength and the sensitivity to delayed fracture of the pipes in oil-trunk pipelines that are made of ferritic-bainitic and bainitic steels are studied. The results of modeling of the delayed brittle fracture of pipe steel during a simultaneous action of mechanical stresses and a corrosive medium are presented.

  15. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  16. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China... carbon quality steel pipe (circular welded pipe) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) would likely... circular welded pipe from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act...

  17. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China... revocation of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded pipe... circular welded pipe from the PRC, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the...

  18. 77 FR 61738 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel... (Pacific Pipe) and Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai). Based on our analysis of...

  19. 75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final... welded stainless steel pipes (WSSP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one producer... antidumping duty order on WSSP from Korea. See Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from the Republic of...

  20. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and... antidumping duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and...

  1. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines... antidumping duty orders on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  2. 75 FR 69626 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India... duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. See Certain...

  3. 75 FR 70723 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers two firms: Yieh Phui Enterprise... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering...

  4. 76 FR 77480 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering...

  5. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. This review covers two... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on...

  6. 76 FR 78886 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To... the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. See... products covered by this order are certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of...

  7. 77 FR 6542 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey for... the preliminary decision. See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube from Turkey:...

  8. 75 FR 28557 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission, in Part, of...

  9. 77 FR 72818 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey.\\1\\ This review covers four producers and... section entitled ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  10. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... material injury by reason of LTFV and subsidized imports of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe...

  11. 77 FR 73015 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe... merchandise subject to the order is circular welded non-alloy steel pipe and tube. The product is...

  12. 78 FR 34342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and... duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This administrative review.... \\1\\ See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results and...

  13. 77 FR 73617 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. This administrative review covers mandatory respondents... covered by the order are circular welded non-alloy steel pipes and tubes, of circular cross-section,...

  14. 75 FR 20342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  15. 76 FR 44304 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Amended Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Amended..., 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the... during the period of review. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of...

  16. 76 FR 14649 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico for the November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009, period of review. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results...

  17. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), covering the period November 1, 2007, through October 31, 2008. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic...

  18. 75 FR 78216 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. This administrative review covers mandatory respondents... Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube...

  19. 76 FR 77770 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of... welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This administrative review covers mandatory respondents... Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  20. 76 FR 76369 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), covering... Korea. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from...

  1. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless... seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  2. 78 FR 79664 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of the 2011-2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of the 2011-2012 Antidumping Duty... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico for the period November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012... Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

  3. 75 FR 77838 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''). The period... Antidumping Duty Orders: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of...

  4. 78 FR 17637 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended... welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2007, through October 31, 2008.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Final Results...

  5. 78 FR 78336 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... the antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea...: Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is circular welded non-alloy steel pipe and...

  6. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. This administrative review covers mandatory respondents... Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 75 FR 82374 (December 30,...

  7. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the...

  8. 78 FR 35248 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final... order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) for the period... has been sold at less than normal value. \\1\\ See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From...

  9. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand... antidumping duty orders on certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and... India, Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes...

  10. 77 FR 24459 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... grades of stainless steel and ``commodity'' and ``specialty'' fittings. Specifically excluded from the... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (SSBW pipe fittings) from Italy.\\1\\ This review covers...

  11. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan... welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea (Korea) and Taiwan would likely lead to... published the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan.\\1\\ On...

  12. 76 FR 38688 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Institution of a Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY... steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  13. NDE Assessments of Cast Stainless Steel Reactor Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Mathews, Royce

    2006-02-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes recent developments and results from assessments of three different NDE approaches including an ultrasonic phased array inspection methodology, an eddy current testing technique and a low-frequency ultrasonic inspection methodology coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Westinghouse Owner’s Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots, were used for assessing the inspection methods. ET studies were conducted on the inner diameter (ID) surface of piping specimens while the ultrasonic inspection methods were performed from the outer diameter (OD) surface of the specimens. The ET technique employed a ZETEC MIZ-27SI Eddy Current instrument and a ZETEC Z0000857-1 cross point spot probe with an operating frequency of 250 kHz. On some samples where noise levels were high, degaussing of the sample resulted in significant improvements. The phased array approach was implemented using an RD Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1 MHz and composite volumetric images of the samples were generated. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employs a zone-focused, multi-incident angle; inspection protocol (operating at 250-450 kHz) coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for improved signal-to-noise and advanced imaging

  14. On the Acoustic Filtering of the Pipe and Sensor in a Buried Plastic Water Pipe and its Effect on Leak Detection: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

  15. Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for Critical Above Grade Piping in Highly Corrosive Locations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -1 3 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for...ERDC/CERL TR-17-13 May 2017 Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for Critical Above-Grade Piping in Highly Corrosive...steel materials for fire- suppression water pipes at the Chimu-Wan tank farms on Okinawa Island, Japan, one of the most corrosive locations in the

  16. 77 FR 64468 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel... the publication of the preliminary determination.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel...

  17. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and... Commission found one Domestic Like Product consisting of seamless carbon and alloy steel standard,...

  18. Wavenumber Prediction of Waves in Buried Pipes for Water Leak Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MUGGLETON, J. M.; BRENNAN, M. J.; PINNINGTON, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Water leaks are a topic of great concern in Britain and many other countries, because of decreasing water supplies and the deterioration of old pipework. Correlation techniques are widely used in leak detection, but for these to be effective, the propagation wavespeeds and wave attenuation must be known. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, these are largely unknown for the newer plastic pipes, being highly dependent on the pipe wall properties and the surrounding medium. In this paper, pipe equations for n=0 axisymmetric wave motion are derived for a fluid-filled pipe, surrounded by an infinite elastic medium which can support both longitudinal and shear waves. These equations are solved for two wave types,s =1,2, which correspond to a fluid dominated wave and an axial shell wave, and expressions for a complex wavenumber for each wave are given.

  19. Fracture behavior under monotonic and low cycle loadings in carbon steel pipes and welded pipe joints with a defect

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Kanno, Satoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Gotoh, Nobuho; Miura, Naoki; Fujioka, Terutaka; Kashima, Koichi

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate the structural integrity of power plant piping during earthquakes, fracture behavior under monotonic and low cycle loadings was examined, using 4-inch carbon steel pipes made of base metal and welded pipe joints with a circumferential defect at room and elevated temperatures in air. In the monotonic bending tests, the maximum loads increased slightly with the loading rates for base metal pipes and welded pipe joints. The maximum loads in welded pipe joints were about 10% higher than those in base metal pipes for various displacement rate. In the cyclic bending tests, the number of cycles to failure, N{sub f} was closely correlated with the ratio of the load amplitude, Pa to the maximum load, Pmax obtained in the monotonic bending tests, in spite of the difference in the maximum loads for base metal pipes and welded pipe joints. The number of loading cycles during an earthquake was assumed as about 100 cycles in design. The relationship between Pa/Pmax and the number of cycles to failure showed that the allowable load amplitude ratio was estimated as about 0.7.

  20. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\1\\ The... Tube Products from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012,...

  1. 76 FR 76939 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... or cold-rolled mechanical tubing, pipe and tube hollows for redraws, finished scaffolding, and... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final... welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. The administrative review covers the Borusan Group \\1\\...

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

  3. A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation.

    PubMed

    Pericault, Youen; Risberg, Mikael; Vesterlund, Mattias; Viklander, Maria; Hedström, Annelie

    2017-07-01

    The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists of supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section. To this end, five heat tracing temperatures were tested and the corresponding sewer and water pipe temperatures were measured. The field experiment was also simulated with a two dimensional finite volume model. The study showed that, under the climatic conditions of the experiment, a heat tracing temperature of 25 °C allowed prevention of freezing of the pipes while keeping drinking water pipes in a safe temperature range at both cross sections. The other main result was that the developed finite volume model of the sections showed a good fitting to the experimental data.

  4. Recorded seismic response of a base-isolated steel bridge carrying a steel water pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.; Brady, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    A set of strong motion records was obtained from the base-isolated Santa Ana River Pipeline Bridge during the magnitude 5.9 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake of October 1, 1987. The analysis of the records show that the level of excitation was not strong enough to fully activate the base isolators. The dominant modes of the response are the translations of the abutment-bridge-pipe system in the longitudinal and transverse directions, and the bending of the steel truss between supports in the vertical direction.

  5. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.107 Yield...

  6. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.107 Yield...

  7. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.107 Yield...

  8. 76 FR 63902 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan, 76 FR 33210 (June 8, 2011) (Preliminary Results)....

  9. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...-1191-1194 (Final)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates... of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... and Conduit, Harvey, IL; JMC Steel Group, Chicago, IL; Wheatland Tube, Sharon, PA; and United...

  10. 75 FR 62366 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  11. 77 FR 64473 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel... Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Negative Countervailing...

  12. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel...\\ \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

  13. 75 FR 68327 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission... certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. The period of review is May 1, 2009... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel...

  14. 75 FR 13255 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determination in this countervailing duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard... of seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line,...

  15. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe... in this proceeding. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  16. 77 FR 8808 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  17. 76 FR 15941 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  18. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION (A-570-956) Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

  19. 75 FR 69052 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line... and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China:...

  20. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...), whether finished or unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and ``commodity... specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...

  1. 76 FR 79651 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... pipe size), whether finished or unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and... specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or... subject merchandise and foreign like product: (1) The type of fitting; (2) the grade of steel; (3)...

  2. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and ``commodity'' and ``specialty... Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or JIS specifications... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...

  3. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Zhongyou Tipo Steel (``Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo''), Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO''), Sichuan YNJ Industries Co., Ltd. (``Sichuan YNJ''), SteelFORCE Far East Ltd. (``Steel..., Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo, Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO, Sichuan YNJ, SteelFORCE, Tianjin Baolai, Tianjin...

  4. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission..., line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is November 1, 2011... China covering the period [[Page 33810

  5. 77 FR 64471 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Vietnam: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International... welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded pipe'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). DATES: Effective Date: October 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher...

  6. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-06

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  7. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-01

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  8. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  9. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals.

  10. Friction Stir Welding of Line-Pipe Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, Samuel; Mahoney, Murray; Feng, Zhili; Larsen, Steve; Steel, Russel; Fleck, Dale

    2014-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) offers both economic and technical advantages over conventional fusion welding practices for welding line-pipe. For offshore line-pipe construction, the economic savings has been shown to be considerable, approaching a calculated 25%. Offshore pipe is relatively small diameter but heavy wall compared to onshore pipe. One concern is the ability to achieve consistent full weld penetration in an on-site offshore FSW operation, e.g., on a lay-barge. In addition, depending on the size and morphology of the unwelded zone, lack of penetration at the weld root can be difficult if not impossible to detect by conventional NDE methods. Thus, an approach to assure consistent full penetration via process control is required for offshore line-pipe construction using FSW. For offshore construction, an internal structural mandrel can be used offering the opportunity to use a sacrificial anvil FSW approach. With this approach, a small volume of sacrificial material can be inserted into the structural anvil. The FSW tool penetrates into the sacrificial anvil, beyond the inner diameter of the pipe wall, thus assuring full penetration. The sacrificial material is subsequently removed from the pipe inner wall. In the work presented herein, FSW studies were completed on both 6 mm and 12 mm wall thickness line-pipe. Lastly, post-FSW evaluations including radiography, root-bend tests, and metallography demonstrated the merits of the sacrificial anvil approach to achieve consistent full penetration.

  11. Cathodic protection parameters measured on corrosion coupons and pipes buried in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Barlo, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    There is renewed interest in the use of corrosion coupons for monitoring catholically protected pipelines. The resurgence in interest was prompted by the need to determine the {minus}850 mV (Cu/CuSO{sub 4}) polarized potential recommended by NACE International RP0169-96 where traditional methods (e.g., current interruption) may not be feasible or practical. A variety of coupon sizes, shapes, orientations, and means of measurement have been developed over the years, with many in use today around the world. The results from a field study on operating pipelines using coupons of two different sizes (49 and 4.2 cm{sup 2}) in two widely different soil environments are presented, and correlations between the cathodic protection parameters of on-potential, instant-off potential, IR drop, and polarization on the coupons and pipes are discussed. Factors controlling the relationships are analyzed and some limitations in the use of coupons are considered.

  12. 76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY... concerning the antidumping duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan..., China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  13. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. See Initiation of Five-Year... to the scope of the order. South Korea The products subject to this order are certain...

  14. 76 FR 56395 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Extension of... and tube from Turkey for the period May 1, 2009, through April 30, 2010. See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  15. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time... rescinding the review with respect to Yieh Hsing. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  16. 76 FR 71938 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand for...

  17. 78 FR 286 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... and tubes from Turkey for the period of review (POR) May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011.\\1\\ We are..., as amended (the Act). \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey; Final...

  18. 77 FR 36256 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Postponement of Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Postponement of Final... investigation on circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe from India.\\1\\ On June 1, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty investigation is currently due on August 6, 2012. \\1\\ See Circular Welded...

  19. 76 FR 78612 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission... certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. The period of review is May 1, 2010... notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded...

  20. 76 FR 4633 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China... scope of the Order \\1\\ as excluding carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from the People's Republic of.... LLC, d/b/a King Architectural Metals v. United States, Slip Op. 10-111, Court No. 09-00477...

  1. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  2. 76 FR 67146 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy; Extension of Time Limit... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy in...

  3. 78 FR 9676 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China...'') is rescinding the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on circular welded carbon... countervailing duty order on circular welded carbon quality steel pipe from the PRC covering the period January 1...

  4. 75 FR 39917 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-580-809) Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea... non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2008 through...

  5. 76 FR 52636 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial... the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``circular welded...

  6. 76 FR 66899 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the... certain circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan; and... initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain circular welded non-alloy...

  7. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless carbon and alloy... carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China covering...

  8. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time... welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. We also received review requests on November 30, 2009,...

  9. 76 FR 40689 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe...

  10. 76 FR 3083 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey...

  11. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  12. Analysis of Deformation Behavior of Plastic during Lining on Steel Pipe with an FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toshiro; Mikawa, Toshihide; Kushizaki, Yoshiyuki

    2007-05-01

    There exist serious issues on the poor adhesion and residual stress of plastics on the steel pipe lined with plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), which cause the interface delamination and crack of plastics. In order to prevent the failure during lining, the optimum lining conditions such as temperature pattern and the length of plastic pipe are not determined by the theoretical analysis but by trial and error because of the following reasons: As a plastic pipe is longitudinally stretched in advance, it has the strong anisotropy that it shrinks in the longitudinal direction and expands in the circumferential direction while sliding and adhesion of plastics at the contact point with steel during lining. Moreover, plastics are usually a viscoelastic material; the dynamic behavior is remarkably dependent on temperature and time. In this work, the authors have tried to analyze the deformation behavior of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) lining a steel pipe during lining. Mechanical and viscoelastic properties of stretched PVC pipe have been measured in the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The deformation behavior of PVC pipe has been numerically predicted by a finite element analysis (FEA) under the assumption of anisotropic and viscoelastic material during lining. It has been confirmed that the calculated results by an FEA can give the good agreement with experimental ones.

  13. Concrete filled steel pipe inspection using electro magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Won-Bae; Kundu, Tribikram; Ryu, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2005-05-01

    Concrete-filled steel pipes are usually exposed in hostile environments such as seawater and deicing materials. The outside corrosion of the steel pipe can reduce the wall thickness and the corrosion-induced delamination of internal concrete can increase internal volume or pressure. In addition, the void that can possibly exist in the pipe reduces the bending resistance. To avoid structural failure due to this type of deterioration, appropriate inspection and repair techniques are to be developed. Guided wave techniques have strong potentials for this kind of inspection because of long-distance inspection capability. Among different transducer-coupling mechanism, electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) give relatively consistent results in comparison to piezoelectric transducers since they do not need any couplant. In this study EMATs are used for transmitting and receiving cylindrical guided waves through concrete-filled steel pipes. Through time history curves and wavelet transform, it is shown that EMAT-generated cylindrical guided wave techniques have good potential for the interface inspection of concrete-filled steel pipes.

  14. Investigations on the Suitability of Coated Steel Piping System for High Pressure Seawater Reverse Osmosis Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobin, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    This study deals with the investigations concerning with the suitability of coated steel piping system as an economically viable alternative to costly stainless steel piping for high pressure seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) application. The piping system selected for investigation is a carbon steel piping coated internally and externally with thermoplastic coating (coating powder Plascoat PPA 571). The performance of thermoplastic coating was investigated by conducting SWRO pilot plant test, salt spray test, mechanical tests and testing of the coating under crevices (both in pilot plant and laboratory), and for leachable organics and inorganics (both in laboratory and pilot plant test). The testing of coating in the pilot plant resulted in the formation of some blisters on the internal surface of the pipes. The blisters were broken causing the corrosion of underneath steel. The coating showed a poor resistance to salt fog test. In general, the coating performed satisfactorily under the crevices but showed blistering on either side of the test panels. The adhesive strength of the coating was found to be poor; however, it showed good flexibility. The results of chemical analysis did not show the leaching of organic or inorganic pollutants from the coating.

  15. Effects of surface condition on the stress corrosion cracking of line pipe steel

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.; Parkins, R.N.

    1988-04-01

    The relationship between surface properties of line pipe steels and external stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is reviewed. Surface factors discussed include mill scale, surface pitting, decarburization, surface residual stresses, and near-surface stress state. Recent research results have demonstrated that the susceptibility of a line pipe steel to SCC initiation is dependent on complicated interaction among these properties. However, these studies also show that relatively simple surface preparation procedures such as grit blasting can be effective in reducing the susceptibility of pipelines to crack initiation.

  16. On the impact bending test technique for high-strength pipe steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenkin, A. M.; Odesskii, P. D.; Shabalov, I. P.; Likhachev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is shown that the impact toughness (KCV-40 = 250 J/cm2) accepted for pipe steels of strength class K65 (σy ≥ 550 MPa) intended for large-diameter gas line pipes is ineffective to classify steels in fracture strength. The results obtained upon testing of specimens with a fatigue crack and additional sharp lateral grooves seem to be more effective. In energy consumption, a macrorelief with splits is found to be intermediate between ductile fracture and crystalline brittle fracture. A split formation mechanism is considered and a scheme is proposed for split formation.

  17. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  18. 75 FR 13729 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2007 through October 31, 2008. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea:...

  19. Characterization of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M.

    This Dissertation investigates a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping. Numerous techniques exist for the repair of high-pressure steel piping. One repair technology that is widely gaining acceptance is composite over-wraps. Thermal analytical evaluations of the epoxy matrix material produced glass transition temperature results, a cure kinetic model, and a workability chart. These results indicate a maximum glass transition temperature of 80°C (176°F) when cured in ambient conditions. Post-curing the epoxy, however, resulted in higher glass-transition temperatures. The accuracy of cure kinetic model presented is temperature dependent; its accuracy improves with increased cure temperatures. Cathodic disbondment evaluations of the composite over-wrap show the epoxy does not breakdown when subjected to a constant voltage of -1.5V and the epoxy does not allow corrosion to form under the wrap from permeation. Combustion analysis of the composite over-wrap system revealed the epoxy is flammable when in direct contact with fire. To prevent combustion, an intumescent coating was developed to be applied on the composite over-wrap. Results indicate that damaged pipes repaired with the carbon fiber composite over-wrap withstand substantially higher static pressures and exhibit better fatigue characteristics than pipes lacking repair. For loss up to 80 percent of the original pipe wall thickness, the composite over-wrap achieved failure pressures above the pipe's specified minimum yield stress during monotonic evaluations and reached the pipe's practical fatigue limit during cyclical pressure testing. Numerous repairs were made to circular, thru-wall defects and monotonic pressure tests revealed containment up to the pipe's specified minimum yield strength for small diameter defects. The energy release rate of the composite over-wrap/steel interface was obtained from these full-scale, leaking pipe evaluations and results

  20. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  1. Superfluid helium testing of a stainless steel to titanium piping transition joint

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Budagov, J.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sabirov, B.; Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  2. 76 FR 37320 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Metals, Slip Op. 11-33 (March 29, 2011) (SeAH II). SeAH Steel Corporation v. United States, Court No. 09... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Notice of... Commerce's (the Department's) results of redetermination as applied to respondent SeAH Steel...

  3. Microbially influenced corrosion of galvanized steel pipes in aerobic water systems.

    PubMed

    Bolton, N; Critchley, M; Fabien, R; Cromar, N; Fallowfield, H

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the role of heterotrophic bacteria in the corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of water. Samples were taken from corroding galvanized steel pipes conveying water for specialist applications, and heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and cultured. The majority of bacteria were Gram-negative aerobes and included Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pumilus, Afipia spp. and Blastobacter denitrificans/Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Zinc tolerance was assessed through growth and zinc disc diffusion experiments. In general, zinc negatively influenced growth rates. An unidentified yeast also isolated from the system demonstrated a high tolerance to zinc at concentrations up to 4 g l(-1) . Coupon experiments were performed to assess corrosion by the bacteria on galvanized steel and steel coupons. The majority of isolates as pure culture biofilms (69%) accelerated corrosion of galvanized coupons, assessed as zinc release, relative to sterile control coupons (P < 0·05). Pure culture biofilms did not increase the corrosion of steel, with four isolates demonstrating protective effects. Pure culture biofilms of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a corroding galvanized pipe system were found to accelerate the corrosion of galvanized steel coupons. Microbially influenced corrosion is a potential contributor to sporadically occurring failures in galvanized steel systems containing water. Management strategies should consider microbial control as a means for corrosion prevention in these systems. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  5. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  6. Study on Snow-Melting System around Steel Top of Underground Fire Cistern using Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Niro; Nakano, Norimasa; Takeuchi, Masanori; Maekawa, Yoshitaka; Maegawa, Yoshikazu

    This research aims to develop snow melting system around steel top of underground fire cistern by using heat pipe, for realizing quick finding of the steel top under heavy snow fall. Water in a fire cistern installed underground is heated by underground heat source, 10 ~15 °C. The iron top is put on snow melting panel made of reinforced concrete. Heat is transported from water to the snow melting panel by heat pipes, which melts snow on it. The experimental results obtained for two years show that this system can melt the snow around the steel top in winter season preferably. The numerical simulation using only weather data was found to predict temperature variations of the whole system with good agreements to the experimental data. Therefore, this simulation software can be used for designing this snow-melting system.

  7. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  8. Internal surface residual stresses in girth butt-welded steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, W.C.

    1996-12-01

    Welding residual stresses are often needed as inputs in fitness for service determinations. This paper collects data on the welding residual stress at the internal surface of girth welds in steel pipes. Comparing the available measurements at the weld centerline, large variations can be noted in residual stress, both in the axial and hoop direction, even on pipes of similar thickness. The range can be somewhat reduced by including the effects of welding net heat input and material yield strength, but at best the range is {+-} 0.4 yield strength. Mechanisms of residual stress formation and estimation techniques are discussed.

  9. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  10. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or... Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-308-310 and...

  11. 75 FR 20334 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Correction to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... China: Correction to Notice of Amended Final Determination Pursuant to Final Court Decision AGENCY... final determination pursuant to final court decision for circular welded carbon quality steel line pipe...'s Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final Determination Pursuant to Final Court Decision, 75 FR...

  12. 75 FR 16071 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Huludao Bohai Oil Pipe Industrial Co. Ltd. (Huludao Bohai) (collectively, the Huludao Companies) of 31.29... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On December 11, 2009,...

  13. 75 FR 64250 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold- drawn or cold-rolled... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final... the preliminary results of the antidumping duty administrative review of certain welded carbon...

  14. Experimental characterization of creep damage in a welded steel pipe section using a nonlinear ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, C.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.; Wall, J.

    2012-05-01

    To ensure the long and safe operation of power plants, structural parts must be monitored for damage. In the case of welded steel pipes that maintain high pressures in high temperature environments, a common cause of failure is creep damage. Severe creep damage often occurs in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Previous research has shown that nonlinear acoustic techniques are sensitive to creep damage. This research develops a procedure using longitudinal waves to obtain the nonlinearity parameter on a welded steel pipe in order to detect creep damage. These experiments show higher levels of nonlinearity in the HAZ. Additional measurements on an undamaged, welded sample suggest that the high nonlinearity is due to creep (stresses at a high temperature for extended time) damage and not welding (high temperature only for a short time).

  15. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in a high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Lutey, R.W.; Musick, J.; Pinnow, K.E.; Tuthill, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    In March of 1993, about two years after startup in early 1991, pinhole leaks were found in the 16 in. (406 mm) type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) raw water piping at the Brunswick-Topsham Water District (BTWD) Potable Water Treatment Plant (PWTP) in Brunswick, Maine. The low chloride manganese-containing well water is chlorinated in the pump house. After reaching the plant, the raw water is handled in type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) piping. It was initially felt that the corrosion might be the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) type corrosion described by Tverberg, Pinnow, and Redmerski. Investigation showed that the role of manganese and chlorine differed, in important respects, from that described by Tverberg et. al., and that heat tint scale may have played a significant role in the corrosion that occurred at the BTWD plant.

  16. Surface preparation for non-destructive detection of surface cracks in stainless steel and carbon steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Funderburg, I.M.

    1996-07-01

    Engineers within the chemical process industries are among other things, charged with the task of determining the reliability of piping and equipment. As part of this evaluation, the surfaces of process equipment and piping are often examined for evidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or other tightly closed surface cracks. Presently there is no consensus as to which is the ``best`` technique for preparing and inspecting carbon steel and stainless steel vessels or piping for surface cracks. The specific concern within industry is that Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) might go undetected if the surface preparation closes over such tight cracks. This paper presents results of a study, MTI commissioned to collect additional data, examine the literature, and interview industrial materials engineers, independent inspection specialists, non-destructive examination consultants, and other representatives of industries that have equipment which must be inspected for surface cracks. Discussed are the differing surface preparation techniques used, the use of standards for evaluating the effectiveness of the techniques, and what is felt to be the ``Key Learnings`` from the investigation.

  17. A metallurgical evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the stainless steel piping in the primary coolant water system of SRS reactors indicates the presence of short, partly-through-wall stress corrosion cracks in the heat-affected zone of approximately 7% of the circumferential pipe welds. These cracks are thought to develop by intergranular nucleation and mixed mode propagation. Metallographic evaluations have confirmed the UT indications of crack size and provided evidence that crack growth involved the accumulation of chloride inside the growing crack. It is postulated that the development of an oxygen depletion cell inside the crack results in the migration of chloride ions to the crack tip to balance the accumulation of positively charged metallic ions. The results of this metallurgicial evaluation, combined with structural assessments of system integrity, support the existence of leak-before-break conditions in the SRS reactor piping system. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Research for different crack width calculation methods of concrete-lined steel pressure pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuang; Li, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Based on a certain threshold to ensure the durability of structure, the concrete-lined steel pressure pipes used in the structure of large hydropower station widely are allowed to exist in concrete cracking under the action of a certain hydraulic pressure. According to the 1:2 large scale experiment model and the measured data of Three Gorges Hydro-power Station, the existing different methods for calculating crack width were compared and improvements and crack control measures were raised.

  19. Prestressing buried pipelines by heating with air

    SciTech Connect

    King, G. )

    1993-11-01

    Buried pipelines operating at elevated temperatures experience high longitudinal compressive stresses because the surrounding soil prevents thermal expansion. At high operating temperatures, buried pipelines can push through the soil at bends and buckle catastrophically. In soft soils they can lose lateral stability, and they can develop plastic failures. Thermally induced problems can be prevented with varying degrees of success by using thicker wall pipe, higher strength prevented with varying degrees of success by using thicker wall pipe, higher strength steel, longer radius bends, deeper burial, better backfill compaction, and/or prestressing during construction. Prestressing is most appropriate for pipelines operating at temperatures more than 80 C above ambient. One technique for prestressing a buried pipeline, that has been found to be both easy and economical for a liquid sulfur pipeline in Alberta, is to heat it with hot air and bury it while it is still hot. Pipe diameter and prestressing temperature both have a significant impact on the kind of heating equipment that is required.

  20. Special Features of Structure Formation in Pipes from Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steel 32G2F Under Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Belikov, S. V.; Musikhin, S. A.; Burmasov, S. P.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Special features of formation of structure and properties of seamless pipes from medium-carbon low-alloy steel for oil and gas applications are considered and associated with chemical inhomogeneity of the metal of the pipes.

  1. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  2. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  3. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Lutey, R.W.; Musick, J.; Pinnow, K.E.; Tuthill, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    A potable water treatment plant, designed to reduce manganese and iron in well water, experienced leaks in the 16 in. (406 mm) raw water headers about nine months after startup. The material, type 304 (UNS 30403) stainless steel, was purchased to American Society of Testing Materials specification A 778, with additional stipulations governing internal finish, the use of filler metal, and pickling for scale removal. Laboratory screenings of deposits for bacteria revealed some potentially additive corrosive effects from microbial action. However, the correlation of corrosion with the presence or absence of heat tint in the heat-affected zone of the circumferential welds prevailed as a primary cause of the corrosion observed beneath an adherent manganese-iron deposit in a low chloride, high manganese, raw water.

  4. Surface modification for corrosion protection of steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed, Ali

    Corrosion of carbon steel oil pipelines in the sweet environments has been a well- known problem in the oil industry all over the world and corrosion inhibitors of the film forming type have been widely used to combat this type of corrosion. In this project numerous effort has been made to devise a similar way of corrosion mitigation by producing an impermeable and protective coating made of precipitated iron carbonate scale. Based on the previous works it was suggested that iron carbonate scale as the corrosion product (of carbon steel and CO2) could to some extent offer protection to its substrate and reduce the corrosion rate effectively. However, precipitating an adherent and protective iron carbonate scale has not been an easy job. Our main objectives during this work have been firstly to define the favourable conditions under which an iron carbonate scale would precipitate in the system and then to investigate how the protective characteristics of the scale could be improved. The effects of several environmental variables like solution pH, solution temperature, additives (scale inhibitors), stirring and solution composition on the scale properties such as adhesion, surface coverage, stability and porosity (scale density) have been investigated. Simultaneously, the adverse effects of certain conditions or variables that tended to reduce the scale protectiveness or prevent its precipitation have been investigated and discussed. Some of the presented results are rather qualitative; nevertheless it is believed that they have contributed in the better understanding of the iron carbonate scale properties and its precipitation process. Based on the results and conclusions of this project few suggestions have been made at the end for the possible continuation of this work.

  5. An experimental analysis of temperature and stress fields in girth welded 304L stainless steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; Hubbard, C.R.; Spooner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The thermal and deformation/strain histories were measured by a computer data acquisition system for three 406-mm-diameter, Type 304L stainless steel (SS), schedule 40 (12.7 mm thickness) pipe girth welds. Two welds were standard V groove preparations and completed in six and nine (discontinuous) passes with multiple start-stop positions, while the third one was a narrow groove configuration and finished with four continuous passes with one start-stop position. The thermomechanical history measurements were taken on the pipe inner surface, encompassing the weld centerline (WCL) and heat-affected zone; a total of 47 data acquisition instruments were used for each weld to monitor weld shrinkages, surface temperatures, surface strains, and radial deformations. The experimental data give the following general conclusions: (1) the temperature profiles in the two V groove weldments are, in general, axisymmetric, while the temperature profile in the narrow gap groove weldment is axisymmetric in locations far from WCL, but is not axisymmetric in locations near start-stop position; (2) the strain/deformation histories are controlled by the thermal histories with the final strain/deformation value largely determined by the last one or two passes of welding; (3) the strain/deformation profile in the weldment is not axisymmetric suggesting that the residual stress is not axisymmetrically distributed; (4) the four-pass narrow gap weldment experienced the fewest time and temperature cycles during welding, and has the lowest level of radial deformation among the three pipe weldments indicating that the narrow gap weldment would have the lowest overall residual stress level among the three pipe weldments. Residual stress measurements on the inner surface of four-pass pipe weldment were performed using the neutron diffraction (ND) technique. The ND results show that a tensile zone exists on the pipe inner surface and in the weld and its heat-affected zone (HAZ) area.

  6. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Far-Side Examinations of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system austenitic piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements for near side inspection. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm (24inch) diameter, 36mm (1.42inch) thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches ranged in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through-wall to 64% through-wall. The welds were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that phased-array methods were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, the notches and flaws through the welds. The ultrasonic results were insensitive to the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  7. Multiple Restart Testing of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Mireles, Omar; Reid, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration activities. Long life heat pipe modules. with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental evaluations. would be necessary to establish the viability of this option. A hardware-based program was initiated to begin experimental testing of components to verify compliance of proposed designs. To this end, a number of stainless steel/sodium heat pipe modules have been designed and fabricated to support experimental testing of a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, a 100-kWt core design pursued jointly by the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. One of the SAFE heat pipe modules was successfully subjected to over 200 restarts. examining the behavior of multiple passive freeze/thaw operations. Typical operation included a 1-hour startup to an average evaporator temperature of 1000 K followed by a 15 minute hold at temperature. Nominal maximum input power during the hold period was 1.9 kW. Between heating cycles the module was cooled to less than 325 K, returning the sodium to a frozen state in preparation fop the next startup cycle.

  8. Thermomechanical history measurements on Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; Turpin, R.; West, S.L.

    1993-12-31

    Thermal and strain histories were recorded for three 40-cm-diameter (16 inch), Type 304L stainless steel (SS), schedule 40 (1.27 cm thickness) pipe girth welds. Two weld groove preparations were standard V grooves while the third was a narrow groove configuration. The welding parameters for the three pipe welds simulated expected field practice as closely as possible. The narrow gap weld was completed in four continuous passes while the other two welds required six and nine (discontinuous) passes, due to the use of different weld wire diameters. Thermomechanical history measurements were taken on the inner counterbore surface, encompassing the weld centerline and heat-affected zone (HAZ), as well as 10 cm of inner counterbore surface on either side of the weld centerline; a total of 47 data acquisition instruments were used for each weld. These instruments monitored: (1) weld shrinkages parallel to the pipe axis; (2) surface temperatures; (3) surface strains parallel to weld centerline; and (4) radial deformations. Results show that the weld and HAZ experienced cyclic deformation in the radial direction during welding, indicating that the final residual stress distribution in multi-pass pipe weldments is not axisymmetric. Measured radial and axial deformations were smaller for the narrow gap groove than for the standard V grooves, suggesting that the narrow gap groove weldment may have lower residual stress levels than the standard V groove weldments. This study provides the experimental database and a guideline for further computational modeling work.

  9. AN ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY EVALUATION OF CAST AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL PRESSURIZER SURGE LINE PIPING WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-07-22

    A set of circumferentially oriented thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) were implanted into three cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) pressurizer (PZR) surge-line specimens (pipe-to-elbow welds) that were fabricated using vintage CASS materials formed in the 1970s, and flaw responses from these cracks were used to evaluate detection and sizing performance of the phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods applied. Four different custom-made PA probes were employed in this study, operating nominally at 800 kHz, 1.0 MHz, 1.5 MHz, and 2.0 MHz center frequencies. The CASS PZR surge-line specimens were polished and chemically etched to bring out the microstructures of both pipe and elbow segments. Additional studies were conducted and documented to address baseline CASS material noise and observe possible ultrasonic beam redirection phenomena.

  10. Towards an in-situ measurement of wave velocity in buried plastic water distribution pipes for the purposes of leak location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Fabrício C. L.; Brennan, Michael J.; Joseph, Phillip F.; Dray, Simon; Whitfield, Stuart; Paschoalini, Amarildo T.

    2015-12-01

    Water companies are under constant pressure to ensure that water leakage is kept to a minimum. Leak noise correlators are often used to help find and locate leaks. These devices correlate acoustic or vibration signals from sensors which are placed either side the location of a suspected leak. The peak in the cross-correlation function of the measured signals gives the time difference between the arrival times of the leak noise at the sensors. To convert the time delay into a distance, the speed at which the leak noise propagates along the pipe (wave-speed) needs to be known. Often, this is estimated from historical wave-speed data measured on other pipes obtained at various times and under various conditions, or it is estimated from tables which are calculated using simple formula. Usually, the wave-speed is not measured directly at the time of the correlation measurement and is therefore potentially a source of significant error in the localisation of the leak. In this paper, a new method of measuring the wave-speed in-situ in the presence of a leak, that is robust and simple, is explored. Experiments were conducted on a bespoke large scale buried pipe test-rig, in which a leak was also induced in the pipe between the measurement positions to simulate a condition that is likely to occur in practice. It is shown that even in conditions where the signal to noise ratio is very poor, the wave-speed estimate calculated using the new method is less than 5% different from the best estimate of 387 m s-1.

  11. The design of steel for high strength line pipe requiring excellent notch toughness and corrosion properties for arctic applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeCaux, G.; Golini, F.; Rayner, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    Due to the cold climate and environmental requirements of Alaska`s North Slope and Western Canada`s oil production areas, line pipe steels intended for use in these areas must display not only high strength as required, but superior toughness. Additionally,if the line pipe is to be used in aggressive sour gas (i.e., H{sub 2}S containing) environments it must also have excellent resistance to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). Such a steel has been designed, through selective chemistry, clean steel-making practices, nonmetallic inclusion control, and hot mill process control, that is capable of meeting stringent line pipe specifications covering X65 grade line pipe in Arctic service temperatures. This paper also examined the effect that hot rolling finishing temperature had on notch toughness. Steel-making knowledge developed for lower strength, HIC resistant X52 grade steel has been employed for the development of a X65 grade steel. Results of trial heats will be presented.

  12. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  13. Low-pH stress corrosion crack propagation in API X-65 line pipe steel

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Preliminary results of ongoing crack growth studies being performed on an API X-65 line pipe steel in a low-pH cracking environment were reported. Objectives were to reproduce low-pH crack propagation in the laboratory, to identify a crack driving force parameter, and to evaluate the influence of environmental and mechanical parameters on crack growth. A J-integral test technique was used in the study. Significant crack growth was observed. The parameter J appeared to be a good driving force parameter to describe crack growth.

  14. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  15. [Effect of chloramines disinfection for biofilm formation control on copper and stainless steel pipe materials].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yong-ji; Li, Xing; Li, Gui-bai

    2008-12-01

    Two rotating annular bioreactors (RABs) with copper and stainless steel pipe materials were adopted in the study, the effects of these two pipe materials and chloramines disinfection on biofilms formation in drinking water distribution system were evaluated. The maximum viable bacterial number in biofilm of copper and stainless steel reached 5.5 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 at 18th and 21st day without chloramines, and the viable bacterial number at the apparent steady state was 1.0 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 1.3 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 respectively. It was obvious that the biomass on copper materials was lower than that of the stainless steel. The maximum viable bacterial on copper and stainless steel under chloramines was 5.0 x 10(2) CFU/cm2 and 5.0 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, which was one order of magnitude lower than that of without chloramines, and its number was 10 CFU/cm2 and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU/cm2 at the steady state. These results illustrated that chloramines had apparent ability in controlling biomass when the biofilm was on steady states, especially for copper material. There was exponential relationship between biomass in biofilm and residue chloramines, which meant less biomass with more chloramines, synergistic effects were observed between chloramines and copper materials on biomass in biofilms inactivation.

  16. A Comparison of Ultrasonic Flaw Responses as Observed through Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess ultrasonic techniques for detection and sizing of flaws from the opposite side of wrought austenitic piping welds. A series of stainless steel specimens with implanted flaws were examined using phased-array ultrasonic probes. These examinations were conducted from both sides of the full-penetration structural piping welds, with emphasis on comparing the responses from the far-side inspection. The types of flaws examined include thermal fatigue cracks, saw cuts, and service-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC). The flaws were examined using three phased-array probes: a 2-MHz shear-wave probe, a 1.5-MHz longitudinal-wave probe, and a “mini” 2-MHz longitudinal-wave probe. The sound fields for each probe were modeled in stainless steel to assure proper insonification at the depths and angles used in the tests. This paper describes the results of the sound field modeling, and compares the responses of the various flaws from the near and far side of the welds.

  17. Through Weld Inspection of Wrought Stainless Steel Piping Using Phased-Array Ultrasonic Probes.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2004-08-05

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of phased-array ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of these welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm diameter, 36mm thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches range in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through wall to 64% through wall. The welds were examined with two phased-array probes, a 2.0 MHz transmit-receive longitudinal wave array and a 2.0 MHz transmit-receive shear wave array. These examinations showed that both phased-array transducers were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, all of the notches and flaws through the welds. The phased-array results were not strongly affected by the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  18. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  19. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Far-Side Examination of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm diameter, 36mm thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches ranged in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through-wall to 64% through-wall. The welds were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and with low-frequency/Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) methods in the 250-400 kHz regime. These results were compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that both phased-array and low-frequency/SAFT were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, the notches and flaws through the welds. The ultrasonic results were insensitive to the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  20. Steel Casing Resistivity Technology (SCRT): Innovative Applications of Electrical Methods for Buried Tank Leak Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. B.; Levitt, M. T.; Gee, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    The need for non-invasive leak detection methods is extremely important for monitoring cleanup efforts of nuclear waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Facility in Washington. Drilling is both very expensive and undesirable in the tank farms. Various geophysical imaging methods were evaluated over the past two years at two "cold" sites but within geologic conditions similar to the tank farms. The "cold" sites consisted of 1. a dense array of 32 steel casings, and 2. a "mock tank" in which various controlled leaks (injections) of a saturated aqueous solution of Na2S2O35H20 were metered. Nearly all methods required invasive drilling for subsurface placement of sensors. An innovative direct-current electrical method using existing infrastructure as grounding electrodes, such as steel casings and steel tanks, has shown very promising results and is undergoing further testing. The most useful results have been obtained by using multiple grounding points for spatial determinations and continuous time-series monitoring for temporal variations. Although the large size of tanks and lengths of casings make discrete volume estimations difficult, data acquired for test leaks to date have shown a surprising correlation between leak rates and the rate-of-change of specific electrical measurements. First order volume approximations can be made based on existing knowledge of the geologic environment and hydraulic parameters. Spatial data provide general leak location and gross flow characteristics, whereas temporal data indicate test leak commencement, cessation, and approximate leak rates. On-going testing is providing quantitative calibration information that is expected to transfer to the tank farm environments. Procedures are being developed that will simplify the installation and operation of the system in the tank-farm environments. Implementation of the technology necessitated remote operation and monitoring of the electrical system

  1. Analysis of Steel-With-Composite Material Substitution in Military Vehicle Hull Floors Subjected to Shallow-Buried Landmine-Detonation Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    duration of the mine-blast detonation event (ca. tens of milliseconds), heat conduction analysis is not carried out. Rather, the purely mechanical ...parameters; and two damage parameters. These parameters are commonly assessed by applying regression analysis to the results from a variety of mechanical ... Analysis of steel-with-composite material substitution in military vehicle hull floors subjected to shallow-buried landmine-detonation loads M

  2. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K.

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  3. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  4. [Corrosion of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L in the simulated sewage pipes reactor].

    PubMed

    Bao, Guo-Dong; Zuo, Jian-E; Wang, Ya-Jiao; Gan, Li-Li

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L which would be used as sewer in-situ rehabilitation materials was studied in the simulated sewage pipes reactor. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate of these three materials were studied by potentiodynamic method on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 56th day under two different conditions which were full immersion condition or batch immersion condition with a 2-day cycle. The electrode process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on the 56th day. The microstructure and composition of the corrosion pitting were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) on the 56th day. The results showed that 304 and 316L had much better corrosion resistance than 201 under both conditions. 304 and 316L had much smaller corrosion rate than 201 under both conditions. The corrosion resistance of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much better than those under the full immersion condition. The corrosion rate of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much smaller than those under the full immersion condition. Point pitting corrosion was formed on the surfaces of 304 and 316L. In comparison, a large area of corrosion was formed in the surface of 201.

  5. 78 FR 72114 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on circular...: Background--On January 23, 2009, the Department of Commerce issued a countervailing duty order on imports of... Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of circular welded carbon quality steel line pipe from...

  6. 75 FR 9163 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...) in outside diameter, regardless of wall-thickness, manufacturing process (e.g., hot-finished or cold... (other than stainless steel) pipe or ``hollow profiles'' suitable for cold finishing operations, such as cold drawing, to meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (``ASTM'') or American Petroleum...

  7. 78 FR 33108 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Commission defined a single Domestic Like Product consisting of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe..., the Commission defined the single Domestic Industry consisting of all known domestic producers of...) An Importer is any person or firm engaged, either directly or through a parent company or...

  8. 77 FR 19219 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan; and Certain Circular Welded Carbon... percent of copper; (iv) 0.50 percent of aluminum; (v) 1.25 percent of chromium; (vi) 0.30 percent of.... Internal Revenue Service Publication 946 (2008), How to Depreciate Property, at Table B-2: Table of...

  9. 76 FR 8345 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews of...

  10. Development, pre-qualification, and production history of 60 ksi UOE steel tendon pipe for AUGER tension leg platform

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Izumi; Nishimoto, Koji; Nagase, Makoto; Nishizawa, Masashi; Smith, J.D.; Bowen, K.G. |

    1995-12-31

    AUGER Tension Leg Platform (TLP) tendons consisted of specially designed threaded forged connections welded to thick-walled tubular tendon segments. This paper describes the development, pre-qualification testing, and production properties of the 60ksi-26 in. O.D. x 1.300 in. wall-thickness steel pipes which formed the TLP tendon segments. The tendon pipe segments were manufactured by the UOE process using Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate with double-submerged arc seam welding (DSAW). Stringent mechanical properties and dimensional control requirements were established for the tendon pipes, with special emphasis on weldability and resulting high heat-affected-zone (HAZ) crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness. The weldability (hydrogen delayed cracking resistance) and fracture toughness of the HAZ showed high and stable performance. Tight dimensional control, especially ovality, ensured minimal high-low during the making of girth welds at the construction site. Limiting high-low is an important parameter for lowering local stress-concentration factor (SCF) and increasing fatigue life. These results are discussed with particular reference to the steel Local Brittle Zone (LBZ) concept. Narrow range control of the TMCP steel chemistry, plate manufacturing process, and UOE pipe-forming and seam-welding process insured that all requirements were met for the production quantity.

  11. 75 FR 3896 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Extension of Time... tube from Turkey covering the period May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009. See Initiation of Antidumping...

  12. 75 FR 1335 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration,...

  13. 77 FR 2511 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration,...

  14. 75 FR 63439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of...

  15. The Effect of Ultrasonic Peening on Service Life of the Butt-Welded High-Temperature Steel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daavari, Morteza; Vanini, Seyed Ali Sadough

    2015-09-01

    Residual stresses introduced by manufacturing processes such as casting, forming, machining, and welding have harmful effects on the mechanical behavior of the structures. In addition to the residual stresses, weld toe stress concentration can play a determining effect. There are several methods to improve the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior of the welded structures. In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic peening on the fatigue life of the high-temperature seamless steel pipes, used in the petrochemical environment, have been investigated. These welded pipes are fatigued due to thermal and mechanical loads caused by the cycle of cooling, heating, and internal pressure fluctuations. Residual stress measurements, weld geometry estimation, electrochemical evaluations, and metallography investigations were done as supplementary examinations. Results showed that application of ultrasonic impact treatment has led to increased fatigue life, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance of A106-B welded steel pipes in petrochemical corrosive environment.

  16. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  17. Study on the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded steel pipes under bending load using diffraction methods

    DOE PAGES

    Hempel, Nico; Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; ...

    2017-02-02

    This research is dedicated to the experimental investigation of the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded pipes due to quasi-static bending loads. Ferritic-pearlitic steel pipes are welded with two passes, resulting in a characteristic residual stress state with high tensile residual stresses at the weld root. Also, four-point bending is applied to generate axial load stress causing changes in the residual stress state. These are determined both on the outer and inner surfaces of the pipes, as well as in the pipe wall, using X-ray and neutron diffraction. Focusing on the effect of tensile load stress, it is revealed that notmore » only the tensile residual stresses are reduced due to exceeding the yield stress, but also the compressive residual stresses for equilibrium reasons. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the applied load stress.« less

  18. Residual Stress Analysis in Girth-welded Ferritic and Austenitic Steel Pipes Using Neutron and X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, Nico; Bunn, Jeffrey R; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; Payzant, E Andrew; Dilger, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the thorough experimental analysis of the residual stresses in the vicinity of tubular welds and the mechanisms involved in their formation. Pipes made of a ferritic-pearlitic structural steel and an austenitic stainless steel are investigated in this study. The pipes feature a similar geometry and are MAG welded with two passes and comparable parameters. Residual strain mappings are carried out using X-ray and neutron diffraction. The combined use of both techniques permits both near-surface and through-wall analyses of the residual stresses. The findings allow for a consistent interpretation of the mechanisms accounting for the formation of the residual stress fields due to the welding process. Since the results are similar for both materials, it can be concluded that residual stresses induced by phase transformations, which can occur in the structural steel, play a minor role in this regard.

  19. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  20. The evaluation of the elasto-plastic behavior in case of the honed steel pipes subjected to variable internal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigmann, R.; Stanciu, M. D.; Szasz, M.; Curtu, I.; Sturzu, T.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper analyses the elasto-plastic behavior of ten samples of E355 steel pipe of the same inner diameter, but with wall thickness ranging between 1.100 and 2.500 mm and length about 100 mm. The samples were subjected to variable internal pressure which was increased from 0 to 600-800 bar (up to the breaking of the pipe), being used the hydraulic oil, type HM46. The outer diameter of the tested pipes was measured successive for each increase of pressure with 100 bars, thus being determined the flow curve of the pipe material characterized by the elasto-plastic behavior and a tenacious failure. It was found that thin pipes, with the ratio between the inner and outer diameter less than 1.1, shows a different flow curve compare to pipes with thick walls, having the ratio between the inner and outer diameter greater than 1.1, the deformations being about two times higher. The rheological models of each type of pipes were identified.

  1. Generation of the Ultrasonic Guided Waves in a Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Using an Array Transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Sup; Im, Kwang Hee

    2005-04-09

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. In ultrasonic guided waves, however, there are numerous modes with different wave velocities, so that the generation and detection of the appropriate wave mode of the guided wave is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, mode tuning using an array transducer was investigated with the hardware implements to generate ultrasonic guided waves in a seamless stainless steel pipe. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. A series of experiments was carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic tuning of modes by hardware: tuning the mode of the generated guided wave, group velocity measurement, tuned receiving and mode identification. As a result, the selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the time interval between adjacent elements of an array transducer.

  2. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Techniques for Far-Side Examinations of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately length-size flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, austenitic stainless steel specimens with flaws located on the far-side of full penetration structural welds were used. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters to simulate as-built conditions in the components, and were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and low-frequency/Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) methods in the 250-400 kHz regime. These results were compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that both phased-array and low-frequency/SAFT were able to reliably detect and length-size, but not depth size, notches and implanted fatigue cracks through the welds.

  3. Progress in the Reliable Inspection of Cast Stainless Steel Reactor Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2005-12-31

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) inspection techniques as related to the inservice ultrasonic inspec¬tion of primary piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes progress, recent developments and results from assessments of three different NDE approaches including ultrasonic phased array inspection techniques, eddy current testing for surface-breaking flaws, and a low-frequency ultrasonic inspection methodology coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Westinghouse Owner’s Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks, PNNL samples containing thermal fatigue cracks and several blank spool pieces were used for assessing the inspection methods. Eddy current studies were conducted on the inner diameter (ID) surface of piping specimens while the ultrasonic inspection methods were applied from the outer diameter (OD) surface of the specimens. The eddy current technique employed a Zetec MIZ-27SI Eddy Current instrument and a Zetec Z0000857-1 cross point spot probe with an operating frequency of 250 kHz. In order to reduce noise effects, degaussing of a subset of the samples resulted in noticeable improvements. The phased array approach was implemented using an R/D Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1 MHz, providing composite volumetric images of the samples. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employs a zone-focused, multi-incident angle inspection protocol (operating at 250-500 kHz) coupled with SAFT for improved signal

  4. Hydrogen accelerated fatigue crack growth of friction stir welded X52 steel pipe

    DOE PAGES

    Ronevich, Joseph Allen; Somerday, Brian P.; Feng, Zhili

    2016-11-17

    Friction stir welded steel pipelines were tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to examine the effects of hydrogen accelerated fatigue crack growth. Fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) vs. stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) relationships were measured for an X52 friction stir welded pipe tested in 21 MPa hydrogen gas at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5. Tests were performed on three regions: base metal (BM), center of friction stir weld (FSW), and 15 mm off-center of the weld. For all three material regions, tests in hydrogen exhibited accelerated fatigue crack growth rates that exceeded an order of magnitudemore » compared to companion tests in air. Among tests in hydrogen, fatigue crack growth rates were modestly higher in the FSW than the BM and 15 mm off-center tests. Select regions of the fracture surfaces associated with specified ΔK levels were examined which revealed intergranular fracture in the BM and 15 mm off-center specimens but an absence of intergranular features in the FSW specimens. In conclusion, the X52 friction stir weld and base metal tested in hydrogen exhibited fatigue crack growth rate relationships that are comparable to those for conventional arc welded steel pipeline of similar strength found in the literature.« less

  5. Hydrogen accelerated fatigue crack growth of friction stir welded X52 steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Ronevich, Joseph Allen; Somerday, Brian P.; Feng, Zhili

    2016-11-17

    Friction stir welded steel pipelines were tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to examine the effects of hydrogen accelerated fatigue crack growth. Fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) vs. stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) relationships were measured for an X52 friction stir welded pipe tested in 21 MPa hydrogen gas at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5. Tests were performed on three regions: base metal (BM), center of friction stir weld (FSW), and 15 mm off-center of the weld. For all three material regions, tests in hydrogen exhibited accelerated fatigue crack growth rates that exceeded an order of magnitude compared to companion tests in air. Among tests in hydrogen, fatigue crack growth rates were modestly higher in the FSW than the BM and 15 mm off-center tests. Select regions of the fracture surfaces associated with specified ΔK levels were examined which revealed intergranular fracture in the BM and 15 mm off-center specimens but an absence of intergranular features in the FSW specimens. In conclusion, the X52 friction stir weld and base metal tested in hydrogen exhibited fatigue crack growth rate relationships that are comparable to those for conventional arc welded steel pipeline of similar strength found in the literature.

  6. Operational parameter fields in hyperbaric plasma keyhole welding of mild steel line pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmeister, H.; Huismann, G.; Sommer, U.; Knagenhjelm, H.O.

    1996-12-01

    Based on recent work on orbital plasma keyhole welding of Duplex Stainless Steels and Low Carbon Martensitic 12--13% Cr-Steels, the capability of the plasma keyhole process for hyperbaric positional welding is explored. Based on respective nozzle geometry development, constant position welding of 100 mm OD 5 mm wall thickness St 35 pipe test pieces is carried out at constant welding speeds of 3mm/s at various constant currents and plasma Argon gas flow rates. As a result, the operational parameter fields are basically limited by lack of penetration (LOP) at too low gas flows and cutting (CT) together with dropping at too high gas flow rates. Based on present hyperbaric specifications for fabrication, limiting conditions for minimum root weld widths of 3mm and maximum root reinforcements of 2mm are established, for 11 and 41 bar as well as for the 3h, 6h and 12 h position. As common operating parameter sets for all positions, 135 A and 1.5 l/min plasma gas flow and 120 A and 1.8 l/min plasma gas flow are identified for 11 bar and 41 bar respectively.

  7. Drop Weight Impact Behavior of Al-Si-Cu Alloy Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Pipe Fabricated by Friction Stir Back Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Al-Si-Cu alloy ADC12 foam-filled thin-walled stainless steel pipes, which exhibit metal bonding between the ADC12 foam and steel pipe, were fabricated by friction stir back extrusion. Drop weight impact tests were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of the foam-filled pipes during dynamic compression tests, which were compared with the results of static compression tests. From x-ray computed tomography observation, it was confirmed that the fabricated foam-filled pipes had almost uniform porosity and pore size distributions. It was found that no scattering of the fragments of collapsed ADC12 foam occurred for the foam-filled pipes owing to the existence of the pipe surrounding the ADC12 foam. Preventing the scattering of the ADC12 foam decreases the drop in stress during dynamic compression tests and therefore improves the energy absorption properties of the foam.

  8. Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel Pipes in Oil Sands Slurry Studied by Weight-Loss Testing and CFD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guangchuan; Peng, Xingyu; Xu, Luyao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2013-10-01

    Weight-loss testing and computational fluid dynamic simulation were combined to investigate the essential roles of fluid mechanics and the sand impact in erosion-corrosion (E-C) of an X65 pipe steel in oil sands slurry. Results demonstrated that the steel E-C is resulted from the synergistic effect of the hydrodynamic shear stress and mechanical impact stress exerted on the steel surface. At low impact angles, such as 30°, the effect of shear stress is dominant. The particle impact stress becomes dominant when the impact angle increases to a high value, such as 90°. It is demonstrated that the maximum of E-C of the steel occurs at approximately 45° of the slurry impingement.

  9. Influence of structure on static cracking resistance and fracture of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereshchenko, N. A.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The static cracking resistance of a number of welded joints made from pipe steels of K60 strength class has been determined. It has been established that the deformation parameter CTOD varies significantly at identical parameters of weldability of steels. The character of fracture has been investigated and the zone of local brittleness of welded joints has been studied. It has been shown that the ability of a metal to resist cracking is determined by the austenite grain size and by the bainite morphology in the region of overheating in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint.

  10. Effectiveness of Rinse Water during In-Place Cleaning of Stainless Steel Pipe Lines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mengyuan; Phinney, David M; Heldman, Dennis R

    2015-07-01

    The 1st step of any Clean-In-Place (CIP) operation is a prerinse with water. The purpose of this step is to remove the bulk of food material remaining in the processing lines after production period has ended. It is known that this prerinse step can be a very water intensive process. The objective of this investigation was to measure the influence of CIP parameters (flow characteristics, water temperature, and contact time) on the effectiveness of prerinse water in removing dairy-based deposits from stainless steel pipe surfaces and to compare the rinse effectiveness of unused to reused rinse water. A pilot-scale CIP system was operated to rinse 304 stainless steel pipe sections of 3 different pipe diameters. The velocity of the rinse water was varied from 0.72 to 2.26 m/s. The rinse water temperatures were 22 °C, 45 °C, and 67 °C. The contact times between rinse water and deposited film were 20 and 60 s. Rinse effectiveness was expressed as the ratio of the amount of protein residue removed from the pipe surface during rinsing, as compared to the magnitude of the initial protein deposit. The rinse effectiveness varied from 73.1% to 94.9% for the range of the CIP parameters investigated. High velocities of rinse water provided a higher level of rinse effectiveness. Increasing the rinse water temperature from 23 °C to 45 °C improved rinse effectiveness significantly (P < 0.05). This impact was not significant when the water temperature was increased from 45 °C to 67 °C and at higher rinse water velocities. Similarly, longer contact time provided less improvement in rinse effectiveness at higher temperatures and velocities as compared to lower temperatures and velocities. There were no significant differences in rinse effectiveness when comparing reused and unused water (normal tap water) within the range of velocities evaluated. The rinse steps are important components of the CIP operation and have direct impact on the amounts of water and energy used for the

  11. Effect of primer composition on cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability of three layer polyethylene coated steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuri, S.; Takao, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1998-12-31

    The cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability of three layer polyethylene coated steel pipe were studied from the viewpoint of water permeability and the water uptake of dicyandiamide-imidazole cured epoxy primer. The reaction between the epoxy resin and dicyandiamide generates hydroxyl groups. Therefore, as the content of dicyandiamide increased, the water uptake of the primer increased and the water diffusion rate of the primer decreased because of the strong interaction between hydroxyl reaction product and water molecules. Excellent cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability were observed when the primer had the lowest water permeability which was expressed as the product of the water uptake and water diffusion rate. On the other hand, the addition of a corrosion protective pigment to the primer improved cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability when the primer had high water uptake, which secured the sufficient solubility of the pigment. Polyethylene coated steel pipes are often used as pipelines for oil and natural gas.

  12. 75 FR 2487 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Court Decision Not in Harmony with...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...On January 4, 2010, the U.S. Court for International Trade (CIT) sustained the Department of Commerce's (the Department) results of redetermination pursuant to the CIT's remand and entered final judgment in Saha Thai v. United States, Ct. 08-380, Slip Op. 09-116. Consistent with the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) in Timken Co. v. United States, 893 F.2d 337 (Fed. Cir. 1990) (Timken), the Department is notifying the public that the final judgment in this case is not in harmony with the Department's final results of the administrative review of the antidumping order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand covering the period March 1, 2006 through February 28, 2007. Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 61019 (October 15, 2008) (Final Results).

  13. Buried metalic object identification by EMI sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet; Kaplan, Gülay; Birim, Melih; Bahadırlar, Yıldırım

    2007-04-01

    Electromagnetic Induction sensor (Metal Detector) has wide application areas for buried metallic object searching, such as detection of buried pipes, mine and mine like-targets, etc. In this paper, identification of buried metallic objects was studied. The distinctive features of the signal were obtained, than classification process was performed. Identification process was realized by utilizing k-Nearest neighbor and Neural Network Classifiers.

  14. Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracks in X80 and X100 Pipe Steels in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jidong; Zheng, Wenyue; Bibby, Darren; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Tests were conducted on X80 and X100 pipe steels at 95% specified minimum yield stress in NS4 solution mixed with soil using specimens machined along the transverse direction of the pipes. Crack initiation in X100 is much easier than in X80. With test time increasing from 110 to 220 days, less numerous but deeper cracks were found in both pipe steels. Cracks showed higher growth rates in the transverse specimens than those in longitudinal ones. TEM results revealed concentration of Ni or Cr elements, formation of oxide layer at crack walls, and TiN-related dissolution at the crack tip.

  15. Non-linear finite element-based material constitutive law for zero slump steel fiber reinforced concrete pipe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylova, Alena

    This study presents a comprehensive investigation of performance and behavior of steel-fiber reinforced concrete pipes (SFRCP). The main goal of this study is to develop the material constitutive model for steel fiber reinforced concrete used in dry-cast application. To accomplish this goal a range of pipe sizes varying from 15 in. (400 mm) to 48 in. (1200 mm) in diameter and fiber content of 0.17%, 0.25%, 0.33%, 0.5%, 0.67% and 83% by volume were produced. The pipes were tested in three-edge bearing condition to obtain the load-deformation response and overall performance of the pipe. The pipes were also subjected to hydrostatic joint and joint shear tests to evaluate the performance of the fiber-pipe joints for water tightness and under differential displacements, respectively. In addition, testing on hardened concrete was performed to obtain the basic mechanical material properties. High variation in the test results for material testing was identified as a part of experimental investigation. A three-dimensional non-linear finite element model of the pipe under the three edge bearing condition was developed to identify the constitutive material relations of fiber-concrete composite. A constitutive model of concrete implementing the concrete plasticity and continuum fracture mechanics was considered for defining the complex non-linear behavior of fiber-concrete. Three main concrete damage algorithms were examined: concrete brittle cracking, concrete damaged plasticity with adaptive meshing technique and concrete damaged plasticity with visco-plastic regularization. The latter was identified as the most robust and efficient to model the post-cracking behavior of fiber reinforced concrete and was used in the subsequent studies. The tension stiffening material constitutive law for composite concrete was determined by converging the FEM solution of load-deformation response with the results of experimental testing. This was achieved by iteratively modifying the non

  16. Low temperature sensitization of type 304 stainless steel pipe weld heat affected zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Charles G.; Caligiuri, Robert D.; Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Wing, Sharon S.; Cubicciotti, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    Large-diameter Type 304 stainless steel pipe weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) was investigated to determine the rate at which low temperature sensitization (LTS) can occur in weld HAZ at nuclear reactor operating temperatures and to determine the effects of LTS on the initiation and propagation of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC). The level of sensitization was determined with the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test, and IGSCC susceptibility was determined with constant extension rate tests (CERT) and actively loaded compact tension (CT) tests. Substructural changes and carbide compositions were analyzed by electron microscopy. Weld HAZ was found to be susceptible to IGSCC in the as-welded condition for tests conducted in 8-ppm-oxygen, high-purity water at 288 °C. For low oxygen environments ( i.e., 288 °C/0.2 ppm O2 or 180 °C/1.0 ppm O2), IGSCC susceptibility was detected only in weld HAZ that had been sensitized at temperatures from 385 °C to 500 °C. Lower temperature heat treatments did not produce IGSCC. The microscopy studies indicate that the lack of IGSCC susceptibility from LTS heat treatments below 385 °C is a result of the low chromium-to-iron ratio in the carbide particles formed at grain boundaries. Without chromium enrichment of carbides, no chromium depleted zone is produced to enhance IGSCC susceptibility.

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7); and (iii) Any correction factors needed to address pipe grades... external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating on pipe used for trenchless installation must...

  18. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7); and (iii) Any correction factors needed to address pipe grades... external corrosion by a non-shielding coating. (2) Coating on pipe used for trenchless installation must...

  19. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... & Steel Corp., Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd., Tension Steel Industries Co., Ltd., and Yieh Phui Enterprise Co., Ltd. Petitioner requested a review of all six companies. Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd. requested a review... request for an administrative review for all of the companies except Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd. Partial...

  20. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed.

  1. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem, a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed.

  2. Finite element modeling of magnetoacoustic emission and of stress-induced magnetic effects at seam welds in steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Sablik, M. J.; Weidner, C.; Augustyniak, B.

    2001-06-01

    Prior finite element modeling (FEM) has shown how creep damage reduces the voltage signal in a secondary coil wrapped around a C-core electromagnet positioned above a seam weld in a steel pipe. Prior hysteresis modeling has also demonstrated the reduction of magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) due to uniform creep damage in a steel specimen. In this article, it is shown how to evaluate the MAE due to a nonuniform distribution of creep damage at a seam weld using FEM. Also, FEM is used to evaluate the C-core secondary emf due to a nonuniform stress distribution, which is developed at a seam weld due to the internal pressure of hot steam passing through the pipe. In this latter case, use is made of the stress distribution computed at the seam weld by Stevick. It is found that nonuniform creep damage also reduces the MAE signal, as is found experimentally. The stresses due to internal pressure in the pipe are shown by FEM to increase the C-core secondary emf, which is opposite to the effect of creep damage. A comparison is made between stressed and unstressed cases, with and without creep damage. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Effect of vanadium on the precipitation strengthening upon tempering of a high-strength pipe steel with different initial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, O. V.; Kruglova, A. A.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of metallography, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies were used to study the structure of two pipe steels (without vanadium and with 0.03% vanadium) subjected to γ → α isothermal transformation at temperatures of 400-600°C (initial structure) and tempering at 600-650°C. It has been found that the addition of 0.03% vanadium intensifies the process of the precipitation of ferrite and contributes to the formation of a granular structure. It has been shown that, in high-strength pipe steels with 0.03% vanadium, which have bainitic granular-type structures, the effect of the precipitation strengthening is effected upon subsequent high-temperature tempering at 600-630°; the addition of vanadium leads to an increase in the hardness by 16 HV. In the presence of bainite of the lath type in the initial structure, the subsequent tempering leads to a softening associated with the processes of the recovery, polygonization, and initial stages of recrystallization in situ, which develops at temperatures above 640°C. It has been found that the hardness of the steel without vanadium upon additional tempering decreases regardless of the morphology of structural constituents in the initial structure.

  4. Case Study: Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking in Heat-Affected Zone of Welded Underground 304 Stainless Steel Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Al-Hadhrami, Luai. M.

    2012-08-01

    A jacketed underground pipeline made of 304 stainless steel tubing to transport utility water in a petrochemical plant at ambient temperature was perforated after few months of operation. Perforation started preferentially at the outer bottom surface of the pipe in the weld heat-affected zones where the insulating coating was damaged. Detailed microstructural characterization was carried out to determine the cause of failure using optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that the failure occurred by interaction between the outer bottom surface of the pipe and surrounding environment leading to pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the presence of chloride ions. This could have been aided by residual welding stresses and the characteristic low stacking fault energy of the material.

  5. Study of Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Pipe Steel welded by Hybrid (Friction Stir Weld + Root Arc Weld) Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Yong Chae; Sanderson, Samuel; Mahoney, Murray; Wasson, Andrew J; Fairchild, Doug P; Wang, Yanli; Feng, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has recently attracted attention as an alternative construction process for gas/oil transportation applications due to advantages compared to fusion welding techniques. A significant advantage is the ability of FSW to weld the entire or nearly the entire wall thickness in a single pass, while fusion welding requires multiple passes. However, when FSW is applied to a pipe or tube geometry, an internal back support anvil is required to resist the plunging forces exerted during FSW. Unfortunately, it may not be convenient or economical to use internal backing support due to limited access for some applications. To overcome this issue, ExxonMobil recently developed a new concept, combining root arc welding and FSW. That is, a root arc weld is made prior to FSW that supports the normal loads associated with FSW. In the present work, mechanical properties of a FSW + root arc welded pipe steel are reported including microstructure and microhardness.

  6. Residual stresses in a ferritic steel welded pipe: an experimental comparison between reactor and pulsed neuron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertini, Gianni; Brugnami, D.; Bruno, Giovanni; Ceretti, M.; Cernuschi, F. M.; Edwards, Lyndon

    1997-02-01

    Residual stresses induced by welding processes can affect the integrity of structural components like tubes and pipes of thermoelectric power plants. In order to reduce or cancel these stresses, welded components are often heat treated. The residual stress field in an arc-welded 2.25Cr1Mo ferritic steel pipe was measured using neutron diffraction both before and after stress relieving heat treatment. In the first stage stresses were measured using two different kinds of neutron sources: a reactor and a pulsed one. A comparison between results obtained using G5.2 diffractometer at LLB and ENGIN equipment at ISIS will be outlined and the effectiveness of heat treatment will be shown.

  7. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100-kWt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 deg. C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested. (authors)

  8. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100 kilowatt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested.

  9. AN ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY EVALUATION OF INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK (IGSCC) DETECTION IN AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL PIPING WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2010-07-22

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components and challenging material/component configurations. This study assessed the effectiveness of far-side inspections on wrought stainless steel piping with austenitic welds, as found in thin-walled, boiling water reactor (BWR) component configurations, for the detection and characterization of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC).

  10. Effect of Thermal Shock During Legionella Bacteria Removal on the Corrosion Properties of Zinc-Coated Steel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlikowski, Juliusz; Ryl, Jacek; Jazdzewska, Agata; Krakowiak, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct the failure analysis of a water-supply system made from zinc-coated steel. The observed corrosion process had an intense and complex character. The brownish deposits and perforations were present after 2-3 years of exploitation. The electrochemical study based on the Tafel polarization, corrosion potential monitoring, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with microscopic analysis via SEM and EDX were performed in order to identify the cause of such intense corrosion. The performed measurements allowed us to determine that thermal shock was the source of polarity-reversal phenomenon. This process had begun the corrosion of steel which later led to the formation of deposits and perforations in the pipes. The work includes appropriate action in order to efficiently identify the described corrosion threat.

  11. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping Welds and Thick Section Primary System Cast Piping Welds JCN N6398, Task 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Morra, Marino; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-07-21

    Research is being conducted for the NRC at PNNL to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods for the inspection of LWR components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This interim technical letter report (TLR) provides a synopsis of recent investigations at PNNL aimed at evaluating the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of CASS welds in nuclear reactor piping. A description of progress, recent developments and interim results are provided.

  12. Measurements of the helium propagation at 4.4 K in a 480 m long stainless steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Wallen, E.

    1998-05-01

    The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), with two concentric rings 3.8 km in circumference, uses superconducting magnets to focus the high energy beams. Each sextant of RHIC will have continuous cryostats up to 480 m in length housing the magnets and the cold beam pipes. For an acceptable lifetime of the stored beam, the pressure in the cold beam pipe will be {lt}10{sup {minus}11} Torr. The characteristics of He pressure front propagation due to He leaks will be of importance for beam lifetimes and for vacuum monitoring due to the high vapor pressure of He at 4.4 K, even with small surface coverage. The travels of the He pressure fronts along a 480 m long, 6.9 cm I.D. stainless steel beam pipe cooled to 4.4 K have recently been measured during the RHIC first sextant test. The experiment was carried out over a 12-day period by bleeding in a calibrated He leak of 3{times}10{sup {minus}5}Torrl/s (20{degree}C) while measuring the He pressures along this 480 m cold tube at approximately 30 m intervals. The measured speed of the pressure fronts and the pressure profiles are summarized and compared with the calculated ones. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  13. Measurements of the helium propagation at 4.4 K in a 480 m long stainless steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Wallen, E.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with two concentric rings 3.8 km in circumference, uses superconducting magnets to focus the high energy beams. Each sextant of RHIC will have continuous cryostats up to 480 m in length housing the magnets and the cold beam pipes. For an acceptable lifetime of the stored beam, the pressure in the cold beam pipe will be < 10{sup {minus}11} Torr. The characteristics of He pressure front propagation due to He leaks will be of importance for beam lifetimes and for vacuum monitoring due to the high vapor pressure of He at 4.4 K, even with small surface coverage. The travel of the He pressure fronts along a 480 m long, 6.9 cm I.D. stainless steel beam pipe cooled to 4.4 K has recently been measured during the RHIC first sextant test. The experiment was carried out over a 12-day period by bleeding in a calibrated He leak of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Torr{center_dot}l/s (20 C) while measuring the He pressures along this 480 m cold tube at {approximately} 30 m intervals. The measured speed of the pressure fronts and the pressure profiles are summarized and compared with the calculated ones.

  14. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-08-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  15. Through Weld Inspection of Wrought Stainless Steel Piping Using Phased Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2004-12-31

    Outline: Discuss far-side weld problem and phased array techniques applied. Describe laboratory work on flawed piping specimens using L- and S-wave arrays and provide synopsis of results. Discuss conclusions ofr capability of phased array as applied to austenitic welds. Research Approach: Evaluate phased arrays on unifornly-welded piping specimens. Apply best methods to non-uniform welds. Correlate acoustic responses as function of weld microstructures.

  16. J-Integral Tearing Instability Analysis for 8-Inch Diameter ASTM A106 Steel Pipe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    NUREG 074416. The J/Tmaterial curves for the pipe tests calculated using elastic compliance and DCPD results are shown in Figures 29 and 30...Gudas and J.A. Joyce "Experimental Investigation of Tearing Instability Phenomena for Structural Materials" U.S. Nuclear Regula- tory Commission, NUREG /CR...Tests of Compact and Pipe Specimens Utilizing a Test System Made Compliant by Computer Control", U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report, NUREG CR

  17. The effects of insulation defects on the corrosion of sub-sea super duplex stainless steel process pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.; Irwin, J.; Byrne, G.; Warburton, G.

    1995-10-01

    There is an increasing use of CRAs (corrosion resistant alloys) for subsea flowlines. These pipes carry corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures, and insulation is usually, applied to prevent excessive cooling of the process fluids. The present tests were undertaken to investigate the effect of insulation defects on the susceptibility to localized corrosion of a super duplex stainless steel at different internal temperatures. Four different commercial coating systems were tested, Neoprene, EPDM, Polyurethane and Polyurethane foam. The results show that pitting occurred at an average temperature of 55 C for neoprene and EPDM, and at lower temperatures for the other two coatings. The reasons for this are discussed, and the implications for service applications.

  18. 77 FR 55807 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ....\\1\\ The review covers four companies: Chung Hung Steel Corp., Kao Hsing Chang Iron & Steel Corp. (also known as Kao Hsiung Chang Iron & Steel Corp.), Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd., and Tension Steel... Hung Steel Corp.; (2) Kao Hsing Chang Iron & Steel Corp. (also known as Kao Hsiung Chang Iron & Steel...

  19. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under this section. (b) Fracture control (1) The toughness properties for pipe must address the potential for initiation, propagation and arrest of fractures in accordance with: (i) API Specification 5L... specification level 2 or ASME B31.8 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). (2) Fracture control must: (i...

  20. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... additional construction requirements. Records must be maintained, for the useful life of the pipeline... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the pipeline segment must be done under a quality assurance plan addressing pipe inspection, hauling and...

  1. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... additional construction requirements. Records must be maintained, for the useful life of the pipeline... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the pipeline segment must be done under a quality assurance plan addressing pipe inspection, hauling and...

  2. Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

  3. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  4. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems.

  5. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25″/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

  6. Weld repair of aged Cr-Mo steel piping -- A review of literature

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D.

    2000-02-01

    Power plant piping operating at elevated temperatures is subject to several types of service aging-related degradation, such as softening, spheroidization, embrittlement, and creep. When cracks are found in these components, weld repair is often employed to ensure continued operation. The efficacy of the weld repairs in terms of extending the life of the aged components has, however, not been documented quantitatively. The Electric Power Research institute (EPRI) has recently undertaken a comprehensive study to evaluate weld repairs performed to aged piping. In connection with this study, results from other worldwide activities have been reviewed, leading to significant conclusions regarding weld repair. this review of results from several worldwide studies has confirmed that aged high-temperature piping can be successfully weld repaired to gain additional lives in excess of several decades. The key aspects of successful weld repair include excavation and removal of all prior creep cavitation damage, elimination of external bending stresses, and implementation of good welding practice. From merely a creep rupture point of view, postweld heat treatment (PWHT) has been concluded to be superfluous by several authors. Temperbead repairs appear to offer a promising alternative to PWHT repairs from a creep, tensile, and toughness standpoint. Choice of the repair process ultimately is dictated by many considerations such as toughness, notch sensitivity, residual stresses and hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. Several reports suggest that gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) repairs may outperform shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) repairs with or without PWHT.

  7. DRAFT One Year Extension of the Short-Term National Product Waiver for Stainless Steel Nuts and Bolts used in Pipe Couplings, Restraints, Joints, Flanges and Saddles for State Revolving Fund Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DRAFT one year extension of the short-term national product waiver for stainless steel nuts and bolts used in pipe couplings, restraints, joints, flanges and saddles for State Revolving Fund projects.

  8. Buried Ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    7 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a flow or landslide feature on a hillslope facing north (toward top/upper right) that is buried on both ends. Both the uphill portion of the slide (just below the center of the image) and the bottom end of the slide, or flow feature (near the upper right corner of the image), is buried. Whether this partially buried landform was formed by simple, dry mass movement (a landslide) or by flow of an ice-rich material, is unclear. The features in this image occur among the massifs located east of the Hellas basin.

    Location near: 45.6oS, 248.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  9. Corrosion behavior of X-70 pipe steel in near-neutral pH solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, L.; Cheng, Y. F.

    2007-08-01

    The mechanism of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of natural gas pipelines has not been well-established since the first accident was found in the 1980s. In particular, the role of hydrogen in near-neutral pH SCC has remained unknown. In this work, cyclic voltammetry was used to comprehensively investigate the fundamentals of the electrochemical corrosion reactions occurring at the steel/solution interface in diluted, 5% CO 2/N 2-purged, near-neutral pH bicarbonate solutions. It is shown that there is no stable oxide film formed on the steel surface in near-neutral pH solution. The dissolution-based cracking mechanism does not apply for near-neutral pH SCC of pipelines. The formation of a metastable Fe(OH) 2 deposit layer shows a catalytic activity on hydrogen evolution reaction, indicating that a significant amount of hydrogen could be generated under near-neutral pH condition. The presence of corrosive anions in the soil electrolyte enhances both the anodic polarization of the steel and the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction, resulting in an increased hydrogen evolution rate. The introduction of oxygen could form a stable oxide film on the surface of steel, resulting in the loss of the surface catalytic effect on hydrogen evolution reaction. Thus, a hydrogen-based mechanism does not apply for SCC in the presence of oxygen.

  10. 78 FR 34335 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... review covers Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd. (Shin Yang), a producer and exporter of subject merchandise. We..., and that Shin Yang is the successor-in-interest to Yieh Phui Enterprise Co, Ltd. (Yieh Phui). DATES... in the current review, Shin Yang ] indicated that Yieh Phui (for which no administrative review was...

  11. Pipe selection guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.D.

    1982-04-01

    Four parameters are used to define a particular pipe: inside diameter, wall thickness, material, and ends. The factors influencing pipe selection are limited to fluid pressure, temperature, chemistry, flow rate, and cost. Other pipe parameters and factors that influence pipe selection and design are mentioned, and, where appropriate, the user is warned that at some stage in the project these factors must be dealt with. It is assumed that the objective is the direct application of geothermal water at temperatures lower than 200/sup 0/F and with 12-in. or smaller pipe. When considering friction losses for sizing purposes, only straight pipe is considered. A discussion of the characteristics and attributes of readily available pipe is included to aid in making a preliminary selection. Energy loss from buried pipe is considered.

  12. Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of Cracks and Machined Flaws as Observed Through Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2009-07-01

    Piping welds in the pressure boundary of light water reactors (LWRs) are subject to a volumetric examination based on Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Due to access limitations and high background radiation levels, the technique used is primarily ultrasonic rather than radiographic. Many of the austenitic welds in safety-related piping systems provide limited access to both sides of the weld, so a far-side examination is necessary. Historically, far-side inspections have performed poorly because of the coarse and elongated grains that make up the microstructures of austenitic weldments. The large grains cause the ultrasound to be scattered, attenuated, and redirected. Additionally, grain boundaries or weld geometry may reflect coherent ultrasonic echoes, making flaw detection and discrimination a more challenging endeavor. Previous studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on ultrasonic far-side examinations in austenitic piping welds involved the application of conventional transducers, use of low-frequency Synthetic Aperture Focusing Techniques (SAFT), and ultrasonic phased-array (PA) methods on specimens containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks and machined reflectors [1-2]. From these studies, PA inspection provided the best results, detecting nearly all of the flaws from the far side. These results were presented at the Fifth International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurised Components in 2006. This led to an invitation to examine field-removed specimens containing service-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC) at the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Center, in Charlotte, North Carolina. Results from this activity are presented.

  13. Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing in Lieu of Radiography for Acceptance of Carbon Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Nove, Carol A.

    2014-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting studies for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the capability, effectiveness, and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as a replacement method for radiographic testing (RT) for volumetric examination of nuclear power plant (NPP) components. This particular study focused on evaluating the use of UT on carbon steel plate welds. Welding fabrication flaws included a combination of planar and volumetric types, e.g., incomplete fusion, lack of penetration, cracks, porosity, and slag inclusions. The examinations were conducted using phased-array (PA) UT techniques applied primarily for detection and flaw type characterization. This paper will discuss the results of using UT in lieu of RT for detection and classification of fabrication flaws in carbon steel plate welds.

  14. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exempted in this subpart, all pipe must be buried so that it is below the level of cultivation. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the pipe must be installed so that the cover between the top of the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined by...

  15. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exempted in this subpart, all pipe must be buried so that it is below the level of cultivation. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the pipe must be installed so that the cover between the top of the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined by...

  16. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exempted in this subpart, all pipe must be buried so that it is below the level of cultivation. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the pipe must be installed so that the cover between the top of the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined by...

  17. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exempted in this subpart, all pipe must be buried so that it is below the level of cultivation. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the pipe must be installed so that the cover between the top of the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined by...

  18. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exempted in this subpart, all pipe must be buried so that it is below the level of cultivation. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the pipe must be installed so that the cover between the top of the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined by...

  19. Assessment of the crack growth characteristics at the low corrosion fatigue limit of an A106 Gr b steel pipe weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gyu young; Bae, Dongho; Park, Sunkyu

    2010-04-01

    In the area of heavy construction, welding processes are vital in the production and maintenance of pipelines and power plants. The fusion welding process generates formidable welding residual stresses and metallurgical change, which increase the crack driving force and reduce the resistance of brittle fracture as well as environmental fracture. This is a serious problem with many alloys as well as A106 Gr B steel pipe. This pipe, used in petrochemical and heavy chemical plants, either degrades due to corrosive environments, e.g., chlorides and sulfides, and/or becomes damaged during service due to the various corrosion damage mechanisms. Thus, in this study, the sulfide corrosion fatigue strength of multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe was evaluated in a 5.0 wt.% NaCl solution that was saturated with H2S gas at room temperature on the basis of NACE TM 0177-90. The crack growth characteristics of the welded pipe were then assessed at the low limit of sulfide corrosion fatigue strength, which was previously obtained from the sulfide corrosion fatigue (SCF) tests. From the results, in terms of the SCF, all the specimens failed at the heat-affected zone, where a high welding residual stress distributes. It was found that the fatigue crack grew at the low corrosion fatigue limit ( σ SCFun-notched), which was 32 % (160MPa) of the ultimate tensile strength (502MPa) of the welded specimens.

  20. 76 FR 38691 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...-year review concerning the countervailing duty order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey... welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on welded carbon steel pipe... carbon steel pipe and tube and light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Taiwan would be likely to...

  1. Transverse seismic analysis of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Mavridis, G.A.; Pitilakis, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop an analytical procedure for calculating upper bounds for stresses and strains for the case of the transverse seismic shaking of continuous buried pipelines taking into account the soil-pipeline interaction effects. A sensibility analysis of some critical parameters is performed. The influence of various parameters such as the apparent propagation velocity, the frequency content of the seismic ground excitation, the dynamic soil properties, the pipe`s material and size, on the ratio of the pipe to ground displacements amplitudes and consequently to the induced pipe strains, are studied parametrically.

  2. A sensing torch for on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Antonio; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Ottonelli, Fabio; Catalano, Ida Maria

    2004-12-01

    Non-intrusive and real-time monitoring techniques are increasingly required by manufacturing industry in order to detect flaws in arc welding processes. In this work the development of an optical inspection system, for monitoring the manual gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process of steel pipes, is described. The arc plasma visible emission produced during the process was acquired and spectroscopically analysed. Measuring the intensities of selected argon emission lines allowed real time calculation and recording of the axial electron temperature of the plasma. Experimental results showed that the temperature signal varies greatly in the case of instabilities of the weld pool that cause weld defects. A suitable algorithm, based on a statistical analysis of the signal, was developed in order to real time flag defective joints. It is shown that several weld defects such as porosity, dropout, lack of fusion, solid inclusions and craters were successfully detected in a production environment. The performances of the optical sensor were compared with the results of state-of-the-art post-weld controls such as x-rays and penetrating dyes, showing good agreement and thus demonstrating the validity of this quality monitoring system.

  3. Effect of artificial aging on the microstructure of weldment on API 5L X-52 steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Arista, B. . E-mail: bvarista26@yahoo.com.mx; Hallen, J.M. . E-mail: j_hallen@yahoo.com; Albiter, A. . E-mail: aalbiter@imp.mx

    2007-08-15

    The effects of artificial aging on the microstructure in the weldment of an API 5L X-52 steel pipe were studied. Aging was performed at 250 deg. C over a period of 1000 h and values were recorded at every 100 h intervals. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed precipitation strengthening from nearly circular Nb-C containing nanoparticles for the base metal and heat affected zone, and cementite for the weld metal. The largest amount of precipitation in the weldment zone was obtained at 500 h, due to peak-aging, which showed the highest particle density. The weld metal was more susceptible to aging, exhibiting the highest increase in precipitation at 500 h, followed by the heat affected zone. After 500 h, the deterioration in the microstructure was caused by the coarsening of particles due to over-aging. The base metal showed the larger increment in particle size after 900 h of aging accompanied by a bigger decrease in fine particles than in the weld metal.

  4. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, D. J.; Michaud, W. F.; Galvin, T. M.; Burke, W. F.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1996-06-05

    The degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 308 stainless steel (SS) pipe welds due to thermal aging has been characterized at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in Charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. For the various welds in this study, upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had little or no effect on the tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by the formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on the fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  5. Estimates of maximum strains induced in buried pipelines by dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, G.; Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of pipe strains measured during full scale blast in-situ tests was carried out to assess the effects produced by a nearby quarry blast in a buried, steel pipeline carrying pressurized gas. The result of the blast tests indicated that the magnitude of the maximum circumferential strain is equal or larger than the magnitude of the maximum axial strain measured in the pipe. It was also observed that circumferential strains can develop simultaneously with the dynamic-induced axial strains, resulting in a more critical loading condition than the one contemplated by the ASCE (1983) design guidelines for seismic loading. This behavior can become critical in pressurized pipes where significant circumferential stresses are already present under normal operating conditions. Based on the results of these tests, recommendations for including circumferential strains are suggested to the ASCE (1983) Design Guidelines. Consideration should be given to a compressive wave traveling at a high angle which respect to the longitudinal axis of the pipe which can induce squeezing or ovaling of the pipe section, resulting in significant circumferential strains in the pipe.

  6. Pulsed eddy current differential probe to detect the defects in a stainless steel pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, C. G.; Leela, P.; Kishore, M.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an electromagnetic nondestructive technique widely used to detect and quantify the flaws in conducting materials. In the present study a differential Hall-sensor probe which is used in the PEC system has been fabricated for the detection of defects in stainless steel pipelines. The differential probe has an exciting coil with two Hall-sensors. A stainless steel test sample with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches under different depths of 1-5 mm was made and the sample was laminated by plastic insulation having uniform thickness to simulate the pipelines in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The driving coil in the probe is excited by a rectangular current pulse and the resultant response, which is the difference of the two Hall-sensors, has been detected as the PEC probe signal. The discriminating time domain features of the detected pulse such as peak value and time to zero are used to interpret the experimental results with the defects in the test sample. A feature extraction technique such as spectral power density has been devised to infer the PEC response.

  7. High temperature thermal energy storage in steel and sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic potential for high temperature (343 C, 650 F) thermal energy storage in hollow steel ingots, pipes embedded in concrete, and for pipes buried in sand was evaluated. Because it was determined that concrete would separate from pipes due to thermal stresses, concrete was replaced by sand, which is free from thermal stresses. Variations of the steel ingot concept were not cost effective compared to the sand-pipe approach, therefore, the sand-pipe thermal storage unit (TSU) was evaluated in depth to assess the approximate tube spacing requirements consistent with different system performance characteristics and also attendant system costs. For large TSUs which do not require fast response times, the sand-pipe approach offers attractive possibilities. A pipe diameter about 9 cm (3.5 in) and pipe spacing of approximately 25 cm (10 in), with sand filling the interspaces, appears appropriate. Such a TSU system designed for 8 hours charge/discharge cycle has an energy unit storage cost (CE) of $2.63/kWhr-t and a power unit storage cost (Cp) of $42/kW-t (in 1977 dollars).

  8. MHD pressure drop of NaK flow in stainless steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, K.; Kotake, S.

    1983-09-01

    An experiment on electric potential and pressure drop for NaK flow in uniform transverse magnetic fields was conducted. A test channel was constructed using 45.3 mm (or 28 mm) I.D. and 1.65 mm thick 304-SS circular pipe in the NaK-Blowdown MHD Experimental Facility of Osaka University. The experimental range covered had a driving gas pressure <8 bar, an applied magnetic flux density: B/sub 0/=0.3 about1.75 T, a mean flow velocity of NaK: U/sub 0/=2 about 15 m/sec, a Reynolds number Re = 8 X 10/sup 4/ about6.2 X 10/sup 5/ and a Hartmann number: Ha = 740 about4150. A theoretical analysis is given on the basis of a uniform-velocity thick-wall model. Good agreement between the theory and the experiment were obtained both for the potential and for the pressure drop, except a small deviation of the experimental pressure drop towards values lying above the theoretical ones in a weak B/sub 0/ and high U/sub 0/ region (Ha/sup 2//Re <15).

  9. Fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness properties of 304 stainless steel pipe for LNG transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Cheol-Man; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kho, Young-Tai

    2001-11-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests of type 304 stainless steel were studied over a temperature range of -162°C to room temperature. Girth weld metal specimens were fabricated using a combination of gas-tungsten-arc-welding and shielded-metal-arc-welding. The seam weld metal was made with submerged arc welding. Fatigue crack growth rate tests were conducted using compact tension specimens in accordance with ASTM E647. Fracture toughness was evaluated through CTOD tests with three point bend specimens. The CTOD values were affected by crack orientation with respect to the rolling direction, but orientation had no influence on fatigue crack growth rates. The fatigue crack growth rates and the CTOD values decreased with decreasing test temperature.

  10. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  11. Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two circular features on the plains of northern Utopia. A common sight on the martian northern plains, these rings indicate the locations of buried impact craters.

    Location near: 65.1oN, 261.2oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  12. 76 FR 57020 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Enterprise Co., Ltd.; (4) Far East Machinery Co. Ltd.; (5) Kao Hsing Chang Iron & Steel Corp. (also known as Kao Hsiung Chang Iron & Steel Corp.); and (6) Tension Steel Industries Co. Ltd. Partial Rescission The...., Ltd.; (4) Far East Machinery Co. Ltd.; (5) Kao Hsing Chang Iron & Steel Corp. (also known as Kao...

  13. Multi-Objective Process Optimization of Pulsed Plasma Arc Welding SS400 Steel Pipe with Foamed Aluminum Liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Jing-Shiang; Tzeng, Yih-Fong; Lin, Young-Fu; Yang, Jin-Bin

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with Taguchi methods are employed in the study for developing multiple quality characteristics optimization of pulsed plasma arc welding SS400 steel pipe with foamed aluminum liner (SPFAL). The quality characteristics investigated are the micro-hardness, the compression strength, and the bending strength of the weldments. Eight control factors selected are the tip aperture (Factor A), plasma base current (Factor B), plasma pulse current (Factor C), duty cycle (Factor D), pulse frequency (Factor E), shielding gas (Factor F), plasma gas (Factor G), and welding velocity (Factor H), respectively. It is shown by the experimental results that the optimal parameter combination of the pulsed plasma arc welding process is A1 (tip aperture: Ø1.5mm), B3 (plasma base current: 30A), C3 (plasma pulse current: 100A), D2 (duty cycle: 50%), E3 (pulse frequency: 300Hz), F2 (shielding gas: 14L/min), G3 (plasma gas: 0.4L/min), and H2 (welding velocity: 4RPM). Moreover, it is ascertained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) results that plasma base current (B), plasma pulse current (C), duty cycle (D), and welding velocity (H) are the most important control factors in the process design, and thus strict control must be applied to them. They account for 75.02% of the total variance. The experimental results likewise show that the best process design could indeed enhance the multiple quality characteristics of the pulsed plasma arc welded SPFAL as 3020kgf of the bending strength, 13650kgf of the compression strength, and 180.4Hv of the hardness, respectively.

  14. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  15. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Conduit, Harvey, IL; JMC Steel Group, Chicago, IL; Wheatland Tube, Sharon, PA; and United States Steel... Commission. Issued: June 18, 2012. William R. Bishop, Hearings and Meetings Coordinator. BILLING CODE...

  16. Experiments on seismic behavior of back-fill gravel layer as liquefaction countermeasure of buried gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Kenji; Ueno, Junichi

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on seismic behavior of back-fill gravel layer as a back-fill material for buried pipelines was experimented with to investigate the effectiveness against liquefaction with a scaled model using a shaking table. A non-liquefied sandy surface layer was made with a steel mold divided into several pieces for a model. The back-fill gravel was found to be efficient for drainage but didn`t prevent liquefaction from occurring in the below layer. It was also found that the pipe doesn`t move up by buoyancy but subsides following the settlement of the back-fill gravel.

  17. Buried Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-04

    With a location roughly equidistant between two of the largest volcanic constructs on the planet, the fate of the approximately 50 km 31 mile impact crater in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey was sealed. It has been buried to the rim by lava flows. The MOLA context image shows pronounced flow lobes surrounding the crater, a clear indication of the most recent episode of volcanism that could have contributed to its infilling. Breaches in the rim are clearly evident in the image and suggest locations through which lavas could have flowed. These openings appear to be limited to the west side of the crater. Other craters in the area are nearly obliterated by the voluminous lava flows, further demonstrating one of the means by which Mars renews its surface. The MOLA context image shows pronounced flow lobes surrounding the crater, a clear indication of the most recent episode of volcanism that could have contributed to its infilling. Breaches in the rim are clearly evident in the image and suggest locations through which lavas could have flowed. These openings appear to be limited to the west side of the crater. Other craters in the area are nearly obliterated by the voluminous lava flows, further demonstrating one of the means by which Mars renews its surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04018

  18. Buried Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a location roughly equidistant between two of the largest volcanic constructs on the planet, the fate of the 50 km impact crater in this image was sealed. It has been buried to the rim by lava flows. The MOLA context image shows pronounced flow lobes surrounding the crater, a clear indication of the most recent episode of volcanism that could have contributed to its infilling. Breaches in the rim are clearly evident in the image and suggest locations through which lavas could have flowed. These openings appear to be limited to the west side of the crater. Other craters in the area are nearly obliterated by the voluminous lava flows, further demonstrating one of the means by which Mars renews its surface.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Shell model response analysis of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro; Katagiri, Shin; Shinmi, Tatsuhiko

    1995-12-31

    A shell model analysis can calculate the cross-sectional deformation and hoop stress of buried pipelines. This paper proposes an analytical method to calculate the response of buried straight and bent pipelines modeled as cylindrical shell structures. A modified transfer matrix method is employed instead of a stiffness matrix method to avoid the problem of computational memory caused by huge matrixes. Results calculated by the developed program are compared with experimental ones obtained by a pipe bending test of straight and bent pipe segments. In addition, several differences of the pipe response between the beam model and the shell model are examined through response simulations of straight and bent pipelines subjected to ground subsidence.

  20. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  1. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  2. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  3. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  4. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  5. Changes in the structure and properties of low-carbon low-alloy pipe steels upon inoculation with REM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, T. V.; Vyboishchik, M. A.; Tetyueva, T. V.; Ioffe, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of REM additives on the structure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of low-carbon low-alloy steels is studied. The effect of inoculation with rare-earth metals on the content of sulfur and oxygen in the steels and on the degree of their contamination with nonmetallic inclusions are investigated. The resistance of the steels to stress sulfide corrosion cracking, hydrogen cracking and total, local, carbon dioxide and bacterial corrosion is determined.

  6. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Method for Welds in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping JCN N6398, Task 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-07-28

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS); dissimilar metal welds; piping with corrosion-resistant cladding; weld overlays, inlays and onlays; and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. In this effort, PNNL supports cooperation with Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) to assess reliable inspection of CASS materials. The NRC Project Manager has established a cooperative effort with the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). CEA, under funding from IRSN, are supporting collaborative efforts with the NRC and PNNL. Regarding its work on the NDE of materials, CEA is providing its modeling software (CIVA) in exchange for PNNL offering expertise and data related to phased-array detection and sizing, acoustic attenuation, and back scattering on CASS materials. This collaboration benefits the NRC because CEA performs research and development on CASS for Électricité de France (EdF). This technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of welds in CASS pressurizer (PZR) surge line nuclear reactor piping. A set of thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) was implanted into three CASS PZR surge-line specimens (pipe-to-elbow welds) that were fabricated using vintage CASS materials formed in the 1970s, and flaw responses from these cracks were used to evaluate detection and sizing

  7. 76 FR 21331 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... order consists of certain carbon steel butt-weld type fittings, other than couplings, under 14 inches in... consists of certain carbon steel butt-weld type fittings, other than couplings, under 14 inches in inside...-weld type fittings, other than couplings, under 14 inches in inside diameter, whether finished...

  8. Utilization of the equipment and program cine- and telerecording complex for the high-frequency steel pipe welding investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Nikolai A.; Veselovsky, Vladimir B.; Furmanov, Valeri B.; Kovalenko, Vladimir I.; Lakhno, Nikolay I.; Kovika, Nikolai D.; Novikov, Leonid V.; Scherbina, Vadim N.; Zlydennaya, Lyubov M.

    1995-08-01

    With the aim of technological process automatization and control for high-frequency welding of different diameter pipes, the machine-program complex (APC) was designed. APC gives the opportunity to create the cine- and telerecording of process in production conditions at the mill '159-529' of the Novomoskovsky Tube Rolling Mill, Ukraine). With the help of APC in real functioning mill conditions, the character of flashing zone length changing and the angle of convergence depending on pipe welding speed was investigated. Also the zone of jumpers is defined. The comparison of theoretical and experimental data gave an opportunity to define a welding rate which is optimal for the most qualitative values of welded joints in the range of pipe products of mill '159-529'.

  9. Drainage Pipe Detection and Assessment Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The research conducted to date clearly shows that ground penetrating radar (GPR) is feasible for use locating buried drainage pipes in both farm and golf course settings. Within farm settings, GPR seems to work quite well locating drainage pipes buried within one meter of the surface, and the succes...

  10. 75 FR 57449 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... excludes all pipes meeting the chemical requirements of ASTM A-335 whether finished or unfinished. On... meeting the chemical requirements of ASTM A-335, whether finished or unfinished; and (3) unattached... meeting the chemical requirements of ASTM A-335, whether finished or unfinished; and (3)...

  11. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... process (hot-finished or cold-drawn), end finish (plain end, beveled end, upset end, threaded, or threaded... common because all pipes meeting the stringent A-106 specification necessarily meet the API 5L and ASTM A... pressure applications. Finally, also excluded from the order are redraw hollows for cold-drawing when used...

  12. 77 FR 19635 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... paid up capital elsewhere) and by corporate form (a maximum of 500,000 Omani Rial (``OR'') or up to 5... were given to finance Al Jazeera's pipe mills, we divided the subsidy during the POI by Al Jazeera's... that final approval of the Ministry of Finance is also required in order to ensure that the application...

  13. 76 FR 72164 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ..., the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty..., the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam), or Angelica Mendoza (Oman), AD/CVD Operations, Office 7... pipe) from India, the Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist...

  14. 76 FR 36086 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... made at the end of verification) on December 1, 2010; we used these data in our post-preliminary margin..., regardless of wall thickness, surface finish (black, galvanized, or painted), or end finish (plain end, beveled end, threaded, or threaded and coupled). These pipes and tubes are generally known as standard...

  15. 77 FR 34344 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...-pressure conveyance of water, steam, natural gas, air, and other liquids and gases in plumbing and heating systems, air- conditioning units, automatic sprinkler systems, and other related uses. Standard pipe may... tubing used for framing and as support members for reconstruction or load- bearing purposes in the...

  16. Finite element modeling of creep damage effects on a magnetic detector signal for a seam weld/HAZ-region in a steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Sablik, M.J.; Jiles, D.C.; Govindaraju, M.R.

    1998-07-01

    Creep damage in steel causes a reduction of magnetic properties. A mathematical model, previously formulated, accounts for this. Recently, this model was used in finite element modeling (FEM) of a magnetic C-core signal due to creep damage at a seam weld in Cr-Mo steam pipe. The FEM assumed unrealistically that in the absence of creep damage, the weld material and heat-affected zone (HAZ) and base metal all had the same magnetic properties. In this paper, new finite element simulations are presented for worst case relative permeabilities of 1271, 784 and 571 for base metal, HAZ, and weld material. Reduced permeability at the weld results in a considerably reduced emf at low probe magnetic fields. However, creep damage does produce an additional emf reduction that is large enough to be detected, even when the creep damage does not extend to the pipe wall surface. A method is suggested for calibrating the magnetic signal for weld, HAZ, and base metal effects.

  17. Buried pipelines in large fault movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.J.; Wang, L.R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Responses of buried pipelines in large fault movements are examined based upon a non-linear cantilever beam analogy. This analogy assumes that the pipeline in a large deflection zone behaves like a cantilever beam under a transverse-concentrated shear at the inflection point with a uniformly distributed soil pressure along the entire span. The tangent modulus approach is adopted to analyze the coupled axial force-bending moment interaction on pipeline deformations in the inelastic range. The buckling load of compressive pipeline is computed by the modified Newmark`s numerical integration scheme. Parametric studies of both tensile and compressive pipeline responses to various fault movements, pipeline/fault crossing angles, soil/pipe friction angles, buried depths, pipe diameters and thickness are investigated. It is shown by the comparisons that previous findings were unconservative.

  18. 78 FR 71563 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Corporation. On July 29, 2013, we received a rebuttal brief from the respondent, Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd. (Shin Yang). As explained in the memorandum from the Assistant Secretary for Enforcement and Compliance... calculation methodology for Shin Yang to remove an offset to costs that is associated with non-subject...

  19. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  20. Centrifugal and Analytical Modeling of a Buried Flexible Culvert.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-31

    INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The complex problem of the reaction of a buried culvert to loads applied at the ground surface is studied using physical ...buckling (Allgood et al., 1968, Luscher 1966, Whitman et al., 1962). Since the failure mode of the culvert is controlled by the geometry and the...occur before the buckling failure in this case. Larsen (1977) analyzed the earth pressure around the buried concrete pipe by testing scale physical

  1. 100 percent x-ray weld inspection: A real-time imaging system for large diameter steel pipe manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, G.R.; Lehmann, D.; Gilblom, D.

    1996-02-01

    The new, real-time microfocus X-ray system described here not only paid for itself and saved $1 million on the first job, it provided 100% inspection 12--14 times faster than the previously used conventional radiographic technique. Compared to conventional radiography, real-time X-ray inspection offers benefits that translate into significant cost and time savings. One primary advantage is the real time reporting capability to manufacturing for process control allowing the operator to receive instantaneous feedback during production and to make adjustments immediately. For example, with conventional film based radiographic systems, the operator would have to predetermine energy levels, exposure time, and orientation of the sample to be inspected before beginning the actual inspection run. Only after developing the film and analyzing the images was it possible to determine if the desired results were obtained. If not, the settings would have to be adjusted and the manufacturing process repeated. In contrast, with real-time X-ray, the operator has the ability to visually observe the inspection process on a video monitor while adjusting the energy level and/or orientation of the sample using a five-axis (x, y, z, tilt, and rotate) sample manipulator for optimum results. In addition, real-time monitoring allows visual observation of any mechanical movement which is internal to the sample. The application of this technique to still pipe welding at the Northwest Pipe Company is discussed.

  2. Delineation of pipeline river crossing using cable and pipe locator with real-time differential GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Waddington, B.S.; Maxwell, M.

    1996-11-01

    The location and depth of cover over pipeline river crossings must be checked periodically to ascertain that the pipeline remains undisturbed and adequately covered. We have developed a technique to determine pipeline plan location and depth of cover utilizing a combination of electromagnetic detection and echosounding with real-time navigation, in this case differential GPS. The technique offers an alternative to acoustic location methods where small pipe size or the presence of acoustically opaque sediments prevent pipe detection. In addition, the technique can be used in fast-flowing rivers or in heavy marine traffic where anchoring is an unlikely option. We have successfully applied the method to locate and profile a 168 mm steel pipeline crossing under the Fraser River, near Vancouver, Canada. Site conditions consisted of a 250 m wide river with 3-5 knot current. The 168 mm steel pipeline was buried in silts from 2-6 m thick below water up to 9 m deep. In addition, approximately 80 m of the river surface was permanently covered by log booms and hence inaccessible by boat. Initial attempts to locate the pipe using an acoustic sub-bottom profiler were unsuccessful. The 3.5 kHz system used did not provide sufficient penetration to delineate the pipe, probably due to the presence of biogenic gas in the river-bottom sediments. A Radiodetection{reg_sign} cable and pipe locator system was used to establish shoreline and shallow water locations. Unfortunately river currents and marine traffic prevented accurate location and depth determination using standard location techniques. The development of digital pipe locators with RS-232 interfacing permitted us to develop a technique utilizing simultaneous recording of digital magnetic field strength and real-time differential GPS location data. The Radiodetection{reg_sign} transmitter was connected to a riverside pipe valve.

  3. Workshop on plastic-pipe location, Westin Chicago Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, May 1-2, 1990. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    Preprints of papers presented to the May 1990 GRI Workshop on Plastic Pipe Location are provided. Topics include an historical overview of plastic pipe location, the location of non-metallic utilities, radar applications, the Terrascan system, plastic pipe location in Japan, subsurface pipe mapping, and non-contact acoustic buried plastic pipe location.

  4. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drill pipe and drill... defined the subject merchandise as steel drill pipe, and steel drill collars, whether or not conforming...

  5. Ultrasonic Phased Array Sound Field Mapping Through Large-Bore Coarse Grained Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Hathaway, John E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-04-16

    A sound field beam mapping exercise was conducted to further understand the effects of coarse grained microstructures found in CASS materials on phased array ultrasonic wave propagation. Laboratory measurements were made on three CASS specimens with different microstructures; the specimens were polished and etched to reveal measurable grain sizes, shapes and orientations. Three longitudinal, phased array probes were fixed on a specimen's outside diameter with the sound field directed toward one end (face) of the pipe segment over a fixed range of angles. A point receiver was raster scanned over the surface of the specimen face generating a sound field image. A slice of CASS material was then removed from the specimen end and the beam mapping exercise repeated. The sound fields acquired were analyzed for spot size, coherency, and beam redirection. Analyses were conducted between the resulting sound fields and the microstructural characteristics of each specimen.

  6. HDPE pipe insulates cased road crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-13

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe has been used by the Public Service Co. of North Caroline Inc. (PSC) to protect steel gas-transmission pipelines under state roads. PSC has recently used 16-in. Phillips Driscopipe 1000 between the two steel pipes to prevent corrosion-causing static charges in the transmission lines. The pipeline went in service in September of last year. The strategy enables PSC to meet North Carolina Department of Transportation requirements that large-diameter steel gas lines running under state highways be enclosed in another steel pipe.

  7. Plastic pipe at road crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This article reports how a North Carolina company is using high-density polyethylene pipe at state road crossings as an insulator to keep the outer casing pipe from touching the inner gas carrier pipeline. This prevents static charges that can cause corrosion, gas leaks and other problems on the pipeline. It enables the company to meet requirements of the North Carolina Department of Transportation that large-diameter steel gas pipelines crossing beneath state highways be enclosed in another steel pipe for protection against damage.

  8. Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluations Of Implanted And In-Situ Grown Flaws In Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Moran, Traci L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    A set of circumferentially oriented thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) were implanted into three cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) pressurizer (PZR) surge-line specimen welds (pipe-to-elbow configuration) that were salvaged from a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant that had not been operated. Thus, these welds were fabricated using vintage CASS materials that were formed in the 1970s. Additionally, in-situ grown TFCs were placed in the adjacent CASS base material of one of these specimens. Ultrasonic phased-array responses from both types of flaws (implanted and in-situ grown) were analyzed for detection and characterization based on sizing and signal-to-noise determination. Multiple probes were employed covering the 0.8 to 2.0 MHz frequency range. To further validate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) findings, an independent in-service inspection (ISI) supplier evaluated the flaws with their American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, Section XI, Appendix VIII-qualified procedure. The results obtained by PNNL personnel compared favorably to the ISI supplier results. All examined flaws were detected and sized within the ASME Code-allowable limits.

  9. Synthesis and application of hybrid polymer composites based on silver nanoparticles as corrosion protection for line pipe steel.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdurrahman O

    2014-05-16

    A facile method was developed to synthesize in high yield dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with small particle sizes of less than 10 nm. Silver nitrate was reduced to silver nanoparticles by p-chloroaniline in the presence of polyoxyethylene maleate 4-nonyl-2-propylene-phenol (NMA) as a stabilizer. The produced AgNPs were used to prepare hybrid polymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm), 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (KPS) using a semi-batch solution polymerization method. The prepared AgNPs and hybrid polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion inhibition activity of the AgNPs and hybrid polymer towards steel corrosion in the presence of hydrochloric acid has been investigated by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Polarization measurements indicate that the AgNPs and hybrid polymer acts as a mixed type-inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. The results of potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements clearly showed that the inhibition mechanism involves blocking of the steel surface by inhibitor molecules via adsorption.

  10. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  11. Thermal skin effect of pipes in streambeds and its implications on groundwater flux estimation using diurnal temperature signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2010-03-01

    Heat tracing is widely used for quantifying groundwater flux across the river-streambed interface. This study investigates the potential for a thermal skin effect (TSE) whereby temperature measured inside a pipe buried in sediment is lagged and damped compared to temperature outside of the pipe, violating the assumption that monitored temperatures are representative of the saturated sediment. Numerical simulations show that 1-3 inch diameter pipes lead to an additional lag of tens of minutes to almost 1.5 h when diurnal temperature signals originating from the river and propagating into the sediment are monitored. The lag increases with pipe diameter and diminishes when steel is used instead of PVC. The temperatures taken from inside the pipe lead to substantial errors when they are used as targets for fitting with a forward heat transport model. The errors are large when the fit is made to the timing of the temperature signals but is small when the fit is made to the amplitude of the signal while ignoring the timing. This is because the TSE leads to little damping of the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations and mostly exhibits as extra lag. Therefore, methods that take advantage of the amplitude of the signal, such as time series analysis using amplitude ratios, are not sensitive to the TSE. Time series data can be corrected by subtracting the response time of the water-filled pipe or by adding the response time as a phase shift to analytical models.

  12. Combined atom-probe and electron microscopy characterization of fine scale structures in aged primary coolant pipe stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, J.; Miller, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities and complementary nature of atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) for the characterization of fine-scale microstructures are illustrated by examination of the changes that occur after long term thermal aging of cast CF 8 and CF 8M duplex stainless steels. In material aged at 300 or 400/sup 0/C for up to 70,000 h, the ferrite had spinodally decomposed into a modulated fine-scaled interconnected network consisting of an iron-rich ..cap alpha.. phase and a chromium-enriched ..cap alpha..' phase with periodicities of between 2 and 9 nm. G-phase precipitates 2 to 10 nm in diameter were also observed in the ferrite at concentrations of more than 10/sup 21/ m/sup -3/. The reported degradation in mechanical properties is most likely a consequence of the spinodal decomposition in the ferrite.

  13. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  14. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  15. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  16. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is...

  17. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is...

  18. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is...

  19. Polymer concrete lined pipe for use in geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Albert O.

    1982-10-08

    A specific polymer concrete formulation was applied as a steel pipe liner in response to a need for durable, economical materials for use in contact with high temperature geothermal brine. Compressive strengths of up to 165.8 MPa and splitting tensile strengths of 23.5 MPa were measured at ambient temperature. Compressive strengths of 24 MPa and splitting tensile strengths of 2.5 MPa were measured at about 150 C. Cost of piping a geothermal plant with PC and PC-lined steel pipe is calculated to be $1.21 million, which compares favorably with a similar plant piped with alloy steel piping at a cost of $1.33 million. Life-cycle cost analysis indicates that the cost of PC-lined steel pipe would be 82% of that of carbon steel pipe over a 20-year plant operating life.

  20. Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building. Historian for scale. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  1. A Computational approach in optimizing process parameters of GTAW for SA 106 Grade B steel pipes using Response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumesh, A.; Sai Ramnadh, L. V.; Manish, P.; Harnath, V.; Lakshman, V.

    2016-09-01

    Welding is one of the most common metal joining techniques used in industry for decades. As in the global manufacturing scenario the products should be more cost effective. Therefore the selection of right process with optimal parameters will help the industry in minimizing their cost of production. SA 106 Grade B steel has a wide application in Automobile chassis structure, Boiler tubes and pressure vessels industries. Employing central composite design the process parameters for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding was optimized. The input parameters chosen were weld current, peak current and frequency. The joint tensile strength was the response considered in this study. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the statistical significance of the parameters and a Regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of input parameters over the response. From the experiment the maximum tensile strength obtained was 95 KN reported for a weld current of 95 Amp, frequency of 50 Hz and peak current of 100 Amp. With an aim of maximizing the joint strength using Response optimizer a target value of 100 KN is selected and regression models were optimized. The output results are achievable with a Weld current of 62.6148 Amp, Frequency of 23.1821 Hz, and Peak current of 65.9104 Amp. Using Die penetration test the weld joints were also classified in to 2 categories as good weld and weld with defect. This will also help in getting a defect free joint when welding is performed using GTAW process.

  2. NEP heat pipe radiators. [Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper covers improvements of heat pipe radiators for the thermionic NEP design. Liquid metal heat pipes are suitable as spacecraft radiator elements because of high thermal conductance, low mass and reliability, but the NEP thermionic system design was too large and difficult to fabricate. The current integral collector-radiator design consisting of several layers of thermionic converters, the annular-tangential collector heat pipe, the radiator heat pipe, and the transition zone designed to minimize the temperature difference between the collector heat pipe and radiator heat pipe are described. Finally, the design of micrometeoroid armor protection and the fabrication of the stainless steel annular heat pipe with a tangential arm are discussed, and it is concluded that the heat rejection system for the thermionic NEP system is well advanced, but the collector-radiator heat pipe transition and the 8 to 10 m radiator heat pipe with two bends require evaluation.

  3. NEP heat pipe radiators. [Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper covers improvements of heat pipe radiators for the thermionic NEP design. Liquid metal heat pipes are suitable as spacecraft radiator elements because of high thermal conductance, low mass and reliability, but the NEP thermionic system design was too large and difficult to fabricate. The current integral collector-radiator design consisting of several layers of thermionic converters, the annular-tangential collector heat pipe, the radiator heat pipe, and the transition zone designed to minimize the temperature difference between the collector heat pipe and radiator heat pipe are described. Finally, the design of micrometeoroid armor protection and the fabrication of the stainless steel annular heat pipe with a tangential arm are discussed, and it is concluded that the heat rejection system for the thermionic NEP system is well advanced, but the collector-radiator heat pipe transition and the 8 to 10 m radiator heat pipe with two bends require evaluation.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM A53/A53M—Steel pipe, “Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless” (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM A106...” (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM A333/A333M—Steel pipe, “Standard Specification for Seamless and...

  5. Improvements in 500-kHz Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe Designs for Evaluation of Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2011-02-01

    PNNL has been studying and performing confirmatory research on the inspection of piping welds in coarse-grained steels for over 30 years. More recent efforts have been the application of low frequency phased array technology to this difficult to inspect material. The evolution of 500 kHz PA probes and the associated electronics and scanning protocol are documented in this report. The basis for the probe comparisons are responses from one mechanical fatigue crack and two thermal fatigue cracks in large-bore cast mockup specimens on loan from the Electric Power Research Institution. One of the most significant improvements was seen in the use of piezo-composite elements in the later two probes instead of the piezo-ceramic material used in the prototype array. This allowed a reduction in system gain of 30 dB and greatly reduced electronic noise. The latest probe had as much as a 5 dB increase in signal to noise, adding to its flaw discrimination capability. The system electronics for the latest probe were fully optimized for a 500 kHz center frequency, however significant improvements were not observed in the center frequency of the flaw responses. With improved scanner capabilities, smaller step sizes were used, allowing both line and raster data improvements to be made with the latest probe. The small step sizes produce high resolution images that improve flaw discrimination and, along with the increased signal-to-noise ratio inherent in the latest probe design, enhanced detection of the upper regions of the flaw make depth sizing more plausible. Finally, the physical sizes of the probes were progressively decreased allowing better access to the area of interest on specimens with weld crowns, and the latest probe was designed with non-integral wedges providing flexibility in focusing on different specimen geometries.

  6. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  7. Piping Inelastic Fracture Mechanics Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-30

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NUREG /CR 1119 4259 NRL Memorandum Report _4259...Steel Piping of Boiling Water Reactor Plants," US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG -75/067, October, 1975. 2. "Investigation and Evaluation of...Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Piping of Light-Water Reactor Plants," US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG -0531, February, 1979. 3. F.J. Witt, W.H

  8. Buried Craters of Utopia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003

    Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  10. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  11. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  12. A one dimensional numerical approach for computing the eigenmodes of elastic waves in buried pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wenbo; Kirby, Ray; Mudge, Peter; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves are often used in the detection of defects in oil and gas pipelines. It is common for these pipelines to be buried underground and this may restrict the length of the pipe that can be successfully tested. This is because acoustic energy travelling along the pipe walls may radiate out into the surrounding medium. Accordingly, it is important to develop a better understanding of the way in which elastic waves propagate along the walls of buried pipes, and so in this article a numerical model is developed that is suitable for computing the eigenmodes for uncoated and coated buried pipes. This is achieved by combining a one dimensional eigensolution based on the semi-analytic finite element (SAFE) method, with a perfectly matched layer (PML) for the infinite medium surrounding the pipe. This article also explores an alternative exponential complex coordinate stretching function for the PML in order to improve solution convergence. It is shown for buried pipelines that accurate solutions may be obtained over the entire frequency range typically used in long range ultrasonic testing (LRUT) using a PML layer with a thickness equal to the pipe wall thickness. This delivers a fast and computationally efficient method and it is shown for pipes buried in sand or soil that relevant eigenmodes can be computed and sorted in less than one second using relatively modest computer hardware. The method is also used to find eigenmodes for a buried pipe coated with the viscoelastic material bitumen. It was recently observed in the literature that a viscoelastic coating may effectively isolate particular eigenmodes so that energy does not radiate from these modes into the surrounding [elastic] medium. A similar effect is also observed in this article and it is shown that this occurs even for a relatively thin layer of bitumen, and when the shear impedance of the coating material is larger than that of the surrounding medium.

  13. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    PubMed

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  14. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  15. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the fracture resistance of nuclear piping steels. Technical report, October 1992--April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results of the material property evaluation efforts performed within Task 3 of the IPIRG-2 Program. Several related investigations were conducted. (1) Quasi-static, cyclic-load compact tension specimen experiments were conducted using parameters similar to those used in IPIRG-1 experiments on 6-inch nominal diameter through-wall-cracked pipes. These experiments were conducted on a TP304 base metal, an A106 Grade B base metal, and their respective submerged-arc welds. The results showed that when using a constant cyclic displacement increment, the compact tension experiments could predict the through-wall-cracked pipe crack initiation toughness, but a different control procedure is needed to reproduce the pipe cyclic crack growth in the compact tension tests. (2) Analyses conducted showed that for 6-inch diameter pipe, the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve can be used in making cyclic pipe moment predictions; however, sensitivity analyses suggest that the maximum moments decrease slightly from cyclic toughness degradation as the pipe diameter increases. (3) Dynamic stress-strain and compact tension tests were conducted to expand on the existing dynamic database. Results from dynamic moment predictions suggest that the dynamic compact tension J-R and the quasi-static stress-strain curves are the appropriate material properties to use in making dynamic pipe moment predictions.

  16. Practical aspects of acoustic plastic pipe location

    SciTech Connect

    Huebler, J.E.; Campbell, B.K.; Ching, G.K.

    1993-12-31

    Many gas distribution company operation and maintenance activities require precise knowledge of the location of buried plastic piping. Plastic pipe cannot be located if the tracer wire is gone or was never installed. Under sponsorship of the Southern California Gas Company, IGT successfully demonstrated an acoustic plastic pipe location technique and is developing the technique into a practical field instrument an acoustic signal is injected directly into the gas at a service. The acoustic signal travels in the gas in the pipes, not in the pipe wall. As the acoustic wave travels along the pipe, some of the sound radiates from the pipe through the soil to the surface of the ground. An array of sensors on the surface of the ground perpendicular to the pipe detects the acoustic signal, thereby locating the Pipe. Two different acoustic measurements are used. The first measurement locates the pipe to within {plus_minus} 3-ft. Then the second technique determines the location of the pipe to within {plus_minus} 6-in.

  17. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farmers and land improvement contractors, especially in the Midwest U.S., need methods to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but also to determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. Previous investigations have already demonstrated the feasibility o...

  19. CAPACITIVE TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE LOCATION OF PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Brian J. Huber

    2003-12-30

    The objective of this program was to develop and test a system that would detect and image buried plastic and ceramic pipe. The system is designed to detect variations in the electric permeability of soil corresponding to the presence of a buried plastic pipe. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) proposed to develop a compact and inexpensive capacitive tomography-imaging sensor that can be placed on the ground to image objects embedded in the soil. The system provides a coarse image, which allows the operator to identify a buried object's location both horizontally and vertically.

  20. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b...

  1. Light as a key driver of freshwater biofouling surface roughness in an experimental hydrocanal pipe rig.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Matilde; Giosio, Dean; Henderson, Alan; Hovenden, Mark; Hudson, Monica; Salleh, Sazlina; Sargison, Jane; Shaw, Jennifer L; Walker, Jessica; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-07-01

    Biofouling in canals and pipelines used for hydroelectric power generation decreases the flow capacity of conduits. A pipeline rig was designed consisting of test sections of varying substrata (PVC, painted steel) and light levels (transparent, frosted, opaque). Stalk-forming diatoms were abundant in both the frosted and transparent PVC pipes but negligible in the painted steel and opaque PVC pipes. Fungi were slightly more abundant in the painted steel pipe but equally present in all the other pipes while bacterial diversity was similar in all pipes. Photosynthetically functional biofouling (mainly diatoms) was able to develop in near darkness. Different biological fouling compositions generated differing friction factors. The highest friction factor was observed in the transparent pipe (densest diatom fouling), the lowest peak friction for the opaque PVC pipe (lowest fouling biomass), and with the painted steel pipe (high fouling biomass, but composed of fungal and bacterial crusts) being intermediate between the opaque and frosted PVC pipes.

  2. Chenier Plain Sediment Burial Pipe Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Chris; Gunshor, Mat; Huh, Oscar; Winch, Dale

    2000-01-01

    These field notes describe the logistical circumstances and field conditions experienced by the researchers, who measured the waterlines on a series of vertical pipes previously buried in shallow coastal water. The purpose of the measurements was to monitor a portion of the Gulf coast in Louisiana for erosion.

  3. 77 FR 30260 - Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan: Notice... antidumping duty order on welded large diameter line pipe from Japan. The review covers five producers/exporters of welded large diameter line pipe from Japan, which are, JFE Steel Corporation, Nippon Steel...

  4. 78 FR 20615 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on drill pipe from the People's Republic of China (PRC...-4793. Scope of the Order The scope of the order consists of steel drill pipe and steel drill...

  5. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  6. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  7. LARGE-BORE PIPE DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (project scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel), and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  8. Modeling the electromagnetic detection of buried cylindrical conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Mack, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The remote detection of buried structures and tunnels is important to the mining, construction, and defense industries. It is often desirable to identify underground power lines, pipe lines, and utility tunnels which have unique electromagnetic cross sections. A computational model for the electromagnetic detection of buried conducting cylinders is described in this paper. The source of electromagnetic radiation is either current injection into the soil or a surface based magnetic dipole with possible extensions to airborne platforms. Frequency ranges from a few kHz to 100 kHz are considered. The target conductor is a cylinder buried directly in the soil or placed inside an insulating pipe. The receiver is a magnetic gradiometer held 1m above the ground, separate from the transmitter. Data are taken widely over the terrain under investigation. Cases where the target conductor is grounded at both ends, one end, or not at all are modeled. The scattered field and field gradient are computed at or above ground level and compared in magnitude and phase with the transmitted signal. Calculated results are compared with experimental tests done to detect a buried wire at Sandia National Laboratory and a tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Essential factors affecting detection performance are frequency optimization, dynamic range of reception and proper data processing.

  9. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, Jeremy B. Muthu, Nathan; Lhota, James R.; Shepard, Steven M.

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  10. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Lhota, James R.; Muthu, Nathan; Shepard, Steven M.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  11. Acme jumper pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Medved, P.; Thomas, H.

    1995-09-01

    Acme Steel had operated the larry car with an attached jumper pipe since 1977. Acme had been able to meet the State Implementation Plan. With the advent of the Clean Air Act, Acme did not feel it could meet these new standards without some modifications to the jumper pipe system. Several drop sleeve modifications and numerous boot seal materials and configurations were tested that resulted in limited success in improving the boot seal life. After these modifications, Acme`s testing revealed it could meet the Clean Air Act standards, but it would be cost prohibitive to continue to operate in this manner. Following extensive investigation, Acme decided to install an off-car jumper pipe system which uses a traveling U-tube for connecting to the assist oven through an additional hole in each oven roof. Temperature related failures of drop sleeve seals were eliminated. The off-car jumper pipe is a more efficient gas connection to the assist oven and enables Acme to meet the Clean Air Act charging requirements in a cost effective manner.

  12. Pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Thomas E.; Pardini, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated.

  13. UHF ground penetration measurements of buried and partially buried trihedrals

    SciTech Connect

    Blejer, D.; Frost, C.; Scarborough, S.

    1994-12-31

    The Lincoln Laboratory ground-based rail SAR was used to collect UHF band data on buried and partially buried trihedral corner reflectors in Yuma soil. The frequency range was 0.25 to 1 GHz in descrete steps. Both HH and VV polarization data were collected in the vicinity of the pseudo-Brewster angle. The partially buried trihedrals revealed two principal components for the returned signals: (1) a surface reflected component, and (2) a ground penetrated component. A model is described for partially buried trihedrals that accounts for these two components and the model is used in estimating ground penetration parameters.

  14. Entomofauna of buried bodies in northern France.

    PubMed

    Bourel, Benoit; Tournel, Gilles; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier

    2004-08-01

    Autopsies of exhumed cadavers can reveal important evidence for clarification of medical insurance and social issues. This study concerns insects sampled on 22 exhumed cadavers in the Lille area. For each corpse, the species and the stages of development were noted, as well as the time elapsed after burial, the location of the cemetery, the stage of decay and possible preservation treatment. A total of eight Diptera and two Coleoptera species were sampled on the corpses. The relationships between entomofauna and conditions of burial are discussed. Three species were regularly found because of their preference for underground environments or closed environments: Conicera tibialis, typically associated with buried bodies, Leptocera caenosa which is known to be associated with human faeces, water closets, caves and cracked soil pipes, and Ophyra capensis, sometimes found on human bodies kept indoors for several months, where blowflies have not had access. Triphleba hyalinata, which is associated with human bodies in wooden coffins, was found only twice.

  15. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  16. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  17. Locating Buried Utilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Figure 12. Simplified view of detection head. Inside the detection head are three layers: the middle one is a receiving coil and the outer two are...insulated cable or metal pipe that has a diameter smaller than the inside dimension of the clamp (Fig. 24). To properly energize the line, the jaws of the...rnte will need to prvie adjse grun ta erattn point t loid prve t t er larrn. hohte rud 6.to carywtoa ngot mal onductorabl with drplnecrlatras teac eull

  18. Vacuum hand pump apparatus for collecting water samples from a horizontal intragravel pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a lightweight, portable vacuum hand pump apparatus for use in collecting water samples from horizontal intragravel pipe samplers buried in the stream bottom. The apparatus is easily fabricated from relatively inexpensive materials available at many laboratory supply houses.

  19. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-11-15

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  20. 76 FR 65748 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey; Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...)] Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey; Commission... countervailing duty order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from India, Thailand, and Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on...

  1. 77 FR 2318 - Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...)] Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey... countervailing duty order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from India, Thailand, and Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on...

  2. Piping inspection round robin

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  3. Refinery piping fires resulting from variations in chemical composition of piping materials

    SciTech Connect

    Setterlund, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    A number of refinery fires in recent years are traceable to variations in the chemical composition of piping materials. These fires are typically more destructive than those due to other causes and can take place without warning. Some, but not all, were the result of the inadvertent use of carbon steel in alloy steel piping systems. Others were the result of alloy welds in carbon steel systems while still others were due to variations in residual elements leading to anomalous corrosion behavior. Recommendations are given on areas of refinery units where the greatest need for close control of material composition exists.

  4. A Review of Fatigue Crack Growth of Pressure Vessel and Piping Steels in High-Temperature, Pressurized Reactor-Grade Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-19

    DISTRUM~ONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION P BEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUM2ER. GOVT ACCESSION NO. S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NUREG /CR-1576 f 4 NRL...Pipe Rupture Study Progress Report No. 40, April-June 1977, GEAP- NUREG -10207-40 (Aug. 1977). 116 26. D. A. Hale, J. Yuen and T. Gerber, "Fatigue...J. Loss, NUREG /CR 0943, NRL Memorandum Report 4064 (Sept. 1979). 35. W. H. Cullen, Jr., H. E. Watson, V. Provenzano, "Results of Cyclic Crack Growth

  5. 46 CFR 38.10-10 - Cargo piping-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pressure shall be seamless drawn steel or electric resistance welded steel. Pipe used in refrigerated tank systems shall be of a material which is suitable for the minimum service temperature to which it may be...

  6. 46 CFR 38.10-10 - Cargo piping-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pressure shall be seamless drawn steel or electric resistance welded steel. Pipe used in refrigerated tank systems shall be of a material which is suitable for the minimum service temperature to which it may be...

  7. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  8. Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  9. Lower San Fernando corrugated metal pipe failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bardet, J.P.; Davis, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    During the January 17, 1994, Northridge earthquake, a 2.4 m diameter corrugated metal pipe was subjected to 90 m of extensive lateral crushing failure at the Lower San Fernando Dam. The dam and outlet works were reconstructed after the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake. In 1994, the dam underwent liquefaction upstream of the reconstructed berm. The pipe collapsed on the west side of the liquefied zone and a large sinkhole formed over the drain line. The failure of this drain line provides a unique opportunity to study the seismic response of buried drains and culverts.

  10. Prediction of cryogenic heat pipe performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, G. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 304 stainless steel heat pipe with slab type capillary structure and nitrogen as the working fluid was studied in the temperature range of 60 K to 120 K. The pipe was 1.27 cm in outside diameter and 9.14 cm in total length. In the transient studies, described in detail in this report, saddles were included at evaporator and condenser ends and a radiator was included at the condenser end.

  11. Piping Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A complex of high pressure piping at Stennis Space Center carries rocket propellants and other fluids/gases through the Center's Component Test Facility. Conventional clamped connectors tend to leak when propellant lines are chilled to extremely low temperatures. Reflange, Inc. customized an existing piping connector to include a secondary seal more tolerant of severe thermal gradients for Stennis. The T-Con connector solved the problem, and the company is now marketing a commercial version that permits testing, monitoring or collecting any emissions that may escape the primary seal during severe thermal transition.

  12. Pipe gripper

    DOEpatents

    Moyers, S.M.

    1975-12-16

    A device for gripping the exterior surface of a pipe or rod is described which has a plurality of wedges, each having a concave face which engages the outer surface of the pipe and each having a smooth face opposing the concave face. The wedges are seated on and their grooved concave faces are maintained in circular alignment by tapered axial segments of an opening extending through a wedge-seating member. The wedges are allowed to slide across the tapered axial segments so that such a sliding movement acts to vary the diameter of the circular alignment.

  13. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  14. Effects of entrapped air in a closed soil pipe on the soil pipe flow during a rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Imoto, H.; Hamamoto, S.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    Soil pipes, continuous macropores parallel to the slope, are considered to have an important role in hillslope hydrological processes. However, knowledge of water flow in the closed soil pipe is still limited due to the lack of the nondestructive observations. The objective of this study is to clarify water flow dynamics in the closed soil pipe directly by the laboratory experiment using a soil box with an artificial soil pipe. An acrylic plastic pipe, 7 mm inner diameter, 10 mm outer diameter, and 40 cm long, was used as an artificial soil pipe. Drain holes were evenly opened on the pipe wall and covered by nylon mesh. Soil pipe was connected to a pressure transducer to measure air pressure in the pipe. Two-needle electrodes were set inside the pipe to detect a pipe flow. Acrylic rectangular box, 60 cm long, 4 cm wide and 35 cm high, was filled with Toyoura sand with 3 % mass water content to a thickness of 30 cm. Drainage holes were opened at the downward outlet of the box. Artificial soil pipe was buried at center of soil box and 2.5 cm high from the base of the box. After packing the sand, soil box was inclined, and then artificial rainfall, 40-250 mm h-1, was applied. During the experiments, outflow rate and soil water pressure were measured. In the slope of 10°, soil pipe flow was not observed under either rainfall intensities, though groundwater table rose above the soil pipe. Increase in air pressure in the soil pipe started prior to the water saturation of soil around the soil pipe. This suggested that entrapped air in the soil pipe prevented water intrusion into the soil pipe. In the slope of 20°, soil pipe flow started when soil around the lower end of the soil pipe was saturated, but steady-state groundwater table was similar to that under no pipe condition. Release of the air in the soil pipe greatly decreased the groundwater level, indicating that even after the soil pipe flow started, entrapped air restricted the drainage through the soil pipe.

  15. Fundamental heat transfer experiments of heat pipes for turbine cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Yamawaki, S.; Yoshida, T.; Taki, M.; Mimura, F.

    1998-07-01

    Fundamental heat transfer experiments were carried out for three kinds of heat pipes that may be applied to turbine cooling in future aero-engines. In the turbine cooling system with a heat pipe, heat transfer rate and start-up time of the heat pipe are the most important performance criteria to evaluate and compare with conventional cooling methods. Three heat pipes are considered, called heat pipe A, B, and C, respectively. All heat pipes have a stainless steel shell and nickel sintered powder metal wick. Sodium (Na) was the working fluid for heat pipes A and B; heat pipe C used eutectic sodium-potassium (NaK). Heat pipes B and C included noncondensible gas for rapid start-up. There were fins on the cooling section of heat pipes. In the experiments, an infrared image furnace supplied heat to the heat pipe simulating turbine blade surface conditions. In the results, heat pipe B demonstrated the highest heat flux of 17 to 20 W/cm{sup 2}. The start-up time was about 6 minutes for heat pipe B and about 6 minutes for heat pipe A. Thus, adding noncondensible gas effectively reduced start-up time. Although NaK is a liquid phase at room temperature, the start-up time of heat pipe C (about 7 to 8 minutes) was not shorter than the heat pipe B. The effect of a gravitational force on heat pipe performance was also estimated by inclining the heat pipe at an angle of 90 deg. There was no significant gravitational dependence on heat transport for heat pipes including noncondensible gas.

  16. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. 68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME BOXES FOR COUNTERWEIGHTS, AND FURNACE HEATING PIPES AT RIGHT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  19. Erosion studies of pipe-lining materials - fifth progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, H.

    1984-05-01

    This is the fifth report on laboratory tests to evaluate the erosion resistance of the inner surface of water-bearing pipe. Erosion resistance is defined as the resistance to the wearing effect produced by abrasive particles such as would be encountered in steel pipe carrying sand or sand- and gravel-laden water. Erosive conditions are simulated by rotating a lined pipe containing a sand-water or gravel-water slurry. Coal-tar enamel has good erosion resistance and is used as the standard for comparing other materials. Seventeen RPM pipe liners, concrete, steel, synthetic and natural rubber sheet, PVC, polyethylene, and ABS pipe had better erosion resistance than coal-tar enamel; four RPM liners, three RTRP liners, and one vinyl resin liner for asbestos-cement pipe were less resistant. Results from four previous progress reports are included.

  20. Pipe overpack container for trasuranic waste storage and shipment

    DOEpatents

    Geinitz, Richard R.; Thorp, Donald T.; Rivera, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A Pipe Overpack Container for transuranic waste storage and shipment. The system consists of a vented pipe component which is positioned in a vented, insulated 55 gallon steel drum. Both the vented pipe component and the insulated drum are capable of being secured to prevent the contents from leaving the vessel. The vented pipe component is constructed of 1/4 inch stainless steel to provide radiation shielding. Thus, allowing shipment having high Americium-241 content. Several Pipe Overpack Containers are then positioned in a type B, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved, container. In the current embodiment, a TRUPACT-II container was employed and a maximum of fourteen Pipe Overpack Containers were placed in the TRUPACT-II. The combination received NRC approval for the shipment and storage of transuranic waste.

  1. Metallurgical investigation of material from chill-water piping system

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of two steel pipes that were removed from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) chill-water system have been studied. Concerns for low-stress failure of aging pipes prompted a metallurgical investigation to determine the risk of using a cryogenic freeze-plug technique to isolate a section of piping for repair. The two pipes, designated S and L, were low-alloy carbon steel, with microstructures of ferrite and pearlite. Pipe S had a small grain size and a banded microstructure, whereas pipe L had a larger grain size with less pearlite, which was randomly spaced. Pipe S had a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of 0{degree}C, compared to 84{degree}C for pipe L. Because of the high transition temperature and the very low level of the lower shelf, cooling to liquid-nitrogen temperature resulted in a very small margin of safety for these pipes. Therefore, this technique is not recommended for the pipe materials, and caution is advised in applying this technique to any pipe with unknown toughness properties. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Near-field synthetic aperture imaging of buried objects and fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilles, James T.; Tricoles, Gus P.; Vance, Gary L.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes imaging of buried objects and fluids. The motivations are to locate pipe leakage and unexploded ordnance. The method is to radiate and receive continuous, discrete frequency radio waves with antennas near the ground, to synthesize sampled area arrays of reflectance data, and to process the data into images with an algorithm based on angular spectrum diffraction theory. Experimental results are presented for three setups. An initial, laboratory setup had a single, spatially scanned antenna; it was used to image buried mud. The second with an array of five antennas on a vehicle, images a buried creosote pit. The third, with a vehicular array of seven antennas, imaged buried metallic objects and depressions in the soil surface.

  3. Evaluation of commercially-available spacecraft-type heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, W. B.; Tower, L. K.

    1978-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop reliable, cost effective spacecraft thermal control heat pipes, life tests on 30 commercially available heat pipes in 10 groups of different design and material combinations were conducted. Results for seven groups were reported herein. Materials are aluminum and stainless steel, and working fluids are methanol and ammonia. The formation of noncondensible gas was observed for times exceeding 11,000 hours. The heat transport capacities of the pipes were also determined.

  4. Copper-nickel piping reduces costs, biofouling/corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1984-11-01

    Seawater piping systems for offshore drilling rigs and platforms are typically plagued by biofouling and/or corrosion, with piping failures occurring in only a few years. Discussed are alternate pipe materials with the emphasis on the testing of a copper-nickel alloy in the Gulf of Mexico. Results show that although initially more expensive, use of this alloy can extend system life to 20 years or more while improving productivity and reducing overall costs when compared to a comparable steel system.

  5. Engineering and Design: Field Applications of Polyethylene Pipe in Dredging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-15

    resistance of high density polyethylene ( HDPE ) pipe with convmtimal mild steel pipe as reported at the ASCE Dredging Conference 1984. A third...material, ultra high molecular weight high density polyethylene was also tested. The results indicate that under the test conditions HDPE outperforms mild...steady increase in the number of dredges using high density polyethylene ( HDPE ) pipe in discharge lines. HDPE’s increased popularity is the result of

  6. Arctic production to put demands on line pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The launching of offshore production in the high Arctic will bring with it increased demand for the line pipe exhibiting good weldability and toughness characteristics in extremely low temperatures. West German steelmakers long have been recognized for supplying pipe and structural materials to the offshore market. Increased emphasis on arctic oil and gas exploration has seen the Germans increase research and development efforts on arctic grade steels, particularly line pipe. These R and D efforts are discussed.

  7. View looking east in the main pipe mill building at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east in the main pipe mill building at the operators pulpit of the east-west reelers, no. 2 seamless line. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Coiled Steel Tubing for Gas and Field Oil Lines, ASTM... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil piping systems. 3280.706... Systems § 3280.706 Oil piping systems. (a) General. The requirements of this section shall govern the...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer and... lading temperature. The outlets of all vapor phase and liquid phase lines must be located so that...

  10. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer and venting must be made for... outlets of all vapor phase and liquid phase lines must be located so that accidental discharge from these...

  11. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-17 Inner tank piping... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inner tank piping. 179.400-17 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-17 Inner tank piping... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inner tank piping. 179.400-17 Section...

  13. Long Heat Pipe Transports 2.6 kW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.; Dubble, E. H.; Copenhaver, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    High-capacity heat pipe employs slender artery-and-wick structure. Ribbon of stainless steel screen wrapped around copper mandrel in conical copper forming tool. Outside edge of wrapped screen welded to layer on which it rests. Long heat pipe transports thermal energy at rate of 2,600 watts at operating temperature of 923 K.

  14. Heat pipe wick with structural enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Moreno, James B.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Showalter, Steven K.; Moss, Timothy A.

    2003-11-18

    Heat pipe wick structure wherein a stout sheet of perforated material overlays a high performance wick material such as stainless steel felt affixed to a substrate. The inventive structure provides a good flow path for working fluid while maintaining durability and structural stability independent of the structure (or lack of structure) associated with the wick material. In one described embodiment, a wick of randomly laid .about.8 micron thickness stainless steel fibers is sintered to a metal substrate and a perforated metal overlay.

  15. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary coolant flowed through carbon steel pipe; primary coolant, through stainless steel. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: April 30, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2080 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Pipe-in-pipe insulation system passes tests for reel lay

    SciTech Connect

    Mollison, M.I. )

    1992-05-25

    The first reeled installation of the thermally insulated pipeline system known as pipe-in-pipe (PIP) occurred in development of the Seahorse and Tarwhine fields in Bass Strait, Australia, in 1989. This paper reports that PIP consists of an inner steel pipe coated with high-density polyurethane (HDPU) foam inside an outer steel carrier pipe. The lines are 7 and 10.8 miles, respectively, connecting the Barracouta offshore platform and subsea wellheads at each field location. Prior to the development of PIP, the only available insulation-coating system capable of withstanding the high contact loads associated with reeling were all very expensive. The cost benefits of reeling were therefore reduced for insulated pipelines.

  17. Smart pipes--instrumented water pipes, can this be made a reality?

    PubMed

    Metje, Nicole; Chapman, David N; Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael; Thomas, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Several millions of kilometres of pipes and cables are buried beneath our streets in the UK. As they are not visible and easily accessible, the monitoring of their integrity as well as the quality of their contents is a challenge. Any information of these properties aids the utility owners in their planning and management of their maintenance regime. Traditionally, expensive and very localised sensors are used to provide irregular measurements of these properties. In order to have a complete picture of the utility network, cheaper sensors need to be investigated which would allow large numbers of small sensors to be incorporated into (or near to) the pipe leading to so-called smart pipes. This paper focuses on a novel trial where a short section of a prototype smart pipe was buried using mainly off-the-shelf sensors and communication elements. The challenges of such a burial are presented together with the limitations of the sensor system. Results from the sensors were obtained during and after burial indicating that off-the-shelf sensors can be used in a smart pipes system although further refinements are necessary in order to miniaturise these sensors. The key challenges identified were the powering of these sensors and the communication of the data to the operator using a range of different methods.

  18. Chlorine decay in drinking-water transmission and distribution systems: pipe service age effect.

    PubMed

    Al-Jasser, A O

    2007-01-01

    Water quality can deteriorate in the transmission and distribution system beyond the treatment plant. Minimizing the potential for biological regrowth can be attained by chlorinating the finished water. While flowing through pipes, the chlorine concentration decreases for different reasons. Reaction with the pipe material itself and the reaction with both the biofilm and tubercles formed on the pipe wall are known as pipe wall demand, which may vary with pipe parameters. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of the service age of pipes on the effective chlorine wall decay constant. Three hundred and two pipe sections of different sizes and eight different pipe materials were collected and tested for their chlorine first-order wall decay constants. The results showed that pipe service age was an important factor that must not be ignored in some pipes such as cast iron, steel, cement-lined ductile iron (CLDI), and cement-lined cast iron (CLCI) pipes especially when the bulk decay is not significant relative to the wall decay. For the range of the 55 years of pipe service age used in this study, effective wall decay constants ranged from a decrease by -92% to an increase by +431% from the corresponding values in the recently installed pipes. The effect of service age on the effective wall decay constants was most evident in cast iron pipes, whereas steel pipes were less affected. Effective chlorine wall decay for CLCI and CLDI pipes was less affected by service age as compared to steel and cast iron pipes. Chlorine wall decay constants for PVC, uPVC, and polyethylene pipes were affected negatively by pipe service age and such effect was relatively small.

  19. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  20. System design for buried high-pressure/high-temperature pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    A pipeline expands or contracts when temperatures or pressures vary from the conditions at the time the pipeline was installed. Buried pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads. Because radial expansion is limited by soil restraint, buried pipelines expand axially. High axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Methods to control expansion and upheaval buckling were investigated for the design of a buried high-pressure/high temperature (HP/HT) sour-gas flowline in Mobile Bay, Alabama. After investigating conventional and unconventional methods, the decision was made to use expansion loops over the length of the pipeline to protect the risers and reduce axial force in the middle of the pipeline. Expansion loops and doglegs act as springs to absorb pipeline expansion. Methods were investigated to prevent soil from accumulating around the buried expansion loops. Commercially available concrete dog houses used to protect pipelines and expansion loops from dropped objects were not suitable for burial, and fabrication of custom concrete housing was expensive. Fabrication of a steel enclosure was the solution chosen. A mathematical model based on internal-design guidelines and ultimate soil friction was used to determine placement and size of the expansion loops.