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Sample records for buried waste remediation

  1. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  2. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  3. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology`s threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  7. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  8. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  9. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  10. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  11. Waste remediation

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  12. Waste remediation

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration commercialization actions plans. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Glore, D.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE complex. BWID evaluates, validates, and demonstrates technologies and transfers this information throughout DOE and private industry to support DOE. remediation planning and implementation activities. This report documents commercialization action plans for five technologies with near-term commercialization/ implementation potential as well as provides a status of commercial and academic partners for each technology.

  14. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  15. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  16. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  17. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

  19. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.

  20. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B.

    1993-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  1. Buried waste integrated demonstration fiscal year 1992 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially-available baseline technologies form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste disposed of throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-91. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID Program during FY-92.

  2. Integrated approach to hazardous and radioactive waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Reece, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development is supporting the demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of waste retrieval technologies. An integration of leading-edge technologies with commercially available baseline technologies will form a comprehensive system for effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the complex of DOE nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the complexity of systems integration, addressing organizational and engineering aspects of integration as well as the impact of human operators, and the importance of using integrated systems in remediating buried hazardous and radioactive waste.

  3. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.

    1992-02-01

    This document defines plans for the configuration management requirements for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program. Since BWID is managed programmatically by the Waste Technology Development Department (WTDD), WTDD Program Directive (PD) 1.5 (Document Preparation, Review, Approval, Publication, Management and Change Control) is to be followed for all internal EG G Idaho, Inc., BWID programmatic documentation. BWID documentation generated by organizations external to EG G Idaho is not covered by this revision of the Configuration Management Plan (CMP), but will be addressed in subsequent revisions.

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.

    1992-02-01

    This document defines plans for the configuration management requirements for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program. Since BWID is managed programmatically by the Waste Technology Development Department (WTDD), WTDD Program Directive (PD) 1.5 (Document Preparation, Review, Approval, Publication, Management and Change Control) is to be followed for all internal EG&G Idaho, Inc., BWID programmatic documentation. BWID documentation generated by organizations external to EG&G Idaho is not covered by this revision of the Configuration Management Plan (CMP), but will be addressed in subsequent revisions.

  6. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  7. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, May Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration Fiscal Year 1993 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.J.; Hyde, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during FY-93.

  9. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  10. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  11. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  12. The problem of burying radioactive wastes containing transplutonium elements (TPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryzgalova, R.V.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Rogozin, Y.M.; Sinitsyna, G.S.

    1986-09-01

    This paper discusses the problem of burying radioactive wastes containing TPE. The most acceptable and developed method at present is that of disposal into continental, deep-lying, geological formatins. Based on an analysis of estimates of the thermal conditions on burying highly active wastes, including TPE concentrates, data on the filtration and sorption characteristics of rocks, estimates of the diffusion of radionuclide species capable of migrating, and taking into account the retention powers of rocks it is concluded that it is possible to bury such wastes in weakly permeable geological formations possessing shielding characteristics which ensure reliability and safety in burial.

  13. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  14. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.; Shaw, P.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100{degrees}C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Development of a teleoperated backhoe for buried waste excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly five decades the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have engaged in broad-based research and development activities as well as nuclear weapons component production. As a by-product of these activities, large quantities of waste materials have been granted. One of the most common approaches used for solid waste storage was to bury waste containers in pits and trenches. With the current emphasis on environmental restoration, DOE now plans to either retrieve much of the legacy of buried waste or stabilize the waste in place via in situ vitrification or other means. Because of the variety of materials that have been buried over the years, the hazards of retrieval are significant if performed using conventional manned operations. The potential hazards, in addition to radiation exposure, include pyrophorics, toxic chemicals, and explosives. Although manifests exist for much of the buried waste, these records are often incomplete compared to today's requirements. Because of the potential hazards and uncertainty about waste contents and container integrity, it is highly desirable to excavate these wastes using remotely operated equipment. In this paper the authors describe the development of a teleoperated military tractor called the Small Emplacement Excavator (SEE). Development of the SEE is being funded jointly by both DOE and the US Army. The DOE sponsor is the Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Program. The US Army sponsor is the Program Manager for Ammunition Logistics, Picatinny Arsenal. The primary interest for DOE is in the application to remote excavation of buried waste, while the primary emphasis for the US Army is in the remote retrieval of unexploded ordnance. Technical requirements for these two tasks are very similar and, therefore, justify a joint development project. 1 ref.

  17. Development of a teleoperated backhoe for buried waste excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    For nearly five decades the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have engaged in broad-based research and development activities as well as nuclear weapons component production. As a by-product of these activities, large quantities of waste materials have been granted. One of the most common approaches used for solid waste storage was to bury waste containers in pits and trenches. With the current emphasis on environmental restoration, DOE now plans to either retrieve much of the legacy of buried waste or stabilize the waste in place via in situ vitrification or other means. Because of the variety of materials that have been buried over the years, the hazards of retrieval are significant if performed using conventional manned operations. The potential hazards, in addition to radiation exposure, include pyrophorics, toxic chemicals, and explosives. Although manifests exist for much of the buried waste, these records are often incomplete compared to today`s requirements. Because of the potential hazards and uncertainty about waste contents and container integrity, it is highly desirable to excavate these wastes using remotely operated equipment. In this paper the authors describe the development of a teleoperated military tractor called the Small Emplacement Excavator (SEE). Development of the SEE is being funded jointly by both DOE and the US Army. The DOE sponsor is the Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Program. The US Army sponsor is the Program Manager for Ammunition Logistics, Picatinny Arsenal. The primary interest for DOE is in the application to remote excavation of buried waste, while the primary emphasis for the US Army is in the remote retrieval of unexploded ordnance. Technical requirements for these two tasks are very similar and, therefore, justify a joint development project. 1 ref.

  18. Buried transuranic wastes at ORNL: Review of past estimates and reconciliation with current data

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    Inventories of buried (generally meaning disposed of) transuranic (TRU) wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been estimated for site remediation and waste management planning over a period of about two decades. Estimates were required because of inadequate waste characterization and incomplete disposal records. For a variety of reasons, including changing definitions of TRU wastes, differing objectives for the estimates, and poor historical data, the published results have sometimes been in conflict. The purpose of this review was (1) to attempt to explain both the rationale for and differences among the various estimates, and (2) to update the estimates based on more recent information obtained from waste characterization and from evaluations of ORNL waste data bases and historical records. The latter included information obtained from an expert panel`s review and reconciliation of inconsistencies in data identified during preparation of the ORNL input for the third revision of the Baseline Inventory Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The results summarize current understanding of the relationship between past estimates of buried TRU wastes and provide the most up-to-date information on recorded burials thereafter. The limitations of available information on the latter and thus the need for improved waste characterization are highlighted.

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration fiscal Year 1994 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, K.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Buried Waste integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development initiated BMD at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during Fiscal Year 1994. In Fiscal Year 1995, these activities are transitioning into the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area.

  20. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  1. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  2. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  3. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Technology status report: In situ vitrification applied to buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E. ); Bates, S.O. ); Hansen, J.E. )

    1992-09-01

    This document is a technical status report on In Situ Vitrification (ISV) as applied to buried waste; the report takes both technical and institutional concerns into perspective. The ISV process involves electrically melting such contaminated solid media as soil, sediment, sludge, and mill tailings. The resultant product is a high-quality glass-and-crystalline waste form that possesses high resistance to corrosion and leaching and is capable of long-term environmental exposure without significant degradation. The process also significantly reduces the volume of the treated solid media due to the removal of pore spaces in the soil.

  5. Tank Waste Remediation System optimized processing strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.; Boldt, A.L.; Boomer, K.D.; Galbraith, J.D.; Leach, C.E.; Waldo, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  6. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  7. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  8. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  9. WASTE PACKAGE REMEDIATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Sudan

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Package Remediation System remediates waste packages (WPs) and disposal containers (DCs) in one of two ways: preparation of rejected DC closure welds for repair or opening of the DC/WP. DCs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for preparation of rejected closure welds if testing of the closure weld by the Disposal Container Handling System indicates an unacceptable, but repairable, welding flaw. DC preparation of rejected closure welds will require removal of the weld in such a way that the Disposal Container Handling System may resume and complete the closure welding process. DCs/WPs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for opening if the Disposal Container Handling System testing of the DC closure weld indicates an unrepairable welding flaw, or if a WP is recovered from the subsurface repository because suspected damage to the WP or failure of the WP has occurred. DC/WP opening will require cutting of the DC/WP such that a temporary seal may be installed and the waste inside the DC/WP removed by another system. The system operates in a Waste Package Remediation System hot cell located in the Waste Handling Building that has direct access to the Disposal Container Handling System. One DC/WP at a time can be handled in the hot cell. The DC/WP arrives on a transfer cart, is positioned within the cell for system operations, and exits the cell without being removed from the cart. The system includes a wide variety of remotely operated components including a manipulator with hoist and/or jib crane, viewing systems, machine tools for opening WPs, and equipment used to perform pressure and gas composition sampling. Remotely operated equipment is designed to facilitate DC/WP decontamination and hot cell equipment maintenance, and interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. The Waste Package Remediation System interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System for the receipt and transport of WPs and DCs. The Waste

  10. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  11. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  12. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  13. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  14. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  15. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Annual report FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-10-01

    In FY 1993 research continued on development and testing of grout materials for in-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The work on grouting materials was initiated in FY 1992 and the accomplishments for that year are documented in the previous annual report (Allan, Kukacka and Heiser, 1992). The remediation plan involves stabilization of the chromium plume, placement of impermeable vertical and horizontal barriers to isolate the landfill and installation of a surface cap. The required depth of subsurface barriers is approximately 33 m (100 ft). The work concentrated on optimization of grout formulations for use as grout and soil cement barriers and caps. The durability of such materials was investigated, in addition to shrinkage cracking resistance, compressive and flexural strength and permeability. The potential for using fibers in grouts to control cracking was studied. Small scale field trials were conducted to test the practicality of using the identified formulations and to measure the long term performance. Large scale trials were conducted at Sandia as part of the Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Technology Program. Since it was already determined in FY 1992 that cementitious grouts could effectively stabilize the chromium plume at the CWL after pre-treatment is performed, the majority of the work was devoted to the containment aspect.

  16. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  17. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  18. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  19. Prioritization of remedial actions for radioactive waste burials in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    SciTech Connect

    Crossland, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Large volumes of radioactive waste were urgently buried in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) in the aftermath of the 1986 accident. Twenty-six years later, decisions must be taken about whether and how to remediate these sites. An attempt to resolve two key issues is described here: 1. How to assess the hazards posed by these facilities, recognizing that, for the foreseeable future, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone will remain under institutional control? and 2. What standards to apply in deciding the extent of remediation? This paper presents an examination of the issues and proposes a simple decision-making process. (authors)

  20. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  1. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  2. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  3. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  4. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  5. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  6. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in...

  7. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with polymers for subsurface barriers surrounding buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Siskind, B.

    1993-11-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Subsurface barriers will improve remediation performance by removing pathways for contaminant transport due to groundwater movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration, etc. Subsurface barriers may be used to {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} contaminant movement to collection sumps/lysimeters in cases of unexpected remediation failures or transport mechanisms, to contain leakage from underground storage tanks, and to restrict in-situ soil cleanup operation and chemicals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently investigating advanced polymer materials for subsurface barriers. This report addresses the regulatory aspects of using of non-traditional polymer materials as well as soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of subsurface barriers to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method for achieving waste site performance improvement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used. Since many of EPA`s concerns regarding subsurface barriers focus on the chemicals used during installation of these barriers the authors discuss the results of a search of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations for references in Titles 29 and 40 pertaining to key chemicals likely to be utilized in installing non-traditional barrier materials. The use of polymeric materials in the construction industry has been accomplished with full compliance with the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations.

  8. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  9. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  10. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  11. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-09

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ``as is`` condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ``to be`` configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively.

  12. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. ); Anderson, G.L. )

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  13. Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C.; Adriano, D.C.; Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D.

    1989-12-31

    Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months.

  14. Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C. ); Adriano, D.C. ); Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months.

  15. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  16. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  17. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  18. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  19. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  20. Remediation of AMD using industrial waste adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Nuur Hani Bte; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2016-11-01

    The study investigates the characteristic of industrial waste as adsorbents and its potential as heavy metals absorbents in AMD samples. The AMD sample was collected from active mine pond and the pH was measured in situ. The metal contents were analyzed by ICP-MS. The AMD water was very acidic (pH< 3.5), and the average heavy metals content in AMD were high especially in Fe (822.029 mg/l). Fly ash was found to be the most effective absorbent material containing high percentage of CaO (57.24%) and SiO2 (13.88%), followed by ladle furnace slag containing of high amount of CaO (51.52%) and Al2O3 (21.23%), while biomass ash consists of SiO2 (43.07%) and CaO (12.97%). Tank analysis display a huge changes due to pH value change from acidity to nearly neutral phases. After 50 days, fly ash remediation successfully increase the AMD pH values from pH 2.57-7.09, while slag change from acidity to nearly alkaline phase from pH 2.60-7.3 and biomass has change to pH 2.54-6.8. Fly ash has successfully remove Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Meanwhile, slag sample displays as an effective adsorbent to adsorb more Pb and Cd in acid mine drainage.

  1. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. Waste management 1993 symposium papers and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives.

  2. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. As a result, this advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  3. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  4. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  5. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  6. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  7. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan

    2013-11-12

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of about 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically carbon nanotubes having a partially filled core (encapsulated) adjacent to one end of the nanotube. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  8. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, L.G.

    1996-02-06

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) implementation of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Engineering (SE) policy provided in Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Policy, DOE/RL letter, 95-RTI-107, Oct. 31, 1995. This SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Program to accomplish SE objectives. This TWRS SEMP is applicable to all aspects of the TWRS Program and will be used as the basis for tailoring SE to apply necessary concepts and principles to develop and mature the processes and physical systems necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program.

  9. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  10. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOEpatents

    Menkhaus, Daniel E.; Loomis, Guy G.; Mullen, Carlan K.; Scott, Donald W.; Feldman, Edgar M.; Meyer, Leroy C.

    1993-01-01

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  11. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOEpatents

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  12. Guidance on the Management of Remediation Waste Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To assist regulators in successfully implementing RCRA requirements for remediation waste, this memorandum consolidates existing guidance on the RCRA regulations and policies that most often affect remediation waste management.

  13. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Testing and development strategy for the tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, G.W.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a strategy for performing radioactive (hot) and nonradioactive testing to support processing tank waste. It evaluates the need for hot pilot plant(s) to support pretreatment and other processing functions and presents a strategy for performing hot test work. A strategy also is provided for nonradioactive process and equipment testing. The testing strategy supports design, construction, startup, and operation of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) facilities.

  15. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  16. Rapid monitoring for transuranic contaminants during buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Shaw, P.G.; Randolph, P.D.; Amaro, C.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Loomis, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    This document reports results of research performed in support of possible future transuranic waste retrieval operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The focus of this research was to evaluate various methods of performing rapid and, as much as possible, on-line'' quantitative measurements of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Am, either as airborne or loose contamination. Four different alpha continuous air monitors were evaluated for lower levels of detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu. All of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling ambient air. In addition, three of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling air synthetically laden with clean dust and dust spiked with {sup 239}Pu. Six methods for making quantitative measurements of loose contamination were investigated. They were: (1) microwave digestion followed by counting in a photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometer, (2) rapid radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry, (3) measurement of the {sup 241}Am 59 keV gamma ray using a thin window germanium detector, (4) measurement of uranium L-shell x-rays, (5) gross alpha counting using a large-area Ag activated ZnS scintillator, and (6) direct counting of alpha particles using a large-area ionization chamber. 40 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2011-0847. Mail: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA Docket...

  18. Buried waste remote survey of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.S.; Noakes, M.W.; Griebenow, B.E.; Josten, N.E.

    1991-12-31

    Burial site characterization is an important first step in the restoration of subsurface disposal sites. Testing and demonstration of technology for remote buried waste site characterization were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by a team from five US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories. The US Army`s Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) vehicle, on loan to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was used as a remotely operated sensor platform. The SRIP was equipped with an array of sensors including terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), organic vapor detector, gamma-based radar detector, and spectrum analyzer. The testing and demonstration were successfully completed and provided direction for future work in buried waste site characterization.

  19. Selective retrieval of buried waste using mobile robot manipulator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boissiere, P.T.; Little, C.Q. ); Wilson, C. )

    1993-01-01

    Hazardous operations which involve the dextrous manipulation of dangerous materials in the field have, in the past, been completed by technicians. Use of humans in such hazardous operations is under increased scrutiny due to high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks such as the clean up of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. Traditional remote manual field operations have, unfortunately, proven to have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. Recent advances in the integration of wars and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment have shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems while providing faster and safer remote systems. This paper discusses applications of such advances to remote field operations.

  20. Selective retrieval of buried waste using mobile robot manipulator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boissiere, P.T.; Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.

    1993-03-01

    Hazardous operations which involve the dextrous manipulation of dangerous materials in the field have, in the past, been completed by technicians. Use of humans in such hazardous operations is under increased scrutiny due to high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks such as the clean up of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. Traditional remote manual field operations have, unfortunately, proven to have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. Recent advances in the integration of wars and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment have shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems while providing faster and safer remote systems. This paper discusses applications of such advances to remote field operations.

  1. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  2. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Swift, William M.

    1994-01-01

    A process and system for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A fluidized bed including lime particles is operated at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. by blowing gas having 20%/70% oxygen upwardly through the bed particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize same. A toxic organic waste material is fed into the fluidized bed where the organic waste material reacts with the lime forming CaCO.sub.3. The off gases are filtered and cooled to condense water which is separated. A portion of the calcium carbonate formed during operation of the fluidized bed is replaced with lime particles. The off gases from the fluidized bed after drying are recirculated until the toxic organic waste material in the bed is destroyed.

  3. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-08-09

    A process and system for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A fluidized bed including lime particles is operated at a temperature of at least 500 C by blowing gas having 20%/70% oxygen upwardly through the bed particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize same. A toxic organic waste material is fed into the fluidized bed where the organic waste material reacts with the lime forming CaCO[sub 3]. The off gases are filtered and cooled to condense water which is separated. A portion of the calcium carbonate formed during operation of the fluidized bed is replaced with lime particles. The off gases from the fluidized bed after drying are recirculated until the toxic organic waste material in the bed is destroyed. 3 figs.

  4. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1997-12-16

    A process is described for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which includes oxidizing the organic waste materials at an elevated temperature not less than about 500 C with a gas having an oxygen content in the range of from about 20% to about 70% to produce an oxidation product containing CO{sub 2} gas. The gas is then filtered to remove particulates, and then contacted with an aqueous absorbent solution of alkali metal carbonates or alkanolamines to absorb a portion of the CO{sub 2} gas from the particulate-free oxidation product. The CO{sub 2} absorbent is thereafter separated for further processing. A process and system are also disclosed in which the waste materials are contacted with a reactive medium such as lime and product treatment as described. 8 figs.

  5. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Swift, William M.

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which includes oxidizing the organic waste materials at an elevated temperature not less than about 500.degree. C. with a gas having an oxygen content in the range of from about 20% to about 70% to produce an oxidation product containing CO.sub.2 gas. The gas is then filtered to remove particulates, and then contacted with an aqueous absorbent solution of alkali metal carbonates or alkanolamines to absorb a portion of the CO.sub.2 gas from the particulate-free oxidation product. The CO.sub.2 absorbent is thereafter separated for further processing. A process and system are also disclosed in which the waste materials are contacted with a reactive medium such as lime and product treatment as described.

  6. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  7. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-09-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE`s plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations.

  8. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  9. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  10. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  11. Hydraulic and thermal properties of soil samples from the buried waste test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cass, A.; Campbell, G.S.; Jones, T.L.

    1981-10-01

    In shallow land burial, the most common disposal method for low-level waste, waste containers are placed in shallow trenches and covered with natural sediment material. To design such a facility requires an in-depth understanding of the infiltration and evaporation processes taking place at the soil surface and the effect these processes have on the amount of water cycling through a burial zone. At the DOE Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, a field installation called the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) has been constructed to study unsaturated soil water and contaminant transport. PNL is collecting data at the BWTF to help explain soil water movement at shallow depths, and specifically evaporation from bare sols. The data presented here represent the initial phase of a cooperative effort between PNL and Washington State University to use data collected at the BWFT.

  12. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  13. Tank waste remediation system baseline tank waste inventory estimates for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, L.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-06

    A set of tank-by-tank waste inventories is derived from historical waste models, flowsheet records, and analytical data to support the Tank Waste Remediation System flowsheet and retrieval sequence studies. Enabling assumptions and methodologies used to develop the inventories are discussed. These provisional inventories conform to previously established baseline inventories and are meant to serve as an interim basis until standardized inventory estimates are made available.

  14. A systematic look at Tank Waste Remediation System privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, J.H.; Duffy, M.A.; Vieth, D.L.; Sohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Highly radioactive Hanford waste includes current and future tank waste plus the cesium and strontium capsules. In the TWRS program, as in other Department of Energy (DOE) clean-up activities, there is an increasing gap between the estimated funding required to enable DOE to meet all of its clean-up commitments and level of funding that is perceived to be available. Privatization is one contracting/management approach being explored by DOE as a means to achieve cost reductions and as a means to achieve a more outcome-oriented program. Privatization introduces the element of competition, a proven means of establishing true cost as well as achieving significant cost reduction.

  15. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  16. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation...

  17. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Annual report FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  18. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste. Conceptual test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Dwyer, B.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past five decades, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex sites have experienced numerous loss of confinement failures from underground storage tanks (USTs), piping systems, vaults, landfills, and other structures containing hazardous and mixed wastes. Consequently, efforts are being made to devise technologies that provide interim containment of waste sites while final remediation alternatives are developed. Barrier materials consisting of cement and polymer which will be emplaced beneath a 7500 liter tank. The stresses around the tank shall be evaluated during barrier construction.

  19. Enhanced research in ground-penetrating radar and multisensor fusion with application to the detection and visualization of buried waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Devney, A.J.; DiMarzio, C.; Kokar, M.; Miller, E.L.; Rappaport, C.M.; Weedon, W.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recognizing the difficulty and importance of the landfill remediation problems faced by DOE, and the fact that no one sensor alone can provide complete environmental site characterization, a multidisciplinary team approach was chosen for this project. The authors have developed a multisensor fusion approach that is suitable for the wide variety of sensors available to DOE, that allows separate detection algorithms to be developed and custom-tailored to each sensor. This approach is currently being applied to the Geonics EM-61 and Coleman step-frequency radar data. High-resolution array processing techniques were developed for detecting and localizing buried waste containers. A soil characterization laboratory facility was developed using a HP-8510 network analyzer and near-field coaxial probe. Both internal and external calibration procedures were developed for de-embedding the frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters from the measurements. Dispersive soil propagation modeling algorithms were also developed for simulating wave propagation in dispersive soil media. A study was performed on the application of infrared sensors to the landfill remediation problem, particularly for providing information on volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) in the atmosphere. A dust-emission lidar system is proposed for landfill remediation monitoring. Design specifications are outlined for a system which could be used to monitor dust emissions in a landfill remediation effort. The detailed results of the investigations are contained herein.

  20. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H.; Waggoner, Charles

    2012-07-01

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  1. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  2. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  3. Contamination Control During In Situ Jet Grouting for Application in a Buried Transuranic Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy George; Jessmore, James Joseph

    2003-02-01

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  4. CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

    2003-02-27

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Commercialization Action Plans second quarter, FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Federal Government is extremely good at creating knowledge and developing new technology. However, our declining market share in many industries points to a weakness in our ability to successfully commercialize new discoveries. BWID assembled a team of qualified experts with expertise in technology transfer and broad-based technology knowledge to assist with this effort. Five new technologies were chosen to develop commercialization action plans. They include Dig-Face Characterization, Imaging Infrared Interferometer for Waste Characterization, Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer, Very Early Time Electromagnetic System, and Virtual Environment Generation of Buried Waste. Each plan includes a short description of the technology, a market overview, a list of potential customers, a description of competitors and the technology`s competitive advantage, the status of intellectual property, the status of technology transfer, a table of action items, commercialization contacts, and program contacts.

  6. Geochemical features of the utilization of buried wastes of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Plant using acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Sychkova, V. A.; Shevchenko, A. V.; Lexin, A. B.; Dudarov, Z. I.

    2016-10-01

    The decontamination of buried wastes of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Plant is complicated by the geochemical features of the waste composition: low sulfide and high carbonate content, polyelemental composition, and considerable amounts of technogenic admixtures (kerosene, oils, soda, and soluble glasses). These circumstances result in sufficient complication of the suggested technology of waste treatment, including the sulfuric-acid leaching and separate sorption recovery of hazardous and useful elements from the working solution.

  7. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P.

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  8. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  9. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms.

  10. The Sonophysics and Sonochemistry of Liquid Waste Quantification and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, Thomas J.

    1998-06-01

    This research is being conducted to (a) perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, (b) elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, (c) examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, (d) design and evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and (e) determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. So far cells have been designed for multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. Positive results have been obtained in both systems using a Raman system which covers the wavelength range from 790 to 1,070 nm. Further progress from year-1 involved the use of the newly discovered technique of changing the pressure head above the cavitation field to increase the light emission from MBSL. A second method for changing the pressure head involves pressure-jumping, whereby the pressure in the head space above the solution is quickly increased to a new steady value.

  11. Technical report for a fluidless directional drilling system demonstrated at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 shallow buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the research was to demonstrate a fluidless directional drilling and monitoring system (FDD) specifically tailored to address environmental drilling concerns for shallow buried wasted. The major concerns are related to worker exposure, minimizing waste generation, and confining the spread of contamination. The FDD is potentially applicable to Environmental Restoration (ER) activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) shallow buried waste disposed in unlined trenches. Major ER activities for directional drilling are to develop a drilling system for leachate collection directly beneath trenches, and to provide localized control over leachate release to the environment. Other ER FDD activities could include vadose zone and groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport. The operational constraints pointed the research in the direction of purchasing a steerable impact hammer, or mole, manufactured by Steer-Rite Ltd. of Racine, Wisconsin. This drill was selected due to the very low cost ($25,000) associated with procuring the drill, steering module, instrumentation and service lines. The impact hammer is a self propelled drill which penetrates the soil by compacting cut material along the sidewalls of the borehole. Essentially, it forces its way through the subsurface. Although the pneumatic hammer exhausts compressed air which must be handled at the borehole collar, it does not generate soil cuttings or liquids. This is the basis for the term fluidless. A stub casing muffler was attached to the entrance hole for controlling exhaust gas and any airborne releases. Other environmental compliance modifications made to the equipment included operating the tool without lubrication, and using water instead of hydraulic fluid to actuate the steering fins on the tool.

  12. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the second volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report.

  13. Tank waste remediation system milestone report magnetic separation of tank waste: Surrogate system separations report

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.; de Aguero, K.J.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.

    1994-01-14

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in large underground storage tanks (UST) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site since 1944. More than 253,000 m{sup 3} of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. The waste consists of many different chemicals and are in the form of liquids, slurries, salt cakes and sludges. A magnetic separation effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory is funded through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to explore the use of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for tank waste segregation. The concept is to concentrate into a low volume waste stream, all or most of the magnetic components, which include actinide compounds, most of the fission products and precious metals. As a first step in this process investigations were made on surrogate systems. This milestone report discusses the HGMS results on these systems.

  14. A remote characterization system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.

    1992-10-01

    Mapping of buried objects and regions of chemical and radiological contamination is required at US Department of Energy (DOE) buried waste sites. The DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Integrated Program has initiated a project to develop and demonstrate a remotely controlled subsurface sensing system, called the Remote Characterization System (RCS). This project, a collaborative effort by five of the National Laboratories, involves the development of a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. To minimize interference with on-board sensors, the survey vehicle has been constructed predominatantly of non-metallic materials. The vehicle is self-propelled and will be guided by an operator located at a remote base station. The RCS sensors will be environmentally sealed and internally cooled to preclude contamination during use. Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and conductivity devices are planned for geophysical surveys. Chemical and radiological sensors will be provided to locate hot spots and to provide isotopic concentration data.

  15. High altitude mine waste remediation -- Implementation of the Idarado remedial action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, A.J.; Redmond, J.V.; River, R.A.; Davis, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idarado Mine in Colorado's San Juan Mountains includes 11 tailing areas, numerous waste rock dumps, and a large number of underground openings connected by over 100 miles of raises and drifts. The tailings and mine wastes were generated from different mining and milling operations between 1975 and 1978. the Idarado Remedial Action Plan (RAP) was an innovative 5-year program developed for remediating the impacts of historic mining activities in the San Miguel River and Red Mountain Creek drainages. The challenges during implementation included seasonal access limitations due to the high altitude construction areas, high volumes of runoff during snow melt, numerous abandoned underground openings and stopped-out veins, and high profile sites adjacent to busy jeep trails and a major ski resort town. Implementation of the RAP has included pioneering efforts in engineering design and construction of remedial measures. Innovative engineering designs included direct revegetation techniques for the stabilization of tailings piles, concrete cutoff walls and French drains to control subsurface flows, underground water controls that included pipelines, weeplines, and portal collection systems, and various underground structures to collect and divert subsurface flows often exceeding 2,000 gpm. Remote work locations have also required the use of innovative construction techniques such as heavy lift helicopters to move construction materials to mines above 10,000 feet. This paper describes the 5-year implementation program which has included over 1,000,000 cubic yards of tailing regrading, application of 5,000 tons of manure and 26,000 tons of limestone, and construction of over 10,000 feet of pipeline and approximately 45,000 feet of diversion channel.

  16. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  17. Volume and activity of buried transuranic-contaminated wastes at U.S. Department of Energy facilities.

    PubMed

    Peterson, John M; MacDonell, Margaret M; Longo, Thomas P; Harvill, Joe P; Drez, Paul E

    2002-01-01

    From the 1940's through the 1970's, radioactive wastes meeting the current definition of transuranic wastes were disposed of by shallow land burial and other techniques at a number of sites owned and operated by the federal government in support of the nuclear weapons program. After transuranic wastes were identified as a separate category of radioactive wastes (distinct from low-level wastes) in 1970 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, they were generally segregated and placed in retrievable storage pending the availability of a geologic repository. Updated information on buried transuranic wastes was recently developed to support future decisions on how to manage these materials. This paper summarizes the approach used to develop this information for U.S. Department of Energy facilities and presents the volumes and transuranic activities of these wastes. The total volume of buried transuranic wastes at DOE sites is approximately 126,000 m3 with a much smaller volume (about 11,000 m3) disposed of at intermediate depths. The reported transuranic activity in these previously disposed of wastes is about 28,000 TBq.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF A BURIED RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS AFTER 24 YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J

    2008-05-05

    A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

  19. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with barriers in the vadose zone surrounding buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, B.; Heiser, J.

    1993-02-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. The barrier material should be compatible with soil and waste conditions specific to the site and have as low an effective diffusivity as is reasonably achievable to minimize or inhibit transport of moisture and contaminants. This report addresses the regulatory issues associated with the use of non-traditional organic polymer barriers as well as the use of soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers, considering barriers constructed from these latter materials to be a regulatory baseline. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of such barriers to the EPA as a method for achieving site or performanceimprovement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used.

  20. Fifth in situ vitrification engineering-scale test of simulated INEL buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, T.M.; Shade, J.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1992-06-01

    In September 1990, an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test was conducted on sealed canisters containing a combined mixture of buried waste materials expected to be present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist INEL in treatability studies of the potential application of ISV to mixed transuranic wastes at the INEL SDA. The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of a close-packed layer of sealed containers on ISV processing performance. Specific objectives included determining (1) the effect of releases from sealed containers on hood plenum pressure and temperature, (2) the release pressure ad temperatures of the sealed canisters, (3) the relationships between canister depressurization and melt encapsulation, (4) the resulting glass and soil quality, (5) the potential effects of thermal transport due to a canister layer, (6) the effects on particle entrainment of differing angles of approach for the ISV melt front, and (7) the effects of these canisters on the volatilization of voltatile and semivolatile contaminants into the hood plenum.

  1. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  2. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, L.G.

    1998-01-08

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance.

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of soils contaminated with electroplating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Parupudi, U.S.; Devulapalli, S.

    1996-10-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of soils simulated with electroplating waste contamination was investigated in two soils, kaolin and glacial till. Soil samples were contaminated with nickel, cadmium and hexavalent chromium and subjected to an external electric field for four days. Results of these experiments revealed that the soil composition plays an important role in electrokinetic remediation. Due to induced electric potential, a distinct pH gradient was developed in kaolin; however, in glacial till alkaline conditions existed throughout the soil because of its high carbonate buffering capacity. The movement of cationic metallic contaminants, Ni(II) and Cd(II), from the anode to the cathode was significant in kaolin as compared to glacial till. Because of high pH conditions near the cathode, Ni(II) and Cd(II) were precipitated in kaolin. In glacial till, however, because of alkaline conditions throughout the soil, most of Ni(II) and Cd(II) precipitated without migration. Overall, this study demonstrates that anion exchange, cation exchange and precipitation were the significant fixation mechanisms of nickel, cadmium and chromium in soils.

  4. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG`s Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report`s recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  6. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  7. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  8. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  9. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  10. Improving Hazardous Waste Remediation and Restoration Decisions Using Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous site management in the US includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), while restoration and compensation decisions are informed by the...

  11. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  12. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  13. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  14. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  15. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program requirements and document management process guide

    SciTech Connect

    ROOT, R.W.

    1999-05-18

    This guide provides the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Infrastructure Program management with processes and requirements to appropriately control information and documents in accordance with the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Plan (Vann 1998b). This includes documents and information created by the program, as well as non-program generated materials submitted to the project. It provides appropriate approval/control, distribution and filing systems.

  16. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D.; Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  17. Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1998-11-04

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees.

  18. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  19. Waste Management Plan for the Oak Ridge National Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project Quality Assurance Plan, this Waste Management Plan establishes clear lines of responsibility and authority, documentation requirements, and operational guidance for the collection, identification, segregation, classification, packaging, certification, and storage/disposal of wastes. These subjects are discussed in the subsequent sections of this document.

  20. Remediating while preserving wetland habitat at an LLR waste site in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kleb, H.R.; Zelmer, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office was established in 1982 to carry out the federal government's responsibilities for low-level radioactive (LLR) waste management in Canada. The Office operates programs to characterize, delineate, decontaminate and consolidate historic LLR waste for interim and long-term storage. In this capacity, the Office is currently considering the remediation of 9,000 cubic metres of contaminated sediment in a coastal marsh in the context of a major remediation project involving multiple urban sites. The marsh is situated between the Lake Ontario shoreline and the urban fringe of the Town of Port Hope. The marsh is designated a Cattail Mineral Shallow Marsh under the Ecological Land Classification system for Southern Ontario and was recently named the A.K. Sculthorpe Marsh in memory of a local community member. The marsh remediation will therefore require trade off between the disruption of a sensitive wetland and the removal of contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the issues and trade-off relating to the waste characterization, environmental assessment and regulatory findings and thus the remediation objectives for the marsh. Considerations include the spatial distribution of contaminated sediment, the bioavailability of contaminants, the current condition of the wetland and the predicted effects of remediation. Also considered is the significance of the wetland from provincial and municipal regulatory perspectives and the resulting directives for marsh remediation. (authors)

  1. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  2. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R.; Peterson, R.

    1995-02-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment`s capability to control contamination spread.

  3. Research and development support of the Hanford site tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1992-08-01

    The research and development of new technology in support of the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program at Hanford is largely driven by the unique situation with the Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The operational history at Hanford has involved three different major processes and several major campaigns to recover fission products from the wastes, and has not maintained a segregation of the high-level wastes. The result is a very diverse inventory with very high content of solids of many different chemical constituents and great complexity. The R & D program must not only assure that an acceptable strategy for remediation of these wastes can be put in place, it must also define ways of improving the cost effectiveness of the strategy to make the mammoth task more tractable.

  4. Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant.

  5. A Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 191 Evaluation of Buried Transuranic Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, G.J.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L.; Pyles, G.; Carilli, J.

    2008-07-01

    In 1986, 21 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently buried in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is considered five options for management of the buried TRU waste. One option is to leave the waste in-place if the disposal can meet the requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 'Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'. This paper describes analyses that assess the likelihood that TRU waste in shallow land burial can meet the 40 CFR 191 standards for a geologic repository. The simulated probability of the cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the 40 CFR 191.13 containment requirements is estimated to be 0.009 and less than 0.0001, respectively. The cumulative release is most sensitive to the number of groundwater withdrawal wells drilled through the disposal trench. The mean total effective dose equivalent for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.014 milli-Sievert (mSv) at 10,000 years, or approximately 10 percent of the 0.15 mSv 40 CFR 191.15 individual protection requirement. The dose is predominantly from inhalation of short-lived Rn-222 progeny in air produced by low-level waste disposed in the same trench. The transuranic radionuclide released in greatest amounts, Pu-239, contributes only 0.4 percent of the dose. The member of public dose is most sensitive to the U-234 inventory and the radon emanation coefficient. Reasonable assurance of compliance with the Subpart C groundwater protection standard is provided by site characterization data and hydrologic processes modeling which support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Limited quantities of transuranic waste in a shallow land burial trench at the NTS can

  6. A Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 191 Evaluation of Buried Transuranic Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. Shott, V. Yucel, L. Desotell

    2008-04-01

    In 1986, 21 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently buried in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is considered five options for management of the buried TRU waste. One option is to leave the waste in-place if the disposal can meet the requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 'Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'. This paper describes analyses that assess the likelihood that TRU waste in shallow land burial can meet the 40 CFR 191 standards for a geologic repository. The simulated probability of the cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the 40 CFR 191.13 containment requirements is estimated to be 0.009 and less than 0.0001, respectively. The cumulative release is most sensitive to the number of groundwater withdrawal wells drilled through the disposal trench. The mean total effective dose equivalent for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.014 milliSievert (mSv) at 10,000 years, or approximately 10 percent of the 0.15 mSv 40 CFR 191.15 individual protection requirement. The dose is predominantly from inhalation of short-lived Rn-222 progeny in air produced by low-level waste disposed in the same trench. The transuranic radionuclide released in greatest amounts, Pu-239, contributes only 0.4 percent of the dose. The member of public dose is most sensitive to the U-234 inventory and the radon emanation coefficient. Reasonable assurance of compliance with the Subpart C groundwater protection standard is provided by site characterization data and hydrologic processes modeling which support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Limited quantities of transuranic waste in a shallow land burial trench at the NTS can

  7. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  8. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  9. The highly successful safe remediation of the Fernald waste pits undertaken under the privatization model

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Mark; Lojek, Dave; Murphy, Con

    2003-02-23

    Remediation of eight waste pits at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site, located northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, involves excavating approximately one million tonnes in-situ of low-level waste which were placed in pits during Fernald's production era. This unique project, one of the largest in the history of CERCLA/Superfund, includes uranium and thorium contaminated waste, soils and sludges. These wet soils and sludges are thermally dried in a processing facility to meet Department of Transportation (DOT) transportation and disposal facility waste acceptance criteria, loaded into railcars and shipped to the Envirocare waste disposal facility at Clive, Utah. This project is now approximately 60% complete with more than 415,000 tonnes (460,000 tons) of waste material safely shipped in 74 unit trains to Envirocare. Work is scheduled to be completed in early 2005. Success to date demonstrates that a major DOE site remediation project can be safely and successfully executed in partnership with private industry, utilizing proven commercial best practices, existing site labor resources and support of local stakeholders. In 1997 under the DOE's privatization initiative, Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald) solicited the services of the remediation industry to design, engineer, procure, construct, own and operate a facility that would undertake the remediation of the waste pits. The resulting procurement was awarded to IT Corporation, currently Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. (Shaw). The contractor was required to finance the procurement and construction of its facilities and infrastructure. The contract was performance-based and payment would be made on the successful loadout of the waste from the facility on a per-ton basis meeting the Envirocare waste acceptance criteria. This paper details the performance to date, the challenges encountered, and the seamless partnering between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fluor Fernald, Shaw, labor

  10. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and {sup 137}Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of {sup 137}Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations.

  11. Effective remediation of fish processing waste using mixed culture biofilms capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Markande, Anoop R; Kapagunta, Chandrika; Patil, Pooja S; Nayak, Binaya B

    2016-09-01

    Fish processing waste water causes pollution and eutrophication of water bodies when released untreated. Use of bacteria capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) as biofilms on carriers in a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) is a popular approach but seldom used for fish processing waste water remediation. Here, we studied the variations in biofilm formation and application activities by isolates Lysinibacillus sp. HT13, Alcaligenes sp. HT15 and Proteus sp. HT37 previously reported by us. While HT13 and HT15 formed significantly higher biofilms in polystyrene microtitre plates than on carriers, HT37 exhibited highest on carriers. A consortium of the three selected bacteria grown as biofilm on MBBR carriers exhibited better remediation of ammonia (200-600 ppm and 50 mM) than the individual isolates on carriers. The mixed biofilm set on the carriers was used for nitrogenous waste removal from fish processing waste water in 2 and 20 L setups. The total nitrogen estimated by elemental analysis showed complete remediation from 250 ppm in both 2 and 20 L waste water systems within 48 h. The usual toxic nitrogenous components-ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were also remediated efficiently.

  12. A database of information on technologies for hazardous waste site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; White, M.K.; Byrant, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    A personal-computer-based database and user interface has been developed for retrieving and reviewing information on technologies applicable to the environmental remediation of hazardous waste sites. This system and its information represent a useful source of technology information for people preparing, reviewing, and approving site remediation plans or evaluating remediation technologies. The system includes a variety of information for approximately 90 distinct remedial action technologies. A general text description of each technology is provided, together with basic engineering or design parameters and flowcharts. Information on applying a given technology includes the applicability of the technology to specific contaminants, associated technologies that may be required in conjunction to provide for complete remediation of a site, technical limitations and constraints on the use of the technology, and identification of information or site data needed to deploy the technology at a particular site. US federal regulatory information relating to each technology is also provided. In addition, the system identifies sources for more detailed information for these technologies (i.e., references and specific sites where these technologies have been used). Technologies to be considered can be selected from the complete list of technologies for which information is included, or can be chosen from a shorter list of technologies matching a set of user-specific remediation objectives. The technology information is compiled from a wide variety of sources. The system is designed to support the assessment of remedial alternatives at US sites, but should be readily adaptable to other environmental remediation situations throughout the world.

  13. Remediation; An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-09-01

    The U.SD. government began committing the nation legally and financially in the last decade to the ultimate remediation of virtually all of the hazardous wastes that were produced in the past and remain to threaten human health and the environment, all that continue to be generated, and all that will be created in the future. Whether engendered by acts of God or human industry, the laws and regulations mandate, hazardous wastes and the threats they pose will be removed or rendered harmless. As mobilization for tackling the monumental task implied by those commitments has progressed, key concepts have changed in meaning. The remedy of remediation once literally meant burying our hazardous waste problems in landfills, for example, a solution now officially defined as the least desirable-although still commonly chosen - course of action. The process of identifying hazardous substances and determining in what quantities they constitute health and environmental hazards continues apace. As measurement technologies become increasingly precise and capable to detecting more 9s to the right of the decimal point, acceptable levels of emissions into the air and concentrations in the ground or water are reduced. This article is intended as a sketch of where the national commitment of remediation currently stands, with examples of implications for both generators of hazardous wastes and those who have entered-or seek to enter-the rapidly growing business of remediation.

  14. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, W J

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries.

  15. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 761.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL..., moderately-sized site where there should be low residual environmental impact from remedial activities. The... EPA Regional Administrator, the Director of the State or Tribal environmental protection agency,...

  16. MANAGING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    WOJTASEK, R.D.; GADD, R.R.; GREENWELL, R.D.

    2006-01-19

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective role in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics.

  17. MANAGEING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    WOJTASEK, R.D.; GREENWELL, R.D.

    2005-11-17

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective roll in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics.

  18. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  19. 40 CFR 270.230 - May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assumed to be in compliance with this requirement. (e) These alternative locations are remediation waste... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes...

  20. 40 CFR 270.230 - May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated... Plans (RAPs) Obtaining A Rap for An Off-Site Location § 270.230 May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes...

  1. 40 CFR 270.230 - May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated... Plans (RAPs) Obtaining A Rap for An Off-Site Location § 270.230 May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes...

  2. 40 CFR 270.230 - May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated? (a) You may request a RAP for remediation waste management activities at a location removed from...

  3. 40 CFR 270.230 - May I perform remediation waste management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated... management activities under a RAP at a location removed from the area where the remediation wastes originated? (a) You may request a RAP for remediation waste management activities at a location removed from...

  4. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  5. UNITED STATES AND GERMAN BILATERAL AGREEMENT ON REMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Germany's Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) are involved in a collaborative effort called the U.S. and German Bilateral Agreement on Remediation of Hazardous Waste Sites. he purpose of this interim status rep...

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  7. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  8. A new dawn for buried garbage? An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste.

    PubMed

    Johansson, N; Krook, J; Frändegård, P

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

  9. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1997 multi-year workplan WBS 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.E.

    1996-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program to manage and immobilize for disposal the waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The TWRS program was established as a DOE major system acquisition under an approved Justification of Mission Need (JMN) dated January 19, 1993. The JMN states that the purpose of the TWRS Program is to: Resolve the tank waste safety issues; Integrate the waste disposal mission with the ongoing waste management mission; Assess the technical bases for tank waste management and disposal; Determine the technology available and develop any needed technologies; and Establish a dedicated organization and provide the resources to meet the technical challenge. The principal objectives of management of existing and future tank wastes is to cost-effectively minimize the environmental, safety, and health risks associated with stored wastes, with reduction of safety risks given the highest priority. The potentials must be minimized for release of tank wastes to the air and to the ground (and subsequently to the groundwater) and for exposure of the operating personnel to tank wastes.

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis for radioactive waste remediation alternatives. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.P.; Toland, R.J.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    This research has two primary objectives. The first is to develop a generic, interactive, spreadsheet-based life-cycle cost model that uses net present value and risk analysis techniques for cost comparison. The second is to apply the model specifically to the vitrification and cementation methods of waste remediation. By using spreadsheet analysis and graphics capabilities, the model will provide direct and objective comparisons of remediation alternatives. Since vitrification is a new technology, the plant design and operations are conceptual. Therefore, computer simulation and engineering judgement are integral to the vitrification LCC estimate. (AN) (Abstract from report page 2, scope and objectives).

  11. USE OF ELECTROKINETICS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between U.S. EPA`s Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The progr...

  12. Remediation System Evaluation, Elmore Waste Disposal Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Elmore Waste Disposal, Inc. Superfund site is located in Greer, South Carolina. The originalElmore Site occupies approximately half an acre between South Carolina Route 290 on the south, a CSXrail line on the north and is bounded on the west by...

  13. The Use of Waste Materials in the Passive Remediation of Mine Water Polution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The contamination and resulting degradation of water courses by effluents from abandoned and active mines is a world-wide problem. Traditional methods of remediating the discharges from mines involve the addition of chemicals and the utilisation of artificial energy sources. Over the last 15-20 years passive treatment systems have been developed that harness natural chemical and biological processes to ameliorate the potentially toxic effects of such discharges. There are many different types of passive system, including compost wetlands, reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS), permeable reactive barriers and inorganic media passive systems. Different waste materials can be utilised as reactive media within each of these systems, dependent upon the type of mine water and treatment technology. In many cases the reactivity of these recycled waste materials is key to the remedial performance of these systems. The materials used may be organic (e.g., composts) or inorganic (e.g., blast furnace slag) and where possible are sourced locally in order to minimise transport costs. The remediation of mine waters in itself can produce large quantities of waste products in the form of iron oxide sludge. Potential uses of this material in the production of pigments and in the treatment of phosphate contaminated waters is also currently under investigation. The exploitation of what are traditionally thought of as waste materials within treatment systems for polluted waters is an expanding technology which provides great scope for recycling.

  14. The Effect of Corrosion on the Seismic Behavior of Buried Pipelines and a Remedy for Their Seismic Retrofit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Salek, Shamila; Moradi, Masoud

    2008-07-01

    The effect of corrosion phenomenon has been investigated by performing some sets of 3-Dimensional Nonlinear Time History Analysis (3-D NLTHA) in which soil structure interaction as well as wave propagation effects have been taken into consideration. The 3-D NLTHA has been performed by using a finite element computer program, and both states of overall and local corrosions have been considered for the study. The corrosion has been modeled in the computer program by introducing decreased values of either pipe wall thickness or modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. Three sets of 3-component accelerograms have been used in analyses, and some appropriate numbers of zeros have been added at the beginning of records to take into account the wave propagation in soil and its multi-support excitation effect. The soil has been modeled by nonlinear springs in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions. A relatively long segment of the pipeline has been considered for the study and the effect of end conditions has been investigated by assuming different kinds end supports for the segment. After studying the corroded pipeline, a remedy has been considered for the seismic retrofit of corroded pipe by using a kind of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) cover. The analyses have been repeated for the retrofitted pipeline to realize the adequacy of FRP cover. Numerical results show that if the length of the pipeline segment is large enough, comparing to the wave length of shear wave in the soil, the end conditions do not have any major effect on the maximum stress and strain values in the pipe. Results also show that corrosion can lead to the increase in plastic strain values in the pipe up to 4 times in the case of overall corrosion and up to 20 times in the case of local corrosion. The satisfactory effect of using FRP cover is also shown by the analyses results, which confirm the decrease of strain values to 1/3.

  15. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  16. Thermal plasma waste remediation technology: Historical perspective and current trends. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Counts, D.A.; Sartwell, B.D.; Peterson, S.H.; Kirkland, R.; Kolak, N.P.

    1999-01-29

    The idea of utilizing thermal plasma technology for waste processing goes back to the mid-1970`s during the energy crisis. Since then, more interest has been shown by universities, industry, and government in developing thermal plasma waste processing technology for hazardous and non-hazardous waste treatment. Much of the development has occurred outside of the United States, most significantly in Japan and France, while the market growth for thermal plasma waste treatment technology has remained slow in the United States. Despite the slow expansion of the market in the United States, since the early 1990`s there has been an increase in interest in utilizing thermal plasma technology for environmental remediation and treatment in lieu of the more historical methods of incineration and landfilling. Currently within the Department of Defense there are several demonstration projects underway, and details of some of these projects are provided. Prior to these efforts by the U.S. Government, the State of New York had investigated the use of thermal plasma technology for treating PCB contaminated solvent wastes from the Love Canal cleanup. As interest continues to expand in the application of thermal plasma technology for waste treatment and remediation, more and more personnel are becoming involved with treatment, regulation, monitoring, and commercial operations and many have little understanding of this emerging technology. To address these needs, this report will describe: (1) characteristics of plasmas; (2) methods for generating sustained thermal plasmas; (3) types of thermal plasma sources for waste processing; (4) the development of thermal plasma waste treatment systems; and (5) Department of Defense plasma arc waste treatment demonstration projects.

  17. Corrosion and Potential Subsidence Scenarios for Buried B-25 Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.E.

    2003-01-17

    This report describes various scenarios to be modeled for static loading of B-25 containers in Engineered Trench number 1 (ET) at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. Scenario information includes the static load to be used, estimated B-25 steel-volume loss with time due to corrosion, and waste characteristics.

  18. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  19. PROJECT STRATEGY FOR THE REMEDIATION AND DISPOSITION OF LEGACY TRANSURANIC WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, South Carolina, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-12-17

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  20. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    SciTech Connect

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb; Vandergaast, Gary; Arey, Jimi

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  1. Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) On-line Characterization and Remediation Databases Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the 10 on-line characterization and remediation databases available on the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) website sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. Treatment Study Plan for Nitrate Salt Waste Remediation Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Catherine L.; Funk, David John; Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-03-07

    The two stabilization treatment methods that are to be examined for their effectiveness in the treatment of both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt wastes include (1) the addition of zeolite and (2) cementation. Zeolite addition is proposed based on the results of several studies and analyses that specifically examined the effectiveness of this process for deactivating nitrate salts. Cementation is also being assessed because of its prevalence as an immobilization method used for similar wastes at numerous facilities around the DOE complex, including at Los Alamos. The results of this Treatment Study Plan will be used to provide the basis for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit modification request of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit for approval by the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the proposed treatment process and the associated facilities.

  3. Documents About the Approval to Dispose of Less than 50 Parts Per Million Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste Issued to Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) Members

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the Final Approval Document, Response to Public Comments and Draft Approval Issued for Public Comment for the Approval to Dispose of Less than 50 Parts Per Million Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste Issued to USWAG

  4. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.

    1994-12-30

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  5. Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkbride, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

  6. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface.

  7. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure.

  9. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  10. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  11. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1994-10-01

    The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94.

  12. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities.

  13. Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k{sub sat} using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub sat}) was reduced from 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec to 2 x 10{sup -8} cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k{sub sat}, for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment.

  14. Biological treatment of distillery waste for pollution-remediation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, F J; Nigam, P; Singh, D; Marchant, R

    1995-01-01

    The biological treatment of spent wash from molasses distilleries was investigated. Analysis of raw spent wash showed it to be a recalcitrant waste, with a high COD of 85,170 mg/l and containing inhibitory phenolic compounds. Reverse phase thin layer chromatography identified gallic and vanillic acid present in spent wash. The fungi Geotrichum candidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mycelia sterilia were screened for their ability to decolourize spent wash and to reduce the COD level. A 10 day pretreatment with Geotrichum candidum at 30 degrees C resulted in reducing the COD by 53.17% and total phenols by 47.82%, enabling other bioremediating organisms to grow. Coriolus versicolor immobilized in a packed-bed reactor reduced the COD of spent wash by a further 50.3%, giving an overall reduction in COD of 77% to 15,780 mg/l. A small amount of decolourization was achieved (4.2%), although the spent wash was still coloured. Present studies are encouraging and indicate that it is possible to bioremediate spent wash using a multi-stage treatment process involving an initial pretreatment step with Geotrichum candidum.

  15. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  16. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  18. Simulation and optimization technologies for petroleum waste management and remediation process control.

    PubMed

    Qin, X S; Huang, G H; He, L

    2009-01-01

    Leakage and spill of petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks and pipelines have posed significant threats to groundwater resources across many petroleum-contaminated sites. Remediation of these sites is essential for protecting the soil and groundwater resources and reducing risks to local communities. Although many efforts have been made, effective design and management of various remediation systems are still challenging to practitioners. In recent years, the subsurface simulation model has been combined with techniques of optimization to address important problems of contaminated site management. The combined simulation-optimization system accounts for the complex behavior of the subsurface system and identifies the best management strategy under consideration of the management objectives and constraints. During the past decades, a large number of studies were conducted to simulate contaminant flow and transport in the subsurface and seek cost-effective remediation designs. This paper gives a comprehensive review on recent developments, advancements, challenges, and barriers associated with simulation and optimization techniques in supporting process control of petroleum waste management and site remediation. A number of related methodologies and applications were examined. Perspectives of effective site management were investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced research efforts, which include issues of data availability and reliability, concerns in uncertainty, necessity of post-modeling analysis, and usefulness of development of process control techniques.

  19. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  20. In-situ containment of buried waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.; Phillips, S.

    1997-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale {open_quotes}cold test{close_quotes} demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL.

  1. Anthropology and decision making about chronic technological disasters: Mixed waste remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses two related case studies of decision making about the remediation of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The three goals of the paper are to (1) place current decision-making efforts in the varied and evolving social, political, regulatory, economic, and technological contexts in which they occur; (2) present definitions and attributes of {open_quotes}successful{close_quotes} environmental decision making from the perspectives of key constituency groups that participate in decision making; and (3) discuss the role of anthropology in addressing environmental decision making. Environmental decision making about remediation is extraordinarily complex, involving human health and ecological risks; uncertainties about risks, technological ability to clean up, the financial costs of clean up; multiple and sometimes conflicting regulations; social equity and justice considerations; and decreasing budgets. Anthropological theories and methods can contribute to better understanding and, potentially, to better decision making.

  2. The use of historical imagery in the remediation of an urban hazardous waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    The information derived from the interpretation of historical aerial photographs is perhaps the most basic multitemporal application of remote-sensing data. Aerial photographs dating back to the early 20th century can be extremely valuable sources of historical landscape activity. In this application, imagery from 1918 to 1927 provided a wealth of information about chemical weapons testing, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. When analyzed by a trained photo-analyst, the 1918 aerial photographs resulted in 42 features of potential interest. When compared with current remedial activities and known areas of contamination, 33 of 42 or 78.5% of the features were spatially correlated with areas of known contamination or other remedial hazardous waste cleanup activity. ?? 2010 IEEE.

  3. The use of historical imagery in the remediation of an urban hazardous waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    The information derived from the interpretation of historical aerial photographs is perhaps the most basic multitemporal application of remote-sensing data. Aerial photographs dating back to the early 20th century can be extremely valuable sources of historical landscape activity. In this application, imagery from 1918 to 1927 provided a wealth of information about chemical weapons testing, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. When analyzed by a trained photo-analyst, the 1918 aerial photographs resulted in 42 features of potential interest. When compared with current remedial activities and known areas of contamination, 33 of 42 or 78.5% of the features were spatially correlated with areas of known contamination or other remedial hazardous waste cleanup activity.

  4. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  5. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  6. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses.

  7. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle; MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed evaluation of

  8. High-level waste tank remediation technology integration summary. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    DeLannoy, C.R.; Susiene, C.; Fowler, K.M.; Robson, W.M.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and Technology Development Programs are engaged in a number of projects to develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate new technologies to support the cleanup and site remediation of more than 300 underground storage tanks containing over 381,000 m{sup 3} (100 million gal) of liquid radioactive mixed waste at the Hanford Reservation. Significant development is needed within primary functions and in determining an overall bounding strategy. This document is an update of continuing work to summarize the overall strategy and to provide data regarding technology development activities within the strategy. It is intended to serve as an information resource to support understanding, decision making, and integration of multiple program technology development activities. Recipients are encouraged to provide comments and input to the authors for incorporation in future revisions.

  9. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Kim, D.S.

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  10. In-Situ Remediation of Mixed Radioactive Tank Waste, Via Air Sparging and Poly-Acrylate Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Edgett, S.M.; Eaton, D.L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes remediation activities performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) on an underground storage tank (UST) from the Idaho National Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN) complex. The UST had been used to collect radioactive liquid wastes from and for the TAN evaporator. Recent analyses had found that the residual waste in Tank V-14 had contained quantities of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in excess of F001 treatment standards. In addition, the residual waste in Tank V-14 was not completely solidified. As a result, further remediation and solidification of the waste was required before the tank could be properly disposed of at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF). Remediation of the PCE-contaminated waste in Tank V-14 was performed by first adding sufficient water to fluidize the residual waste in the tank. This was followed by high-volume, in-situ air sparging of the fluidized waste, using air lances that were inserted to the bottom of V-14. The high-volume air sparging removed residual PCE from the fluidized waste, collecting it on granular activated carbon filters within the off-gas system. The sparged waste was then solidified by educting large-diameter crystals of an acrylic acrylate resin manufactured by WaterWorks America{sup TM} into the fluidized waste, via the air-sparging lances. To improve solidification, the air-sparging lances were rotated during the eduction step, while continuing to provide high-volume air flow into the waste. Eduction was continued until the waste had solidified sufficiently to not allow for further eduction of WaterWorks{sup TM} crystals into the waste. The tank was then disposed of at the ICDF, with the residual void volume in the tank filled with cement. (authors)

  11. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  12. Mitigation/remediation concepts for Hanford Site flammable gas generating waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Deichman, J.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Lemon, D.K.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of concepts for the mitigation and/or remediation of the hydrogen gas generation, storage, and periodic release in Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) and 22 other tanks. The 22 other tanks exhibit much less hydrogen generation (volume and concentration of released flammable gases) than Tank 101-SY and have not had the focus nor attention that has been given to Tank 101-SY. These tanks have been listed as potential hydrogen gas-generating tanks from analysis of tank performance and data from flowsheets and Track Radioactive Constituents Reports (TRAC). These lesser hydrogen-generating tanks will also need to be revisited and revalidated. Of the 23 hydrogen class tanks, 5 are double-shell tanks (DST) and 18 are single-shell tanks (SST). Options for mitigation or remediation are different for the two types of tanks because of age, configuration, and waste form. While this document principally focuses on Tank 101-SY, the information presented has been useful to address other tanks containing hydrogen-generating waste.

  13. Cost benefit of caustic recycle for tank waste remediation at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.; Kurath, D.

    1998-07-30

    The potential cost savings due to the use of caustic recycle used in conjunction with remediation of radioactive underground storage tank waste, is shown in a figure for the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Two cost savings estimates for each case have been made for Hanford, and one cost savings estimate for each case have been made for Hanford, and one cost savings estimate for each case has been made for the Savannah River site. This is due to the Hanford site remediation effort being less mature than that of Savannah River; and consequently, a range of cost savings being more appropriate for Hanford. This range of cost savings (rather than a ingle value) for each case at Hanford is due to cost uncertainties related to the LAW immobilization operation. Caustic recycle Case-1 has been defined as the sodium required to meet al identified caustic needs for the entire Site. Case-2 has been defined as the maximum sodium which can be separated from the low activity waste without precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3}. It has been determined that the potential cost savings at Hanford ranges from $194 M to $215 M for Case-1, and $293 M to $324 M for Case-2. The potential cost savings at Savannah River are $186 M for Case-1 and $281 M for Case-2. A discussion of the uncertainty associated with these cost savings estimates can be found in the Discussion and Conclusions section.

  14. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List

  15. Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A.

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial repository volume

  16. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  17. Management assessment of tank waste remediation system contractor readiness to proceed with phase 1B privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Honeyman, J.O.

    1998-01-09

    This Management Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Contractor Readiness to Proceed With Phase 1B Privatization documents the processes used to determine readiness to proceed with tank waste treatment technologies from private industry, now known as TWRS privatization. An overall systems approach was applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and disposal mission of the TWRS Project. The systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. Since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farms organizational structure and configurations, work scope, and costs has become part of the culture within the TWRS Project. An analysis of the programmatic, management, and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, personnel, and hardware will be on-line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team to support initiation of waste processing by the private contractors in June 2002 and to receive immobilized waste shortly thereafter. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the private contractor Requests for Proposal were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined.

  18. Manufactured gas plant sites: Characterization of wastes and IGT`s innovative remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGP)--often referred to as town gas plants--have existed in many parts of the world, including the United States, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Consequently, many of these plants disposed of process wastes and less valuable by-products onsite, contaminated with coal-tar wastes, light oils, naphthalene, etc. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of coal-tar wastes and other wastes that remain at many of these town gas sites. PAH- containing soils, as a result, represent the largest waste type at most MGP sites. Also, certain PAHs are recognized today as being potential animal and/or human carcinogens and, as such, represent an environmental hazard. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed and/or evaluated several techniques/processes to improve the biodegradation of PAHs present at MGP sites. As a result of extensive studies, IGT has successfully developed and demonstrated an integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) process that is capable of enhancing the rate as well as the extent of PAH degradation. This process combines two complementary as well as powerful remedial techniques: (1) chemical pretreatment using Fenton`s reagent and (2) a biological system using native aerobic microorganisms. This paper presents the general characteristics of MGP sites and wastes and the innovative IGT processes at various stages of development and demonstration. This paper also discusses the IGT/GRI treatability protocol that can be used to determine the potential of bioremediation for any MGP site soil within a 2 to 3-month period.

  19. Disposal Notifications and Quarterly Membership Updates for the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of PCB Remediation Waste Under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 761.61(c)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Disposal Notifications and Quarterly Membership Updates for the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Remediation Waste Under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 761.61(c)

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  1. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  2. Configuration management plan for waste tank farms and the 242-A evaporator of tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, T.

    1994-08-30

    The configuration management architecture presented in this Configuration Management Plan is based on the functional model established by DOE-STD-1073-93, ``Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program.`` The DOE Standard defines the configuration management program by the five basic program elements of ``program management,`` ``design requirements,`` ``document control,`` ``change control,`` and ``assessments,`` and the two adjunct recovery programs of ``design reconstitution,`` and ``material condition and aging management.`` The CM model of five elements and two adjunct programs strengthen the necessary technical and administrative control to establish and maintain a consistent technical relationship among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. Although the DOE Standard was originally developed for the operational phase of nuclear facilities, this plan has the flexibility to be adapted and applied to all life-cycle phases of both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The configuration management criteria presented in this plan endorses the DOE Standard and has been tailored specifically to address the technical relationship of requirements, physical configuration, and documentation during the full life cycle of the Waste Tank Farms and 242-A Evaporator of Tank Waste Remediation System.

  3. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation.

  4. Project BRACER: Technical Report of the Remediation of the Biological Waste Pits Located Behind Building H-55, CFB Kingston, Ontario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Project BRACER Technical Report of the Remediation of the Biological Waste Pits Located Behind Building H-55, CFB Kingston...Ontario K. Pirie DRDC Suffield T. Cousins DRDC Ottawa Andrew Wollin Base Env O, CFB Kingston Brian Armstrong VP Hytec Hydrocarbon Reclamation...Public Consultation Process ............................................................................. 6 2.5.1 CFB Kingston

  5. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  6. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Hernández-Hernández, Jani; Garduño, Margarita Díaz; López-Meyer, Melina; Gómez-Flores, Lydia; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A

    2010-05-01

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use.

  7. Tank waste remediation system FSAR hazard identification/facility configuration verification report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, D.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-01

    This document provides the results of the Tank Waste Remediation System Final Safety Analysis Report (TWRS FSAR) hazards identification/facility configuration activities undertaken from the period of March 7, 1996 to May 31, 1996. The purpose of this activity was to provide an independent overview of the TWRS facility specific hazards and configurations that were used in support of the TWRS FSAR hazards and accident analysis development. It was based on a review of existing published documentation and field inspections. The objective of the verification effort was to provide a `snap shot` in time of the existing TWRS facility hazards and configurations and will be used to support hazards and accident analysis activities.

  8. FY 1995 remedial investigation work plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E.

    1994-09-01

    Field activities to support the remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2, specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs containing significant sources of contamination at ORNL. The RI of WAG 2 is developed in three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upgradient WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate reevaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Specifically, Phase 2 activities are required to track key areas to determine if changes have occurred in WAG 2 that would require (1) interim remedial action to protect human health and the environment or (2) changes in remedial action plans and schedules for WAG2 because of changing contaminant release patterns in upslope WAGs or because of the effects of interim remedial or removal actions in other WAGs. This report defines activities to be conducted in FY 1995 for completion of the Phase 1 RI and initiation of limited Phase 2 field work.

  9. Microwave remediation of electronic circuitry waste and the resulting gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Rebecca L.

    The global community has become increasingly dependent on computer and electronic technology. As a result, society is faced with an increasing amount of obsolete equipment and electronic circuitry waste. Electronic waste is generally disposed of in landfills. While convenient, this action causes a substantial loss of finite resources and poses an environmental threat as the circuit board components breakdown and are exposed to the elements. Hazardous compounds such as lead, mercury and cadmium may leach from the circuitry and find their way into the groundwater supply. For this dissertation, a microwave waste remediation system was developed. The system was designed to remove the organic components from a wide variety of electronic circuitry. Upon additional heating of the resulting ash material in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. Gaseous organic compounds that were generated as a result of organic removal were treated in a microwave off gas system that effectively reduced the concentration of the products emitted by several orders of magnitude, and in some cases completely destroying the waste gas. Upon further heating in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product were recovered. In order to better understand the effects of processing parameters on the efficiency of the off-gas system, a parametric study was developed. The study tested the microwave system at 3 flow rates (10, 30, and 50 ft 3/min) and three temperatures (400, 700 and 1000°C. In order to test the effects of microwave energy, the experiments were repeated using a conventional furnace. While microwave energy is widely used, the mechanisms of interaction with

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration residues using different membranes.

    PubMed

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, three different commercial membrane brands were used in an identical electrodialytic cell setup and operating conditions, in order to reduce the leaching of metals and salt anions of two types of municipal solid waste incineration residues: air pollution control residues of a semi-dry flue-gas cleaning system and fly ashes from a plant with wet flue-gas cleaning system. The results showed a general reduction of the leaching in both residues after ED remediation. For the following elements, the leaching was found to be different after ED treatment depending on the membrane used, with statistical significance: • Air pollution control residues of the semi-dry flue-gas cleaning system: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn; • Fly ashes from a plant with wet flue-gas cleaning system: Al, Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cl, SO4. Final leaching values for some elements and membranes, but not the majority, were below than those of certified coal fly ash (e.g. Al or Cr), a material which is commonly used in construction materials; at the same time, some of these values were reduced to below the Danish law thresholds on the use of contaminated soil in constructions. These results show the potential of ED as a technology to upgrade municipal solid waste incineration residues.

  11. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 2 [of 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the project and describes the types of equipment used. Volume 1 also discusses the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the remediation effort. Volume 2 consists of the following appendixes, which are referenced in Vol. 1: A--Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; B--Annotated Bibliography; C--GAAT Equipment Matrix; D--Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; and E--Vendor List for the GAAT Remediation Project. The remediation of the GAATs was completed {approx}5.5 years ahead of schedule and {approx}$120,435K below the cost estimated in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the project. These schedule and cost savings were a direct result of the selection and use of state-of-the-art technologies and the dedication and drive of the engineers, technicians, managers, craft workers, and support personnel that made up the GAAT Remediation Project Team.

  12. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  14. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  15. Summary of northern Atlantic coastal plain hydrology and its relation to disposal of high-level radioactive waste in buried crystalline rock; a preliminary appraisal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Larson, J.D.; Davis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available hydrologic data suggests that some areas beneath the Coastal Plain in the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia might have some potential for the disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock that is buried beneath the Coastal Plain sediments. The areas of major interest occur where the top of the basement rock lies between 1,000 and 4,000 feet below sea level, the aquifer(s) immediately above the basement rock are saturated with saline water, confining material overlies the saline water bearing aquifer(s), and groundwater flow in the saline water aquifer(s) can be established. Preliminary data on (1) the distribution and thickness of the lowermost aquifers and confining beds, (2) the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the lowermost aquifers, (3) estimated hydraulic heads and inferred direction of lateral groundwater flow for 1980, and (4) the distribution of saline water and brine, indicate eastern parts of the study area relatively best meet most of the criteria proposed for sediments that would overlie any potential buried crystalline-rock disposal site.

  16. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Group 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  17. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  19. Nationwide Risk-Based PCB Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains information about Nationwide Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

  20. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site.

  1. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: results from a pilot-scale on-site trial.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Purdie, Philip

    2011-02-28

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m(3) (ca. 4t onnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kWh/m(3), and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations.

  2. Utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in in situ remediation and their sustainability benefits.

    PubMed

    Favara, Paul; Gamlin, Jeff

    2017-04-05

    In the ramp-up to integrating sustainability into remediation, a key industry focus area has been to reduce the environmental footprint of treatment processes. The typical approach to integrating sustainability into remediation projects has been a top-down approach, which involves developing technology options and then applying sustainability thinking to the technology, after it has been conceptualized. A bottom-up approach allows for systems thinking to be included in remedy selection and could potentially result in new or different technologies being considered. When using a bottom-up approach, there is room to consider the utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in remediation technology-all of which generally have a smaller footprint than processed materials and traditional forms of energy. By integrating more systems thinking into remediation projects, practitioners can think beyond the traditional technologies typically used and how technologies are deployed. To compare top-down and bottom-up thinking, a traditional technology that is considered very sustainable-enhanced in situ bioremediation-is compared to a successful, but infrequently deployed technology-subgrade biogeochemical reactors. Life Cycle Assessment is used for the evaluation and shows the footprint of the subgrade biogeochemical reactor to be lower in all seven impact categories evaluated, sometimes to a significant degree.

  3. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Labieniec, Paula Ann

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  4. Pyrolysis of wetland biomass waste: Potential for carbon sequestration and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-05-15

    Management of biomass waste is crucial to the efficiency and sustainable operation of constructed wetlands. In this study, biochars were prepared using the biomass of 22 plant species from constructed wetlands and characterized by BET-N2 surface area analysis, FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDS, and elemental compositions analysis. Biochar yields ranged from 32.78 to 49.02%, with mesopores dominating the pore structure of most biochars. The biochars had a R50 recalcitrance index of class C and the carbon sequestration potential of 19.4-28%. The aquatic plant biomass from all the Chinese constructed wetlands if made into biochars has the potential to sequester 11.48 Mt carbon yr(-1) in soils over long time periods, which could offset 0.4% of annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in China. In terms of adsorption capacity for selected pollutants, biochar derived from Canna indica plant had the greatest adsorption capacity for Cd(2+) (98.55 mg g(-1)) and NH4(+) (7.71 mg g(-1)). Whereas for PO4(3-), Hydrocotyle verticillata derived biochar showed the greatest adsorption capacities (2.91 mg g(-1)). The results from this present study demonstrated that wetland plants are valuable feedstocks for producing biochars with potential application for carbon sequestration and contaminant removal in water remediation.

  5. Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form.

  6. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  7. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  8. Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two circular features on the plains of northern Utopia. A common sight on the martian northern plains, these rings indicate the locations of buried impact craters.

    Location near: 65.1oN, 261.2oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  9. Viability of organic wastes and biochars as amendments for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2015-01-01

    Composts derived from municipal (MOW and MSW) and domestic wastes (DOM), wastes from the olive oil industry (OWH and OP), green waste (GW), and biochars (BF and BS) were investigated to test their viability for remediating metal-contaminated soils. In addition to common analyses, the characterisation included structural analyses (FTIR and (13)C NMR), determination of the acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and the construction of sorption isotherms for target metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cu). MOW and GW had the highest ANC values (4280 and 7100 meq kg(-1), respectively), and MOW, GW, DOM, BF and BS exhibited the highest solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) with maximum values in the 10(4) L kg(-1) range. Sorption isotherms were fitted using linear and Freundlich models for better comparison of the sorption capacities of the materials. Based on their basic pH, high ANC and high sorption capacity, MOW, GW and biochars are the most promising materials.

  10. Value tradeoffs for the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1997-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program at the Hanford Site of the Department of Energy has adopted a logical approach to making decisions that uses decision analysis to structure and analyze decision alternatives and public values to evaluate them. This report is the third in a series to support this effort. The first identified a set of objectives (called {open_quotes}ends objectives{close_quotes}) that characterize the ultimate goals and desires of Hanford decision makers and stakeholders. The second report developed operational measures for these ends objectives (called {open_quotes}ends measures{close_quotes}) and it also developed a set of performance objectives and associated performance measures that are more directly related to how well decision alternatives in the TWRS program perform to achieve the ends objectives. The present report describes the development of quantitative value tradeoffs for both the ends measures and the performance measures. First, five national value experts were interviewed to obtain value tradeoffs for units of the ends measures identified in Keeney and von Winterfeldt (1996). The results of this assessment are shown in Table S1. Second, the implied value tradeoffs for the units of the performance measures were calculated from the value tradeoffs for units of the ends measures provided by the national experts. When calculating the value tradeoffs for the units of the performance measures, very simple quantitative relationships between ends and performance measures were assumed. The results of this calculation are shown in Table S2. The results of this report shown in Tables S1 and S2 should be considered preliminary and largely illustrative of the principles for developing value tradeoffs. The report lists several important caveats and recommendations for how future work can improve on the assessment of value tradeoffs.

  11. Office of Inspector General report on audit of selected hazardous waste remedial actions program costs

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    In 1986, the Department of Energy (Department) entered into a work-for-others agreement with the Department of the Air Force (Air Force) to provide technical assistance in support of environmental compliance issues. Lockheed Martin Energy System`s (Energy Systems) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) supported the Department in fulfilling its responsibilities to the Air Force. The objective of this audit was to determine if costs charged to selected HAZWRAP customers were in accordance with Department regulations and the terms of the Air Force`s interagency agreement. Energy Systems did not properly manage and account for costs claimed under its interagency agreements for HAZWRAP. Specifically, Energy Systems transferred costs among accounts to avoid overruns and to use the maximum funds authorized by HAZWRAP customers. By avoiding cost overruns, Energy Systems hoped to receive higher award fees from the Department. As a result of its actions, Energy Systems mischarged one HAZWRAP customer by $504,750. It was recommended that the Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office: (1) direct Energy Systems to ensure that existing management controls are adhered to and that adequate management controls are maintained; (2) determine the allowability of $504,750 in questioned costs, recover the appropriate amount from Energy Systems, and refund mischarged amounts to the appropriate customers; and (3) perform a ``for cause`` review of the Work-for-Others Program to identify, recover, and refund amounts received by Energy Systems as the result of improper cost transfers. Management concurred with the finding and recommendations and agreed to take appropriate action.

  12. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  13. Case Study of Anomalies Encountered During Remediation of Mixed Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in the 100 and 300 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, M.J.; Zacharias, P.E.; Zacharias, A.E.

    2007-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's River Corridor Closure Project, Washington Closure Hanford has completed remediation of more than 10 mixed low-level waste burial grounds in the 100 and 300 Areas of the Hanford Site. The records of decision for the burial grounds required excavation, characterization, and transport of contaminated material to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976-compliant hazardous waste landfill. This paper discusses a sample of the anomalous waste found during remediation and provides an overview of the waste excavation activities. The 100 Area burial grounds received plutonium production reactor waste and waste associated with various test programs. Examples of 100 Area anomalies include spent nuclear fuel, elemental mercury, reactor hardware, and the remains of animals used in testing the effects of radionuclides on living organisms. The 300 Area burial grounds received waste from research and development laboratories and fuel manufacturing operations. Of the seven 300 Area burial grounds remediated to date, the most challenging has been the 618-2 Burial Ground. It presented significant challenges because of the potential for airborne alpha contamination and the discovery of plutonium in an isotopically pure form. Anomalies encountered in the 618-2 Burial Ground included a combination safe that contained gram quantities of plutonium, miscellaneous containers of unknown liquids, and numerous types of shielded shipping casks. Information presented in this paper will be an aid to those involved in remediation activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy complex and at other nuclear waste disposal sites. (authors)

  14. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program to aid technology development funding decisions for radioactive tank waste remediation. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. These methods do not show the relative effect of new technologies on tank remediation systems as a whole. Consequently, DOE may spend its resources on technologies that promise to improve a single function but have a small or possibly negative, impact on the overall system, or DOE may overlook a technology that does not address a high priority problem in the system but that does, if implemented, offer sufficient overall improvements. Systems engineering and detailed analyses often conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA 1969) use a ``whole system`` approach but are costly, too time-consuming, and often not sufficiently focused to support the needs of the technology program decision-makers. An alternative approach is required to evaluate these systems impacts but still meet the budget and schedule needs of the technology program.

  15. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  16. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. A Remote Characterization System and a fault-tolerant tracking system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W. ); Martinson, L. ); Bingham, D.N.; Anderson, A.A. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes two closely related projects that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The first project, a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involves the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for noninvasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. The second project, conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), involves the development of a position sensing system that can track a survey vehicle or instrument in the field. This system can coordinate updates at a rate of 200/s with an accuracy better than 0.1% of the distance separating the target and the sensor. It can employ acoustic or electromagnetic signals in a wide range of frequencies and can be operated as a passive or active device.

  18. Quality Assurance Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, G.P.; Miller, D.E. )

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Site Investigation (SI)includes the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage and enbayment, and associated floodplain and subsurface environment. The ORNL main plant and the major waste storage and disposal facilities at ORNL are located in the WOC watershed and are drained by the WOC system to the Clinch River, located off-site. Environmental media are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from hydrologically upgradient WAGS. WAG 2 is important as a conduit from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. The general objectives of the WAG 2 SI Project are to conduct a multimedia monitoring and characterization program to define and monitor the input of contaminants from adjacent WAGS, monitor and gather sufficient information for processes controlling or driving contaminant fluxes to construct an appropriate conceptual model for WAG 2, and prepare for the eventual remediation of WAG 2.

  19. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Activities for a More Cost-Effective Tank Remediation Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, A.; Clark, R.; Stewart, R.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Much of the LLLW system at ORNL was installed more than 50 years ago. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the regulatory requirements.

  20. A Mobile, Teleoperated, Tool Platform for use in Waste Tank Remediation Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-10-06

    This paper will discuss the cleaning challenge, possible solutions and their evaluation and selection, design, development, and mockup testing results of a low cost, mobile, teleoperated, tool platform for breaking up large waste deposits remaining in underground waste storage tanks.

  1. Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

  2. Applications of robotics in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, P.W.

    1993-12-31

    The remediation of many waste sites will require the use of remote equipment due to the toxic and radioactive nature of the waste material that may be located at these sites. Furthermore, in characterizing the site, the nature and extent of the contamination may be unknown. For those sites that could contain dangerous materials such as explosives, it will be prudent to initially survey the area using remote equipment. This paper will discuss the following types of remote equipment that will be required for environmental restoration projects: (1) long reach manipulators that are capable of lifting heavy loads with a high degree of precision; (2) remotely operated excavators that can be used to retrieve buried waste; (3) remotely operated surveillance equipment that can be used for initial site characterization.

  3. Integration of remediation strategy with waste management capabilities and regulatory drivers for radioactive waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, J.T.; Hepworth, H.K.; Hooyman, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper addresses the plans and strategies for remediation of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system tanks that have been removed from service at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the EPA-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One requirement of the FFA is that LLLW tanks that are removed from service must be evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. The Environmental Restoration Program intends to meet this requirement by using a {open_quotes}streamlined{close_quote} approach for selected tanks. This approach will combine the CERCLA Site Investigation. Remedial Action, Feasibility Study, and Proposed Plan requirements into a single Interim Proposed Plan document. This streamlined approach is expected to reduce the time required to complete the regulatory process while attaining acceptable risk reduction in a cost-effective way.

  4. Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U

  5. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed.

  6. Remedial investigation plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Responses to regulator comments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    This document, ES/ER-6 D2, is a companion document to ORNL/RAP/Sub-87/99053/4 R1, Remedial Investigation Plan for ORNL Waste Area Grouping 1, dated August 1989. This document lists comments received from the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4 (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) and responses to each of these comments. As requested by EPA, a revised Remedial Investigation (RI) Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 will not be submitted. The document is divided into two Sections and Appendix. Section I contains responses to comments issued on May 22, 1990, by EPA's Region 4 program office responsible for implementing the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Section 2 contains responses to comments issued on April 7, 1989, by EPA's program office responsible for implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); these comments include issues raised by the TDHE. The Appendix contains the attachments referenced in a number of the responses. 35 refs.

  7. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected.

  8. Buried Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a location roughly equidistant between two of the largest volcanic constructs on the planet, the fate of the 50 km impact crater in this image was sealed. It has been buried to the rim by lava flows. The MOLA context image shows pronounced flow lobes surrounding the crater, a clear indication of the most recent episode of volcanism that could have contributed to its infilling. Breaches in the rim are clearly evident in the image and suggest locations through which lavas could have flowed. These openings appear to be limited to the west side of the crater. Other craters in the area are nearly obliterated by the voluminous lava flows, further demonstrating one of the means by which Mars renews its surface.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Waste Site Characterization and Remedial Action.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Als 539 QUALITY ASSIJRANCE/-OWAITY CONTROL IN MASTE SITE vi1 71 CIARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIAL ACTIGN(U) OAK RIDGE ED NATIONAL LAB IN N P MASKAAINEC...and Remedial Action D T Final Report .L Co:i., M. P . Maskarinec NOV 2 3 1987 i’ ~S. K. Holladay P Supported by U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials...National Laboratory USATHAMA &6 ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) P . 0. Box X AMXTH-TE-A Oak Ridge, TN 37831

  10. Use of biosurfactants from urban wastes compost in textile dyeing and soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Montoneri, Enzo; Boffa, Vittorio; Savarino, Piero; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio; Micheletti, Luca; Gianotti, Carlo; Chiono, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    A compost isolated humic acid-like (cHAL) material was pointed out in previous work for its potential as auxiliary in chemical technology. Its potential is based on its relatively low 0.4gL(-1) critical micellar concentration (cmc) in water, which enables cHAL to enhance the water solubility of hydrophobic substances, like phenanthrene, when used at higher concentrations than 0.4gL(-1). This material could be obtained from a 1:1 v/v mixture of municipal solid and lignocellulosic wastes composted for 15 days. The compost, containing 69.3% volatile solids, 39.6% total organic C and 21C/N ratio, was extracted for 24h at 65 degrees C under N2 with aqueous 0.1molL(-1) NaOH and 0.1molL(-1) Na4P2O7, and the solution was acidified to separate the precipitated cHAL in 12% yield from soluble carbohydrates and other humic and non-humic substances. In this work two typical applications of surfactants, i.e., textile dyeing (TD) and soil remediation by washing (SW), were chosen as grounds for testing the performance of the cHAL biosurfactant against the one of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), which is a well established commercial synthetic surfactant. The TD trials were carried out with nylon 6 microfiber and a water insoluble dye, while the SW tests were performed with two soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for several decades. Performances were rated in the TD experiments based on the fabric colour intensity (DeltaE) and uniformity (sigmaDeltaE), and in the SW experiments based on the total hydrocarbons concentration (CWPAH) and on the residual surfactant (Cre) concentrations in the washing solution equilibrated with the contaminated soils. The results show that both cHAL and SDS exhibit enhanced performance when applied above their cmc values. However, while in the TD case a significant performance effect was observed at the surfactants cmc value, in the SW case the required surfactants concentration values were equivalent to 25-125xcmc for cHAL and to

  11. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  12. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Lenseigne, D. L.

    1997-09-15

    The TWRS Project Mission is to manage and immobilize for disposal the Hanford Site radioactive tank waste and cesium (Cs)/strontium (Sr) capsules in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The scope includes all activities needed to (1) resolve safety issues; (2) operate, maintain, and upgrade the tank farms and supporting infrastructure; (3) characterize, retrieve, pretreat, and immobilize the waste for disposal and tank farm closure; and (4) use waste minimization and evaporation to manage tank waste volumes to ensure that the tank capacities of existing DSTs are not exceeded. The TWRS Project is responsible for closure of assigned operable units and D&D of TWRS facilities.

  13. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste and remediation waste at Dugway Proving Ground: A program update

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; O`Neill, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    In July 1988, the state of Utah issued regulations that declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues were designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). These residues are not listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which is the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. The RCRAI regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. In 1994, the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command FECOM initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting agent-decontaminated residues and soil with a history of contamination at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. An overview of the DPG delisting program was presented at the 1995 American Defense Preparedness Association Environmental Symposium. Since that time, much progress has been made. The purpose of this paper is to review the DPG delisting program and discuss overall progress. Emphasis is placed on progress with regard to analytical methods that will be used to demonstrate that the target residues do not contain hazardous amounts of chemical agent.

  14. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  15. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  16. Application of Plasma Arcs to the to the Remediation of Shipboard Waste(Supported by ONR and NSWC.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, John L.

    1996-10-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (B. Sartwell, (Chemistry Division NRL); J. Apruzese, (Plasma Physics Division NRL); S. Peterson, D. Counts, (Geo-Centers Inc.),and Q. Han (U. Minn.)) (NRL) is investigating the application of plasma arc technology for the on-board remediation of waste material generated by sea faring ships. A 150kW DC arc torch within a 1 meter diameter chamber has been used for the pyrolysis of liquid and solid material which simulate the waste stream from a naval ship. A general discussion of the materials treated and the associated problems arising from their pyrolysis in a plasma torch will be presented. The greatest challenge for a shipboard plasma remediation, including any exhaust gas treatment, is the overall size of the system imposed by the limited confines of a ship. Connected with this issue are choices of the arc configuration: transfered vs non-transfered; and the feed stock gas: reducing vs oxidizing. The research component of NRL's program is to characterize the gaseous by-products, the remnant slag, and the plasma arc through systematic experiments, as well as to model the plasma dynamics and chemistry within the chamber. The environment within the chamber is primarily defined by several temperature measurements. Two color pyrometry is used to determine the molten slag temperature ( ~2200 degK) and a suite of thermocouples within the chamber indicate a slighter cooler gas phase temperature. Synthetic spectra were generated from radiation transport calculations and compared with optical emission spectroscopy to map the gas temperature around the plasma arc itself ( ~ 5000 degK). Spectroscopy offers the potential of a non-invasive diagnostic to eventually be used for on-line process control, a necessary feature for an operating system due to the heterogeneous waste stream. Other studies will be described including the addition of O2 through a ring to achieve combustion of hydrocarbon wastes, residual gas analysis of the exhaust for

  17. Mobile teleoperated tool platform for use in waste tank remediation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, Thomas A.; Fogle, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    For several decades at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, large underground storage tanks have been used to contain highly radioactive waste. This waste must be now transported out of the tanks to be processed into a more suitable long-term storage medium. In addition, the emptied tanks must be cleaned in adherence to both state and federal requirements before being permanently closed. Unfortunately, transfer of the waste by pump leaves behind several types of waste forms away from pump suction: highly alkaline and radioactive sludge, rock-like solid masses called clinkers, or large, solidified salt formations known as tank heels. These waste forms must be dissolved and moved on the tank bottom to pump locations prior to being removed from the tank.

  18. A sediment mesocosm experiment to determine if the remediation of a shoreline waste disposal site in Antarctica caused further environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Johnstone, Glenn J; Riddle, Martin J

    2014-12-15

    A shoreline waste disposal site at Casey Station, Antarctica was removed because it was causing impacts in the adjacent marine environment (Brown Bay). We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the excavation created further impacts. Trays of clean, defaunated sediment were deployed at two locations within Brown Bay and two control locations, two years prior to remediation. Trays were sampled one year before, 1month before, 1month after and two years after the excavation. An increase in metals was found at Brown Bay two years after the remediation. However there was little evidence of impacts on sediment assemblages. Communities at each location were different, but differences from before to after the remediation were comparable, indicating there were unlikely to have been further impacts. We demonstrate that abandoned waste disposal sites in hydrologically active places in Antarctica can be removed without creating greater adverse impacts to ecosystems downstream.

  19. Long-Term Stewardship of Mixed Wastes: Passive Reactive Barriers for Simultaneous In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent, Heavy Metal, and Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, Robin; Cunningham, Al; Peyton, Brent

    2005-06-01

    The collaborative project was designed to evaluate the possibility developing a subsurface remediation technology for mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites using a group of common soil bacteria of the genus Cellulomonas. We have been gaining a better understanding of microbial transformation of chromium, uranium, iron minerals, and trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Cellulomonas spp. in simulated subsurface environments.

  20. State of the Science Review: Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste By-Products for In-situ Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal and metalloid contamination of soil and sediment is a widespread problem both in urban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. EPA, 2014). Beneficial use of waste by-products as amendments to remediate metal-contaminated soils and sediments can provide major eco...

  1. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M.; Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P.; Grando, C.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  2. Remediation of radiocesium-contaminated liquid waste, soil, and ash: a mini review since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dahu; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Cai, Tianming

    2016-02-01

    The radiation contamination after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident attracts considerable concern all over the world. Many countries, areas, and oceans are greatly affected by the emergency situation other than Japan. An effective remediation strategy is in a highly urgent demand. Though plenty of works have been carried out, progressive achievements have not yet been well summarized. Here, we review the recent advances on the remediation of radiocesium-contaminated liquid waste, soil, and ash. The overview of the radiation contamination is firstly given. Afterwards, the current remediation strategies are critically reviewed in terms of the environmental medium. Special attentions are paid on the adsorption/ion exchange and electrically switched ion exchange methods. Finally, the present review outlines the possible works to do for the large-scale application of the novel remediation strategies.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  4. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  5. Native fungi as metal remediators: Silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (Libiola Mine, Italy).

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Grazia; Marescotti, Pietro; Di Piazza, Simone; Zotti, Mirca

    2017-03-04

    Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams) isolated from a silver polluted site. The aim was to select silver tolerant native strains and test their potential silver uptake. Among the three species tested, T. harzianum was the most efficient strain to tolerate and accumulate silver, showing an uptake capability of 153 mg L(-1) taken at the Ag concentration of 330 mg L(-1). Our study highlights the potential use of native microfungi spontaneously growing in sulphide-rich waste rock dumps, for silver bioaccumulation and bioremediation.

  6. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  7. Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tecza, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

  8. Effect of organic wastes on the plant-microbe remediation for removal of aged PAHs in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xiangui; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Yiming; Zeng, Jun; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of in-situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be inhibited by low nutrients and organic carbon. To evaluate the effect of organic wastes on the PAHs removal efficiency of a plant-microbe remediation system, contaminated agricultural soils were amended with different dosages of sewage sludge (SS) and cattle manure (CM) in the presence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and PAHs-degraders (Bacillus sp. and Flavobacterium sp.). The results indicated that the alfalfa mean biomasses varied from 0.56 to 2.23 g/pot in root dry weight and from 1.80 to 4.88 g/pot in shoot dry weight. Low dose amendments, with rates of SS at 0.1% and CM at 1%, had prominent effects on plant growth and soil PAHs degradation. After 60-day incubation, compared with about 5.6% in the control, 25.8% PAHs removal was observed for treatments in the presence of alfalfa and PAHs-degraders; furthermore, when amended with different dosages of SS and CM, the removed PAHs from soils increased by 35.5%-44.9% and 25.5%-42.3%, respectively. In particular, the degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs was up to 42.4%. Dehydrogenase activities (DH) ranged between 0.41 and 1.83 microg triphenylformazan/(g dry soil x hr) and the numbers of PAHs-degrading microbes (PDM) ranged from 1.14 x 10(6) to 16.6 x 10(6) most-probable-number/g dry soil. Further investigation of the underlying microbial mechanism revealed that both DH and PDM were stimulated by the addition of organic wastes and significantly correlated with the removal ratio of PAHs. In conclusion, the effect of organic waste application on soil PAHs removal to a great extent is dependent on the interactional effect of nutrients and dissolved organic matter in organic waste and soil microorganisms.

  9. Performance Assessment of the Waste Dislodging Conveyance System During the Gunite And Associated Tanks Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, P.D.

    2001-02-21

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System (WD and CS) and other components of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) were developed to address the need for removal of hazardous wastes from underground storage tanks (USTs) in which radiation levels and access limitations make traditional waste retrieval methods impractical. Specifically, these systems were developed for cleanup of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WD and CS is comprised of a number of different components. The three primary hardware subsystems are the Hose Management System (HMS), the Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE), and the Flow Control Equipment and Containment Box (FCE/CB). In addition, a Decontamination Spray Ring (DSR) and a control system were developed for the system. The WD and CS is not a stand-alone system; rather, it is designed for deployment with either a long-reach manipulator like the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) or a remotely operated vehicle system such as the Houdini{trademark}. The HMS was designed to act as a pipeline for the transfer of dislodged waste; as a hose-positioning and tether-management system; and as a housing for process equipment such as the water-powered jet pump that provides the necessary suction to vacuum slurried waste from the UST. The HMS was designed to facilitate positioning of an end-effector at any point within the 25-ft- or 50-ft-diameter USTs in the GAAT OU.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Remediation Activities at Elk Hills (Former Naval petroleum Reserve No. 1), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-17

    DOE proposes to conduct a variety of post-sale site remediation activities, such as characterization, assessment, clean-up, and formal closure, at a number of inactive waste sites located at Elk Hills. The proposed post-sale site remediation activities, which would be conducted primarily in developed portions of the oil field, currently are expected to include clean-up of three basic categories of waste sites: (1) nonhazardous solid waste surface trash scatters, (2) produced wastewater sumps, and (3) small solid waste landfills. Additionally, a limited number of other inactive waste sites, which cannot be typified under any of these three categories, have been identified as requiring remediation. Table 2.1-1 presents a summary, organized by waste site category, of the inactive waste sites that require remediation per the PSA, the ASA, and/or the UPCTA. The majority of these sites are known to contain no hazardous waste. However, one of the surface scatter sites (2G) contains an area of burn ash with hazardous levels of lead and zinc, another surface scatter site (25S) contains an area with hazardous levels of lead, a produced wastewater sump site (23S) and a landfill (42-36S) are known to contain hazardous levels of arsenic, and some sites have not yet been characterized. Furthermore, additional types of sites could be discovered. For example, given the nature of oil field operations, sites resulting from either spills or leaks of hazardous materials could be discovered. Given the nature of the agreements entered into by DOE regarding the required post-sale clean-up of the inactive waste sites at Elk Hills, the Proposed Action is the primary course of action considered in this EA. The obligatory remediation activities included in the Proposed Action are standard procedures such that possible variations of the Proposed Action would not vary substantially enough to require designation as a separate, reasonable alternative. Thus, the No Action Alternative is the only

  11. Assessment of metal contamination using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) during remediation of a waste disposal site in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stark, Scott C; Snape, Ian; Graham, Nicholas J; Brennan, John C; Gore, Damian B

    2008-01-01

    The remediation of the Thala Valley landfill, Casey Station, East Antarctica, is part of efforts to clean-up contaminated sites associated with the Australian Antarctic Program. These sites, ranging from abandoned rubbish dumps to fuel spills, are contaminated principally with metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. Remediation success depends on accurate, cost-effective and timely--fit-for-purpose--chemical analysis of soil and water samples from the site, which is required to guide excavation, the in situ or off-site treatment and disposal of contaminated material, and to validate satisfactory remediation. Owing to the remote location of Antarctica, it is necessary to carry out chemical analyses on-site. Waste and soil contaminated with Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were excavated from Thala Valley for removal to Australia, treatment and disposal. Analysis of total metal concentrations in soil was performed at Casey Station with a transportable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were prepared using a simple size-fractionation method to expedite sample throughput. A method for assessing contaminant mobility in solid waste (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, TCLP) was also used to characterise soil. Although this was more labour-intensive and time-consuming than the total metals analysis, it was of great utility because leachable metals were often significant determinants in the assessment of contaminated soil. The combined data helped managers during remediation, directing excavation and allowing waste to be classified for treatment and disposal before its return to Australia.

  12. Environmental impact of phosphogypsum stockpile in remediated Schistos waste site (Piraeus, Greece) using a combination of γ-ray spectrometry with geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, F; Godelitsas, A; Mertzimekis, T J; Xanthos, S; Voulgaris, N; Katsantonis, G

    2016-03-01

    From 1979 to 1989, ten million tons of phosphogypsum, a waste by-product of the Greek phosphate fertilizer industry, was disposed into an abandoned limestone quarry in Schistos former waste site, Piraeus (Greece). The quarry has been recently closed and remediated using geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation. A part of the deposited phosphogypsum has been exposed due to intense rainfall episodes leading to concerns about how could potentially released radioactivity affect the surrounding environment. This study seeks to assess the environmental impact of the phosphogypsum deposited in the Schistos quarry, using laboratory-based γ-ray spectrometry measurements and geographical information systems. Radioactivity concentrations were mapped onto spatial-data to yield a spatial-distribution of radioactivity in the area. The data indicate elevated (226)Ra concentrations in a specific area on the steep south-eastern cliff of the remediated waste site that comprises uncovered phosphogypsum and is known to be affected by local weather conditions. (226)Ra concentrations range from 162 to 629 Bq/kg, with an average activity being on the low side, compared to the global averages for phosphogypsum. Nevertheless, the low environmental risk may be minimized by remediating this area with geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation, a technique, which has worked successfully over the remainder of the remediated quarry.

  13. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years.

  14. Roles of Historical Photography in Waste Site Characterization, Closure, and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.

    1998-07-01

    Over 40,000 frames of vertical historical photography from 1938 to 1996 and over 10,000 frames of oblique photography from 1981 to 1991 of the 777-square kilometer Savannah River Site in south central South Carolina were reviewed, cataloged, and referenced utilizing ARCView and associated ArcInfo tools. This allows environmental reviews of over 400 potential waste units on the SRS to be conducted in a rapid fashion to support preparation of work plans, characterization, risk assessments, and closure of the waste units in a more cost effective manner.

  15. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  16. Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    1999-08-31

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522.

  17. Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2000-03-27

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522.

  18. Microbiological remediation of waste-oil polluted soils : Ecotoxicological and toxicological considerations.

    PubMed

    Rippen, G; Held, T; Ripper, P

    1994-09-01

    A waste-oil contaminated site situated near a river is supposed to be cleaned-up by means of different but complementary methods. On the basis of a research project, target values have been developed in close cooperation between the participant parties for the saturated and the unsaturated soil layers.The clean-up targets are introduced and discussed.

  19. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTES: CROSSCURRENT AND COUNTERCURRENT SOLVENT WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    solvent washing was evaluated as a method to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aged field soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. Several soil:solvent contact ratios were considered. Solvent washing processes were evaluated based on the removal of PCP from the soil throug...

  20. Analysis for remedial alternatives of unregulated municipal solid waste landfills leachate-contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Da; Jiang, Yonghai; Xi, Beidou; Ma, Zhifei; Yang, Yu; Yang, Queping; Li, Mingxiao; Zhang, Jinbao; Bai, Shunguo; Jiang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    A groundwater flow and solute transport model was developed using Visual Modflow for forecasting contaminant transport and assessing effects of remedial alternatives based on a case study of an unregulated landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater in eastern China. The results showed that arsenic plume was to reach the pumping well in the downstream farmland after eight years, and the longest lateral and longitudinal distance of arsenic plume was to reach 200 m and 260 m, respectively. But the area of high concentration region of arsenic plume was not to obviously increase from eight years to ten years and the plume was to spread to the downstream river and the farmland region after 20 years; while the landfill's ground was hardened, the plume was not to reach the downstream farmland region after eight years; when the pumping well was installed in the plume downstream and discharge rate was 200m3/d, the plume was to be effectively restrained; for leakage-proof barriers, it might effectively protect the groundwater of sensitive objects within an extent time range. But for the continuous point source, the plume was still to circle the leakage-proof barrier; when discharge rate of drainage ditches was 170.26 m3/d, the plume was effectively controlled; the comprehensive method combining ground-harden with drainage ditches could get the best effect in controlling contaminant diffusion, and the discharge rate was to be reduced to 111.43 m3/d. Therefore, the comprehensive remedial alternative combining ground-harden with drainage ditch will be recommended for preventing groundwater contamination when leachate leakage has happened in unregulated landfills.

  1. Handbook: Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated with Explosive or Radioactive Wastes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    ash, and incinerator fly ash in modified sulfur cement and Portland cement waste forms ................................. 70 6-10 Drawing of full-scale...6-17 Economic analysis of encapsulating sodium nitrate at Rocky Flats Plant ..................... 74 6-18 Portland cement and modified sulfur cement...environment. DP-1629. Savannah and modified sulfur cement encapsulation. Both methods River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. have advantages over

  2. Management assessment of tank waste remediation system contractor readiness to proceed with phase 1B privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-01-07

    Readiness to Proceed With Phase 1B Privatization documents the processes used to determine readiness to proceed with tank waste treatment technologies from private industry, now known as TWRS privatization. An overall systems approach was applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and disposal mission of the TWRS Project. The systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. Since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farms organizational structure and configurations, work scope, and costs has become part of the culture within the TWRS Project. An analysis of the programmatic, management, and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, personnel, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team to support initiation of waste processing by the private contractors in June 2002 and to receive immobilized waste shortly thereafter. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the private contractor Requests for Proposal were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined.

  3. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy; Funk, David John

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  4. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  5. Hazardous Waste Water Remediation by Ecoresin-Dry Cow Dung Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    Water, the matter, matrix, medium and the mother of our life, is indeed one of the drivers of Nature. Through water cycle only the intra and inter equilibrium is maintained constantly between entire 'green' and 'blue'. Unfortunately, with each successive epoch of industrialization and urbanization, human societies have produced non-biodegradable waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. At this juncture the very need is to appreciate and move towards the cost as well as time effective scientific alternatives for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutants. Green chemistry advocates the utilization of naturally available bio-resins which are environmentally benign alternative to current synthetic materials and technologies employed for waste water treatment. This explicit investigation aims to explore Dry Cow dung powder, DCP, a natural biosorbent as a green and clean alternative for the aqueous waste water treatment. It is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid'(HA). The HA has been successfully extracted by authors from DCP and this piece of work has been published in the International Journal [1]. We have developed simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutant such as Cr(VI) [2], Cd(II), Cr(III) [3] and Hg(II) as well radiotoxic 90Sr(II) [4], employing DCP. DCP is employed without any pre or post treatment. Being freely and easily available DCP has an edge over processed natural adsorbent considering their cost, time and energy efficiency. In nutshell we have to remember that prevention is better than the cure. If we fail to meet this, the situation will surely augment which will drain our water, our life, to slaughters knife..! Reference: 1. H.K.Bagla, N.S.Barot, Soil Amendement by Green Supplement: Dry Cowdung powder, EGUGA - 11

  6. Waste management and contaminated site remediation practices after oil spill: a case study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; da Rocha Calixto, Renata Oliveira; Felippe, Carlos Eduardo Cunha; de Franca, Francisca Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    A case study is presented on waste management practices implemented after a residual fuel oil spill from a steam-generating boiler in an industrial area, and on the technical feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a treatment option for a recently contaminated tropical soil. One day after contamination, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbons and phenanthrene concentrations varied from 3.1 to 7.9 g kg(-1) and 149 to 287 µg kg(-1), respectively. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decayed along the monitored time and after 90 days of processes the soil was considered rehabilitated for future industrial use.

  7. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  8. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Since the early 1980`s, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  9. Maximizing Operational Efficiencies in Waste Management on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract in a Down-turned Market - 13484

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, Connie J.; Blackford, L. Ty; West, Lori D.

    2013-07-01

    Recent changes in DOE priorities and funding have pressed DOE and its contractors to look for innovative methods to sustain critical operations at sites across the Complex. At the Hanford Site, DOE Richland Operations and its prime contractor, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), have completed in-depth assessments of the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) operations that compared available funding to mission and operational objectives in an effort to maintain requisite safety and compliance margins while realizing cost savings that meet funding profiles. These assessments included confirmation of current baseline activities, identification of potential efficiencies, barriers to implementation, and potential increased risks associated with implementation. Six operating PRC waste management facilities were evaluated against three possible end-states: complete facility closure, maintaining base operations, and performing minimum safe surveillance and maintenance activities. The costs to completely close evaluated facilities were determined to be prohibitively high and this end-state was quickly dropped from consideration. A summary of the analysis of remaining options by facility, efficiencies identified, impact to risk profiles, and expected cost savings is provided in Table I. The expected cost savings are a result of: - right-sizing and cross-training work crews to address maintenance activities across facilities; - combining and sequencing 'like-moded' operational processes; - cross-cutting emergency planning and preparedness staffing; - resource redistribution and optimization; - reducing areas requiring routine surveillance and inspection. For the efficiencies identified, there are corresponding increases in risk, including a loss of breadth and depth of available resources; lengthened response time to emergent issues; inability to invest in opportunities for improvement (OFIs); potential single-point failures or non-compliancies due to resource

  10. Modified agricultural waste biomass with enhanced responsive properties for metal-ion remediation: a green approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Garima; Sud, Dhiraj

    2012-12-01

    Dalbergia sissoo pods, a lignocellulosic nitrogenous waste biomass, was evaluated for sequestering of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater. Dalbergia sissoo pods (DSP) were used in three different forms, viz. natural (DSPN), impregnated in the form of hydrated beads (DSPB), and in carbonized form (DSPC) for comparative studies. Batch experiments were performed for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Effects of pH adsorbent dose, initial metal-ion concentration, stirring speed, and contact time were investigated. The removal of metal ions was dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate concentration, and other studied process parameters. Maximum metal removal for Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2.0. The experimental data were analyzed based on Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of metal ions followed a pseudo-second-order equation.

  11. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    SciTech Connect

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T.; Miller, R. Ian; Nutt, W. Mark

    2012-07-01

    The PRISM (Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model), a computer model was developed to support the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in its mission to clean up the environmental legacy from the Nation's nuclear weapons materials production complex. PRISM provides a comprehensive, fully integrated planning tool that can tie together DOE-EM's projects. It is designed to help DOE managers develop sound, risk-informed business practices and defend program decisions. It provides a better ability to understand and manage programmatic risks. The underlying concept for PRISM is that DOE-EM 'owns' a portfolio of environmental legacy obligations (ELOs), and that its mission is to transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, in the most effective way possible. There are many types of ELOs - - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. For a given suite of planned activities, PRISM simulates the outcomes as they play out over time, allowing for all key identified uncertainties and risk factors. Each contaminated building, land area and waste stream is tracked from cradle to grave, and all of the linkages affecting different waste streams are captured. The progression of the activities is fully dynamic, reflecting DOE-EM's prioritization approaches, precedence requirements, available funding, and the consequences of risks and uncertainties. The top level of PRISM is the end-user interface that allows rapid evaluation of alternative scenarios and viewing the results in a variety of useful ways. PRISM is a fully probabilistic model, allowing the user to specify uncertainties in input data (such as the magnitude of an existing groundwater plume, or the total cost to complete a planned activity) as well as specific risk events that might occur. PRISM is based on the GoldSim software that is widely used for risk

  12. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations.

  13. Notice of construction for tank waste remediation system vadose zone characterization

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-05-04

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of constriction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 millirem/year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this initial start-up notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with vadose zone characterization within the Single-Shell Tank Farms located in the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. Vadose zone characterization activities include the drilling and sampling

  14. Notice of Construction for Tank Waste Remediation System Vadose Zone Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    2000-04-20

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. The original NOC was submitted in May of 1999 as DOm-99-34. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 milliredyear total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial start-up in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this initial start-up notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with vadose zone characterization within the Single-Shell Tank Farms located in the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. Vadose zone

  15. Notice of Construction for Tank Waste Remediation System Vadose Zone Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    2000-03-08

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. The original NOC was submitted in May of 1999 as DOE/TU-99-34. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 millirem/year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(axl), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this initial start-up notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with vadose zone characterization within the Single-Shell Tank Farms located in the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. Vadose zone

  16. SRL in-situ tests in the United Kingdom: Part 2, Surface analyses of SRS waste glass buried for one and two years in limestone at Ballidon, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Namboodri, C.G. Jr.; Wicks, G.G.

    1991-02-26

    A multiphase experimental program to assess and understand waste glass behavior under a wide range of conditions has been in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for over a decade. An important part of this experimental effort is to assess the effects of repository relevant conditions on performance of SRS waste glass, in both controlled laboratory tests, as well as in actual field experiments. In laboratory test, SRS waste glass, simulated and in many cases also fully radioactive, has been tested in environments of salt, basalt, shale, granite, clay and tuff. In field experiments, there are four joint international programs being conducted in four different countries, involving burial of SRS simulated waste glass in granite, limestone, clay and salt geologies. This report discusses the SRS waste glass studies in limestone at Ballidon, UK..

  17. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. and Associates, Seattle, WA )

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: FY 1994 program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. In an effort to focus resources and address priority needs, EM-50 introduced the concept of integrated programs (IPs) and integrated demonstrations (IDs). The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) focuses research and development on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. Using in situ remediation technologies to clean up DOE sites minimizes adverse health effects on workers and the public by reducing contact exposure. The technologies also reduce cleanup costs by orders of magnitude. This report summarizes project work conducted in FY 1994 under the ISR IP in three major areas: treatment (bioremediation), treatment (physical/chemical), and containment technologies. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized waste are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive waste, volatile and nonvolatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials.

  19. LIFETIME PREDICTIONS OF TOXIC AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL AND REMEDIATION SCHEMES

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Wesolowski; R.C. Ewing; J. Bruno

    2005-06-28

    order to have a significant impact on global carbon emissions, worldwide nuclear and other carbon-free energy sources would have to increase tenfold by 2050. If this increase came entirely from electrical power plants using the once-through nuclear fuel cycle, about 3,500 new 1-GW plants would be needed, that would generate enough spent fuel to fill a Yucca Mountain-sized repository every year. Though this extreme scenario is not likely to unfold, it seems inevitable that we need this source of energy, if the public can be assured that the operation of these plants, and the disposal of the wastes generated from their operation, can be made acceptably safe. The Yucca Mountain field trip provided an excellent opportunity for a diverse cross section of engineers and geoscientists to gain a clearer perspective on the nature and problems related to this particular type of repository. The symposium not only brought together a similar broad cross section of scientists and engineers, but provided a forum for comparing and contrasting different repository designs being considered throughout the world, different methods of assessing their performance characteristics, and the surprisingly broad array of geochemical inputs needed in order to succeed in this Grand Challenge.

  20. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3, Appendix B, Technical findings and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation Report on Waste Area Grouping, (NVAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting, the results of a site chacterization for public review. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.1.05.40.02 (Activity Data Sheet 3305, ``WAG 5``). Publication of this document meets a Federal Facility Agreement milestone of March 31, 1995. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at WAG 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding, the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5.

  1. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  2. Integrated management of organic wastes for remediation of massive tailings storage facilities under semiarid mediterranean climate type: efficacy of organic pork residues as study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; España, Helena; Gardeweg, Rosario; Bas, Fernando; Gandarillas, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    Remediation of large surface areas of massive mine wastes, such as tailings storage facilities (TSFs) is challenging, particularly when no topsoils have been stored for the mine closure stage. Worldwide, it has been demonstrated that the use of organic wastes as substrate amendments for remediation of hard rock mine wastes is a useful alternative to topsoils material. In the case of semi-arid climate conditions of north-central Chile, the copper mining industry has generated massive TSF (between 400 ha and 3,000 ha) which needs now to be properly closed according to recently established mine closure regulations. However, in most of the cases, there have been no topsoils savage that facilitate the initial stage of the site remediation. Industrial organic wastes (i.e. biosolids) are found in the area, but their availability is normally below the demand needed for remediation of TSFs and salt content is normally elevated, thus posing salinization risks to the substrate and negative plant growth. We focused on a large organic waste producing industry, the pork industry, whose growth has been restricted due to the limited possibilities for using pig slurries as amendments for croplands in north-central Chile and the strong odor generated, resulting in conflicts with local communities. Incorporation of pig slurries as amendments to post-operative TSFs has been scarcely evaluated at international level (i.e. Spain) and no evaluation at all exists for the solid organic fraction generated from pig slurry treatment plants (PSTP). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of both pig slurries (PS) and the solid fraction of PSTP (SF-PSTP) as tailings amendment for creating good plant productivity on TSFs located under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions in north-central Chile. A short-term greenhouse study was developed. Copper mine tailings were mixed either with PS (0, 40, 80, and 120 m3 ha-1) or SF-PSTP (0, 25, 50 and 75 t ha-1), distributed in 3 L pots, and

  3. Data Management Plan and Functional System Design for the Information Management System of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation and Waste Area Grouping 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, T.; Brandt, C.; Calfee, J.; Garland, M.; Holladay, S.; Nickle, B.; Schmoyer, D.; Serbin, C.; Ward, M.

    1994-03-01

    The Data Management Plan and Functional System Design supports the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) and Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Environmental Monitoring Program. The objective of the Data Management Plan and Functional System Design is to provide organization, integrity, security, traceability, and consistency of the data generated during the CRRI and WAG 6 projects. Proper organization will ensure that the data are consistent with the procedures and requirements of the projects. The Information Management Groups (IMGs) for these two programs face similar challenges and share many common objectives. By teaming together, the IMGs have expedited the development and implementation of a common information management strategy that benefits each program.

  4. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  5. Quality Assurance Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, G.P.; Miller, D.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Site Investigation (SI)includes the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage and enbayment, and associated floodplain and subsurface environment. The ORNL main plant and the major waste storage and disposal facilities at ORNL are located in the WOC watershed and are drained by the WOC system to the Clinch River, located off-site. Environmental media are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from hydrologically upgradient WAGS. WAG 2 is important as a conduit from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. The general objectives of the WAG 2 SI Project are to conduct a multimedia monitoring and characterization program to define and monitor the input of contaminants from adjacent WAGS, monitor and gather sufficient information for processes controlling or driving contaminant fluxes to construct an appropriate conceptual model for WAG 2, and prepare for the eventual remediation of WAG 2.

  6. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  7. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3 -- Appendix B: Technical findings and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5. Sections B1.1 through B1.4 present an overview of the environmental setting of WAG 5, including location, population, land uses, ecology, and climate, and Sects. B1.5 through B1.7 give site-specific details (e.g., topography, soils, geology, and hydrology). The remediation investigation (RI) of WAG 5 did not entail en exhaustive characterization of all physical attributes of the site; the information presented here focuses on those most relevant to the development and verification of the WAG 5 conceptual model. Most of the information presented in this appendix was derived from the RI field investigation, which was designed to complement the existing data base from earlier, site-specific studies of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 and related areas.

  8. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2 -- Appendix A: Characterization methods and data summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5. This appendix presents background regulatory and technical information regarding the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at WAG 5 to address requirements established by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The US Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to conduct remedial investigations (RIs) under the FFA at various sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including SWMUs and other areas of concern on WAG 5. The appendix gives an overview of the regulatory background to provide the context in which the WAG 5 RI was planned and implemented and documents how historical sources of data, many of which are SWMU-specific, were evaluated and used.

  9. Problems of management of medical solid waste at primary health care centres in the Palestinian Territory and their remedial measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, I A

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to investigate the management aspects of medical solid waste (MSW) at primary health care centres in Nablus and Salfit governorates in the West Bank, Palestine. We interviewed 190 health care staff from primary health care centres in this area. The most frequent type of waste produced was sharps waste: only 5.3% of respondents said this was never produced. Infectious waste was the second most frequent type produced. Only 40.4% of the respondents stated that hazardous MSW was always treated. Over 80% said that non-sharps MSW was separated into its different components, but almost 20% said that sharps were not placed in special containers. We recorded a mean of 34 g of hazardous solid waste and 55 g of non-hazardous solid waste generated per outpatient per day. Staff awareness and training, separation of MSW, establishment of simple treatment facilities are the major measures suggested for improvement of the waste management practices.

  10. Buried Craters of Utopia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003

    Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. In-situ stabilization of TRU/mixed waste project at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Milian, L.W.; Heiser, J.H.; Adams, J.W.; Rutenkroeger, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, buried waste poses a threat to the environment by means of contaminant transport. Many of the sites contain buried waste that is untreated, prior to disposal, or insufficiently treated, by today`s standards. One option to remedy these disposal problems is to stabilize the waste in situ. This project was in support of the Transuranic/Mixed Buried Waste - Arid Soils product line of the Landfill Focus Area, which is managed currently by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (BNL) provided the analytical laboratory and technical support for the various stabilization activities that will be performed as part of the In Situ Stabilization of TRU/Mixed Waste project at the INEL. More specifically, BNL was involved in laboratory testing that included the evaluation of several grouting materials and their compatibility, interaction, and long-term durability/performance, following the encapsulation of various waste materials. The four grouting materials chosen by INEL were: TECT 1, a two component, high density cementious grout, WAXFIX, a two component, molten wax product, Carbray 100, a two component elastomeric epoxy, and phosphate cement, a two component ceramic. A simulated waste stream comprised of sodium nitrate, Canola oil, and INEL soil was used in this study. Seven performance and durability tests were conducted on grout/waste specimens: compressive strength, wet-dry cycling, thermal analysis, base immersion, solvent immersion, hydraulic conductivity, and accelerated leach testing.

  12. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

  13. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    PubMed

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  14. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  15. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-08-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  16. Review of buried crystalline rocks of eastern United States in selected hydrogeologic environments potentially suitable for isolating high-level radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Among the concepts suggested for the deep disposal of high-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power reactors is the excavation of a repository in suitable crystalline rocks overlain by a thick sequence of sedimentary strata in a hydrogeologic environment that would effectively impede waste transport. To determine the occurrence of such environments in the Eastern United States, a review was made of available sources of published or unpublished information, using the following hydrogeologic criteria: (1) the top of the crystalline basement rock is 1,000 to 4,000 feet below land surface; (2) the crystalline rock is overlain by sedimentary rock whose lowermost part, at least, contains groundwater with a dissolved-solids concentration of 10,000 milligrams per liter or more; (3) shale and or clay confining beds overlie the saline-water aquifer; and (4) the flow system in the saline-water aquifer is known or determinable from presently available data. All of these hydrogeologic conditions occur in two general areas: (1) parts of Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky, underlain by part of the geologic structure known as the Cincinnati arch, and (2) parts of the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Georgia to New Jersey. (USGS)

  17. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  18. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  19. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  20. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Donehey, A.J.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.; Rubert, A.L.; Walker, S.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule (in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping). Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report.

  1. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  2. Fall Protection Procedures for Sealing Bulk Waste Shipments by Rail Cars at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Sites - 13509

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.D.; Fort, E. Joseph; Lorenz, William; Mills, Andy

    2013-07-01

    Rail-cars loaded with radioactive materials must be closed and fastened to comply with United States Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements before they shipped. Securing waste shipments in a manner that meets these regulations typically results in the use of a sealable rail-car liner. Workers accessing the tops of the 2.74 m high rail-cars to seal and inspect liners for compliance prior to shipment may be exposed to a fall hazard. Relatively recent revisions to the Fall Protection requirements in the Safety and Health Requirements Manual (EM385-1-1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) have necessitated modifications to the fall protection systems previously employed for rail-car loading at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In response these projects have developed site-specific procedures to protect workers and maintain compliance with the improved fall protection regulations. (authors)

  3. Waste minimization opportunities at the U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Rifle, Colorado, site

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, G.L.; Arp, S.; Hempill, H.

    1993-12-31

    At two uranium mill sites in Rifle, Colorado, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is removing uranium mill tailings and contaminated subgrade soils. This remediation activity will result in the production of groundwater contaminated with uranium, heavy metals, ammonia, sulfates, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The initial remediation plan called for a wastewater treatment plant for removal of the uranium, heavy metals, and ammonia, with disposal of the treated water, which still includes the sulfates and TDSS, to the Colorado River. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit issued by the Colorado Department of Health for the two Rifle sites contained more restrictive discharge limits than originally anticipated. During the detailed review of alternate treatment systems to meet these more restrictive limits, the proposed construction procedures were reviewed emphasizing the methods to minimize groundwater production to reduce the size of the water treatment facility, or to eliminate it entirely. It was determined that with changes to the excavation procedures and use of the contaminated groundwater for use in dust suppression at the disposal site, discharge to the river could be eliminated completely.

  4. Remediation of Highland Drive Landfill: Technical Challenges of Segregating Co-Mingled LLRW and Municipal Solid Waste in an Urbanized Area - 13319

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Jeff; Lawrence, Dave; Case, Glenn; Fergusson Jones, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Highland Drive Landfill is an inactive Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill which received waste from the 1940's until its closure in 1991. During a portion of its active life, the Landfill received low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) which currently exists both in a defined layer and co-mingled with MSW. Remediation of this site to remove the LLRW to meet established cleanup criteria, forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The total volume of LLRW and co-mingled LLRW/MSW estimated to require removal from the Highland Drive Landfill is approximately 51,900 cubic metres (m{sup 3}). The segregation and removal of LLRW at the Highland Drive Landfill presents a number of unique technical challenges due to the co-mingled waste and location of the Landfill in an urbanized area. Key challenges addressed as part of the design process included: delineation of the extent of LLRW, development of cut lines, and estimation of the quantity of co-mingled LLRW in a heterogeneous matrix; protection of adjacent receptors in a manner which would not impact the use of adjacent facilities which include residences, a recreational facility, and a school; coordination and phasing of the work to allow management of six separate material streams including clean soil, MSW, co-mingled LLRW/MSW, LLRW, un-impacted water, and impacted water/leachate within a confined environment; and development of a multi-tiered and adaptive program of monitoring and control measures for odour, dust, and water including assessment of risk of exceedance of monitoring criteria. In addition to ensuring public safety and protection of the environment during remedy implementation, significant effort in the design process was paid to balancing the advantages of increased certainty, including higher production rates, against the costs of attaining increased

  5. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  6. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Containment technology refers to a broad range of methods that are used to contain waste or contaminated groundwater and to keep uncontaminated water from entering a waste site. The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development has instituted the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) to advance the state-of-the-art of innovative technologies that contain or treat, in situ, contaminated media such as soil and groundwater, to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. The information provided here is an overview of the state-of-the-art of containment technology and includes a discussion of ongoing development projects; identifies the technical gaps; discusses the priorities for resolution of the technical gaps; and identifies the site parameters affecting the application of a specific containment method. The containment technology described in this document cover surface caps; vertical barriers such as slurry walls, grout curtains, sheet pilings, frozen soil barriers, and vitrified barriers; horizontal barriers; sorbent barriers; and gravel layers/curtains. Within DOE, containment technology could be used to prevent water infiltration into buried waste; to provide for long-term containment of pits, trenches, and buried waste sites; for the interim containment of leaking underground storage tanks and piping; for the removal of contaminants from groundwater to prevent contamination from migrating off-site; and as an interim measure to prevent the further migration of contamination during the application of an in situ treatment technology such as soil flushing. The ultimate goal is the implementation of containment technology at DOE sites as a cost-effective, efficient, and safe choice for environmental remediation and restoration activities.

  7. Recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum and utilization for remediation of acid mine drainage from coal mines.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Radebe, V

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum (a waste product of the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process) was tested using sodium carbonate. Batch recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum slurries by reacting with sodium carbonate under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of CaCO(3) recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effect of key process parameters, such as the slurry concentration (%) and the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum were considered. It was observed that batch waste gypsum conversion significantly increased with decrease in the slurry concentration or increase in the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench-scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  8. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  9. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  10. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  11. Field demonstration of in situ treatment of buried low-level radioactive solid waste with caustic soda and soda ash to immobilize /sup 90/Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1984-02-01

    A low-level radioactive solid waste disposal trench was injected on four occasions with solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, caustic soda, and lime/soda ash, respectively. Because investigations had indicated that /sup 90/Sr could be coprecipitated with soil calcium carbonate by treatment with soda ash, this demonstration was undertaken as a test of its technical feasibility. After concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and water hardness decreased within the intratrench monitoring wells; one well at the foot of the trench decreased from over 100 to a persistent level of less than 10 kBq of /sup 90/Sr per liter. Recharge of /sup 90/Sr from the trench to a sump immediately below was reduced by about 90%. Water hardness and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were strongly correlated through time within each monitoring well, indicating that /sup 90/Sr behaved as a tracer for soil calcium and magnesium. The disappearance of /sup 90/Sr from the trench water, therefore, was an in situ water softening. Soil samples retrieved from the trench indicated that as much as 98% of the total /sup 90/Sr was present as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate. The hydrologic characterization of this trench indicated an average void space of 41% and an average trench-wall hydraulic conductivity of 3.4 x 10/sup -7/ m/s. Sampling of the trench's discharge contamination plume indicated that it had resulted from a combination of subsurface seepage and bathtub overflow during infrequent periods of intense precipitation. A generic assessment of soda ash treatment indicated that treatment would be most effective for soils of high cation exchange capacity with either low (< 20%) or high (> 80%) basic cation saturation of that cation exchange capacity.

  12. "Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER62492 "Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites"

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Daly, Ph.D.

    2005-03-17

    The groundwater and sediments of numerous U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) field sites are contaminated with mixtures of heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Cr, Pd) and radionuclides (e.g., U, Tc), as well as the fuel hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX); chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene (TCE); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The remediation of such mixed wastes constitutes an immediate and complex waste management challenge for DOE, particularly in light of the costliness and limited efficacy of current physical and chemical strategies for treating mixed wastes. In situ bioremediation via natural microbial processes (e.g., metal reduction) remains a potent, potentially cost-effective approach to the reductive immobilization or detoxification of environmental contaminants. Seventy million cubic meters of soil and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Our recent isolation and characterization of D. radiodurans from a variety of DOE environments, including highly radioactive sediments beneath one of the leaking tanks (SX-108) at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state, underscores the potential for this species to survive in such extreme environments. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive waste sites was started by this group in September 1997 with support from DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-97ER62492. Our grant was renewed for the period 2000-2003, which includes work on the thermophilic radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Work funded by the existing grant contributed to 18 papers in the period 1997-2004 on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of radioactive waste environments. Our progress since September

  13. Success of the Melton Valley Watershed Remediation at the ORNL - 12351

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, David; Wilkerson, Laura; Sims, Lynn; Ketelle, Richard; Garland, Sid

    2012-07-01

    The source remediation of the Melton Valley (MV) Watershed at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory was completed 5 years ago (September 2006). Historic operations at the laboratory had resulted in chemical and radionuclide contaminant releases and potential risks or hazards within 175 contaminated units scattered across an area of 430 hectares (1062 acres) within the watershed. Contaminated areas included burial grounds, landfills, underground tanks, surface impoundments, liquid disposal pit/trenches, hydrofracture wells, leak and spill spites, inactive surface structures, and contaminated soil and sediments. The remediation of the watershed was detailed in the MV Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD) and included a combination of actions encompassing containment, isolation, stabilization, removal, and treatment of sources within the watershed and established the monitoring and land use controls that would result in protection of human health. The actions would take place over 5 years with an expenditure of over $340 M. The MV remedial actions left hazardous wastes in-place (e.g., buried wastes beneath hydraulic isolation caps) and cleanup at levels that do not allow for unrestricted access and unlimited exposure. The cleanup with the resultant land use would result in a comprehensive monitoring plan for groundwater, surface water, and biological media, as well as the tracking of the land use controls to assure their completion. This paper includes an overview of select performance measures and monitoring results, as detailed in the annual Remediation Effectiveness Report and the Five-Year Report. (authors)

  14. Purification, Characterization, and Potential of Saline Waste Water Remediation of a Polyextremophilic α-Amylase from an Obligate Halophilic Aspergillus gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Imran; Akbar, Ali; Yanwisetpakdee, Benjawan; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2014-01-01

    An obligate halophilic Aspergillus gracilis which was isolated from a hypersaline man-made saltern from Thailand was screened for its potential of producing extracellular α-amylase in the previous studies. In this study the α-amylase was extracted and purified by the help of column chromatography using Sephadex G-100 column. Presence of amylase was verified by SDS-PAGE analysis, showing a single band of approximately 35 kDa. The specific activity of the enzyme was found to be 131.02 U/mg. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed the Vmax and Km values of 8.36 U/mg and 6.33 mg/mL, respectively. The enzyme was found to have the best activity at 5 pH, 60°C, and 30% of NaCl concentration, showing its polyextremophilic nature. The use of various additives did not show much variation in the activity of enzyme, showing its resilience against inhibitors. The enzyme, when tested for its use for synthetic waste water remediation by comparing its activity with commercial amylase in different salt concentrations showed that the α-amylase from A. gracilis was having better performance at increasing salt concentrations than the commercial one. This shows its potential to be applied in saline waste water and other low water activity effluents for bioremediation. PMID:24949415

  15. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    PubMed

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery.

  16. Purification, characterization, and potential of saline waste water remediation of a polyextremophilic α-amylase from an obligate halophilic Aspergillus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Akbar, Ali; Yanwisetpakdee, Benjawan; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2014-01-01

    An obligate halophilic Aspergillus gracilis which was isolated from a hypersaline man-made saltern from Thailand was screened for its potential of producing extracellular α -amylase in the previous studies. In this study the α -amylase was extracted and purified by the help of column chromatography using Sephadex G-100 column. Presence of amylase was verified by SDS-PAGE analysis, showing a single band of approximately 35 kDa. The specific activity of the enzyme was found to be 131.02 U/mg. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed the V max and K m values of 8.36 U/mg and 6.33 mg/mL, respectively. The enzyme was found to have the best activity at 5 pH, 60°C, and 30% of NaCl concentration, showing its polyextremophilic nature. The use of various additives did not show much variation in the activity of enzyme, showing its resilience against inhibitors. The enzyme, when tested for its use for synthetic waste water remediation by comparing its activity with commercial amylase in different salt concentrations showed that the α -amylase from A. gracilis was having better performance at increasing salt concentrations than the commercial one. This shows its potential to be applied in saline waste water and other low water activity effluents for bioremediation.

  17. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 233]U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  18. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 233}U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  19. Closure plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6: Volume 1, Closure plan. Remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This Closure Plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) a disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous materials, of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) describes how portions of SWSA 6 will be closed under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status per 40 CFR 265 Subpart G [TN Rule 1200-1-11-.05(7)]. An overview is provided of activities necessary for final closure and corrective measures for all of SWSA 6. Results of surface waters and groundwater sampling are provided.

  20. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  1. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  2. Developing a strategy and closure criteria for radioactive and mixed waste sites in the ORNL remedial action program: Regulatory interface

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    Some options for stabilization and treatment of contaminated sites can theoretically provide a once-and-for-all solution (e.g., removal or destruction of contaminants). Most realizable options, however, leave contaminants in place (in situ), potentially isolated by physical or chemical, but more typically, by hydrologic measures. As a result of the dynamic nature of the interactions between contaminants, remedial measures, and the environment, in situ stablization measures are likely to have limited life spans, and maintenance and monitoring of performance become an essential part of the scheme. The length of formal institutional control over the site and related questions about future uses of the land and waters are of paramount importance. Unique features of the ORNL site and environs appear to be key ingredients in achieving the very long term institutional control necessary for successful financing and implementation of in situ stabilization. Some formal regulatory interface is necessary to ensure that regulatory limitations and new guidance which can affect planning and implementation of the ORNL Remedial Action Program are communicated to ORNL staff and potential technical and financial limitations which can affect schedules or alternatives for achievement of long-term site stabilization and the capability to meet environmental regulations are provided to regulatory bodies as early as possible. Such an interface should allow decisions on closure criteria to be based primarily on technical merit and protection of human health and the environment. A plan for interfacing with federal and state regulatory authorities is described. 93 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  5. System description for DART (Decision Analysis for Remediation Technologies)

    SciTech Connect

    Nonte, J.; Bolander, T.; Nickelson, D.; Nielson, R.; Richardson, J.; Sebo, D.

    1997-09-01

    DART is a computer aided system populated with influence models to determine quantitative benefits derived by matching requirements and technologies. The DART database is populated with data from over 900 DOE sites from 10 Field Offices. These sites are either source terms, such as buried waste pits, or soil or groundwater contaminated plumes. The data, traceable to published documents, consists of site-specific data (contaminants, area, volume, depth, size, remedial action dates, site preferred remedial option), problems (e.g., offsite contaminant plume), and Site Technology Coordinating Group (STCG) need statements (also contained in the Ten-Year Plan). DART uses this data to calculate and derive site priorities, risk rankings, and site specific technology requirements. DART is also populated with over 900 industry and DOE SCFA technologies. Technology capabilities can be used to match technologies to waste sites based on the technology`s capability to meet site requirements and constraints. Queries may be used to access, sort, roll-up, and rank site data. Data roll-ups may be graphically displayed.

  6. FY 1999 cold demonstration of the Multi-Point Injection (MPI) process for stabilizing contaminated sludge in buried horizontal tanks with limited access at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Spence, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of buried tank waste. Exhumation of the sludge is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation does not typically remove all the contaminated material from the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and uniformly mixed with the sludge. Ground Environmental Services, Inc., has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity, jet-delivery system, which is termed Multi-Point-Injection (MPI{trademark}). This robust jet-delivery system has been used to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow-buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in a cylindrical test tank (FY 1998). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process was able to successfully form a 32-ton uniform monolith in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of a zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within the 40-inch-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies of Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily mixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  7. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  8. Use of mixed solid waste as a soil amendment for saline-sodic soil remediation and oat seedling growth improvement.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuan; Ge, Tian; Zheng, Yanli; Li, Hua; Cheng, Fangqin

    2016-11-01

    Soil salinization has become a worldwide problem that imposes restrictions on crop production and food quality. This study utilizes a soil column experiment to address the potential of using mixed solid waste (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) as soil amendment to ameliorate saline-sodic soil and enhance crop growth. Mixed solid waste with vinegar residue content ranging from 60-90 %, sewage sludge of 8.7-30 %, and fly ash of 1.3-10 % was added to saline-sodic soil (electrical conductivity (EC1:5) = 1.83 dS m(-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR1:5) = 129.3 (mmolc L(-1))(1/2), pH = 9.73) at rates of 0 (control), 130, 260, and 650 kg ha(-1). Results showed that the application of waste amendment significantly reduced SAR, while increasing soil soluble K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+), at a dose of 650 kg ha(-1). The wet stability of macro-aggregates (>1 mm) was improved 90.7-133.7 % when the application rate of amendment was greater than 260 kg ha(-1). The application of this amendment significantly reduced soil pH. Germination rates and plant heights of oats were improved with the increasing rate of application. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of vinegar residue and the K/Na ratio in the soil solutions and roots. These findings suggest that applying a mixed waste amendment (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) could be a cost-effective method for the reclamation of saline-sodic soil and the improvement of the growth of salt-tolerant plants.

  9. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  10. Characterization and remediation of 91B radioactive waste sites under performance based contracts at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, P.A.; Anderson, K.D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges behind the implementation of the characterization, remediation, and the Site Closure for three 91b Radioactive Wastes under a Performance Based Contract at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. The Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) was established by Section 211 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). A part of the DERP provides for the cleanup of hazardous substances associated with past Department of Defense (DoD) activities and is consistent with the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). It is the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP) that has responsibility for the cleanup activities associated with CERCLA. Under contract to the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), the ECC Project Team, that included ECC, Cabrera Services, and Malcolm Pirnie, was responsible for the implementation of the actions at three sites. The three IRP (91b) sites included RW015, a 0.02 square kilometer (5.5 acre) site, RW017 a 0.003 square kilometer (0.9 acre) site, and RW033 an 0.356 square kilometer (88 acre) site. Adding to the complexities of the project were issues of archaeological areas of interest, jurisdictional wetlands, land open to hunting, issues of security as well as compliance to the myriad of air force base rules, regulations, and Air Force Instructions (AFI). The award of the project task order was July of 2005, the project plan phase started in July of 2005 followed by the remedy implementation that included characterization and remediation as required reached completion in June of 2006. The project closure including the development and approval final status survey reports, proposed plans, and decision documents that parallel the CERCLA process was initiated in June of 2006 and is expected to reach completion in August of 2007. This paper will focus on the issues of working to achieve radiological

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Aberdeen Pesticide/Fairway Six, Inc. (First Remedial Action), June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-30

    The Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps/Fairway Six site is a former disposal area in Moore County, North Carolina, approximately 1.6 miles west-northwest of Aberdeen. In August 1984, the State was alerted that pesticides had been disposed of at and around the site for a number of years. A State inspection revealed that soil and debris were contaminated with pesticides. In June 1985, EPA initiated an emergency response action to excavate and remove onsite contaminated surface soil and two buried trenches. The soil and debris were disposed of offsite. The predominant contaminants of concern affecting the soil and debris are chlorinated organo-pesticides. The selected remedial action for this site includes excavating and homogenizing stockpiled pesticide-contaminated wastes; treating homogenized wastes in an onsite, mobile thermal treatment facility and reinjecting process waste water or scrubber blowdown into the thermal treatment facility.

  12. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed responses to internal independent assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schaus, P.S.

    1998-01-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to make critical decisions during fiscal year (FY) 1998 regarding privatization contracts for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. Specifically, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL), will make decisions related to proceeding with Phase 1 Privatization. In support of these decisions, the management and integration (M+I) contractor must be able to meet the requirements to support the Phase 1 privatization contractors. As part of the assessment of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR) Readiness-To-Proceed (RTP), an independent review of their process and products was required by the RL letter of August 8, 1997. The Independent Review Team reviewed the adequacy of the planning that has been done by the M+I contractor to validate that, if the plans are carried out, there is reasonable assurance of success. Overall, the RTP Independent Review Team concluded that, if the planning by the M+I contractor team is carried out with adequate funding, there is reasonable assurance that the M+I contractor will be able to deliver waste to the privatization contractor for the duration of Phase 1. This conclusion was based on addressing the recommendations contained in the Independent Review Team`s Final Report and in the individual Criteria and Review Approach (CRA) forms completed during the assessment. The purpose of this report is to formally document the independent assessment and the RTP team responses to the Independent Review Team recommendations. It also provides closure logics for selected recommendations from a Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) internal assessment of the Technical Basis Review (TBR) packages. This report contains the RTP recommendation closure process (Section 2.0); the closure tables (Section 3.0) which provide traceability between each review team recommendation and its corresponding Project Hanford Management Contract closure logic; and two attachments that formally document the Independent Review Team

  13. Investigation of biologically-designed metal-specific chelators for potential metal recovery and waste remediation applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria, algae and plants produce metal-specific chelators to capture required nutrient or toxic trace metals. Biological systems are thought to be very efficient, honed by evolutionary forces over time. Understanding the approaches used by living organisms to select for specific metals in the environment may lead to design of cheaper and more effective approaches for metal recovery and contaminant-metal remediation. In this study, the binding of a common siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO-B), to three aqueous metal cations, Fe(II), Fe(III), and UO{sub 2}(VI) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics. DFO-B has three acetohydroxamate groups and a terminal amine group that all deprotonate with increasing pH. For all three metals, complexes with DFO-B (-2) are the most stable and favored under alkaline conditions. Under more acidic conditions, the metal-DFO complexes involve chelation with both acetohydroxamate and acetylamine groups. The approach taken here allows for detailed investigation of metal binding to biologically-designed organic ligands.

  14. A remediation strategy based on active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation in a soil contaminated by pyrite waste.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Almela, Concepción; Bernal, M Pilar

    2006-10-01

    Phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils can be promoted by the proper use of soil amendments and agricultural practices. A 4-year phytoremediation programme was applied to a site affected by the toxic spill of pyrite residue at Aznalcóllar (Spain) in 1998, contaminated with heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) and arsenic. This consisted of active phytoremediation, using organic amendments (cow manure and compost) and lime and growing two successive crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., followed by natural attenuation without further intervention. Changes in soil pH, extractable metal and As concentrations, organic carbon content and microbial biomass was evaluated. The initial oxidation of metal sulphides from pyrite residues released soluble metals and reduced soil pH to extremely acidic values (mean 4.1, range 2.0-7.0). The addition of lime (up to 64 t ha(-1)) increased soil pH to adequate values for plant growth, resulting in a significant decrease in DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in all plots. The natural attenuation phase showed also a decrease in extractable metals. Organic treatments increased the soil total organic carbon, which led to higher values of microbial biomass (11.6, 15.2 and 14.9 g kg(-1) TOC and 123, 170 and 275 microg g(-1) biomass-C in control, compost and manure plots, respectively). Active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation, was effective for remediation of this pyrite-polluted soil.

  15. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Hanford Mission Plan specifically addresses the tank waste issue and clarifies the link with other initiatives, such as improving management practices and the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE/RL-91-31). This document captures the results of decision making regarding the application of systems engineering at the Hanford Site, external involvement policy, and site end-state goals. Section 3.5 of the Hanford Mission Plan on Decisions and Directives provides an integrating discussion of the actions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE policy, guidance, and decisions associated with binding agreements such as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Two significant components of the Hanford Mission Plan 1994 planning basis are (1) the decisions regarding the disposition of onsite material inventory, and the key programs and interfaces to accomplish this; and (2) the Program Interface Issues section, which identified issues that stretch across program boundaries.

  16. Design and construction of a circulating fluidized bed combustion facility for use in studying the thermal remediation of wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, Karl K.; Kozinski, Janusz A.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Lu, Quing

    1994-08-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems have been widely applied in the combustion of solid fossil fuels, particularly by the power generation industry. Recently, attention has shifted from the conventional bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) to circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion systems. Inherent advantages of CFB combustion such as uniform temperatures, excellent mixing, high combustion efficiencies, and greater fuel flexibility have generated interest in the feasibility of CFB combustion systems applied to the thermal remediation of contaminated soils and sludges. Because it is often difficult to monitor and analyze the combustion phenomena that occurs within a full scale fluidized bed system, the need exists for smaller scale research facilities which permit detailed measurements of temperature, pressure, and chemical specie profiles. This article describes the design, construction, and operation of a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility developed to investigate the thermal remediation characteristics of contaminated soils and sludges. The refractory-lined reactor measures 8 m in height and has an external diameter of 0.6 m. The facility can be operated as a BFB or CFB using a variety of solid fuels including low calorific or high moisture content materials supplemented by natural gas introduced into the fluidized bed through auxiliary fuel injectors. Maximum firing rate of the fluidized bed is approximately 300 kW. Under normal operating conditions, internal wall temperatures are maintained between 1150 and 1350 K over superficial velocities ranging from 0.5 to 4 m/s. Contaminated material can be continuously fed into the fluidized bed or introduced as a single charge at three different locations. The facility is fully instrumented to allow time-resolved measurements of gaseous pollutant species, gas phase temperatures, and internal pressures. The facility has produced reproducible fluidization results which agree well with the work of other researchers. Minimum

  17. Characterization of wastes in and around early reactors at the Hanford Site: The use of historical research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This paper will present the waste characterization knowledge that has been gained in the first, ``Large-Scale Remediation Study`` to be performed on the reactor areas (100 Areas) of the Hanford Site. Undertaken throughout the past year, this research project has identified thousands of pieces of buried hardware, as well as the volumes of liquid wastes in burial sites in the reactor areas. The author of this landmark study, Dr. Michele Gerber, will discuss historical research as a safe and cost-effective characterization tool.

  18. Personnel protection through reconnaissance robotics at Superfund remedial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, U.; Esposito, C.; Sullivan, D.

    1992-01-01

    Investigation, mitigation, and clean-up of hazardous materials at Superfund sites normally require on-site workers to perform hazardous and sometimes potentially dangerous functions. Such functions include site surveys and the reconnaissance for airborne and buried toxic environmental contaminants. Workers conducting on-site air monitoring risk dermal, ocular and inhalation exposure to hazardous chemicals, while those performing excavations also risk in addition the potential exposure to fire, explosion, and other physical injury. EPA's current efforts to protect its workers and mitigate these risks include the use of robotic devices. Using robots offers the ultimate in personnel protection by removing the worker from the site of potential exposure. The paper describes the demonstration of a commercially-available robotic platform modified and equipped for air monitoring and the ongoing research for the development of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) system to detect buried chemical waste drums. These robotic devices can be ultimately routinely deployed in the field for the purpose of conducting inherently safe reconnaissance activities during Superfund/SARA remedial operations.

  19. Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable: Five Years of Cooperation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of the activities of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable--a working group seeking to build a more collaborative atmosphere among the federal agencies involved in hazardous waste site remediation.

  20. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes.

  1. Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

    1996-12-31

    Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

  2. Field scale remediation of mine wastes at an abandoned gold mine, Australia II: Effects on plant growth and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddocks, Greg; Lin, Chuxia; McConchie, David

    2009-05-01

    This second paper reports the results of plant growth, plant mortality, plant leaf tissue metal and salt concentrations and leachate quality monitoring from lysimeters in four large field trial treatments established on sulfidic waste rock/soil that was used for haul road construction at a closed gold mine in Australia. The TerraB™, lime and clay treatments allowed good tree growth of four Eucalypt species, compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in tree growth between the TerraB™, lime or clay treatments over the 2 years of monitoring in this paper. However, the growth of one tree species was poor in the TerraB™ treatment. Leaf tissue metal and major ion data are also presented. Leachate pH in the control became increasingly acidic (pH 4.57-3.95). The addition of Ca(OH)2 and biosolids led to an initial increase in leachate pH, compared to the control; however, this has decreased over the duration of the study (pH 5.37-4.89) and may affect the sustainable growth of plants in the future. In the TerraB™ and biosolids treatment leachate pH increased to 6.92 after the first rainfall event and continued to increase over the duration of the study to pH 7.4 after 24 months. After 24 months average heavy metal leachate concentrations (mg/L) in the lysimeters for Al, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn were, control: 32.55, 5.67, 12.71, 39.29, 121.80, TerraB™: 0.07, 0.02, 0.07, 0.57, 0.23, and lime: 2.19, 1.19, 2.33, 3.6, 28.4. No leachate was available for collection from the clay treatment indicating that this technique was functioning in terms of minimizing the infiltration of water into the mine soil.

  3. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  4. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Grande, Nancy K.; Clark, Gregory A.; Durbin, Philip F.; Fields, David J.; Hernandez, Jose E.; Sherwood, Robert J.

    1991-08-01

    A precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement is developed. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. The methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. The method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 degree(s)C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1 degree(s)C or 2 degree(s)C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, it is possible to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectral, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. The authors have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less than 60 m deep. The technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. For the former, buried tunnels, underground structures built beneath typical surface structures, roof-tops disguised by jungle canopies, and covered containers used for contraband would be located. For the latter, buried waste containers, sludge migration pathways from faulty containers, and the juxtaposition of groundwater channels, if present, nearby, would be depicted. The precise airborne temperature-sensing technology has a promising potential

  6. Summary of Remediated and Unremediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Testing in Support of the Waste Treatment Permit Application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John

    2016-06-22

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report briefly summarizes the surrogate testing that was done in support of our understanding of this waste form.

  7. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

  8. SYNOPSES OF FEDERAL DEMONSTRATIONS OF INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collection of abstracts, compiled by the Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable, describes field demonstrations of innovative technologies to treat hazardous waste. The collection is intended to be an information resource for hazardous waste site project managers for asse...

  9. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  10. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  11. Ultrasonic isolation of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is used routinely for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to above ground configurations due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this paper, the effect of pipe coatings on the guided wave attenuation is investigated with the aim of increasing test ranges for buried pipelines. The attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes is measured using a full-scale experimental apparatus in a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8 in. pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand. Tests are performed over a frequency range typically used in GWT of 10-35 kHz and compared with model predictions. It is shown that the application of a low impedance coating between the FBE layer and the sand effectively decouples the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. Ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe is demonstrated by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both the pipe and sand, and has the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is found to be substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dB m-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to measured attenuation of 1.7-4.7 dB m-1 in the buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry and incorporated into model predictions of guided wave propagation in buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the experimental measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges; such

  12. Toxic Remediation System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1996-07-23

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  13. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  14. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E.

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described.

  15. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  16. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  17. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  18. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  19. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  20. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  1. Saxton soil remediation project

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described.

  2. Buried metalic object identification by EMI sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet; Kaplan, Gülay; Birim, Melih; Bahadırlar, Yıldırım

    2007-04-01

    Electromagnetic Induction sensor (Metal Detector) has wide application areas for buried metallic object searching, such as detection of buried pipes, mine and mine like-targets, etc. In this paper, identification of buried metallic objects was studied. The distinctive features of the signal were obtained, than classification process was performed. Identification process was realized by utilizing k-Nearest neighbor and Neural Network Classifiers.

  3. Reimagining Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.; Williams, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the College Board's Community College Advisory Panel--a group of college presidents that advises the organization's membership on community college issues--asked these authors to write a paper describing effective remedial education programs. They never wrote the paper. The problem was not the lack of dedicated faculty and staff working…

  4. Regulatory Aspects Of Implementing Electrokinetic Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the environmental impact of hazardous waste management practices has led to new environmental laws and a comprehensive regulatory program. This program is designed to address remediation of past waste management practices and to ensure that the hazardou...

  5. HANDBOOK: APPROACHES FOR REMEDIATION OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This publication was developed by the Center for Environmental Research Information (CERI), Office of Research and Development, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The information in the document is based primarily on presentations at two technology transfer seminar series: Technologies for Remediating Sites Contaminated with Explosive and Radioactive Wastes, sponsored jointly by EPA and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in spring and summer 1993; and Radioactive Site Remediation, sponsored by EPA and the Department of Energy (DOE) in summer 1992. Additional information has been provided by technical experts from EPA, DOD, DOE, academia, and private industry. present information

  6. REMEDIATION FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  7. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

  8. Aeromagnetic Expression of Buried Basaltic Volcanoes Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.; Mankinen, E.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey has defined a number of small dipolar anomalies indicating the presence of magnetic bodies buried beneath the surface of Crater Flat and the Amargosa Desert. Results of potential-field modeling indicate that isolated, small-volume, highly magnetic bodies embedded within the alluvial deposits of both areas produce the anomalies. Their physical characteristics and the fact that they tend to be aligned along major structural trends provide strong support for the hypothesis that the anomalies reflect buried basaltic volcanic centers. Other, similar anomalies are identified as possible targets for further investigation. High-resolution gravity and ground-magnetic surveys, perhaps along with drilling sources of selected anomalies and radiometric age determinations, can provide valuable constraints in estimating potential volcanic hazard to the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. The Oak Ridge Field Research Center : Advancing Scientific Understanding of the Transportation, Fate, and Remediation of Subsurface Contamination Sources and Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    David Watson

    2005-04-18

    Historical research, development, and testing of nuclear materials across this country resulted in subsurface contamination that has been identified at over 7,000 discrete sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. With the end of the Cold War threat, DOE has shifted its emphasis to remediation, decommissioning, and decontamination of the immense volumes of contaminated groundwater, sediments, and structures at its sites. DOE currently is responsible for remediating 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to approximately four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of contaminated soil, enough to fill approximately 17 professional sports stadiums.* DOE also sponsors research intended to improve or develop remediation technologies, especially for difficult, currently intractable contaminants or conditions. The Oak Ridge FRC is representative of some difficult sites, contaminants, and conditions. Buried wastes in contact with a shallow water table have created huge reservoirs of contamination. Rainfall patterns affect the water table level seasonally and over time. Further, the hydrogeology of the area, with its fractures and karst geology, affects the movement of contaminant plumes. Plumes have migrated long distances and to surface discharge points through ill-defined preferred flowpaths created by the fractures and karst conditions. From the standpoint of technical effectiveness, remediation options are limited, especially for contaminated groundwater. Moreover, current remediation practices for the source areas, such as capping, can affect coupled processes that, in turn, may affect the movement of subsurface contaminants in unknown ways. Research conducted at the FRC or with FRC samples therefore promotes understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of extant remediation options, and the

  10. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  11. Remediation of a Former USAF Radioactive Material Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. E.; Cushman, M; Tupyi, B.; Lambert, J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the remediation of a low-level radiological waste burial site located at the former James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas. Burial activities at the site occurred during the 1950's when the property was under the ownership of the United States Air Force. Included is a discussion of methods and strategies that were used to successfully exhume and characterize the wastes for proper disposal at offsite disposal facilities. Worker and environmental protection measures are also described. Information gained from this project may be used at other similar project sites. A total of nine burial tubes had been identified for excavation, characterization, and removal from the site. The disposal tubes were constructed of 4-ft lengths of concrete pipe buried upright with the upper ends flush with ground surface. Initial ground level observations of the burial tubes indicated that some weathering had occurred; however, the condition of the subsurface portions of the tubes was unknown. Soil excavation occurred in 1-foot lifts in order that the tubes could be inspected and to allow for characterization of the soils at each stage of the excavation. Due to the weight of the concrete pipe and the condition of the piping joints it was determined that special measures would be required to maintain the tubes intact during their removal. Special tube anchoring and handling methods were required to relocate the tubes from their initial positions to a staging area where they could be further characterized. Characterization of the disposal tubes was accomplished using a combination of gamma spectroscopy and activity mapping methods. Important aspects of the project included the use of specialized excavation and disposal tube reinforcement measures to maintain the disposal tubes intact during excavation, removal and subsequent characterization. The non-intrusive gamma spectroscopy and data logging methods allowed for effective characterization of the wastes while

  12. Biotoxin Safety and Waste Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the biotoxins included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  13. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  14. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  15. Remedial site evaluation report for the waste area grouping 10 wells associated with the new hydrofracture facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Field activities and well summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Four hydrofracture sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for development, demonstration, and disposal from 1959 to 1984. More than 10 million gal of waste grout mix was disposed of via hydrofracture. Various types of wells were installed to monitor the hydrofracture operations. The primary goal of this remedial investigation was to gather information about the wells in order to recommend the type and best method of final disposition for the wells. Evaluations were performed to determine the integrity of well castings, confirm construction details for each well, evaluate the extent of contamination, assist in planning for future activities, and determine the suitability of the wells for future temporary site monitoring.

  16. THE POSITIVE IMPACTS OF AMERICAN REINVESTMENT AND RECOVERY ACT (ARRA) FUNDING TO THE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM ON HANFORD'S PLATEAU REMEDIATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BLACKFORD LT

    2010-01-19

    In April 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) was allocated $1.6 billion (B) in ARRA funding to be applied to cleanup projects at the Hanford Site. DOE-RL selected projects to receive ARRA funding based on 3-criteria: creating/saving jobs, reducing the footprint of the Hanford Site, and reducing life-cycle costs for cleanup. They further selected projects that were currently covered under regulatory documents and existing prime contracts, which allowed work to proceed quickly. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is a prime contractor to the DOE focused on the environmental cleanup of the DOE Hanford Site Central Plateau. CHPRC was slated to receive $1.36B in ARRA funding. As of January, 2010, CHPRC has awarded over $200 million (M) in subcontracts (64% to small businesses), created more that 1,100 jobs, and touched more than 2,300 lives - all in support of long-term objectives for remediation of the Central Plateau, on or ahead of schedule. ARRA funding is being used to accelerate and augment cleanup activities already underway under the baseline Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC). This paper details challenges and accomplishments using ARRA funding to meet DOE-RL objectives of creating/saving jobs, expediting cleanup, and reducing lifecycle costs for cleanup during the first months of implementation.

  17. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  18. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  19. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been applied as a knowledge-based remediation technology for organic contaminants in ground water. The application of this technology is being considered for remediation of inorganic contaminants in ground water at hazardous waste sites. ...

  20. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit (631-16G) - March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit is located on the west side of SRS. In the early to mid 1980`s, while work was being performed in this area, nine empty, partially buried drums, labeled `du Pont Freon 11`, were found. As a result, Gunsite 720 became one of the original waste units specified in the SRS RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA). The drums were excavated on July 30, 1987 and placed on a pallet at the unit. Both the drums and pallet were removed and disposed of in October 1989. The area around the drums was screened during the excavation and the liquid (rainwater) that collected in the excavated drums was sampled prior to disposal. No evidence of hazardous materials was found. Based on the review of the analytical data and screening techniques used to evaluate all the chemicals of potential concern at Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit, it is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  1. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  2. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  3. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  4. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeFalco, S.; Kaiser, L. L.; May, L. E.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  5. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  6. Cleaning up hazardous waste disposal sites in the coastal zone: A review of the federal and state legal requirements for remediation at Allen Harbor, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.K.

    1992-04-01

    In many coastal areas past hazardous waste disposal practices have created current pollution problems. Cleanup and restoration of these sites poses significant technical, social, political, and legal questions. The wide diversity of coastal areas and the complexity of various federal, state, and local laws and regulations makes it necessary to focus this review on the specific requirements pertaining to a hazardous waste site investigation being conducted by the Navy at the Naval Construction Battalion Center Davisville, located adjacent to Allen Harbor in Narragansett Bay, RI. The cleanup requirements specified by the Comprehensive Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Contingency Plan (NCP) are reviewed in the context of other federal and state laws and regulations including the Glean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), natural resource protection (fisheries, endangered species, migratory birds, etc.), federal facility agreements (FFA) and Rhode Island statutes which define applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation. The cleanup requirements common to all coastal disposal sites, the relationship between cleanup and other coastal zone management issues, and the need for development of an effective policy strategy for coastal cleanup projects are presented and discussed.

  7. Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P. P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI)c) for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants.

  8. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Davis Liquid Waste Site, Smithfield, Rhode Island (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-29

    The Davis Liquid Waste site is located in a rural section of the Town of Smithfield, Providence County, Rhode Island. The 15-acre site, bounded on the north and south by wetlands and swamp areas, is within one-half mile of 38 homes. Throughout the 1970s, the site served as a disposal location for various hazardous liquid and chemical wastes including: paint and metal sludge; oily wastes; solvents; acids; caustics; pesticides; phenols; halogens; metals; fly ash; and, laboratory pharmaceuticals. Liquid wastes were accepted at the site in drums and bulk tank trucks and were dumped directly into unlined lagoons and seepage pits. The dumping has resulted in soil, surface and ground water contamination that still persists. Periodically the semi-solid lagoon materials were excavated and dumped in several onsite locations and covered with available site soil. Other site operations included the collection of junked vehicles, machine parts, metal recycling, and tire shredding. In 1977 the discovery of offsite well contamination prompted the State Superior Court to prohibit dumping of hazardous substances on the Davis property.

  10. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation. Strategy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1993-08-01

    This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed.

  11. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  12. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  13. Excavation and Repackaging of Retrievably-Stored, Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.; Bolling, D.; Johnson, Ch.; Cange, J.; Turner, D.

    2008-07-01

    Between 1972 and 1981, remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were retrievably stored through shallow land burial in a series of 22 earthen trenches in the northern portion of Solid Waste Storage Area 5 in ORNL's Melton Valley. A Dispute Resolution Agreement signed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and DOE specified removal of the buried (stored) waste to allow for repackaging, processing, and offsite disposal at an appropriate facility. A total of 204 concrete casks were successfully retrieved and over-packed from the 22-trench area between November 2004 and June 2006. Wastes originally stored in boxes, drums or placed without packaging was also recovered and repackaged. The repackaged wastes were transported to a nearby temporary storage facility at ORNL pending processing at DOE's Transuranic Waste Processing Center. In summary: The objective of the MVTRU Waste Retrieval Project was to satisfy conditions of the Dispute Resolution Agreement. This remedial action consisted of removal of all buried waste containers and loose items from the 22-trench area. The TRU waste casks were placed in steel overpacks, while other waste boxes, drums, and loose items were placed in steel drums or boxes. The over-packed waste was placed in an approved staging area until it can be accepted for treatment at the ORNL TRU Waste Processing Facility and ultimately disposed. A total of 204 casks were indicated by historical records to have been buried in the 22-Trench area, and 204 casks were found and over-packed during the retrieval operations. The historical records also indicated that some 18 steel or wood boxes, 12 steel drums, and approximately 15 m{sup 3} of loose waste were buried in the trenches. The contents of approximately 12 boxes, 3 drums, and approximately the expected 15 m{sup 3} quantity of loose waste were retrieved and over-packed. One significant deviation from the actions described in

  14. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  15. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  16. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  17. Hydraulic Isolation of Waste Disposal Areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cater, F.; Cange, J.B.; Lambert, R.K.; Spurling, R.; Julius, J.F.K.; Skinner, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the location of several large waste disposal areas that received waste from more than 50 years of operation, production, and research activities at ORNL and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Southern Regional Burial Ground for wastes from more than 50 other facilities. The major burial grounds in the valley are Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs) 4, 5, and 6, where wastes were buried in more than 850 unlined trenches and more than 1500 unlined auger holes. The area includes 3 seepage pits and 3 gravel-filled trenches used by ORNL for the disposal of liquid low level wastes. The burial grounds contained several hundred thousand cubic yards of waste, and the combined inventory of the burial grounds and liquid disposal sites was well over 1 million curies. The Record of Decision for Interim Actions for the Melton Valley Watershed at ORNL selected hydraulic isolation of major waste sources as the primary mechanism for remediation of the watershed. Isolation was to be accomplished mainly through the construction of multi-layer caps over the burial grounds, seepage pits, and trenches. Groundwater diversion and collection systems were installed along the up-gradient and down-gradient edges, respectively, of selected caps to enhance the performance of the isolation system. The waste areas were covered with both Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type and isolation multi-layer caps. A total of 13 multi-layer caps covering 58.7 hectares (ha) (plan view) were constructed in Melton Valley between 2003 and 2006. The project encountered considerable challenges, not the least of which was its scale, involving simultaneous construction activities at widely scattered sites across the 430-ha watershed. Detailed planning and coordination enabled year-round fieldwork, an essential requirement necessary to retain a skilled, experienced workforce and meet the contract milestone for completion. Other

  18. Standards for remedial action: How clean is clean

    SciTech Connect

    Sharples, F.E.

    1987-02-01

    The particular cleanup standards applied at a remedial action site will depend upon a variety of site-specific factors as well as which of the hazardous waste statutes is jurisdictionally applied. Parties who are currently participating in remedial action planning activities should be aware that applicable cleanup standards may be in large part open to negotiation with regulators.

  19. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

  20. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. Behaviour of Cu and Cr.

    PubMed

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2004-03-19

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude and direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid and formic acid also led to similar removal efficiencies. In these experiments, the target elements were accumulated in both the anode and cathode compartments of the electrodialytic cell due to the formation of negatively charged complexes with the organic acids used besides the free cationic forms. The latter were not present if EDTA was the extracting solution resulting in directing the Cu and Cr fluxes to the anode compartment. Contrary, these fluxes were exclusively to the cathode compartment if deionised water or an aqueous solution of NaCl were used. These extracting solutions proved suitable for solubilising (re-mobilisation) of Cu but were less efficient for Cr removal (less than 20% removal). Overall, the results obtained show the important role of the proper selection of the type and composition of the extracting solution for the success of subsequent electrodialytic removal of Cu and Cr from CCA-treated wood waste.

  1. GROUNDWATER RADIOIODINE: PREVALENCE, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, AND POTENTIAL REMEDIAL APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-09-23

    Iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) has not received as much attention in basic and applied research as other contaminants associated with DOE plumes. These other contaminants, such as uranium, plutonium, strontium, and technetium are more widespread and exist at more DOE facilities. Yet, at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site {sup 129}I occurs in groundwater at concentrations significantly above the primary drinking water standard and there is no accepted method for treating it, other than pump-and-treat systems. With the potential arrival of a 'Nuclear Renaissance', new nuclear power facilities will be creating additional {sup 129}I waste at a rate of 1 Ci/gigawatts energy produced. If all 22 proposed nuclear power facilities in the U.S. get approved, they will produce more {sup 129}I waste in seven years than presently exists at the two facilities containing the largest {sup 129}I inventories, ({approx}146 Ci {sup 129}I at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site). Hence, there is an important need to fully understand {sup 129}I behavior in the environment to clean up existing plumes and to support the expected future expansion of nuclear power production. {sup 129}I is among the key risk drivers at all DOE nuclear disposal facilities where {sup 129}I is buried, because of its long half-life (16 million years), high toxicity (90% of the body's iodine accumulates in the thyroid), high inventory, and perceived high mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that {sup 129}I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define {sup 129}I mass balance and flux at sites, but can not accurately predict its response to changes in the environment. This uncertainty is in part responsible for the low drinking water standard, 1 pCi/L {sup 129}I, and the low permissible inventory limits (Ci) at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the former Yucca

  2. A Buried Precambrian Impact Crater in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Field evidence indicates that the source of the Stac Fada impact deposit (Mesoproterozoic) in NW Scotland was to the east, and that the now buried crater is represented by the 40+ km diameter Lairg Gravity Low.

  3. REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS BY SOLVENT FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, ...

  4. GENERAL METHODS FOR REMEDIAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document was developed by an EPA-funded project to explain technical considerations and principles necessary to evaluated the performance of ground-water contamination remediations at hazardous waste sites. This is neither a "cookbook", nor an encyclopedia of recommended fi...

  5. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  6. 40 CFR 35.6105 - State-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conducted coordinated planning of response activities with other State agencies. The statement must identify... subdivision for the release) of the cost of removal, remedial planning, and remedial action if the remedial action is CERCLA-funded. (3) Twenty-year waste capacity. The State must assure EPA of the availability...

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-46, 119-F Stack Sampling French Drain, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-021

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-08-08

    The 100-F-46 french drain consisted of a 1.5 to 3 m long, vertically buried, gravel-filled pipe that was approximately 1 m in diameter. Also included in this waste site was a 5 cm cast-iron pipeline that drained condensate from the 119-F Stack Sampling Building into the 100-F-46 french drain. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  9. GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SOLUTIONS AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Truex, Michael J.; Williams, Mark D.

    2007-02-26

    effectively remediating the residual waste that threatens the environment.

  10. Review of the transport of selected radionuclides in the interim risk assessment for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Landa, Edward R.; Nimmo, John R.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Curtis, Gary P.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Anderson, Steven R.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Bossong, Clifford R.; Orr, Brennon R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent technical review of the Interim Risk Assessment (IRA) and Contaminant Screening for the Waste Area Group 7 (WAG-7) Remedial Investigation, the draft Addendum to the Work Plan for Operable Unit 7-13/14 WAG-7 comprehensive Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS), and supporting documents that were prepared by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Inc. The purpose of the technical review was to assess the data and geotechnical approaches that were used to estimate future risks associated with the release of the actinides americium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium to the Snake River Plain aquifer from wastes buried in pits and trenches at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex in southeastern Idaho within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Radionuclides have been buried in pits and trenches at the SDA since 1957 and 1952, respectively. Burial of transuranic wastes was discontinued in 1982. The five specific tasks associated with this review were defined in a ?Proposed Scope of Work? prepared by the DOE, and a follow-up workshop held in June 1998. The specific tasks were (1) to review the radionuclide sampling data to determine how reliable and significant are the reported radionuclide detections and how reliable is the ongoing sampling program, (2) to assess the physical and chemical processes that logically can be invoked to explain true detections, (3) to determine if distribution coefficients that were used in the IRA are reliable and if they have been applied properly, (4) to determine if transport model predictions are technically sound, and (5) to identify issues needing resolution to determine technical adequacy of the risk assessment analysis, and what additional work is required to resolve those issues.

  11. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile 155.5 for K-1015-A Laundry Pit, East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs, Raymer J.E.

    2008-06-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2003. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, to resolve ORR milestone issues, and to establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. The disposal of the K-1015 Laundry Pit waste will be executed in accordance with the 'Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone, 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOB/ORAH-2161&D2) and the 'Waste Handling Plan for the Consolidated Soil and Waste Sites with Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2328&D1). This waste lot consists of a total of approximately 50 cubic yards of waste that will be disposed at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) as non-containerized waste. This material will be sent to the EMWMF in dump trucks. This profile is for the K-1015-A Laundry Pit and includes debris (e.g., concrete, metal rebar, pipe), incidental soil, plastic and wood, and secondary waste (such as plastic sheeting, hay bales and other erosion control materials, wooden pallets

  12. Bioelectrochemical denitrification on biocathode buried in simulated aquifer saturated with nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Khanh; Park, Younghyun; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate contamination in aquifers has posed human health under high risk because people still rely on groundwater withdrawn from aquifers as drinking water and running water sources. These days, bioelectrochemical technologies have shown a great number of benefits for nitrate remediation via autotrophic denitrification in groundwater. This study tested the working possibility of a denitrifying biocathode when installed into a simulated aquifer. The reactors were filled with sand and synthetic groundwater at various ratios (10, 50, and 100 %) to clarify the effect of various biocathode states (not-buried, half-buried, and fully buried) on nitrate reduction rate and microbial communities. Decreases in specific nitrate reduction rates were found to be correlated with increases in sand/medium ratios. A specific nitrate reduction rate of 322.6 mg m(-2) day(-1) was obtained when the biocathode was fully buried in an aquifer. Microbial community analysis revealed slight differences in the microbial communities of biocathodes at various sand/medium ratios. Various coccus- and rod-shaped bacteria were found to contribute to bioelectrochemical denitrification including Thiobacillus spp. and Paracoccus spp. This study demonstrated that the denitrifying biocathode could work effectively in a saturated aquifer and confirmed the feasibility of in situ application of microbial electrochemical denitrification technology.

  13. Total quality management -- Remedial actions planning program

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, J.L.; Horne, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the management approach being taken within the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Contractor Office (SCO) to ensure quality of services in a highly competitive waste management environment. An overview is presented of the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) national program for managing hazardous waste. The HAZWRAP SCO mission, organizational structure, and major programs are outlined, with emphasis on waste management planning for the DOE Work for Others (WFO) Program. The HAZWRAP SCO provides waste management technical support, via interagency agreements between DOE and various Department of Defense (DOD) agencies for DOD sponsors planning remedial response actions. The remainder of the paper focuses on how the concept of Total Quality Management is applied to the HAZWRAP Remedial Actions Planning (RAP) Program. The management challenge is to achieve quality on a ''system'' basis where all functional elements of program management synergistically contribute to the total quality of the effort. The quality assurance (QA) program requirements applied to the RAP Program and its subcontractors are discussed. The application of management principles in the areas of program management, procurement, and QA to achieve total quality is presented. 3 refs.

  14. Evaluation of vermicompost as bioadsorbent substrate of Pb, Ni, V and Cr for waste waters remediation using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdaneta, Cynthia; Parra, Lué-Merú Marcó; Matute, Saida; Garaboto, Mayantino Angel; Barros, Hayden; Vázquez, Cristina

    2008-12-01

    The use of vermicompost as adsorbent substrate for removing Pb, Ni, V and Cr from waste waters is proposed. In this work, after a preliminary physical and chemical characterization of the vermicompost, the optimal parameters for the heavy metal adsorption were obtained. A synthetic multielemental solution of Pb, Cr and Ni and a solution of NH 4VO 3 for vanadium were evaluated. The optimized parameters were pH, vermicompost mass to volume ratio, agitation time and particle size of the adsorbent. A batch system was employed for the assays. The elements were determined in the supernatant solution after filtration of the substrate. An optimal pH of 4.5 was found for ion removal. The agitation time slightly influences the adsorption of Pb and Cr, but it has a high influence on the Ni and V adsorption. The highest adsorption and removal of the metals was observed for a vermicompost mass of 2 g per 500 mL using a particle size between 75 to 841 µm for Pb, Cr and Ni, and 841 till 1192 µm for V. The mean removal percentage for each element is around 95% for Pb. Ni and Cr in the multielemental synthetic sample, demonstrating a high removal capacity of the substrate. For V it was found a removal efficiency of 50%.

  15. Reinventing Remedial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Remedial education, although widely used and disguised with other names, was rarely talked about for it could tarnish a school's reputation if widely discussed. Today, more and more colleges and universities are ditching the old stigma associated with remedial education, reinventing their remedial education and retention programs and, in the…

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Big D Campground, Kingsville, OH. (First Remedial Action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The Big D Campground site is in Kingsville, Ashtabula County, Ohio. The site consists of a 1.2-acre landfill created out of a former sand and gravel quarry. From 1964 to 1976 the site owner accepted approximately 28,000 cubic yards of hazardous materials for disposal which included up to 5,000 drums containing solvents, caustics, and oily substances. A 1986 remedial investigation identified the landfill as the primary source of contamination in soil outside the landfill and ground water underlying the landfill. Ground water contamination is of significant concern because it is migrating towards the drinking water supply wells of nearby residences and Conneaut Creek which is adjacent to and south of the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including PCE and TCE, other organics, and metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes removing and incinerating up to 5,000 buried drums, bulk wastes, and up to 30,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil followed by onsite disposal of nonhazardous ash residue; pumping and treatment of 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 gallons of ground water.

  17. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  18. REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION AT THE GILT EDGE MINE, SOUTH DAKOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reports the findings of the Mine Waste Technology Program's Activity III, Project 29,The Remediation Technology Evaluation Project at the Gilt Edge Mine, S.D. This project consisted of evaluating three emerging acidic waste rock stabilization technologies and compar...

  19. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  20. Ballistic electron spectroscopy of individual buried molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirczenow, George

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the ballistic electron emission spectra (BEES) of individual insulating and conducting organic molecules chemisorbed on a silicon substrate and buried under a thin gold film. It is predicted that ballistic electrons injected into the gold film from a scanning tunneling microscope tip should be transmitted so weakly to the silicon substrate by alkane molecules of moderate length (decane, hexane) and their thiolates that individual buried molecules of this type will be difficult to detect in BEES experiments. However, resonant transmission by molecules containing unsaturated C-C bonds or aromatic rings is predicted to be strong enough for BEES spectra of individual buried molecules of these types to be measured. Calculated BEES spectra of molecules of both types are presented and the effects of some simple interstitial and substitutional gold defects that may occur in molecular films are also briefly discussed.

  1. California seeks new technologies for site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Innovative new technologies for site remediation will be sought by the California Department of Health Services (Department), Toxic Substances Control Division, Alternative Technology Section, for assessment in the field as full-scale demonstration projects. The Remedial Technology Assessment Program (RTAP) fosters emerging technologies, which have been successfully tested in the laboratory, at bench scale, or at pilot scale and are ready for field or full-scale demonstration project testing. The Department will solicit interest from companies to conduct full-scale demonstrations of remedial treatment technologies for site remediation. The solicitation responses will be used to compile a list of treatment technologies which can be considered during the Remedial Action Plan (RAP) process for implementation at State-lead Bond Expenditure Plan sites and possibly responsible party sites. RTAP will attempt to match submitted remedial technologies to specific hazardous waste sites via the RAP process. A technical report, including an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility, will be prepared after each demonstration project.

  2. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase I

  3. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluations of absorbents for the TRU Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carraway, Anthony C.; Hill, Larry

    2005-10-17

    SRNL has been preparing to receive transuranic (TRU) waste drums from the Solid Waste Management Facility (SWMF) to aid in the remediation of Waste Acceptance Criteria prohibited items in SRS TRU waste drums. These prohibited items are primarily containerized liquids and aerosol cans which are easily identified using radiography. The remediation of these drums requires the use of an approved absorbent that is acceptable to the SWMF and Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) for disposal. The goal of this document is to help establish guidelines that should be met to produce a final waste product that will be acceptable at the WIPP facility.

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  5. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    A methodology for estimating seismic damage rates for buried pipeline systems is presented. The methodology is intended for damage estimation of buried pipeline systems in areas where use of more rigorous structural analysis techniques is not practical. Damage is estimated for areas subjected to ground shaking and permanent ground deformation. Although the methodology employs previously developed ground shaking damage algorithms, new damage algorithms are developed for permanent ground deformation. These new algorithms reflect the high levels of damage observed in areas of soil liquefaction.

  6. Prioritization for rehabilitation of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.; Ishibashi, I.; Li, H.

    1995-12-31

    Seismic rehabilitation or retrofit is a cost-effective way to prevent pipeline damage caused by future earthquakes. In general, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to rehabilitate all buried pipelines at the same time because of limited funds and time available. The purpose of this study is to establish a priority strategy for rehabilitation of buried pipelines considering several important factors such as pipeline damage probability, rehabilitation cost, rehabilitation rate (e.g. km/day), pipeline importance and total funds available.

  7. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  8. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  9. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  10. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  11. Limited Panniculectomy for Adult Buried Penis Repair.

    PubMed

    Figler, Bradley D; Chery, Lisly; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with buried or hidden penis may be unable to carry out normal hygiene, void with a directable urine stream, or be sexually active as a result of the condition. Although these patients are nearly always obese, weight loss often does not reverse the problem, as the mons pannus may remain after weight loss. Furthermore, associated penile skin changes such as lichen sclerosus or stenosis of the penile shaft skin are often irreversible. Treatment includes removal of the diseased shaft skin surrounding the penis, in combination with a limited panniculectomy. The authors present their technique for this procedure in a typical patient with buried penis that prevented him from voiding effectively.

  12. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  13. 40 CFR 63.7886 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected remediation material management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act... the remediation material management unit is an oil-water or organic-water separator, then you...

  14. Preputial flaps to correct buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Loh, Ih-Wei; Chen, Ke-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The authors developed a preputial skin flap technique to correct the buried penis which was simple and practical. This simple procedure can be applied to most boys with buried penis. In the last 3 years, we have seen 12 boys with buried penis and have been treated by using preputial flaps. The mean age is about 5.1 (from 3 to 12). By making a longitudinal incision on the ventral side of penis, the tightness of the foreskin is released and leave a diamond-shaped skin defect. It allows the penile shaft to extend out. A circumferential incision is made about 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus. Pedicled preputial flaps are obtained leaving optimal penile skin on the dorsal side. The preputial skin flaps are rotated onto the ventral side and tailored to cover the defect. All patients are followed for at least 3 months. Edema and swelling on the flaps are common, but improves with time. None of our patients need a second operation. The preputial flaps technique is a simple technique which allows surgeons to deal with most cases of buried penis by tailoring the flaps providing good cosmetic and functional results.

  15. Prestressing buried pipelines by heating with air

    SciTech Connect

    King, G. )

    1993-11-01

    Buried pipelines operating at elevated temperatures experience high longitudinal compressive stresses because the surrounding soil prevents thermal expansion. At high operating temperatures, buried pipelines can push through the soil at bends and buckle catastrophically. In soft soils they can lose lateral stability, and they can develop plastic failures. Thermally induced problems can be prevented with varying degrees of success by using thicker wall pipe, higher strength prevented with varying degrees of success by using thicker wall pipe, higher strength steel, longer radius bends, deeper burial, better backfill compaction, and/or prestressing during construction. Prestressing is most appropriate for pipelines operating at temperatures more than 80 C above ambient. One technique for prestressing a buried pipeline, that has been found to be both easy and economical for a liquid sulfur pipeline in Alberta, is to heat it with hot air and bury it while it is still hot. Pipe diameter and prestressing temperature both have a significant impact on the kind of heating equipment that is required.

  16. Probabilistic Modeling of Landfill Subsidence Introduced by Buried Structure Collapse - 13229

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin; Soong, Te-Yang

    2013-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass and buried structure placement. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties, especially discontinuous inclusions, which control differential settlement. An alternative is to use a probabilistic model to capture the non-uniform collapse of cover soils and buried structures and the subsequent effect of that collapse on the final cover system. Both techniques are applied to the problem of two side-by-side waste trenches with collapsible voids. The results show how this analytical technique can be used to connect a metric of final cover performance (inundation area) to the susceptibility of the sub-grade to collapse and the effective thickness of the cover soils. This approach allows designers to specify cover thickness, reinforcement, and slope to meet the demands imposed by the settlement of the underlying waste trenches. (authors)

  17. Carbon adsorption onsite for remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Githens, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental remediation options range from various offsite disposal methods to onsite concentration, treatment or storage. Onsite treatment using mobile carbon adsorption treatment systems has long been a favored option for remedial actions because of its proven performance in the clean-up of transportation spills, waste sites, runoff from chemical warehouse fires and many types of groundwater pollution. Carbon adsorption is fundamentally a concentration technology. It will, for example, preferentially concentrate organics. Following its use, the carbon is usually transported offsite for thermal regeneration (mobile regeneration is not generally available) or landfilled if certain contaminants such as PCBs are on the carbon. Most remediation projects are temporary in nature and involve removing contamination from finite areas to attain specific pollutant limits. The best way to approach these circumstances is to utilize mobile, rapidly deployed, modular units. With mobile pretreatment equipment, the field engineer can solve problems with control over cost and system performance.

  18. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  19. Remediation of Occupied Commercial Property Subject to Widespread Radium-226 Contamination - Confidential Client in the South-West of England - 12570

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Philip

    2012-07-01

    AMEC was contacted by a company that managed commercial office space in 2010. High Rn- 222 measurements had been observed throughout the facility and the landlord had been advised to commission a radiological survey of the site. The site had been purchased by the client in the 1990's. Initial desk studies found that the building had operated for around 50 years as a compass factory. Non-intrusive investigation identified widespread Ra-226 contamination. Ra-226 was found in the fabric of the building, in attic spaces, buried under floor boards and underlying car parks. Intrusive investigation was undertaken to estimate volume(s) of waste, waste categories, activity concentrations and the total inventory of radioactive materials on site. This work identified the presence of 180 GBq of Ra-226 on site. A programme of work is currently underway to remediate the site tackling areas posing the greatest risk to site occupants as a priority. We have worked closely with Regulators, our client, and tenants, to decontaminate the fabric of the building whilst areas of the building remain occupied. The radiological risk, from irradiation, ingestion and inhalation (of Ra-226 and Rn- 222) has been assessed before, during and after intervention to minimise the risks to site occupants. Tenants were moved from areas of unacceptable radiological risk to areas unaffected by the presence of radioactive materials. Rn-222 mitigation measures were installed during the remedial operations to minimise the hazard from Rn-222 that was liberated as a result of decontamination activities. Decontamination techniques were required to be sympathetic to the building as the ageing structure was in danger of collapse during several phases of work. The first phase of remediation is now complete and the decontaminated building is being returned for use as office space. The radiological risks have been significantly reduced and, in areas where decontamination was not possible (e.g. due to concerns over

  20. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... taking place identifies principal hazardous constitutes in such waste, in accordance with § 264.552(e)(4... following standards specified for CAMU-eligible wastes: (i) The treatment standards under § 264.552(e)(4)(iv... authorizes receipt of such waste. (e) For each remediation, CAMU-eligible waste may not be placed in an...