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  1. Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of the Promotion of Institutional Pregnancy and Birth Care in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Moland, Karen Marie

    2016-01-01

    The policy of institutional delivery has been the cornerstone of actions aimed at monitoring and achieving MDG 5. Efforts to increase institutional births have been implemented worldwide within different cultural and health systems settings. This paper explores how communities in rural Burkina Faso perceive the promotion and delivery of facility pregnancy and birth care, and how this promotion influences health-seeking behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted in South-Western Burkina Faso between September 2011 and January 2012. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions with women who had given birth recently and community members were conducted. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and interpreted through Merton’s concept of unintended consequences of purposive social action. The study found that community members experienced a strong pressure to give birth in a health facility and perceived health workers to define institutional birth as the only acceptable option. Women and their families experienced verbal, economic and administrative sanctions if they did not attend services and adhered to health worker recommendations, and reported that they felt incapable of questioning health workers’ knowledge and practices. Women who for social and economic reasons had limited access to health facilities found that the sanctions came with increased cost for health services, led to social stigma and acted as additional barriers to seek skilled care at birth. The study demonstrates how the global and national policy of skilled pregnancy and birth care can occur in unintentional ways in local settings. The promotion of institutional care during pregnancy and at birth in the study area compromised health system trust and equal access to care. The pressure to use facility care and the sanctions experienced by women not complying may further marginalize women with poor access to facility care and contribute to worsened health

  2. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

  3. Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient's perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents' guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11-16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households' poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014.

  4. Landsat View: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The landlocked western African nation of Burkina Faso experienced a 200 percent increase in urban population between 1975 and 2000. As a result, the area of the capital city Ouagadougou grew 14-fold during this period. These Landsat images show the city expanding outward from its center in the two decades between 1986 and 2006. On Nov. 18, 1986, the Landsat 5 satellite acquired this image of the capital. This false-color image shows vegetation in shades of green and gray, water in various shades of blue, and urban areas in pink and purple. The runway of the city’s airport can be seen as a long straight line that extends from southwest to northeast south of the large lake, Bois de Boulogne. Two decades later, on Oct. 16, 2006 Landsat 7 acquired this image of Ouagadougou. Growth radiated from the city center in all directions. The green strip of vegetation north of Bois de Boulogne has been paved over and a massive new development including a large thoroughfare and traffic circle can be seen south of the airport. ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find

  5. A Climate Trend Analysis of Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Adoum, Alkhalil; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in rainfall and air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady over the past 20 years, but remain 15 percent below the 1920-69 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.6° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * The amount of farmland per person is low, and declining. * Burkina Faso has offset rapid population growth with improved yields. * Continued yield growth would maintain current levels of per capita food production.

  6. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s).

  7. Developing Multiliteracies through Bilingual Education in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Constance

    2008-01-01

    Being literate involves being able to move from the ability to read and write to include different forms of knowledge and modes of communication of the milieu (drumming, dancing, story-telling, etc.). This article examines the new literacy allowed through the existence of two types of schools (bilingual and monolingual) in Burkina Faso, in West…

  8. [Burkina Faso: review of population policies and programs].

    PubMed

    Kano, H

    1999-12-01

    When Burkina Faso gained its independence, no one thought to act upon the various demographic variables with the aim of achieving certain specific, planned goals. It was necessary to wait until 1986 for the adoption of a planning policy and the abrogation of part of 1920 legislation on contraceptive distribution before the first signs of attitudinal change could be observed with regard to population concerns. Formerly confused with birth limiting policy, family planning is increasingly becoming an essential component of maternal and infant health. The author describes the evolution of population policies in Burkina Faso from independence, after the 1974 Bucharest conference on population, and up until now. Today, general population policy goals in Burkina Faso are in favor of whatever will improve quality of life and well-being across all social strata. This goal will only be attained through the establishment of better balance between population and available resources. It involves meeting the population¿s essential food, nutrition, health, education, and employment needs; raising the value of available human resources; lowering morbidity and mortality; improving women¿s status; improving the population¿s spatial distribution; managing the environment better; and accounting for demographic variables when establishing development goals. Burkina Faso therefore plans to pursue a comprehensive approach toward its population problems.

  9. Parental Death and Children's Schooling in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobiane, Jean-Francois; Calves, Anne-Emmanuele; Marcoux, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the literature on orphanhood, schooling, and the role of the extended family system in supporting the education of orphans in Burkina Faso. They also summarize the historical, social, and economic context of this study. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of orphanhood on children's access to…

  10. Re-Emerging Malaria Vectors in Rural Sahel (nouna, Burkina Faso): the Paluclim Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dambach, Peter; Viel, Christian; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Sié, Ali; Rogier, Christophe; Tourre, Yves M.

    2016-06-01

    The Paluclim project applied the tele-epidemiology approach, linking climate, environment and public health (CNES, 2008), to rural malaria in Nouna (Burkina Faso). It was to analyze the climate impact on vectorial risks, and its consequences on entomological risks forecast. The objectives were to: 1) produce entomological risks maps in the Nouna region, 2) produce dynamic maps on larvae sites and their productivity, 3) study the climate impact on malaria risks, and 4) evaluate the feasibility of strategic larviciding approach.

  11. [Self-disclosure of a HIV-positive serostatus: factors favoring disclosure and consequences for persons living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Kouanda, S; Yaméogo, W M E; Berthé, A; Bila, B; Bocoum Yaya, F K; Somda, A; Doulougou, B; Sanou, M J; Sondo, B; Msellati, P

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of HIV-serostatus remains a way to avoid sexual transmission of HIV because it allows partners to take the necessary protective measures, e.g. use of condoms. Disclosure is nevertheless difficult due to the discrimination associated with HIV. The objective of this study was to analyze factors leading to self-disclosure of HIV-positive status within a sample of persons of both sexes attending different healthcare services in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study conducted by interviewing 740 patients in 26 healthcare services. Univariate (Chi(2) test) and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were performed. The significance level was 5%. Qualitative data on factors associated with self-disclosure of HIV-positive status were analyzed. The majority of the patients (81.4%) informed at least one person who was very often a close relative (descendant, ascendant and sibling) or the partner. At multivariate analysis, HIV-serostatus was associated with using antiretroviral treatment, (OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7, P<0.001), known HIV-serostatus for at least one year (OR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), living in couple (2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.8). In a context limiting HIV testing due to the fear of social stigma, these results appear to be in favor of the Voluntary Counseling Testing model with a focus on the couple and/or families. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  13. Cooking fuels and the push for cleaner alternatives: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shelby; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    More than 95% of the population in Burkina Faso uses some form of solid biomass fuel. When these fuels are burned in traditional, inefficient stoves, pollutant levels within and outside the home can be very high. This can have important consequences for both health and climate change. Thus, the push to switch to cleaner burning fuels is advantageous. However, there are several considerations that need to be taken into account when considering the use and promotion of different fuel types. In the setting of the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso, we examine the common fuel types used (wood, charcoal and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)) in terms of consumption, energy, availability, air pollution and climate change. Although biomass solid fuel does offer some advantages over LPG, the disadvantages make this option much less desirable. Lower energy efficiencies, higher pollutant emission levels, the associated health consequences and climate change effects favour the choice of LPG over solid biomass fuel use. Further studies specific to Burkina Faso, which are lacking in this region, should also be undertaken in this area to better inform policy decisions.

  14. Barriers to antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screening among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and observations in the Kaya health district, Burkina Faso. Participants were purposively selected to capture a range of perspectives across different actors with different roles and responsibilities. Seventy-five interviews were conducted with health providers, district managers, facility managers, traditional healers, pregnant women, community health workers, and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) managers. Interviews were transcribed and organized into codes and categories using NVivo software. Results Participants identified multiple barriers at health providers and community levels. Key barriers at provider level included fragmentation of services, poor communication, low motivation for prescription, and low awareness of syphilis burden. Cost of testing, distance to laboratory and lack of knowledge about syphilis were identified as barriers at community level. Conclusion The study highlights barriers such as distance, cost of testing, and knowledge about syphilis. The introduction of point of care testing for syphilis could be an entry point for improving coverage of antenatal syphilis screening. PMID:24624245

  15. Ascertaining gene flow patterns in livestock populations of developing countries: a case study in Burkina Faso goat.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Amadou; Álvarez, Isabel; Fernández, Iván; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Kaboré, Adama; Ouédraogo-Sanou, Gisèlle Ms; Zaré, Yacouba; Tambourá, Hamidou H; Goyache, Félix

    2012-05-07

    Ouagadougou) and the Mouhoun river loop determined, respectively, the Eastern and Northern limits for the expansion of Sahelian goat genes. Furthermore, results from partial Mantel test suggest that the introgression of Sahelian goat genes into Djallonké goat using human-influenced genetic corridors has a limited influence when compared to the biological boundary defined by the northern limits for the distribution of the tsetse fly. However, the genetic differences found between the goat sampled in Bobo Dioulasso and the other populations located in the Sudan area of Burkina Faso may be explained by the broad goat trade favoured by the main road of the country. The current analysis clearly suggests that genetic variation in Burkina Faso goat: a) follows a North to South clinal; and b) is affected by the distribution of the tsetse fly that imposes a limit to the Sahelian goat expansion due to their trypanosusceptibility. Here we show how extensive surveys on livestock populations can be useful to indirectly assess the consequences of climate change and human action in developing countries.

  16. Ascertaining gene flow patterns in livestock populations of developing countries: a case study in Burkina Faso goat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    é river (Southern Ouagadougou) and the Mouhoun river loop determined, respectively, the Eastern and Northern limits for the expansion of Sahelian goat genes. Furthermore, results from partial Mantel test suggest that the introgression of Sahelian goat genes into Djallonké goat using human-influenced genetic corridors has a limited influence when compared to the biological boundary defined by the northern limits for the distribution of the tsetse fly. However, the genetic differences found between the goat sampled in Bobo Dioulasso and the other populations located in the Sudan area of Burkina Faso may be explained by the broad goat trade favoured by the main road of the country. Conclusions The current analysis clearly suggests that genetic variation in Burkina Faso goat: a) follows a North to South clinal; and b) is affected by the distribution of the tsetse fly that imposes a limit to the Sahelian goat expansion due to their trypanosusceptibility. Here we show how extensive surveys on livestock populations can be useful to indirectly assess the consequences of climate change and human action in developing countries. PMID:22564289

  17. Benefits of meeting women's contraceptive needs in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Michael; Sundaram, Aparna; Bankole, Akinrinola; Remez, Lisa; Belemsaga-Yugbare, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Many women and couples in Burkina Faso do not have the knowledge, means or support they need to protect their reproductive health and to have the number of children they desire. Consequently, many women have more children than they want or can care for. Others turn to induced abortion, which is overwhelmingly clandestine and potentially unsafe. By helping women and couples plan their families and have healthy babies, good reproductive health care--including sufficient access to contraceptive services--contributes directly to attaining three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating HIV/AIDS. Improving contraceptive services may also make meeting other MDGs--such as achieving universal primary education, reducing endemic poverty and promoting women's empowerment and equality--easier and more affordable. This In Brief aims to chart a course toward better health for Burkinabe women and their families by highlighting the health benefits and cost savings that would result from improved contraceptive services. Building on prior work and using national data to provide estimates for 2009 (see box), it describes current patterns of contraceptive use and two hypothetical scenarios of increased use to quantify the net benefits to women and society that would result from helping women avoid pregnancies they do not want. We focus on the disability and deaths that would be averted and the financial resources that would be saved through preventing unintended pregnancy.

  18. [Cervicofacial cellulitis in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: report of 26 cases].

    PubMed

    Sereme, M; Ouedraogo, B; Gyebre, Y; Ouattara, M; Ouoba, K

    2011-10-01

    Cervicofacial cellulitis is still observed in Burkina Faso and can be severe. The aim of this study was to review diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with management of cericofacial cellulitis in our region where medical facilities are poor. A retrospective study of patients treated between January 1999 and December 2008 was performed. A total of 26 cases of cervicofacial cellulites were compiled. All patients underwent broad spectrum antibiotherapy associated imidazols. Surgical treatment was performed in 60% of the cases. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential for favorable outcome.

  19. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in water reservoirs of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kaboré, Saidou; Cecchi, Philippe; Mosser, Thomas; Toubiana, Mylène; Traoré, Oumar; Ouattara, Aboubakar S; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2017-09-06

    Africa is currently an important region in which cholera epidemics occur. Little is known about the presence of Vibriocholerae in freshwater bodies in Africa. There are ca. 1700 lakes and reservoirs in Burkina Faso, most of which have been built within recent decades to secure water resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of V. cholerae in the water of reservoirs, using the most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that V. cholerae could be detected in water samples collected from 14 of 39 sampled reservoirs. The concentrations varied from 0 MPN/l to more than 1100 MPN/l. Fifty strains of V. cholerae isolated on CHROMagar™ vibrio were identified as V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, none of which carried the ctxA gene. A significant positive correlation was found between the presence of V. cholerae in the reservoirs and both alkaline pH and phytoplankton biomass. V. cholerae was present in significantly higher numbers in reservoirs of urban areas than in rural areas. Since V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 has been shown to be a causative agent of endemic diarrheal outbreaks, their presence in Burkina Faso reservoirs suggests they may play a role in gastroenteritis in that country. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Beating back the desert: the case of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sanou, L R

    1993-01-01

    The views of a geographer, agricultural scientist, and women's activist focused on the importance of improving women's status and involvement in development. Women in Burkina Faso have shown an ability to organize themselves, but there was insufficient coordination among aid organizations. Researchers and development professionals must broaden and deepen their knowledge about climate, farming methods and traditional natural resource management methods, and women's concerns and occupations. Women need to be engaged in the planning and implementation of natural resource management strategies and in learning about appropriate training and information dissemination methods. The expertise in environmental disciplines is concentrated in developed nations and is needed by Sahelian women. Burkina's environment is replete with droughts, lack of forested areas, and dependence on subsistence farming. Famine and mass migration of men to urban areas have left women in poverty. Women must work 14-16 hours a day to provide food for their families and help husbands with cash crops. About 25% of women die from malnutrition, anemia, repeated pregnancies, malaria, and overexertion, as reported in a 1987 UNICEF study. The literature on women in Burkina Faso has focused only on broad issues of women's status. The few studies of local conditions conducted on a small scale by nongovernmental organizations have revealed that women were 60-80% of the labor force on anti-desertification projects. Women's overwhelming work load prevented even greater participation in environmental protection. Property laws gave land titles to men or the state. Women's groups have set up cereal banks, village pharmacies, and other self help projects pertaining to health, the environment, and agriculture. Women in development individual programs have not sufficiently integrated women and programs were archaic and dispersed. Environmental enforcement was limited.

  2. Suppressed convective rainfall by agricultural expansion in southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie C.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Tyler, Scott W.; Yacouba, Hamma; Parlange, Marc B.

    2015-07-01

    With the "green economy" being promoted as a path to sustainable development and food security within the African continent, the influx of agricultural land is proliferating at a rapid pace often replacing natural savannah forests. Where agriculture is primarily rainfed, the possible adverse impacts of agricultural land influx on rainfall occurrences in water-limited areas such as West Africa warrant attention. Using field observations complemented by model calculations in southeastern Burkina Faso, the main causes of a 10-30% suppressed daytime rainfall recorded over agricultural fields when referenced to natural savannah forests are examined. Measurements and model runs reveal that the crossing of the mixed layer height and lifting condensation levels, a necessary condition for cloud formation and subsequent rainfall occurrence, was 30% more frequent above the natural savannah forest. This increase in crossing statistics was primarily explained by increases in measured sensible heat flux above the savannah forest rather than differences in lifting condensation heights.

  3. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michelle C; Molyneux, David H; Kyelem, Dominique; Bougma, Roland W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2013-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA) for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%), while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  4. Social determinants and access to induced abortion in burkina faso: from two case studies.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion.

  5. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  6. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  7. Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Ibrahim; Coulibaly, Sanata; Namountougou, Moussa; Paré-Toé, Léa; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Foy, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P > 0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiological profile of malaria, contrary to the results obtained since the last publications. An entomological study correlated with this study is therefore necessary for effective decision-making for the malaria control in both areas. Future research must now focus on the impact that these profound environmental modifications of rice area are having on malaria control in Burkina Faso. PMID:28286526

  8. Soil conservation in Burkina Faso: is international cooperation effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Grimaldi, Stefania; Vezza, Paolo; Koussubé, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Challenges related to Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) have been documented in Burkina Faso for many decades so far. The ever-growing population of this country, a landlocked desertification-prone one, is daily facing the visible impact of increasingly intense rainfall and concentrated rainy days. Agricultural soil erosion and reservoir siltation are two of the main issues affecting Burkina Faso subsistence agriculture sector, whose revenues largely contribute to people's income. From the sixties onwards locally-developed SWC techniques (e.g. permeable rock dams and gabion check dams) have been widely, though geographically variably, employed in the country. The effectiveness of these techniques in locally increasing soil moisture and reducing soil erosion is well proven, while their long term effect in decreasing the reservoir siltation is still under debate and shall be addressed with a whole-catchment approach often overlooked by international donors. This research aims to analyze the history of the use of these techniques by reviewing the results of several cooperation projects that dealt with the implementation of nearly 200 conservation works. These case studies are representative of 5 out of 12 regions of Burkina Faso and span over two decades. Local people levels of (i) awareness, (ii) technique appropriation, (iii) involvement and the degree of (iv) effectiveness and (v) maintenance of these SWC works have been taken into account. The analysis of the afore-mentioned five indicators let the authors draw a list of features that are needed for this kind of projects to be successful in the SWC domain. Moreover the differences that exist between the approach to the community-works, normally employed for SWC realizations, of different ethnical groups is highlighted. The degree of degradation of the environment also plays an important role in the involvement of the local community together with the familiarity of the population with these techniques. For

  9. Toward a Better Representation of Women in Physics in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Sido-Pabyam, M. N.; Zerbo, I.

    2009-04-01

    Although 52% of Burkina Faso's population is women, boys receive preference in schooling. In 2006, only about 10% of the secondary school pupils were girls. At the University of Ouagadougou in 2000-2005 one quarter of the students were women, but just 5% of students in the sciences were women. This rate is dramatically lower in physics, both for the students (less than 1%) and for the teachers (only two women). This condition can be explained by religious and cultural considerations, financial and economic reasons, social pressure (mathematics, physics, and technology are dedicated to men), and future prospects for scientists in Burkina Faso. Some strategies to better feminize physics (and the sciences) in Burkina Faso are presented.

  10. A case of imported dengue fever from Burkina Faso to Japan in October 2016.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takehiro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Maeki, Takahiro; Tajima, Shigeru; Takaya, Saho; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-09-11

    Dengue fever remains underreported in Africa due to lack of awareness among healthcare providers, the presence of other febrile illnesses, and insufficient laboratory testing. We present a case of imported dengue fever from Burkina Faso to Japan, where an outbreak of dengue was reported on October 18, 2016. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate from our patient belonged to a distinct of sylvatic dengue viruses, suggesting that dengue viruses have been maintained in the mosquitoes and human cycles in Burkina Faso for more than 30 years.

  11. Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009): Impact of Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Tamboura, Issa; Serdébéogo, Oumar; Koudougou, Zowindé; Solano, Philippe; Sidibé, Issa

    2010-01-01

    The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies. PMID:20617055

  12. Malnutrition determinants in young children from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Bermejo Lorenzo, Justo; Bountogo, Mamadou; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a major challenge to public health in poor countries. Data on malnutrition determinants in African children are scarce. A cross-sectional survey was performed in eight villages of Burkina Faso in June 2009, including 460 children aged 6-31 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, parasitological, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected. The main outcome variable was weight-for-length (WFL) z-score (i.e. wasting). A multiple regression model identified village, age group, religion and the presence of younger siblings as significantly associated with wasting. Villages differed in their mean WFL z-score by up to one unit. Compared with younger children, the mean WFL z-score of children aged 24-35 months was 0.63 units higher than the WFL z-score in younger children. This study confirms the still unacceptable high level of malnutrition in young children of rural West Africa and supports the fact that childhood malnutrition is a complex phenomenon highly influenced by contextual variables.

  13. [Smoking in students in secondary schools in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Sondo, B; Testa, J; Soura, Y

    1996-10-01

    A multi-centre enquiry in 12 of 30 provinces of Burkina Faso was carried out to study smoking in pupils at secondary schools. The prevalence of smoking was 13.6 per cent. Amongst the smokers, occasional smoking was the most common, involving 62 per cent. Boys smoked more than girls. The average age of starting smoking was early, at 13.4 years. The majority of smokers consumed less than five cigarettes a day and the favourite place for consumption was the home of their parents or guardian and at school. The determinants of school smokers were above all environmental: the influence of friends and advertising. The students showed a good knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking. This knowledge was linked to their educational level and to their status as a smoker or non-smoker. The proportion of pupils who had obtained good results in the term which preceded the enquiry was more significant amongst the non-smokers than amongst the smokers. An awareness of the significance of smoking amongst pupils by their parents, guardians and teachers involves health education and rigorous legislative measures on advertising and these would contribute to some reduction in the extent of the phenomenon in educational establishments.

  14. Molecular characteristics and epidemiology of meningococcal carriage, Burkina Faso, 2003.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Judith E; Sangaré, Lassana; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Traoré, Yves; Yaro, Seydou; Borrow, Raymond; Gessner, Bradford D; Nicolas, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    To describe Neisseria meningitidis strains in the African meningitis belt in 2003, we obtained 2,389 oropharyngeal swabs at 5 monthly visits a representative population sample (age range 4-29 years) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A total of 152 carriage isolates were grouped, serotyped, and genotyped. Most isolates were NG:NT:NST sequence type (ST) 192 (63% of all N. meningitidis), followed by W135:2a:P1.5,2 of ST-11 (16%) and NG:15:P1.6 of ST-198 (12%). We also found ST-2881 (W135:NT:P1.5,2), ST-751 (X:NT:P1.5), and ST-4375 (Y:14:P1.5,2) but not serogroups A or C. Estimated average duration of carriage was 30 days (95% confidence interval 24-36 days). In the context of endemic group W135 and meningococcal A disease, we found substantial diversity in strains carried, including all strains currently involved in meningitis in this population, except for serogroup A. These findings show the need for large samples and a longitudinal design for N. meningitidis serogroup A carriage studies.

  15. [Poliomyelitis case surveillance data management in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Nana, Félicité; Kouassi, Kouassi Lazare; Konfé, Salifou; Hien, Hervé; Saizonou, Jacques; Ouedraogo, Tinoaga Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The global initiative for poliomyelitis eradication can only remain relevant if survey systems are regularly assessed. In order to identify shortcomings and to propose improvement, the data collection and transmission during case investigation were assessed in the Banfora health district in Burkina Faso. The survey targeted six (6) primary health centres, the district laboratory and the national laboratory, all involved in the poliomyelitis surveillance system. Data from registers, forms documenting suspected cases, stool sample forms and weekly reports were collected by means of a data grid. Data from actors involved in the poliomyelitis case investigation system were collected by means of an individual questionnaire. The reactivity of investigating suspected cases was satisfactory with a median alert questionnaire notification time of 18 hours. The completeness of the reporting system was satisfactory. Nevertheless, the promptness of data management by primary heath centres and the national laboratory remained unsatisfactory. Evaluation of data management revealed logistic and organization shortcomings. The overall efficacy of the poliomyelitis surveillance could be improved by using management tools for laboratory supplies, collecting data related to the homes of suspected cases and implementing a cold chain maintenance plan.

  16. Acute intoxications in two university hospitals in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, M; Yéré, S; Traoré, S; Guissou, I P

    2012-12-01

    Acute intoxications become more and more a serious problem in developing countries. However, epidemiologic data are very scarce in these countries. To describe the characteristics of acute intoxications in two University Hospitals of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). All cases admitted to the emergency services of the two sole University Hospitals of Ouagadougou from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007, were included. We analysed the medical records for demographical and etiological characteristics of the acute poisoned-patients. Acute poisoned-patients (436) represented 1.9% of the patients admitted to these services. The majority of acute poisoned-patients were pre-school children followed by young adults. Accidental intoxications (70.8%) were more common than intentional (28.9) and suicidal attempts (0.3%). Among poisoned-patients, female patients represented a great majority. Pharmaceuticals were the most common cause of acute intoxication, followed by chemicals, animals' toxins, food, alcohol and addictive drugs. Our study revealed that pharmaceuticals were the most common cause of acute intoxications. The great majority of poisoned-patients were young. Female patients were the major poisoned-patients. Most admissions in the emergency services due to acute intoxications resulted from accidental poisoning.

  17. Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use.

  18. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Fournet, Florence; Rican, Stéphane; Vaillant, Zoé; Roudot, Anna; Meunier-Nikiema, Aude; Kassié, Daouda; Dabiré, Roch K.; Salem, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density). Flavivirus (FLAV) IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection) and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4–26.7) (n = 685). Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61–2.14) were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex), householders (educational level, asset index) and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance); however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters). Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed. PMID:27973402

  19. Efficiency of primary care in rural Burkina Faso. A two-stage DEA analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Providing health care services in Africa is hampered by severe scarcity of personnel, medical supplies and financial funds. Consequently, managers of health care institutions are called to measure and improve the efficiency of their facilities in order to provide the best possible services with their resources. However, very little is known about the efficiency of health care facilities in Africa and instruments of performance measurement are hardly applied in this context. Objective This study determines the relative efficiency of primary care facilities in Nouna, a rural health district in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the efficiency of these institutions. Methodology We apply a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based on data from a comprehensive provider and household information system. In the first stage, the relative efficiency of each institution is calculated by a traditional DEA model. In the second stage, we identify the reasons for being inefficient by regression technique. Results The DEA projections suggest that inefficiency is mainly a result of poor utilization of health care facilities as they were either too big or the demand was too low. Regression results showed that distance is an important factor influencing the efficiency of a health care institution Conclusions Compared to the findings of existing one-stage DEA analyses of health facilities in Africa, the share of relatively efficient units is slightly higher. The difference might be explained by a rather homogenous structure of the primary care facilities in the Burkina Faso sample. The study also indicates that improving the accessibility of primary care facilities will have a major impact on the efficiency of these institutions. Thus, health decision-makers are called to overcome the demand-side barriers in accessing health care. PMID:22828358

  20. The Influence of Urbanization Modes on the Spatial Circulation of Flaviviruses within Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Florence; Rican, Stéphane; Vaillant, Zoé; Roudot, Anna; Meunier-Nikiema, Aude; Kassié, Daouda; Dabiré, Roch K; Salem, Gérard

    2016-12-10

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in West Africa is not obvious, especially in Burkina Faso. Our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from Ouagadougou districts with different types and degrees of urbanization (with/without equipment and high/low building density). Flavivirus (FLAV) IgM MAC-ELISA and FLAV indirect IgG ELISA were performed. Associations between FLAV IgG presence (sign of past infection) and various independent variables were assessed using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of past flavivirus infections among the enrolled children was 22.7% (95% CI: 22.4-26.7) (n = 685). Eleven children (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.61-2.14) were positive for FLAV IgM, indicating active transmission. Factors associated with flavivirus infection were identified among the enrolled children (age, sex), householders (educational level, asset index) and in the environment (building density, water access, waste management and house appearance); however, they showed great variability according to the city districts. The water access modality did not significantly influence FLAV IgG positivity. Conversely, apparently good practices of waste management had unexpected consequences (increased risk related to municipal dumpsters). Given the scale of ongoing urbanization and the spread of arboviral diseases, close collaboration between health and city stakeholders is needed.

  1. The Legacy of Christianity in West Africa, with Special Reference to Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouedraogo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso, West Africa: Predicting and verifying regions at risk.

    PubMed

    Bretzler, Anja; Lalanne, Franck; Nikiema, Julien; Podgorski, Joel; Pfenninger, Numa; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-04-15

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater from crystalline basement rocks in West Africa has only been documented in isolated areas and presents a serious health threat in a region already facing multiple challenges related to water quality and scarcity. We present a comprehensive dataset of arsenic concentrations from drinking water wells in rural Burkina Faso (n=1498), of which 14.6% are above 10μg/L. Included in this dataset are 269 new samples from regions where no published water quality data existed. We used multivariate logistic regression with arsenic measurements as calibration data and maps of geology and mineral deposits as independent predictor variables to create arsenic prediction models at concentration thresholds of 5, 10 and 50μg/L. These hazard maps delineate areas vulnerable to groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso. Bedrock composed of schists and volcanic rocks of the Birimian formation, potentially harbouring arsenic-containing sulphide minerals, has the highest probability of yielding groundwater arsenic concentrations >10μg/L. Combined with population density estimates, the arsenic prediction models indicate that ~560,000 people are potentially exposed to arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Burkina Faso. The same arsenic-bearing geological formations that are positive predictors for elevated arsenic concentrations in Burkina Faso also exist in neighbouring countries such as Mali, Ghana and Ivory Coast. This study's results are thus of transboundary relevance and can act as a trigger for targeted water quality surveys and mitigation efforts.

  3. Integration of Emerging Learning Technologies in Secondary Schools: A Burkina Faso Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zongo, Romaric R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to document the perspectives and attitudes of secondary education teachers and administrators about the perceived benefits and challenges of integrating new Emerging Learning Technologies (ELTs) in the classroom. Education has become one of the biggest challenges in the African nation of Burkina Faso where…

  4. Genetic characterization of HPAI (H5N1) viruses from poultry and wild vultures, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Tahita, Marc C; Sow, Adama; de Landtsheer, Sebastien; Londt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Osterhaus, D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco B; Muller, Claude P

    2007-04-01

    Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere.

  5. Politics of Language: The Struggle for Power in Schools in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, A'ame

    2010-01-01

    Power can be equated to the possession of a particular language used to navigate the world. In Mali and Burkina Faso, two former colonies of France, language choice for instruction in mainstream primary schools remains a struggle between the powerful and the powerless. Fifty years after independence from France, both countries continue to…

  6. From Funding Projects to Supporting Sectors? Observation on the Aid Relationship in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Burkina Faso is among the largest recipients of development aid in West Africa. The new aid terminology emphasizes partnership and a sectoral approach. Yet, recent research suggests more continuity than change in the aid relationship. Projects persist. Funding and technical assistance agencies cooperate more but adhere to their interests,…

  7. Towards New Partnerships in Sector-Wide Approaches: Comparative Experiences from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene

    2002-01-01

    Partnership and sector-wide approaches have become common denominators for success in educational development. It is, however, far easier to agree on the rhetoric than to implement the underlying principles. The comparative analysis of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique highlights how far governments and agencies still have to go in order to…

  8. Politics of Language: The Struggle for Power in Schools in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, A'ame

    2010-01-01

    Power can be equated to the possession of a particular language used to navigate the world. In Mali and Burkina Faso, two former colonies of France, language choice for instruction in mainstream primary schools remains a struggle between the powerful and the powerless. Fifty years after independence from France, both countries continue to…

  9. Health insurance and child mortality in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Schoeps, Anja; Lietz, Henrike; Sié, Ali; Savadogo, Germain; De Allegri, Manuela; Müller, Olaf; Sauerborn, Rainer; Becher, Heiko; Souares, Aurélia

    2015-01-01

    Micro health insurance schemes have been implemented across developing countries as a means of facilitating access to modern medical care, with the ultimate aim of improving health. This effect, however, has not been explored sufficiently. We investigated the effect of enrolment into community-based health insurance on mortality in children under 5 years of age in a health and demographic surveillance system in Nouna, Burkina Faso. We analysed the effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality with a Cox regression model. We adjusted for variables that we found to be related to the enrolment in health insurance in a preceding analysis. Based on the analysis of 33,500 children, the risk of mortality was 46% lower in children enrolled in health insurance as compared to the non-enrolled children (HR=0.54, 95% CI 0.43-0.68) after adjustment for possible confounders. We identified socioeconomic status, father's education, distance to the health facility, year of birth, and insurance status of the mother at time of birth as the major determinants of health insurance enrolment. The strong effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality may be explained by increased utilisation of health services by enrolled children; however, other non-observed factors cannot be excluded. Because malaria is a main cause of death in the study area, early consultation of health services in case of infection could prevent many deaths. Concerning the magnitude of the effect, implementation of health insurance could be a major driving factor of reduction in child mortality in the developing world.

  10. Substandard anti-malarial drugs in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tipke, Maike; Diallo, Salou; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Störzinger, Dominic; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten; Sie, Ali; Müller, Olaf

    2008-05-27

    There is concern about an increasing infiltration of markets by substandard and fake medications against life-threatening diseases in developing countries. This is particularly worrying with regard to the increasing resistance development of Plasmodium falciparum against affordable anti-malarial medications, which has led to a change to more expensive drugs in most endemic countries. A representative sample of modern anti-malarial medications from licensed (public and private pharmacies, community health workers) and illicit (market and street vendors, shops) sources has been collected in the Nouna Health District in north-western Burkina Faso in 2006. All drugs were tested for their quality with the standard procedures of the German Pharma Health Fund-Minilab. Detected low standard drugs were re-tested with European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.1 standards for disintegration and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at the laboratory of the Heidelberg University for confirmation. Overall, 86 anti-malarial drug samples were collected, of which 77 samples have been included in the final analysis. The sample consisted of 39/77 (50%) chloroquine, 10/77 (13%) pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine, 9/77 (12%) quinine, 6/77 (8%) amodiaquine, 9/77 (12%) artesunate, and 4/77 (5%) artemether-lumefantrine. 32/77 (42%) drug samples were found to be of poor quality, of which 28 samples failed the visual inspection, nine samples had substandard concentrations of the active ingredient, four samples showed poor disintegration, and one sample contained non of the stated active ingredient. The licensed and the illicit market contributed 5/47 (10.6%) and 27/30 (90.0%) samples of substandard drugs respectively. These findings provide further evidence for the wide-spread existence of substandard anti-malarial medications in Africa and call for strengthening of the regulatory and quality control capacity of affected countries, particularly in view of the now wider available and substantially more costly

  11. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P.; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as “poor man’s meat”, cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus—a strain of Bean common mosaic virus—[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses. PMID:27764211

  12. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  13. Late-Eburnean tectonic emplacement of Wayen syenite (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydoux Traoré, Abraham; Naba, Séta; Lompo, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The alkali plutonism of the Palaeoproterozoic domain of the West African craton remains very poorly studied. The rare data available are those from the Ninakri syenite and the alkali granites of central Côte d'Ivoire (Bonhomme, 1962; Morel and Alinat, 1993 ; Doumbia et al, 1998) and those of the alkali granites of central Burkina Faso (Wenmenga, 1986). All these studies focused on the petrographical characterization and the determination of the radiometric ages of these plutons. All ages were determined by the Rb/Sr and they vary between 1.8 Ga and 2.1 Ga. The span of emplacement ages suggests that the alkali plutonism of the Palaeoproterozoic of West Africa continued throughout the tectono-magmatic history of the craton. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the late eburnean tectonic processes using the structural data of the Wayen syenite which was dated at 2.1 Ga by Rb/Sr isochron by Vachette and Ouédraogo (1978) Map view and field relationships show that the Wayen syenite intrudes the metavolcanic and early plutonic rocks (tonalites, trondhjemites and granodiorites). The geochemical data show that the syenite has a peraluminous character (Peccerrilo and Taylor, 1976) and belongs to the S-type granitoids (Chappell and White, 1992). The structural data have been obtained by magnetic susceptibility (Km) measurements on 190 samples from 47 sampling stations. The values of susceptibility range between 253 µSI and 595,314 µSI. This means that we have both samples with ferromagnetic character (Km > 500 µSI) and paramagnetic character (Km ≤ 500 µSI). In the case of paramagnetism, the minerals bearing the magnetic susceptibility are ferriferous silicates (amphiboles and pyroxenes) whereas the in the ferromagnetic samples, it is magnetite. The microstructures of the syenite are mostly magmatic and very locally they show both high temperature solid state deformation features and relatively low temperature solid state conditions along narrow shear

  14. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers' migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sanfo, Safiétou; Fonta, M William; Boubacar, Ibrahim; Lamers, P A John

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article ('Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso' (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015) [1]).

  15. Religious differences in female genital cutting: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported, along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughters circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice.

  16. Religious Differences in Female Genital Cutting: A Case Study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughter circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice. PMID:21969936

  17. Reference Ranges of Cholesterol Sub-Fractions in Random Healthy Adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Koumaré, Alice T. C. R. Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P. L.; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers’ insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05). These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso. PMID:25611320

  18. Quality of Antenatal Care and Obstetrical Coverage in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kameli, Y.; Capon, G.; Sondo, B.; Martin-Prével, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. Despite the efforts to promote maternal and neonatal care to achieve this goal, the use of delivery care remains below expectations in Burkina Faso. This situation raises the question of the quality of care offered in maternity wards. The aim of this study was to identify primary healthcare facility and antenatal care characteristics predictive of an assisted delivery in rural Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gnagna province (North-East Burkina Faso) in November 2003. The operational capacities of health facilities were assessed, and a non-participating observation of the antenatal care (ANC) procedure was undertaken to evaluate their quality. Scores were established to summarize the information gathered. The rate of professional childbirth (obstetrical coverage) was derived from the number of childbirths registered in the health facility compared to the size of the population. The established scores were related to the obstetrical coverage using non-parametric tests (Kendall). In total, 17 health facilities were visited, and 81 antenatal consultations were observed. Insufficiencies were observed at all steps of ANC (mean total score for the quality of ANC=10.3±3.0, ranging from 6 to 16, out of a maximum of 20). Health facilities are poorly equipped, and the availability of qualified staff remained low (mean total score for the provision of care was 22.9±4.2, ranging from 14 to 33). However, these scores were not significantly related to the rate of professional childbirth (tau Kendall=0.27: p=0.14 and 0.01, p=0.93 respectively). The ability of the primary health centres to provide good antenatal care remains low in rural Burkina Faso. The key factors involved in the limited use of professional childbirth relating to maternal health services may be the quality of ANC. PMID:20214088

  19. Who Is Going for VCT? A Case Study in Urban Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Yaro, Seydou; Fao, Paulin; Defer, Marie-Christine; Ilboudo, François; Langani, Youssouf; Meda, Nicolas; Robert, Annie; Nagot, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is a key element of treatment and is essential for prevention of vertical HIV transmission. Little information is available on the uptake of VCT in Burkina Faso. This study aims to assess the prevalence of VCT in urban Burkina Faso, where the epidemic is still highly concentrated. Methods. We conducted a two-stage clustered population-based survey among 1,694 subjects living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. After informed consent was obtained, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to participants. Results. Overall, 10.2% of individuals had used VCT, while 9% were women. Among women who had a child after the launch of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), only 10.4% have been tested for HIV. Almost all participants (99.3%) were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 65% knew the main methods of prevention. In multivariate analysis, older age and being married and better educated were independent factors associated with VCT. Conclusions. Despite high public knowledge and awareness about HIV, VCT uptake was still very low and PMTCT coverage was poor. New strategies are required to increase VCT uptake in urban areas, in particular among the youngest age. PMID:24052873

  20. Preliminary assessment of framework conditions for release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    De Freece, Chenoa; Paré Toé, Léa; Esposito, Fulvio; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Favia, Guido

    2014-09-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are emerging as a measure to control mosquito-borne diseases, but before any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are released into the environment, it is imperative to establish regulatory standards incorporating public engagement. A previous project in Burkina Faso introduced a type of genetically modified cotton [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] cotton) that produces insecticide, and incorporated policies on public engagement. We explored the perspectives of Burkinabè (citizens of Burkina Faso) on bio-agricultural exposure to GMOs and their receptiveness to the use of GMOs. Interviews were conducted in a village (Bondoukuy) and with representatives from stakeholder organizations. The population may be very receptive to the use of GMMs against malaria, but may voice unfounded concerns that GMMs can transmit other diseases. It is important to constantly supply the population with correct and factual information. Investigating the application of Burkina Faso's biotechnology policies with regard to Bt cotton has shown that it may be conceivable in the future to have open discussions about the merits of GMM release. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center.

  2. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Eve; Chevalier, Véronique; Ayelet, Gelagay; Ben Bencheikh, Med Nadir; Boussini, Hiver; Chu, Daniel Kw; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Fassi-Fihri, Ouaffa; Faye, Bernard; Fekadu, Getnet; Grosbois, Vladimir; Ng, Bryan Cy; Perera, Ranawaka Apm; So, T Y; Traore, Amadou; Roger, François; Peiris, Malik

    2017-03-30

    Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100-100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4-99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2-89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005). This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Migration as a risk factor for measles after a mass vaccination campaign, Burkina Faso, 2002.

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, K Robert; Perry, Robert T; Yaméogo, André; Kambiré, Chantal; Kondé, M Kader; Nshimirimana, Déogratias; Kezaala, Robert; Hersh, Bradley S; Cairns, K Lisa; Strebel, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after a measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) targeting children from 9 months to 14 years of age that achieved high coverage, Burkina Faso had a large, serologically confirmed measles outbreak. To investigate the causes of this first reported failure of a widely successful measles control strategy we conducted a case-control study. Serologically confirmed measles cases aged > or =9 months at the time of the SIA in 6 heavily affected districts were frequency matched on age to 3 controls recruited from people frequenting health centres in the same districts. Between January and July 2002, 1287 measles cases were reported throughout Burkina Faso. Of the 707 cases that were serologically confirmed, 358 (51%) were from 9 months to 14 years of age and 265 (37%) were > or =15 years of age. Among cases and controls from 9 months to 14 years of age significant risk factors for measles were lack of measles vaccination and, in the unvaccinated, recent travel to Cote d'Ivoire. Of the recent measles cases in Cote d'Ivoire 54% were there when exposed to measles. Among adults, risk factors included non-vaccination and the lack of school attendance during childhood. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 98%. Migration of children between Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso played a major role in the failure of the SIA to interrupt measles transmission. Synchronization of measles control activities should be a high priority in countries with regions where much migration occurs.

  4. Comparative Review of Selected Educational Policies of 1st and 2nd Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, and That of United Kingdom and United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumi, Asamoah Moses; Seidu, Abarichie Adamu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines some selected Educational Policies of First and Second Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Burkina Faso, in comparison with that of the UK and US. The purpose of the study is to itemise the commonalities and differences in Educational Policies of both developed (UK and US) and developing countries (Ghana and Burkina Faso) in…

  5. [History of an epidemiological route between Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso: the case of the Koudougou sleeping sickness foci].

    PubMed

    Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2012-11-01

    In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk.

  6. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.

    PubMed

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomandé, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

    2012-05-30

    A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest

  7. Schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso after a decade of preventive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Hamado; Drabo, François; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Bamba, Issouf; Pima, Tiba; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Toubali, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the impact of a decade of biennial mass administration of praziquantel on schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso. Methods In 2013, in a national assessment based on 22 sentinel sites, 3514 school children aged 7–11 years were checked for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infection by the examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. We analysed the observed prevalence and intensity of infections and compared these with the relevant results of earlier surveys in Burkina Faso. Findings S. haematobium was detected in 287/3514 school children (adjusted prevalence: 8.76%, range across sentinel sites: 0.0–56.3%; median: 2.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was higher in the children from the Centre-Est, Est and Sahel regions than in those from Burkina Faso’s other eight regions with sentinel sites (P < 0.001). The adjusted arithmetic mean intensity of S. haematobium infection, among all children, was 6.0 eggs per 10 ml urine. Less than 1% of the children in six regions had heavy S. haematobium infections – i.e. at least 50 eggs per 10 ml urine – but such infections were detected in 8.75% (28/320) and 11.56% (37/320) of the children from the Centre-Est and Sahel regions, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni was only detected in two regions and 43 children – i.e. 1 (0.31%) of the 320 from Centre-Sud and 42 (8.75%) of the 480 from Hauts Bassins. Conclusion By mass use of preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso may have eliminated schistosomiasis as a public health problem in eight regions and controlled schistosome-related morbidity in another three regions. PMID:26769995

  8. The role of transportation to access maternal care services for women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Kouanda, Seni; Seppey, Mathieu; Alam, Anadil; Savadogo, Justin Ragnessi; Sia, Drissa; Fournier, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    To understand the role of transportation in accessing health care during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period among women in rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Mymensingh district in Bangladesh and Kaya district in Burkina Faso. We recruited 300 women from Bangladesh and 340 from Burkina Faso with a delivery outcome within one year of interview. Key informant interviews were conducted with 19 participants and 12 focus group discussions took place with attendees in selected community clinics. Of the interviewees, 45.7% in Bangladesh and 73.2% in Burkina Faso reported having had health complications during their last pregnancy, delivery, or postpartum period. Of all women, 42.7% in Bangladesh and 67.4% in Burkina Faso sought facility care for their complications. Facility-based delivery was much higher in Burkina Faso (87.7%) than Bangladesh (38.2%). Literacy, transport availability, transportation costs, and travel time were associated with care seeking behavior. Lack of reliable transportation was reported as a significant barrier to accessing care during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by women in Bangladesh and Burkina Faso. Effort should be made to improve access to emergency obstetric care, and transport intervention should be strengthened. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  10. Rotavirus in diarrheal children in rural Burkina Faso: high prevalence of genotype G6P[6].

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Johan; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Nitiema, Leon W; Sharma, Sumit; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Barro, Nicolas; Svensson, Lennart

    2012-12-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children globally, and responsible for a significant number of deaths in African countries. While vaccines are available, trials have shown a lesser efficacy in Africa. One of the reasons could be the prevalence and/or emergence of unusual or novel RVA strains, as many strains detected in African countries remain uncharacterized. In this study, we characterized RVA positive specimens from two remote rural areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa. In total 56 RVA positive specimens were subgrouped by their VP6 gene, and G-and P typed by PCR and/or sequencing of the VP7 and VP4 genes, respectively. Notably, we found a high prevalence of the unusual G6P[6]SGI strains (23%). It was the second most common constellation after G9P[8]SGII (32%); and followed by G1P[8]SGII (20%) and G2P[4]SGI (9%). We also detected a G8P[6]SGI strain, for the first time in Burkina Faso. The intra-genetic diversity was high for the VP4 gene with two subclusters within the P[8] genotype and three subclusters within the P[6] genotype which were each associated with a specific G-type, thereby suggesting a genetic linkage. The G6P[6]SGI and other SGI RVA strains infected younger children as compared to SGII strains (p<0.05). To conclude, in this study we observed the emergence of unusual RVA strains and high genetic diversity of RVA in remote rural areas of Burkina Faso. The results highlight the complexity of RVA epidemiology which may have implication for the introduction of rotavirus vaccines currently being evaluated in many African countries.

  11. Detecting depression after pregnancy: the validity of the K10 and K6 in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, R F; Ganaba, R; Filippi, V; Kere, M; Marshall, T; Sombié, I; Storeng, K T; Patel, V

    2007-10-01

    The K10 and K6 are short rating scales designed to detect individuals at risk for depressive disorder, with or without anxiety. Despite being widely used, they have not yet been validated for detecting postnatal depression. We describe the validity of these scales for the detection of postnatal depression in Burkina Faso. The English language version of the K10 questionnaire was translated into West African French and local languages for use in Burkina Faso. Scores for 61 women were compared with the diagnostic interview made by a local psychiatrist within 3 days of administering the K10. Clinical assessment found that 27 (44%) women were probable cases of depression. Internal consistency of K10 and K6 scores, defined by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 0.87 and 0.78, respectively, indicating satisfactory reliability. The performance of the scores was not significantly different, with areas under the curve of 0.77 and 0.75 for the K10 and K6, respectively. To estimate prevalence of depression, we suggest cut-offs of > or =14 for the K10 and between > or =9 and > or =11 for the K6 for identifying women at high risk of depression. At > or =14, the K10 has 59% sensitivity, 91% specificity; at > or =10, the K6 has 59% sensitivity and 85% specificity. This study suggests that K10 and K6 are reasonably valid measures of depression among postpartum women in Burkina Faso and can be used as relatively cheap tools for estimating prevalence of postnatal depression in developing countries.

  12. Measuring women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it can help to improve the

  13. Costs of Neisseria meningitidis Group A Disease and Economic Impact of Vaccination in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-11-15

    Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 26-year time horizon. These scenarios are (1) reactive vaccination campaign (baseline comparator); (2) preventive vaccination campaign; (3) routine immunization at 9 months; and (4) a combination of routine and an initial catchup campaign of children under 5. Costs were estimated from a literature review, which included unpublished programmatic documents and peer-reviewed publications. The future disease burden for each vaccination strategy was predicted using a dynamic transmission model of group A Neisseria meningitidis. From 2010 to 2014, the total costs associated with the preventive campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds with MenAfriVac were similar to the estimated costs of the reactive vaccination strategy (approximately 10 million US dollars [USD]). Between 2015 and 2035, routine immunization with or without a catch-up campaign of 1- to 4-year-olds is cost saving compared with the reactive strategy, both with and without discounting costs and cases. Most of the savings are accrued from lower costs of case management and household costs resulting from a lower burden of disease. After the initial investment in the preventive strategy, 1 USD invested in the routine strategy saves an additional 1.3 USD compared to the reactive strategy. Prevention strategies using MenAfriVac will be significantly cost saving in Burkina Faso, both for the health system and for households, compared with the reactive strategy. This will protect households from catastrophic expenditures and increase the development

  14. Seroprevalence of fecal-oral transmitted hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Kuan Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hortense; Nébié, Yacouba; Sanou, Mahamadou; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Roques, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females) and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1-21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8-31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3-24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1-16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population.

  15. Clinical spectrum of rheumatologic diseases in a department of rheumatology in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné; Ntsiba, Honoré; Tiendrébéogo Zabsonré, Joelle; Tiéno, Hervé; Bokossa, Laurelle I F; Kaboré, Fulgence; Drabo, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to review over a period of 5 years the clinical spectrum of rheumatic diseases seen in a tertiary hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A retrospective study of case records was conducted from March 1, 2006 to March 30, 2011 in the Rheumatology service, Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo. Of the 4,084 patients seen, 2,381 were women (58.30%) and 1,703 were men (41.70%). The mean age at disease onset was 42.12 years, ranging from 3 to 92 years. Among the rheumatologic conditions, mechanical and degenerative disorders were the most common, found in 3,053 cases (74.76%). Among these cases, spinal pathology predominated, especially low back pain (19.93 %). The frequency of osteoarthritis was 19.70 % (804 cases) with a predominance of knee osteoarthritis (657 cases). Infectious pathology was dominated by osteoarticular tuberculosis (48 cases), particularly Pott's disease (43.68% of infectious diseases). Among the cases of inflammatory arthritides, rheumatoid arthritis was the leading cause (116 cases or 2.84%). It was followed by spondyloarthropathies in which arthritis related to HIV predominated (21 out of 81 cases). Metabolic diseases were mainly represented by the gout (162 cases or 3.96%) with male predominance. Comorbidities included high blood pressure (46.57%), diabetes mellitus (13.78%), hemoglobinopathies (9.66%), epigastric pain (7.25%), and peptic ulcer confirmed by endoscopy (6.75%). Rheumatology in Burkina Faso is booming. The profile of rheumatologic diseases in Burkina Faso, after 5 years of practice, confirms the diversity and importance of these conditions dominated by a degenerative pathology of the spine and limbs, including infectious diseases such as Pott's disease and the inflammatory and metabolic diseases.

  16. Seroprevalence of Fecal-Oral Transmitted Hepatitis A and E Virus Antibodies in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Kuan Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hortense; Nébié, Yacouba; Sanou, Mahamadou; Traoré, Alfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females) and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1–21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8–31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3–24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1–16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population. PMID:23110187

  17. Therapeutic uses of honey and honeybee larvae in central Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Millogo, Jeanne; Romito, Marco; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2004-11-01

    The therapeutic uses of hive-derived products by local people in four zones from the central part of Burkina Faso are described. Of 13 apitherapeutic applications recorded, only honey (12) and honeybee larvae (1) were used. The uses described included treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory ailments, fatigue, vertigo, ophthalmic disorders, toothache, measles, wounds, burns, chest pains, period pains and postnatal disorders, male impotence as well as its application as a skin cleansing agent. The effectiveness against some of these conditions, e.g. measles, period pains and postnatal disorders, requires further investigation and confirmation.

  18. HIV prevalence and poverty in Africa: micro- and macro-econometric evidences applied to Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lachaud, Jean-Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Based on the data of the Demographic and Health Survey, and of the Household Priority Survey, carried out in 2003, the present study, examining the factors of HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso, provides two conclusions. Firstly, the fight against poverty is not necessarily a means of reducing simultaneously and drastically HIV/AIDS prevalence, an assertion based on several elements of empirical analysis. First of all, the micro-econometric estimates of the probit models suggest a positive relationship between HIV prevalence in adult women and men, and living standards of individuals. Then, the macro-econometric approach reveals the existence of a positive (negative) relationship between, on the one hand, the level of regional HIV prevalence, and, on the other hand, the average monetary provincial standard of living (poverty) of households. At the same time, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty, apprehended at the regional level, is not linear. Secondly, and correlatively, the relationship between HIV prevalence and poverty is called into question. First of all, some structural factors may contribute to a distortion of the relationship between resources of households and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This may be due, on the one hand, to the persistence of cognitive and behavioural factors inherent in a traditional society, and in particular, to the fact that the social construction of female attributes and roles confers to men a statute of "decision-makers" with regard to sexual intercourse, while the persistence of secular beliefs contributes to minimizing the perception of HIV/AIDS in terms of risk, independently of standards of living. In addition, the enclavement of Burkina Faso required development of road and railway traffic with neighbouring countries, in particular Côte d'Ivoire. Therefore, it may be that the structural conditions of the process of development of Burkina Faso, concomitant with significant flows of the exchange of goods, services

  19. Peacekeeping, a New Challenge for Burkina Faso’s Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    political leaders about the role of the armed forces. This resulted in the lack of trust among the leadership. Second, there was a time when wrong analysis ...How is it to be used?” has been the goal of this analysis . Burkina Faso has elected to be a key player in the peace process in Africa. The use of...Wall, http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2009/11per-n09html (accessed January 2, 2013.) 2 Francois Mitterand, “Le discours de la Baule », http

  20. Health Providers’ Perceptions of Clinical Trials: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice requires understanding the potential effects of trial inputs on the perceptions and practices of routine health care providers. This study explores the influence of malaria vaccine trials on health service delivery in Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted: audits of trial inputs in 10 trial facilities and among 144 health workers; individual interviews with frontline providers (n=99) and health managers (n=14); and group discussions with fieldworkers (n=9 discussions). Descriptive summaries were generated from audit data. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results Facilities involved in trials benefited from infrastructure and equipment upgrades, support with essential drugs, access to trial vehicles, and placement of additional qualified trial staff. Qualified trial staff in facilities were often seen as role models by their colleagues; assisting with supportive supervision and reducing facility workload. Some facility staff in place before the trial also received formal training and salary top-ups from the trials. However, differential access to support caused dissatisfaction, and some interviewees expressed concerns about what would happen at the end of the trial once financial and supervisory support was removed. Conclusion Clinical trials function as short-term complex health service delivery interventions in the facilities in which they are based. They have the potential to both benefit facilities, staff and communities through providing the supportive environment required for improvements in routine care, but they can also generate dissatisfaction, relationship challenges and demoralisation among staff. Minimising trial related

  1. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  2. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-01-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients’ rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers’ fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  3. [Does post-test counseling support PLHIV in disclosing their HIV status? Practices and propositions by counselors in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Simaga, Fodé

    2013-07-01

    Disclosure of HIV test results is discussed during post-test counseling, following norms. However, while barriers to disclosing a positive HIV result have been documented, the literature is sparse on the way guidelines are applied in the field. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze counseling practices regarding HIV disclosure to 'significant others' (partner, family members, friends) reported by clients and providers of HIV voluntary counseling and testing in Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in urban and rural areas in 2008 . A questionnaire incorporating semi-open questions was used. A total of 542 people who completed the test in 2007 and 111 service providers of HIV counseling and testing were interviewed. The data were analyzed using SPSS 12. Only 29% of those tested stated that disclosure to partner or family members was discussed with them during post-test counseling. This result is explained by providers' uncertainties and concerns regarding how to disclose, risks related to disclosure and adverse consequences of disclosure. Strategies are developed by counseling providers to support people who have been diagnosed HIV positive in disclosing to significant others, but they recognize that these actions are insufficient. Providers' suggestions are to keep fighting against the stigmatization of PLHIV, to improve counseling providers' competence in this area, and to adopt legal texts to make mandatory disclosure of the HIV result to partners. The study identified several ways to improve counseling practices regarding clients' disclosure of their HIV status in Burkina Faso. These findings could have significance for Africa as a whole.

  4. Participatory Assessment of Development Interventions: Lessons Learned from a New Evaluation Methodology in Ghana and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Nicky; Dietz, Ton; Bélemvire, Adame; de Groot, Dieneke; Millar, David; Obeng, Francis; Rijneveld, Wouter; Van der Geest, Kees; Vlaminck, Zjos; Zaal, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the principles and findings of developing a new participatory assessment of development (PADev) evaluation approach that was codesigned with Dutch nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and northern and southern research institutes over a period of 4 years in the context of rural development in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Although…

  5. Participatory Assessment of Development Interventions: Lessons Learned from a New Evaluation Methodology in Ghana and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Nicky; Dietz, Ton; Bélemvire, Adame; de Groot, Dieneke; Millar, David; Obeng, Francis; Rijneveld, Wouter; Van der Geest, Kees; Vlaminck, Zjos; Zaal, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the principles and findings of developing a new participatory assessment of development (PADev) evaluation approach that was codesigned with Dutch nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and northern and southern research institutes over a period of 4 years in the context of rural development in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Although…

  6. An epidemiological study to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence and malaria control measures in Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Aldiouma; Sié, Ali; Sirima, Sodiomon; Sylla, Khadime; Ndiaye, Mahmadou; Bountogo, Mamadou; Ouedraogo, Espérance; Tine, Roger; Ndiaye, Assane; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Faye, Babacar; Ba, El Hadji; Compaore, Guillaume; Tiono, Alfred; Sokhna, Cheikh; Yé, Maurice; Diarra, Amidou; Bahmanyar, Edith Roset; De Boer, Melanie; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Usuf, Effua Abigail

    2017-02-06

    Malariometric information is needed to decide how to introduce malaria vaccines and evaluate their impact in sub-Saharan African countries. This cross-sectional study (NCT01954264) was conducted between October and November, 2013, corresponding to the high malaria transmission season, in four sites with Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) [two sites with moderate-to-high malaria endemicity in Burkina Faso (Nouna and Saponé) and two sites with low malaria endemicity in Senegal (Keur Socé and Niakhar)]. Children (N = 2421) were randomly selected from the DSS lists of the study sites and were stratified into two age groups (6 months-4 years and 5-9 years). A blood sample was collected from each child to evaluate parasite prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species and gametocyte density by microscopy, and rapid diagnosis test in the event of fever within 24 h. Case report forms were used to evaluate malaria control measures and other factors. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 707 (29.2%) children, with a higher prevalence in Burkina Faso than Senegal (57.5 vs 0.9% of children). In Burkina Faso, prevalence was 57.7% in Nouna and 41.9% in Saponé in the 6 months-4 years age group, and 75.4% in Nouna and 70.1% in Saponé in the 5-9 years age group. Infections with other Plasmodium species were rare and only detected in Burkina Faso. While mosquito nets were used by 88.6-97.0 and 64.7-80.2% of children in Burkina Faso and Senegal, other malaria control measures evaluated at individual level were uncommon. In Burkina Faso, exploratory analyses suggested that use of malaria treatment or any other medication within 14 days, and use of insecticide spray within 7 days decreased the prevalence of malaria infection; older age, rural residence, natural floor, grass/palm roof, and unavailability of electricity in the house were factors associated with increased malaria occurrence. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children

  7. Prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bagayan, M; Zongo, D; Oueda, A; Sorgho, H; Savadogo, B; Drabo, F; Ouedraogo, A; Poda, J N; Kabre, B G; Zhang, Y

    2016-08-01

    To determine the current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among schoolchildren after 10 years of mass treatment with praziquantel. Parasitological surveys were conducted in 2013 in 22 primary schools located in 11 regions of Burkina Faso. Urine filtration methods and Kato-Katz techniques for stool were used to detect the eggs of Schistosoma hæmatobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and STH. 3514 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 11 (1.415 ± 9) years participated in the study. The prevalence of S. hæmatobium was 8.1% and of S. mansoni, 1.2%. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis ranged from 0.6% to 26.2% and that of urinary schistosomiasis from 0.6% to 56.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was 1.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides 0.1%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.06%. The arithmetic mean of S. hæmatobium and S. mansoni were respectively 6 eggs/10 mL and 1.07 epg (eggs per gram). The arithmetic means of eggs were 0.07 epg, 0.03 epg, and 1.89 epg respectively for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and Ankylostoma spp. This study shows the current situation for schistosomiasis and STH infections in different regions of Burkina Faso. Elimination of this parasitic disease requires the inclusion of other control methods, in addition to mass treatment.

  8. Removal of user fees no guarantee of universal health coverage: observations from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Laokri, Samia; Weil, Olivier; Drabo, K Maxime; Dembelé, S Mathurin; Kafando, Benoît; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007-2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient's household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced "catastrophic" health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households' members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of "catastrophic" health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of "free" care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control.

  9. Sorghum malt and traditional beer (dolo) quality assessment in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Pale, Siébou; Taonda, Sibiri Jean-Baptiste; Bougouma, Boniface; Mason, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum malt and dolo quality evaluation criteria and parameters affecting quality were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso through questionnaires addressed to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers, and consumers. The major quality criteria for malt quality assessment were perceived to be taste and presence/absence of roots in the malt. Taste, alcohol content, and wort sufficiently cooked were perceived as major criteria for the dolo quality assessment. The major parameters affecting malt quality were perceived to be malt production period, proportions of grain and the amount of water entering malting, presence of pesticide residues in the malting grains, and age of grain. Processing method, yeast source, proportions of the components (crushed grain, water, mucilage, yeast) entering dolo production, malt quality, wort temperature at time of inoculation, amount of energy available for cooking, wort and sediment boiling time, quality of mucilage, malt with non-sweet taste, presence/absence of roots in the malt, and ease of filtering crushed malt were perceived as major parameters affecting the dolo quality. These results will be used in the improvement of the dolo supply chain in Burkina Faso by providing more reliable information for training programs for efficient dolo brewing processes, development of best cropping practices to improve grain quality, and providing better selection criteria for sorghum breeding programs.

  10. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yawson, A E; McCall, P J; Wilson, M D; Donnelly, M J

    2004-12-01

    The Ghanaian National Malaria Control Programme has prioritized insecticide-treated materials as a key strategy for malaria control. We report on a survey of the distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and insecticide resistance (the kdr mutation), carried out by sampling mosquitoes from 11 locations in Ghana and one additional site in Burkina Faso. The molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae were found to occur in sympatry in southern Ghana. The S form predominated throughout its distribution in the coastal savannah, except at one location in the strand and mangrove zone where rice was cultivated. The M form was the only form collected in northern Ghana and was the predominant form (97.5%) in Burkina Faso. No M/S hybrids were detected. The kdr mutation was observed at very high frequencies (98-100%) within the S form but reached a maximum of only 3.38% in the M form in one population at an irrigation scheme in the Ghanaian coastal savannah zone.

  11. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Emergence of Unusual G6P[6] Rotaviruses in Children, Burkina Faso, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nitiema, Leon W.; Sharma, Sumit; Ouermi, Djeneba; Traore, Alfred S.; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    To obtain more information about rotavirus (ROTAV) genotypes in Burkina Faso, we characterized 100 ROTAVs isolated from fecal samples of children with acute gastroenteritis in the capital city of Ouagadougou, during December 2009–March 2010. Of note, 13% of the ROTAV-positive samples, including those with mixed infections, were positive for the unusual G6 genotype ROTAV strain. The genotypes identified were G9P[8], G6P[6], G1P[6], G3P[6], G1P[8], and G2P[4]. G9P[8] subgroup (SG)II strains dominated during the beginning of the ROTAV season, but later in the season, other G types associated with P[6] and SGI specificity emerged. This emergence was related to a shift in the overall age of infected children; ROTAV SGII infected younger children and induced more severe symptoms. The finding of a high incidence of G6P[6] strains highlights the need for long-term surveillance of ROTAV strains in Burkina Faso, especially when ROTAV vaccination is being considered in several African countries. PMID:22469076

  13. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses in the general population of burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Tao, Issoufou; Compaoré, Tegwindé R; Diarra, Birama; Djigma, Florencia; Zohoncon, Theodora M; Assih, Maléki; Ouermi, Djeneba; Pietra, Virginio; Karou, Simplice D; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In Burkina Faso, few studies reported the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses in the general population and to determine the most affected groups in relation to the risk factors associated with the infection. Method. A voluntary testing opened to anyone interested was held at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou. Rapid tests were carried out on 995 persons who voluntarily answered a range of questions before the venous blood sampling. Results. The results revealed that the antigen HBs carriers in the general population represented 14.47% (144/995) and the prevalence of HCV was 1.00% (10/995). The difference between HBV's prevalence in men (18.58%) and that in women (11.60%) was statistically significant (P = 0.002). The most affected groups were undergraduated students (19.57%) and persons working in the informal sector (15.98%). The least affected group was high level students (8.82%). Conclusion. Burkina Faso is a country with a high prevalence of HBV, while the incidence of HCV is still low in the general population. Therefore, more campaigns on the transmission routes of HBV and HCV are needed to reduce the spread of these viruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. [Vaccination status of children with sickle cell disease in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Nacoulma, Eric W C; Kam, L; Gue, E E; Kafando, E; Ayereroue, J; Blot, I

    2006-01-01

    Because of the importance of preventive activities in fighting sickle cell disease, we sought to assess the vaccination status of children with this disease in Burkina-Faso. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire to collect information from outpatients of the pediatric department of the Yalgado Ouédraogo hospital center and of Saint Camille medical center, also in Ouagadougou, from October 2005 through March 2006. The study included 122 children, 52.5% of whom had an SC phenotype. Coverage for vaccinations included in the WHO expanded vaccination programme was 97.5%. For other specific vaccines, coverage varied from 5.7% for the anti-Haemophilus influenzae vaccine to 65.8% for the 23 pneumococci included in pneumo23. The major reasons for non-vaccination were ignorance and the prohibitive cost of these vaccines for the families who knew about them. These results suggest the need for a national program against sickle cell disease, which should enable treatment centers to include in their preventive activities a specific vaccination program. Only in this way can we reduce the mortality rates among those younger than 5 years by 40% by 2015, the goal of the International Organization against sickle cell disease, to which Burkina-Faso belongs.

  15. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, A.; Thio, B.; Kiemde, S.; Drabo, I.; Dabire, C.; Ouedraogo, J.; Mullens, T. R.; Ehlers, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus. PMID:22661784

  16. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  17. [Physicochemical composition of bottled drinking water marketed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Some, Issa Touridomon; Banao, Issouf; Gouado, Inocent; Tapsoba, Théophile Lincoln

    2009-01-01

    The bottled drinking water marketed in urban areas includes natural mineral water, spring water, and treated drinking water. Their physicochemical qualities depend on the type and quantity of their components and define their safe use. Bottled water is widely consumed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and many brand names exist. Although many publications have examined the microbiological qualities of such water, no study has examined the physicochemical quality of water from Burkina Faso. This study, conducted from March 2005 through January 2006, aimed to assess the physicochemical composition of drinking water sold in Ouagadougou to facilitate better choices and use by consumers. Results showed that all the water analyzed in Ouagadougou is soft (TH < 50 ppm) or moderately soft (50 < TH < 200 ppm) and weakly mineralized (total dissolved solid content < 500 mg/L, sulfates [SO(2-)(4)] < 200 mg/L, [Ca(++)] < 150 mg/L, [Mg(2+)] < 50 mg/L, and [HCO(3)-] < 600 mg/l). Some imported water, however, is hard and highly mineralized. French standards do not set limit values for the natural mineral water parameters described above, and much of the water sold in Ouagadougou was natural mineral water. The spring water met potability standards, except for the Montagne d'Arrée brand, which had a pH value of 5.8, below the WHO standards of 6.5 < pH 8.5.

  18. SEROTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM LETTUCE AND HUMAN DIARRHEA SAMPLES IN BURKINA FASO.

    PubMed

    Siourimè, Somda Namwin; Isidore, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste; Oumar, Traoré; Nestor, Bassolé Ismael Henri; Yves, Traoré; Nicolas, Barro; Aly, Savadogo

    2017-01-01

    In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion method. Out of 154 Salmonella isolated, 60 were from human and 94 from lettuce samples. Serotyping revealed four different serotypes and 39% (60) untypeable strains from human and lettuce (14 and 46 strains). Salmonella serotypes from human and lettuce samples were: Paratyphi A (10% and 22%), Paratyphi B (34% and 8%), Paratyphi C (14% and 18%) and Typhi (21% and 1%). A high resistance of Salmonella Paratyphi B and Salmonella spp to tetracycline were 70% from human and 35 % from lettuce samples. Multiresistance was observed to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid or ampicillin with Salmonella ParatyphiB 35% and Salmonella Typhi 33% from human samples and Salmonella spp 4% from lettuce samples. This study showed the diversity of Salmonella serotypes from both clinical and environmental samples and emergence of multiresistant Salmonella to antibiotics in Burkina Faso. A lettuce is a potential source of transmission of Salmonella causing diarrhea among human in Burkina Faso. List of non-standard Abbreviations : HDB: Hôpital du District de Bogodogo, LNSP: Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, DSG : District Sanitaire de Gourcy, DSB : District Sanitaire de Boromo.

  19. SEROTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM LETTUCE AND HUMAN DIARRHEA SAMPLES IN BURKINA FASO.

    PubMed Central

    Siourimè, Somda Namwin; Isidore, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste; Oumar, Traoré; Nestor, Bassolé Ismael Henri; Yves, Traoré; Nicolas, Barro; Aly, Savadogo

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur–Kirby disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 154 Salmonella isolated, 60 were from human and 94 from lettuce samples. Serotyping revealed four different serotypes and 39% (60) untypeable strains from human and lettuce (14 and 46 strains). Salmonella serotypes from human and lettuce samples were: Paratyphi A (10% and 22%), Paratyphi B (34% and 8%), Paratyphi C (14% and 18%) and Typhi (21% and 1%). A high resistance of Salmonella Paratyphi B and Salmonella spp to tetracycline were 70% from human and 35 % from lettuce samples. Multiresistance was observed to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid or ampicillin with Salmonella ParatyphiB 35% and Salmonella Typhi 33% from human samples and Salmonella spp 4% from lettuce samples. Conclusion: This study showed the diversity of Salmonella serotypes from both clinical and environmental samples and emergence of multiresistant Salmonella to antibiotics in Burkina Faso. A lettuce is a potential source of transmission of Salmonella causing diarrhea among human in Burkina Faso. List of non-standard Abbreviations : HDB: Hôpital du District de Bogodogo, LNSP: Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, DSG : District Sanitaire de Gourcy, DSB : District Sanitaire de Boromo PMID:28670637

  20. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Hydrologic Information and Decision Support Tools to Improve Livelihoods in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers

  1. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, p<0.05) and lower symptoms of trauma (b = -3.90, SE = 1.52, p<0.05). This study offers insight into the psychological well-being of children in the context of ultra-poverty in Burkina Faso and associated context-specific adverse childhood experiences. Identifying specific sub-groups of children with increased exposure to

  2. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. Methods This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10–15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. Results About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, p<0.05) and lower symptoms of trauma (b = -3.90, SE = 1.52, p<0.05). Conclusions This study offers insight into the psychological well-being of children in the context of ultra-poverty in Burkina Faso and associated context-specific adverse childhood experiences. Identifying specific sub

  3. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Burkina Faso: Needs for Patient and Professional Education.

    PubMed

    Compaore, Salomon; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M R; Koanda, Seni; Haynatzki, Gleb; Chamberlain, Robert M; Soliman, Amr S

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer deaths for women in low-income African countries, such as Burkina Faso. Given that cervical cancer is a preventable disease through early detection and vaccination, this study aimed at understanding the barriers to cervical cancer early detection in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Women seeking screening and treatment for cervical cancer (n = 351) during the period of May-August 2014, at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward cervical cancer. Interview questions elicited information about sociodemographic of participants, history of screening, knowledge of cervical cancer, and attitudes toward cervical screening. Scores were assigned to responses of questions and knowledge, and tertitles of distributions were used for comparison. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to predict cervical screening. Study participants were relatively young (37.5 ± 10.7 years) and predominately resident of urban areas (83.8 %), and over half had no or less than high school education. Over 90 % of participants had heard about cervical cancer, and about 55 % of them had intermediate-level knowledge of the disease, its screening, and/or risk factors. Knowledge level was lower among rural than urban residents. Predictors of screening included higher level of education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-3.23), older age (OR = 1.1; 95 % CI 1.06-1.12), higher socioeconomic standard (SES) (OR = 1.5; 95 % CI 1-2.37), urban residence (OR = 2.0; 95 % CI 1.19-3.25), encouragement for screening by a health care worker (1.98; 95 % CI 1.06-3.69), and employment (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 1.13-3.11). Low awareness and socioeconomic barriers lead to underutilization of screening services of women. Motivation and education by healthcare workers are important factors for increasing screening

  4. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of urogenital schistosomiasis in women, in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Zida, Adama; Briegel, Janika; Kabré, Ibrahim; Sawadogo, Marcel P; Sangaré, Ibrahim; Bamba, Sanata; Yacouba, Abdourahamane; Ouédraogo, Amado; Yonli, Dieudonné; Drabo, François; Traoré, Lady Kady; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Ramata; Guiguemdé, Robert Tinga; Wacker, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Because infections with Schistosoma Haematobium usually peak in childhood, the majority of studies on schistosomiasis have focused on school-aged children. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical aspects of urogenital schistosomiasis in women in Burkina Faso, West Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a mesoendemic region (Kombissiri) and a hyperendemic region (Dori) for schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso. A total of 287 females aged 5 to 50 years were included in the study. S. haematobium infection was assessed using the urine filtration method and dipsticks were used for the detection of hematuria. Interviews were conducted to identify clinical aspects and risk factors related to urogenital schistosomiasis. The overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection in Dori was 21.3 %, where as Kombissiri was less affected with a prevalence of 4.6 %. The most affected age group was the 10- to 14-year-olds (41.2 %), followed by the 15- to 19-year-olds (26.3 %). Risk factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis (P <0.05) were place of residence, age, contact with open water in the past year, and distance of home to open water. The percentage of participants who had contact with open water was significantly higher among the women living in Dori compared to Kombissiri. Females over 15 years of age showed a significant higher rate of water contact compared to the 5- to 15-year-olds. A significant correlation between schistosomiasis and hematuria was established. Microhematuria showed a sensitivity of 80.6 %, a specificity of 92.7 %, and a positive predictive value of 61.7 %, whereas macrohematuria had a sensitivity of 47.2 %, a specificity of 99.2 %, and a positive predictive value of 89.5 %. The mass distribution of praziquantel in Burkina Faso is well established. However, over half of the participants with schistosomiasis in this study said they took praziquantel in the past 6 months, which indicates a high reinfection rate

  5. Single motherhood and neonatal and infant mortality in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso and Burundi.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, C

    2016-06-01

    Childhood mortality is a stubborn problem and remains highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Existing research on childhood mortality in SSA indicate that most of the childhood deaths are from preventable causes such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, HIV and underlying malnutrition, acute respiratory infections, whooping cough, tuberculosis, bronchopneumonia, dirty feeding bottles and utensils, inadequate disposal of household refuse and poor storage of drinking water. However, insufficient attention has been given to maternal marital status and childhood mortality relationships. Understanding the implications of maternal marital status for childhood mortality can add to our knowledge of the correlates of neonatal and infant mortality and furnish insights to support the design and delivery of interventions to address the problem. To document and examine the extent to which the association between neonatal and infant mortality varies between single and ever-married mothers in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, and Burundi. A single mother is defined in this study as a woman who has either lived with a partner, married before, widowed, separated during the survey periods and has given at least one life birth. Ever-married woman is woman who has been married at least once in their lives although their current marital status may not be married. Data for this study were drawn from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone and Burundi. The selected datasets came from 2010 Burkina Faso DHS (BFDHS), 2008 Sierra Leone DHS (SLDHS) and 2010 Burundi DHS (EDSB II). The relevant data for this study (women age 15-49 years who had at least one live birth within the five years preceding the survey) were extracted from the whole dataset of each country (Burkinabe (n = 17,087), Sierra Leonean (n = 7374) and Burundian (n = 9389). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to assess the association between neonatal and infant

  6. Costs of Neisseria meningitidis Group A Disease and Economic Impact of Vaccination in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. Methods. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 26-year time horizon. These scenarios are (1) reactive vaccination campaign (baseline comparator); (2) preventive vaccination campaign; (3) routine immunization at 9 months; and (4) a combination of routine and an initial catchup campaign of children under 5. Costs were estimated from a literature review, which included unpublished programmatic documents and peer-reviewed publications. The future disease burden for each vaccination strategy was predicted using a dynamic transmission model of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Results. From 2010 to 2014, the total costs associated with the preventive campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds with MenAfriVac were similar to the estimated costs of the reactive vaccination strategy (approximately 10 million US dollars [USD]). Between 2015 and 2035, routine immunization with or without a catch-up campaign of 1- to 4-year-olds is cost saving compared with the reactive strategy, both with and without discounting costs and cases. Most of the savings are accrued from lower costs of case management and household costs resulting from a lower burden of disease. After the initial investment in the preventive strategy, 1 USD invested in the routine strategy saves an additional 1.3 USD compared to the reactive strategy. Conclusions. Prevention strategies using MenAfriVac will be significantly cost saving in Burkina Faso, both for the health system and for households, compared with the reactive strategy. This will protect households from

  7. A guideline for sizing Photovoltaic panels across different climatic zones in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waongo, M.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m2/day and 7.5 kWh/m2/day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions "Mean situation", "Adverse situation", and "Beneficial situation", and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for "Beneficial situation". The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures. This

  8. Large-scale mapping of hard-rock aquifer properties applied to Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Nathalie; Lachassagne, Patrick; Wyns, Robert; Blanchin, Raymonde; Bougaïré, Francis D; Somé, Sylvain; Tapsoba, Aïssata

    2010-01-01

    A country-scale (1:1,000,000) methodology has been developed for hydrogeologic mapping of hard-rock aquifers (granitic and metamorphic rocks) of the type that underlie a large part of the African continent. The method is based on quantifying the "useful thickness" and hydrodynamic properties of such aquifers and uses a recent conceptual model developed for this hydrogeologic context. This model links hydrodynamic parameters (transmissivity, storativity) to lithology and the geometry of the various layers constituting a weathering profile. The country-scale hydrogeological mapping was implemented in Burkina Faso, where a recent 1:1,000,000-scale digital geological map and a database of some 16,000 water wells were used to evaluate the methodology.

  9. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  10. Increased pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and decreased bed net effectiveness, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Toé, Kobié H; Jones, Christopher M; N'Fale, Sagnon; Ismail, Hanafy M; Dabiré, Roch K; Ranson, Hilary

    2014-10-01

    Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods.

  11. [Malaria prevention practices in peri-urban zones of two health districts of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Sawadogo, Asséta; Laokri, Samia; Saizonou, Jacques; Hien, Hervé; Ouedraogo, Tinoaga Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Malaria prevention constitutes a key strategy to control this disease in Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study conducted in July and August 2011, assessed malaria prevention practices of populations of peri-urban zones of the Bogodogo and Boulmiougou health districts of the city of Ouagadougou. A total of 180 household heads, 192 mothers of children under the age of 5 years and 30 pregnant women were surveyed. For 86.7% household heads, 92% of mothers of children under the age of five years and 96.5% of pregnant women, mosquito bites represented the main mode of transmission of malaria. The majority of survey subjects reported a preference for mosquito coils rather than mosquito nets on the night preceding the survey. The content of malaria prevention communication must take into account sociodemographic realities and lifestyles of population groups, such as those living in peri-urban regions.

  12. ["Street" medication in Burkina Faso: local names, social relationships, and alleged therapeutic effects].

    PubMed

    Pale, Augustin; Ladner, Joël

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative assessment, based on discussions and discourse collected in interviews with members of the general population, addresses the popular view of pharmaceutical drugs in Burkina Faso. The main results demonstrate a strong preference for drugs sold in the street and their largely "off-label" uses. These drugs not only treat defined diseases but also generate street discussions, popular images and social relationships that lead to their consumption, sometimes excessive. Furthermore, the links between the legal and illegal street markets, related in part to the legal status of different drugs, also leads to questions about good and bad, true and false. These distinctions, considered as labels, influence the population's behavior and attitude concerning street medication.

  13. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    SciTech Connect

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S.; Ramde, E.W.

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  14. BoulSat Project: Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catusian, Samuele S.; Longobardi, Federico; Panicucci, Francesco; Bartalesi, Raphael P.; Demi, Libertario; Cuomo, Antonio D.; Orlandi, Silvano

    The BoulSat Project involves the realization of a bidirectional VSAT (satellite connection system) and the study of "poor" a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) to extend the Internet connectivity to the public institutions in the town area. Low-cost or waste materials have been used to build components where possible, thus to make possible for the local technicians with no specific and theoretical skills to build their network components by hand. This pilot scheme has been applied in Boulsa, in the Sahel region at the north of Burkina Faso. Besides the Boulsa case study, the whole work analyses a typical situation, due to the wide range of problems which have been handled, of remote communities in the South of the World. The aim is to characterize a standard of intervention, suitable for Developing Countries, to set up low-cost wireless telecommunication infrastructures.

  15. Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Toé, Kobié H.; Jones, Christopher M.; N’Fale, Sagnon; Ismail, Hanafy M.; Dabiré, Roch K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods. PMID:25279965

  16. The lateritic profile of Balkouin, Burkina Faso: Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgis, Ilaria; Bonetto, Sabrina; Giustetto, Roberto; Lawane, Abdou; Pantet, Anne; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Thomassin, Jean-Hugues; Vinai, Raffaele

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a lateritic profile cropping out in the Balkouin area, Central Burkina Faso, aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the processes responsible for the formation of the laterite itself and the constraints to its development. The lateritic profile rests on a Paleoproterozoic basement mostly composed of granodioritic rocks related to the Eburnean magmatic cycle passing upwards to saprolite and consists of four main composite horizons (bottom to top): kaolinite and clay-rich horizons, mottled laterite and iron-rich duricrust. In order to achieve such a goal, a multi-disciplinary analytical approach was adopted, which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission and mass spectrometries (ICP-AES and ICP-MS respectively), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  17. A delicate web: household changes in health behaviour enabled by microcredit in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Providing microcredit to women in developing countries has long been highlighted as a simple and effective strategy for poverty reduction and health improvement. However, little is known about how microcredit enables changes in health behaviour. This knowledge is critical to further strengthen microcredit initiatives. This qualitative study, conducted in Burkina Faso, shows how microcredit can not only facilitate savings and investment strategies, but also lead to changes in household decision-making, enabling women to initiate health prevention, seek health treatment and manage health emergencies. Some changes led to increased household burdens for women that impeded health gains, such as administrative loan delays by the microcredit institution and reduced household contributions by the husband. Furthermore, the study highlighted the fragile nature of health gains, which may be eroded due to economic shocks on a household, such as crop failure, drought or illness.

  18. Structure and emplacement of granite plutons in the Paleoproterozoic crust of Eastern Burkina Faso: rheological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegas, Nestor; Naba, Seta; Bouchez, Jean Luc; Jessell, Mark

    2008-11-01

    The Fada N'Gourma area in Burkina Faso is underlain by Paleoproterozoic rocks that make the northeastern West-African Craton. This region is composed of NE-trending volcano-sedimentary belts and foliated tonalites, affected by several shear zones. A generation of younger, ˜2100 Ma-old, non-foliated biotite-bearing granites intrudes the former rock units. We have investigated the younger granite pluton of Kouare that was previously considered as forming a single body with the pluton of Satenga to the west, a pluton which likely belongs to the ˜20 Ma more recent Tenkodogo-Yamba batholith. Magnetic fabric measurements have been combined with microstructural observations and the analysis of field and aeromagnetic data. The granite encloses angular enclaves of the host tonalites. Magmatic microstructures are preserved inside the pluton and solid-state, high-temperature deformation features are ubiquitous at its periphery. The presence of steeply plunging lineations in the pluton of Kouare and its adjacent host-rocks suggests that large volumes of granitic magmas became crystallized while they were ascending through the crust that was softened and steepened close to the contact. Around Kouare, the foliation in the host tonalites conforms with a map-scale, Z-shaped fold in between NNE-trending shear zones, implying a bulk clockwise rotation of the material contained in-between the shear zones, including the emplacing pluton. Regionally, the Fada N'Gourma area is concluded to result from NW-shortening associated with transcurrent shearing and vertical transfer of granitic magmas. This study concludes that the ˜2200 Myears old juvenile crust of Burkina Faso was brittle before the intrusion of the biotite-granites, became softened close to them and that gravity-driven and regional scale wrench tectonics were active together.

  19. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.

  20. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of dissociative disorders and somatoform disorders in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Karfo, K; Barro, Y; Ouédraogo, A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of dissociative and somatoform disorders in the psychiatry department of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo, in Burkina Faso. We carried out a retrospective and descriptive study over five years, from January 2003 to December 2007, of patients admitted in the psychiatric department for dissociative and somatoform disorders. The data were extracted from the medical notes and registers of consultation. After identification of the patients, the medical notes were exploited with a structured collect form for data on sociodemographic characteristics, life events and ICD-10 diagnoses. All the data were recorded by the same person. Data analysis was performed with Epi info 2007. During a period of 5 years, 3967 patients were registered, 179 had the diagnosis of dissociative and somatoform disorders (3.65% of the admissions) and 145 were included in our study. The majority of the patients were followed as outpatients (71%). Women were more represented with a sex ratio of four women to one man. The majority of the patients were young with an average age of 30 and mostly single (57.9%). The majority of the patients had a low academic standard, in connection with young age of the population. A striking biographic event was found in the majority of the cases; essentially family difficulties and death. Neurological symptoms were the most frequent in 63% of the cases. According to ICD-1O, dissociative disorders were most frequent (65.6%). Depression was mainly associated in15 cases. Dissociative disorders and somatoform disorders are frequent in our hospital; we must overcome the difficulties due to the complexity of the diagnosis and the cultural resistances to modern health care to determine the real prevalence of these disorders among the population in Burkina Faso. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Care and secrecy: being a mother of children living with HIV in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hejoaka, Fabienne

    2009-09-01

    Home care has become a central component of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, displacing caregiving work onto women. While increasing interest has been paid to HIV/AIDS care with a focus on ailing adults and orphan foster care, the issue of caring for children living with HIV has received little attention in the social sciences. Based on ethnographic material gathered in Burkina Faso between November 2005 and December 2006, the aim of this paper was to gain understanding of women who mother and care for children living with HIV in resource-limited countries. The study involved participant observation in community-based organizations in Burkina Faso and semi-structured interviews with 20 women mothering HIV-positive children as well as 15 children infected with HIV, aged between 8 and 18 years. In daily care mothers face many great challenges, ranging from the routine of pill-taking to disturbing discussions with children asking questions about their health or treatment. The results also show how HIV/AIDS-related stigma adds an additional layer to the burden of care, compelling mothers to deal with the tension between secrecy surrounding the disease and the openness required in providing care and receiving social support. As mothers live in fear of disclosure, they have to develop concealment strategies around children's treatment and the nature of the disease. Conversely, some mothers may share their secret with kin members, close relatives or their children to gain social support. As HIV/AIDS care is shaped by secrecy, these findings shed light on mothers' isolation in child care within a context of changing patterns of family bonds and lack of formal psychosocial support addressing child-related issues. Finally, women's engagement in child care invites us to look beyond the essentialist approach of women's vulnerability conveyed by international discourse to characterise the situation of women facing the HIV/AIDS impact.

  2. Healthcare-associated infection in Burkina Faso: an assessment in a district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Konfé, Salifou; Zeba, Sylvain; Sangaré, Lassana; Compaoré, Sidzabda C.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Ouendo, Edgard M.; Makoutodé, Michel; Meda, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, few data are available on healthcare-associated infections. In Burkina Faso, there has been a failure to take into account risk management and patient safety in the quality assurance program. The main objective of our study was to carry out an assessment of healthcare-associated infection in a first level hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study in June 2011 in the care units of Ziniaré District Hospital (Ziniaré, Burkina Faso). The hospital has been divided in three components: i) hospital population (care providers, in-patients and patients' guardians); ii) healthcare and services organization; iii) hospital environment. We included: care providers of the clinical services, hospital in-patients and patients' guardians, hospitalization infrastructure and nursing units, and all the documents relating to standards and protocols. Data collection has been done by direct observation, interviews and biological samples taken at different settings. In hospital population, care providers and patients' guardians represented a high source of infection: adherence to hygiene practice on the part of care providers was low (12/19), and no patients' guardian experienced good conditions of staying in the hospital. In healthcare and services organization, healthcare waste management represented a high-risk source of infection. In hospital environment, hygiene level of the infrastructure in the hospital rooms was low (6.67%). Prevalence of isolated bacteria was 71.8%. Urinary-tract catheters infections were the most significant in our sample, followed by surgical-site infections. In total, 56.26% (9/19) of germs were -Lactamase producers (ESBL). They were represented by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our analysis identified clearly healthcare-associated infection as a problem in Ziniaré district hospital. Hence, a national program of quality assurance in the hospitals should now integrate the risk infectious management of healthcare

  3. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Ocansey, Eugenia; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Phuka, John; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Steve A; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to produce quantitative estimates of the associations between 4 domains of child development and linear growth during 3 periods: before birth, early infancy, and later infancy. We also aimed to determine whether several factors attenuated these associations. In 3700 children in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi, growth was measured several times from birth to age 18 months. At 18 months, language, motor, socioemotional, and executive function development were assessed. In Burkina Faso (n = 1111), personal-social development was assessed rather than the latter 2 domains. Linear growth was significantly associated with language, motor, and personal-social development but not socioemotional development or executive function. For language, the pooled adjusted estimate of the association with length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 6 months was 0.13 ± 0.02 SD, and with ΔLAZ from 6 to 18 months it was 0.11 ± 0.03 SD. For motor, these estimates were 0.16 ± 0.02 SD and 0.22 ± 0.03 SD, respectively. In 1412 children measured at birth, estimates of the association with LAZ at birth were similar (0.07-0.16 SD for language and 0.09-0.18 SD for motor development). These associations were weaker or absent in certain subsets of children with high levels of developmental stimulation or mothers who received nutritional supplementation. Growth faltering during any period from before birth to 18 months is associated with poor development of language and motor skills. Interventions to provide developmental stimulation or maternal supplementation may protect children who are faltering in growth from poor language and motor development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. [Failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Kouéta, F; Yé, D; Zoungrana, A; Sacko, A; Ouédraogo-Traoré, R; Kafando, E; Ouédraogo, S

    2010-12-01

    Approximately one-fourth of the estimated 10,000 HIV-infected children in Burkina Faso are undergoing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. At the Charles de Gaulle Pediatric Hospital Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Support for ARV therapy began in July 2003 and a total of 250 children were undergoing treatment in late 2007. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study conducted over a period of 54 months from July 2003 to December 2007 was to investigate cases involving failure of first-line ARV therapy in particular with regard to cause. All patients (n = 32) showing poor virological, immunological, and/or clinical response to ARV therapy were considered as failures and thus included in the case group. The control group (n = 160) consisted of patients with good responses to treatment. Cases and controls were compared using the Chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) technique with a confidence interval at 95%. The failure rate was 12.8%. Failure was significantly correlated with low socioeconomic level (OR = 3), orphan status (OR = 4), age over 10 years (OR = 5), male gender (OR = 3), baseline viral load > or = 1,000,000 copies/mL (OR = 9), and poor compliance (OR = 37). Mortality in children who failed to respond to first-line ARV therapy was 25% due to the unavailability of a national second-line ARV therapy program. This study underlines the need for patient education to promote compliance and for creation of reference centers to prescribe ARV therapy to HIV-infected children including second-line ARV and genotyping.

  5. Removal of user fees no guarantee of universal health coverage: observations from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Olivier; Drabo, K Maxime; Dembelé, S Mathurin; Kafando, Benoît; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007–2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient’s household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced “catastrophic” health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households’ members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of “catastrophic” health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of “free” care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control. PMID:23599551

  6. Trypanosomosis: a priority disease in tsetse-challenged areas of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Soudré, Albert; Ouédraogo-Koné, Salifou; Wurzinger, Maria; Müller, Simone; Hanotte, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Sölkner, Johann

    2013-02-01

    Trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting humans as well as animals. It remains a big constraint to livestock productions in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of trypanosomosis among cattle diseases in Burkina Faso, mainly in tsetse-challenged areas, and to capture information on how farmers apply available methods for controlling the disease. A survey has been carried out in 29 villages of Burkina Faso in three regions (north, southwest, and west regions). One hundred and thirty-four cattle breeders were interviewed individually with a questionnaire. The results indicate that among the 16 diseases mentioned by cattle breeders, trypanosomosis is the most important one in tsetse-challenged areas. Overall, 76.12 % of the breeders mentioned it as the most important disease, while 54.55 % of the farmers in the southwest region and 70.91 % of the farmers in the west region ranked it as a priority disease. Chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy is widely used as a control method. Isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate were used by 53.49 and 46.52 % of the responders, respectively. Among farmers, 85.55 % ranked diminazene aceturate as the less efficient while 14.45 % ranked isometamidium chloride as the most efficient trypanocid. Trypanocidal drug quality and drug resistance were raised as a major concern by 30.77 and 50 % of the respondents, respectively. According to them, zebu cattle are more susceptible to trypanosomosis than taurine Baoule cattle and their crosses with zebu, emphasizing that crossing susceptible breeds with trypanotolerant ones, could be used as part of an integrated control strategy.

  7. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert- Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7–17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1–11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779

  8. Climate, cattle rearing systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis risk in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M G; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001). The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an "epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis" cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends to a buffer area around their distribution belt, corresponding to the

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and the hygienic indicator Escherichia coli in raw meat at markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the hygienic status and prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in retail meat sold at open markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 150 samples of beef meat (n = 45), beef intestine (n = 45), mutton (n = 30), and chicken (n = 30) were collected from four local markets for investigation. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica was 9.3%, and six serotypes, all previously unreported in Burkina Faso, were identified: Derby, Tilene, Hato, Bredeney, Agona, and Senftenberg. Most of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to the 12 antimicrobial drugs tested. The prevalence of E. coli was 100% in all the meat types. An assessment of hygiene practices for the production, transportation, display, and vending of the meat revealed unhygienic conditions. Meat sellers had a low education level and poor knowledge of foodborne pathogens and their transmission routes. The findings showed that foodstuff handlers were in dire need of education about safe food handling practices.

  10. A survey of gastrointestinal helminths of the common helmet guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Harris, E A; Bray, R A; Nagalo, M; Pangui, M; Gibson, D I

    1985-01-01

    Guinea fowls in Burkina Faso (Africa) harbored 13 species of helminth parasites. The two most abundant species were Subulura suctoria and Ascaridia numidae, which comprised 89% of the nematodes. The other nematode species (Gongylonema congolense, Eucoleus annulatus, Synhimantus spiralis, Tetrameres fissispina, and Cyrnea parroti) occurred at low levels. Five species of cestodes and one acanthocephalan were also present. It is likely that guinea fowl act as important reservoir hosts of chicken nematodes.

  11. The factors affecting the institutionalisation of two policy units in Burkina Faso's health system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Moat, Kaelan

    2017-07-17

    This paper is one of three linked studies that attempts to understand the process of institutionalisation of policy units within Burkina Faso's health system. It examines the relationships between the existence of an institutional framework, data production capacity and other resource availability in the institutionalisation of policy units in health systems. It therefore contributes to our understanding of the dynamics linking the key drivers and indicators of institutionalisation. Additionally, it examines how factors within the managerial setting, including workplace environment, and budgetary and human resource availability, may influence the institutionalisation process. The study used an explanatory qualitative case study approach, examining two policy units in Burkina Faso's Ministry of Health, the first of which had been institutionalised successfully and the other less so. Data were collected from key policymakers, including 13 connected with the first policy unit and 10 with the second, plus two funders. We also conducted a documentary analysis of the National Program for Health Development, two mid-term strategic plans, 230 action plans, eight Ministry of Health state budgets, eight Ministry of Health annual statistics reports, 16 policy unit budgets and published literature. The framework within which the government gave the policy unit its mandate and policy focus had the strongest effect on the institutionalisation process. Institutionalisation depended on political will, in both the host government and any donors, and the priority given to the policy unit's focus. It was also affected by the leadership of the policy unit managers. These factors were influenced by human resource capacity, and our findings suggest that, for successful institutionalisation in Burkina Faso's health system, policy units need to be given sufficient human resources to achieve their objectives. Policy units' institutionalisation in Burkina Faso's health system depend on the

  12. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and operational characteristics of four rapid immunochromatographic syphilis tests in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Ouédraogo, Henri; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Kiba, Alice; Tiendrebeogo, Simon; Bationo, Fabrice; Liestman, Benjamin; Diagbouga, Serge; Zarowsky, Christina; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Kouanda, Séni

    2015-06-01

    Little information is available on the rapid diagnostic testing for syphilis in Burkina Faso. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of four on site rapid tests in comparison with Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) as a gold standard and (ii) to evaluate the operational characteristics of those tests among health workers in a maternity unit. Four rapid syphilis tests commercially available in Burkina Faso were evaluated using archived serum samples and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) as the gold standard. Blood samples were collected between November 2011 and June 2012 from blood donors at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated. Evaluation of operational characteristics such as clarity of pamphlet, complexity of technique, duration, was conducted in a first-level healthcare center with health workers in maternity unit. Alere DetermineTM Syphilis was the most sensitive of the four rapid syphilis tests evaluated. It was followed by SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0, Cypress Diagnostics Syphilis Quick test and Accu-Tell ® Rapid Anti-TP, which was the least sensitive. The four tests demonstrated a good diagnostic specificity for syphilis (95-98%), and healthcare workers found them easy to use. The study allowed confirming the good performance of three of four rapid syphilis tests in Burkina Faso. More research will be conducted to assess the feasibility of introducing selected rapid tests for syphilis in antenatal care services.

  13. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in the feces of slaughtered cattle, chickens, and pigs in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from feces of animals slaughtered for human consumption in Burkina Faso. For the study, 704 feces samples were collected from cattle (n = 304), chickens (n = 350), and pigs (n = 50) during carcass processing. The presence of the virulence-associated genes in the mixed bacterial cultures was assessed using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Virulence genes indicating presence of DEC were detected in 48% of the cattle, 48% of the chicken, and 68% of the pig feces samples. Virulence genes specific for different DECs were detected in the following percentages of the cattle, chicken, and pig feces samples: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in 37%, 6%, and 30%; enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 8%, 37%, and 32%; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 4%, 5%, and 18%; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) in 7%, 6%, and 32%. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) virulence genes were detected in 1% of chicken feces samples only. The study was the first of its kind in Burkina Faso and revealed the common occurrence of the diarrheal virulence genes in feces of food animals. This indicates that food animals are reservoirs of DEC that may contaminate meat because of the defective slaughter and storage conditions and pose a health risk to the consumers in Burkina Faso. PMID:23170227

  14. Seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bamba, S; Sourabié, Y; Guiguemdé, T R; Karou, D S; Simporé, J; Bambara, M; Villena, I

    2014-09-01

    The deficit of cellular immunity, as found in HIV infected individuals, may lead to the reactivation of latent Toxoplasma gondii cysts, with as consequence, the occurrence of toxoplasmosis and an eventual vertical transmission of the disease during pregnancy. The present study was designed for determining the occurrence of latent Toxoplasma gondii among HIV-infected pregnant women during the first trimester in Bobo-Dioulasso. Thus, 348 pregnant women aged from 17 to 47 years (average age of 6.64 ± 4.75 yaers) were enrolled. The specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were quantified from whole blood specimens using the high-sensitivity direct agglutination and the enzyme linked fluorescent assays, respectively, the IgG avidity test being used for the dating of the primary infection. The results revealed that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii latent infection was 34.7%. It was significantly higher in HIV-infected women compared with uninfected ones (68,7%; CI 95%: 43,6%-88,9%) versus (33,1%; CI 95%: 28, 2%-38,3%). In addition, all the occurrences of the high IgG avidity were closely linked with the presence of IgM. These results underlined the need for the clinical follow-up of the maternal HIV diseases including the toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy since; the newborns are still exposed to vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection in endemic areas like Burkina Faso.

  15. [Impact of the dynamics of human settlement on tsetse and trypanosomosis distribution in the Mouhoun river basin (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Rouamba, J; Jamonneau, V; Sidibé, I; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2009-03-01

    In Burkina Faso, the Mouhoun river basin (formerly "Black Volta") constitutes a historical focus of Human (HAT) and Animal (AAT) African Trypanosomoses, both transmitted by tsetse flies. Nowadays, HAT seems to have disappeared from this area, while AAT still causes severe economic losses. In order to explain these different epidemiological situations, we undertook a geographical study based on the analysis of aerial pictures between 1952 and 2007, and field surveys to collect medical, entomological, and veterinary data on trypanosomoses. Our results suggest that in this area, landscapes have been dramatically modified as a consequence of population growth, and in turn have had an impact on the number and distribution of tsetse flies. Combined with the historical medical action on HAT which probably led to the disappearance of T. b. gambiense, this environmental degradation and the development of hydrological structures provide explanations for the local disappearance of HAT, and for the maintenance of AAT. It appears necessary to extrapolate these studies to other areas in order to identify the factors explaining the presence/absence of trypanosomoses in the context of human population growth and climatic changes, in order to help to target priority areas for the control of these diseases.

  16. The Sensitivity of Food Prices to Climate Dynamics in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Pinzon, J. E.; Prince, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the West African Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses use food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite derived vegetation indices to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these different food security indicators was explored in this study using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used in these analysis that are readily available: 8km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the NOAA series of satellites carrying the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and monthly millet grain prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results of this study show that the quality of the growing season affects the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall it resulted in higher prices, and well- distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. Model output was used to determine the impact of coupled price pressure and production deficits on the livelihoods of three demographic groups in Niger, demonstrating the power of integrating disparate datasets for food security estimation. The model can be used to estimate the economic and societal impacts resulting from climate variation, causing significant changes in human consumptions patterns. These changes can have global consequences when drought affects large portions of the growing regions simultaneously in the same year.

  17. 'This year I will not put her to work': the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F

    2013-04-01

    Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening 'near-miss' obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of 'near-miss' events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how 'production' and 'reproduction' are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related 'productivity loss' that dominate current global health discourse.

  18. ‘This year I will not put her to work’: the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening ‘near-miss’ obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of ‘near-miss’ events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how ‘production’ and ‘reproduction’ are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related ‘productivity loss’ that dominate current global health discourse. PMID:22897630

  19. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ryan T; Kambou, Jean Ludovic; Diomandé, Fabien V K; Tarbangdo, Tiga F; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Lingani, Clement; Martin, Stacey W; Hatcher, Cynthia; Mayer, Leonard W; LaForce, F Marc; Avokey, Fenella; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Messonnier, Nancy E; Tiendrébéogo, Sylvestre R; Clark, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background An affordable, highly immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT) was licensed for use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2009. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national prevention campaign, vaccinating 11.4 million people aged 1–29 years. We analysed national surveillance data around PsA–TT introduction to investigate the early effect of the vaccine on meningitis incidence and epidemics. Methods We examined national population-based meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso using two sources, one with cases and deaths aggregated at the district level from 1997 to 2011, and the other enhanced with results of cerebrospinal fluid examination and laboratory testing from 2007 to 2011. We compared mortality rates and incidence of suspected meningitis, probable meningococcal meningitis by age, and serogroup-specific meningococcal disease before and during the first year after PsA–TT implementation. We assessed the risk of meningitis disease and death between years. Findings During the 14 year period before PsA–TT introduction, Burkina Faso had 148 603 cases of suspected meningitis with 17 965 deaths, and 174 district-level epidemics. After vaccine introduction, there was a 71% decline in risk of meningitis (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.28–0.30, p<0.0001) and a 64% decline in risk of fatal meningitis (0.36, 0.33–0.40, p<0.0001). We identified a statistically significant decline in risk of probable meningococcal meningitis across the age group targeted for vaccination (62%, cumulative incidence ratio [CIR] 0.38, 95% CI 0.31–0.45, p<0.0001), and among children aged less than 1 year (54%, 0.46, 0.24–0.86, p=0.02) and people aged 30 years and older (55%, 0.45, 0.22–0.91, p=0.003) who were ineligible for vaccination. No cases of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis occurred among vaccinated individuals, and epidemics were eliminated. The incidence of laboratory

  20. [Management of suspected cases of malaria before admission to a district hospital in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Bamba, S; Savadogo, L B; Sombié, I; Traoré, A-Z; Sanon, D; Ouédraogo, S M; Guiguemdé, T G

    2014-01-01

    After widespread use and misuse of antimalarial drugs led to the emergence of resistance, new guidelines for malaria treatment with artemisinine-based combination therapy (ACT) were introduced in Burkina Faso in 2005. To describe the management (drug therapy and other practices) of patients with suspected malaria before their admission to the district hospital of Dô, seven years later. This cross-sectional study was conducted during admission to the district hospital, during the low season for malaria, from December 2010 to May 2011. It included all patients aged 6 months or older diagnosed with suspected malaria according to the criteria of the national malaria control program, excluding those with severe comorbidities. The study included 476 suspected cases, 422 (88.7%) uncomplicated and 54 (11.3%) complicated. They accounted for 7.9% of all admissions. Their mean age was 14.4 years, and 35.3% (n = 168) were younger than 5 years. Only 23 (4.8%) had first consulted in a primary health care facility; 346 (72.7%) had used initial self-medication (or, more precisely in some cases, parental administration of medication without medical consultation). Overall, 435 (91.4%) came directly to the district hospital, 331 (76.1%) of them after self-medication; 10 (2.1%) had first consulted a traditional healer. The practice of self-medication did not differ according to age, gender, or complications (p>0.05). The drugs used for self-medication were mainly antipyretics (94.5%) and antimalarials (16.8%); the latter included ACT (39.6%), quinine (19.0%), and non-recommended antimalarial agents (41.4%). During the malaria low season, the treatment itinerary of suspected malaria cases is marked by equal use of ACT and non-recommended antimalarials for self-medication and minimal use of the primary level of care. A study underway of this management and these itineraries during the epidemic season may provide more data about use of ACT, the last armament against malaria in drug

  1. Meningococcal Seroepidemiology 1 Year After the PsA-TT Mass Immunization Campaign in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Haoua; Yaro, Seydou; Kpoda, Hervé B. N.; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; Trotter, Caroline L.; Njanpop Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Martin, Catherine; Nwakamma, Ikenna; Ouedraogo, Jean Bosco; Gessner, Bradford D.; Borrow, Ray; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), was introduced in Burkina Faso via mass campaigns between September and December 2010, targeting the 1- to 29-year-old population. This study describes specific antibody titers in the general population 11 months later and compares them to preintroduction data obtained during 2008 using the same protocol. Methods. During October–November 2011, we recruited a representative sample of the population of urban Bobo-Dioulasso aged 6 months to 29 years, who underwent standardized interviews and blood draws. We assessed anti-MenA immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (n = 200) and, using rabbit complement, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against 2 group A strains: reference strain F8238 (SBAref) (n = 562) and strain 3125 (SBA3125) (n = 200). Results. Among the 562 participants, 481 (86%) were aged ≥23 months and had been eligible for the PsA-TT campaign. Among them, vaccine coverage was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.7%–89.9%). Prevalence of putatively protective antibodies among vaccine-eligible age groups was 97.3% (95% CI, 95.9%–98.7%) for SBAref titers ≥128, 83.6% (95% CI, 77.6%–89.7%) for SBA3125 ≥128, and 84.2% (95% CI, 78.7%–89.7%) for anti-MenA IgG ≥2 µg/mL. Compared to the population aged 23 months to 29 years during 2008, geometric mean titers of SBAref were 7.59-fold higher during 2011, 51.88-fold for SBA3125, and 10.56-fold for IgG. Conclusions. This study shows high seroprevalence against group A meningococci in Burkina Faso following MenAfriVac introduction. Follow-up surveys will provide evidence on the persistence of population-level immunity and the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term control of MenA meningitis in the African meningitis belt. PMID:26553686

  2. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Paolo; Saleri, Nuccia; Dembelé, Mathurin; Ouedraogo, Martial; Badoum, Gisèle; Pinsi, Gabriele; Migliori, Giovanni B; Matteelli, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2009-08-28

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST) capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany) in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy) were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA) and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType MTBDRplus. We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i) harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24), (ii) were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24), and (iii) had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13). The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases). Other mutations recognized were the H526D (15.6%), the H526Y (15.6%), and

  3. Presence of three dengue serotypes in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso): research and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Agier, Isabelle; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Carabali, Mabel; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Fournet, Florence; Ly, Antarou; Meda, Ivlabèhiré Bertrand; Parra, Beatriz

    2016-04-05

    The significant malaria burden in Africa has often eclipsed other febrile illnesses. Burkina Faso's first dengue epidemic occurred in 1925 and the most recent in 2013. Yet there is still very little known about dengue prevalence, its vector proliferation, and its poverty and equity impacts. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was performed from December 2013 to January 2014. Six primary healthcare centers in Ouagadougou were selected based on previously reported presence of Flavivirus. All patients consulting with fever or having had fever within the previous week and with a negative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria were invited to participate. Sociodemographic data, healthcare use and expenses, mobility, health-related status, and vector control practices were captured using a questionnaire. Blood samples of every eligible subject were obtained through finger pricks during the survey for dengue RDT using SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo (NS1Ag and IgG/IgM)® and to obtain blood spots for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. In a sample of randomly selected yards and those of patients, potential Aedes breeding sites were found and described. Larvae were collected and brought to the laboratory to monitor the emergence of adults and identify the species. Of the 379 subjects, 8.7 % (33/379) had positive RDTs for dengue. Following the 2009 WHO classification, 38.3 % (145/379) had presumptive, probable, or confirmed dengue, based on either clinical symptoms or laboratory testing. Of 60 samples tested by RT-PCR (33 from the positive tests and 27 from the subsample of negatives), 15 were positive. The serotypes observed were DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4. Odds of dengue infection in 15-to-20-year-olds and persons over 50 years were 4.0 (CI 95 %: 1.0-15.6) and 7.7 (CI 95 %: 1.6-37.1) times higher, respectively, than in children under five. Average total spending for a dengue episode was 13 771 FCFA [1 300-67 300 FCFA] (1$US = 478 FCFA). On average

  4. Contrasting maternal and paternal histories in the linguistic context of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Chiara; Whitten, Mark; Beyer, Klaus; Schreiber, Henning; Li, Mingkun; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Burkina Faso is located in the heart of West Africa and is a representative of the local structured patterns of human variability. Here, different cultures and languages are found in a geographic contiguity, as a result of several waves of migration and the succession of long- and short-term empires. However, historical documentation for this area is only partial, focusing predominantly on the recent empires, and linguistic surveys lack the power to fully elucidate the social context of the contact-induced changes. In this paper, we report Y-chromosomal data and complete mtDNA genome sequences for ten populations from Burkina Faso whose languages belong to two very distantly related branches of the Niger-Congo phylum, the Gur and Mande language families. In addition, two further populations, the Mande-speaking Mandenka from Senegal and the Yoruba from Nigeria, were included for regional comparison. We focus on the different historical trajectories undergone by the maternal and paternal lineages. Our results reveal a striking structure in the paternal line, which matches the linguistic affiliation of the ethnolinguistic groups, in contrast to the near-complete homogeneity of the populations in the maternal line. However, while the ancient structure along the linguistic lines is apparent in the Y-chromosomal haplogroup affiliation, this has clearly been overlain by more recent migrations, as shown by significant correlations between the genetic distances based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats and geographic distances between the populations, as well as by the patterns of shared haplotypes. Using the complete mtDNA sequences, we are able to reconstruct population size variation in the past, showing a strong sign of expansion in the concomitance with the Holocene Climate Optimum approximately 12,000-10,000 years ago, which has been suggested as the cause of the spread of the Niger-Congo phylum in the area. However, subsequent climatic fluctuations do not appear to

  5. Human mercury exposure associated with small-scale gold mining in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Catherine; Vernez, David; Belem, Tounaba; Berode, Michèle

    2011-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, gold ore is one of the main sources of income for an important part of the active population. Artisan gold miners use mercury in the extraction, a toxic metal whose human health risks are well known. The aim of the present study was to assess mercury exposure as well as to understand the exposure determinants of gold miners in Burkinabe small-scale mines. The examined gold miners' population on the different selected gold mining sites was composed by persons who were directly and indirectly related to gold mining activities. But measurement of urinary mercury was performed on workers most susceptible to be exposed to mercury. Thus, occupational exposure to mercury was evaluated among ninety-three workers belonging to eight different gold mining sites spread in six regions of Burkina Faso. Among others, work-related exposure determinants were taken into account for each person during urine sampling as for example amalgamating or heating mercury. All participants were medically examined by a local medical team in order to identify possible symptoms related to the toxic effect of mercury. Mercury levels were high, showing that 69% of the measurements exceeded the ACGIH (American Conference of Industrial Hygienists) biological exposure indice (BEI) of 35 μg per g of creatinine (μg/g-Cr) (prior to shift) while 16% even exceeded 350 μg/g-Cr. Basically, unspecific but also specific symptoms related to mercury toxicity could be underlined among the persons who were directly related to gold mining activities. Only one-third among the studied subpopulation reported about less than three symptoms possibly associated to mercury exposure and nearly half of them suffered from at least five of these symptoms. Ore washers were more involved in the direct handling of mercury while gold dealers in the final gold recovery activities. These differences may explain the overexposure observed in gold dealers and indicate that the refining process is the major source

  6. Parental HIV disclosure in Burkina Faso: experiences and challenges in the era of HAART.

    PubMed

    Tiendrebeogo, Georges; Hejoaka, Fabienne; Belem, Edwige Mireille; Compaoré, Pascal Louis Germain; Wolmarans, Liezel; Soubeiga, André; Ouangraoua, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose their HIV status to their children? What drives them? How do they proceed and how do children respond? We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 parents of children aged seven and above where the parents had been in treatment for more than 3 years in two major cities of Burkina Faso. Interviews addressed parental disclosure and the children's role in their parents' treatment. The rate of parental HIV status disclosure is as high as that of non-disclosure. Factors associated with parental disclosure include female sex, parent's older age, parent's marital history and number of children. After adjustment, it appears that the only factor remaining associated with parental disclosure was the female gender of the parent. In most of the cases, children suspected, and among non-disclosers many believed their children already knew without formal disclosure. Age of the children and history of divorce or widowhood were associated with parental disclosure. Most parents believed children do not have the necessary emotional skills to understand or that they cannot keep a secret. However, parents who disclosed to their children did not experience blame nor was their secret revealed. Rather, children became treatment supporters. Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents' HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living with HIV. Perceptions about children's vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead

  7. [Impact of a conjugated anti meningococcal A vaccine on notification of bacterial meningitis in West Burkina Faso (2009-2012)].

    PubMed

    Ouangraoua, S; Schlumberger, M; Yaro, S; Ouédraogo, A S; Sanou, S; Drabo, A; Yaméogo, T M; Ouedraogo, R

    2014-02-01

    Burkina Faso is a sub-saharan African country completely included in the meningococcal meningitis belt. The western part of the country suffered from many meningococcal A epidemics, in spite of reactive collective campaigns with polysaccharide A vaccine. On 6th December 2010, Burkina Faso was the first African country to conduct a collective vaccination campaign of all the 1-29 years old population with a new conjugated meningococcal Avaccine (MenAfriVac™). Before this campaign, in Western Burkina (4,064,928 inhabitants, 27.5% of total population), a rehearsal of the staff of all peripheral medical laboratories has been conducted, with delivery of laboratory equipment, reactants, and possibility to transfer CSF specimens at the central level to confirm bacteriologic species in cause by latex, culture and PCR analysis. For this campaign, an administrative coverage of 100.3% was reached. A nearly complete disappearance of meningitis due to meningococcus A was recorded, but an increase of cases due to meningococcus X, W135. With the increase of quality of surveillance, and MenAfriVac™ vaccination showed its beneficial effect on meningococcus A meningitis. If we want however to impact on the number of recorded acute bacteriological meningitis, we will have to use multi-antigenic, if possible conjugated, meningococcal vaccines against locally circulating meningococcal species, the number of pneumococcal meningitis being contained by the recent inclusion in EPI of a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine.

  8. Dynamic of plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Nakanabo, Seydou Diallo; Zampa, Odile; Kazienga, Adama; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the evolution of Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after the withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso. A total of 675 clinical isolates collected from October 2010 to September 2012 were successfully genotyped. Single nucleotide polymorphism in Pfcrt (codon 76) gene was analyzed. The prevalence of resistant Pfcrt 76T allele was 20.55%. There was a progressive decrease of the proportion of mutant type pfcrt T76 from 2010 to 2012 (X2=5.508 p=0.0189). Our results suggest a progressive return of the wild type Pfcrt K76 in Burkina Faso but the prevalence of the mutants Pfcrt T76 still remains high.

  9. Reconstructing the HIV-1 CRF02_AG and CRF06_cpx epidemics in Burkina Faso and West Africa using early samples.

    PubMed

    Yebra, Gonzalo; Kalish, Marcia L; Leigh Brown, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) represent viral recombinant lineages that play a significant role in the global epidemic. Two of them dominate the epidemic in Burkina Faso: CRF06_cpx (first described in this country) and CRF02_AG. We reconstructed the phylodynamics of both recombinant viruses in Burkina Faso and throughout West Africa. We analysed CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG sequences (protease/gp41) from early samples collected in Burkina Faso in 1986 together with other GenBank sequences (1984-2013) in 4 datasets: African CRF06_cpx (210/60); down-sampled CRF06_cpx (146/45); Burkina Faso CRF02_AG (130/39) and West/Central African CRF02_AG (691/298). For each dataset, we analysed both protease and gp41 jointly using the BEAST multilocus analysis and conducted phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the early migration routes between countries. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of CRF06_cpx was 1979 (1973-1983) for protease and 1981 (1978-1983) for gp41. The gp41 analysis inferred the origin of CRF06_cpx (or at least its parental subtype G lineage) in the Democratic Republic of Congo but migrated to Burkina Faso soon after (1982). Both genes showed that CRF06_cpx radiated to the rest of West Africa predominantly after around 1990. These results were robust to the oversampling of Burkina Faso sequences as they were confirmed in the down-sampled dataset. The tMRCA of the Burkina Faso CRF02_AG lineage was 1979 (1977-1983) for protease and 1980 (1978-1981) for gp41. However, we reconstructed its presence in West Africa much earlier (mid-1960s), with an initial origin in Cameroon and/or Nigeria, and its phylogeographic analysis revealed much interconnection within the region with a lack of country-specific phylogenetic patterns, which prevents tracking its exact migration routes. Burkina Faso presents a relatively young HIV epidemic, with the diversification of the current in-country CRF02_AG and CRF06_cpx lineages taking place around 1980. This

  10. Direct and indirect estimates of maternal mortality in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Garenne, M; Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Borchert, M; Benzler, J; Diesfeld, J

    1997-03-01

    A retrospective study of maternal mortality was conducted in Nouna, a rural area of Burkina Faso in 1992. Strong evidence was found of a major mortality decline among children and young adults over the 50 years preceding the study: The estimated life expectancy of 36 years in around 1945 rose to 58 years in 1991. Direct and indirect (using the sisterhood method) estimates of the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) were compared. Overall, the direct estimate of the MMR (389 deaths per 100,000 live births) for women aged 15 and older was slightly lower than the indirect estimate (428 deaths per 100,000). Taking into account the biases involved in the use of information obtained from sisters, the direct estimates indicated a marked decline in maternal mortality over time from 569 deaths per 100,000 around 1941 to 305 deaths around 1987. The validity of both data and approach, as well as the discrepancies between the direct and indirect methods, are discussed.

  11. Household food insecurity and food expenditure in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, And the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Zubieta, Ana C; MkNelly, Barbara; Nteziyaremye, Anastase; Gerardo, Maria Filipinas D; Dunford, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P < 0.05) total DPC food expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.

  12. Diets of hartebeest and roan antelope in Burkina Faso: Support of the long-faced hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuette, J.R.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Jenks, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diets of hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) were assessed at the Nazinga Game Ranch in southern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Microhistological analysis of feces indicated that dietary overlap was high during the rainy (X?? = 73.7%) and cool-dry (68.2%) seasons, low during the hot-dry season (48.2%), and lowest during the last month of the hot-dry season (31.5%). As the hot-dry season progressed and food presumably became less available, diets of the two antelopes diverged. Hartebeest maintained a high percentage of grass in their diet, but roan antelope switched from being predominantly grazers (>95% grass) to mixed feeders (<50% grass). As grass feeders, both antelopes have skeletal features that facilitate acquisition and grinding of highly fibrous diets, but 11 of 12 mass-relative indices of the skull morphology of hartebeest exceeded those of roan antelope. Because of those differences in skull morphology, and in keeping with the "long-faced" hypothesis, hartebeest were apparently more capable than roan antelope of acquiring and masticating scarce regrowth of perennial grasses when availability of forage was lowest. Such divergence within a single foraging class of African bovids, such as grass feeders, should reduce competition and perpetuate coexistence.

  13. Dietary risk assessment of pesticides from vegetables and drinking water in gardening areas in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Edouard; Turrero, Nuria; Kolia, Marius; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2017-12-01

    Vegetables and water samples have been collected around the lake of Loumbila in Burkina Faso. Pesticides residues in food commodities were analyzed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method prior analysis on GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS of 31 pesticides. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were exceeded in 36% of the samples for seven pesticides: acetamiprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid and profenofos. Exceedance of MRLs suggests a risk for the consumers and limits the opportunities of exportation. In order to define estimated daily intake, dietary surveys were conducted on 126 gardeners using a 24hours recall method. Single pesticide and cumulative exposure risks were assessed for children and adults. Risk was identified for: chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin in acute and chronic exposure scenarios. Hazardous chronic exposure to the endocrine disruptor and probable carcinogen dieldrin was also detected. In the studied population, cumulative dietary exposure presented a risk (acute and chronic) for children and adults in respectively >17% and 4% of the cases when considering the worst case scenarios. Processing factor largely influenced the risk of occurrence suggesting that simple washing of vegetables with water considerably reduced the risk of hazardous exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of deltamethrin treatment of bed nets on malaria transmission in the Kou valley, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Robert, V.; Carnevale, P.

    1991-01-01

    A 3-year entomological study was carried out on the transmission of malaria in a village of 900 inhabitants in a rice-growing area of Burkina Faso. In the study area inhabitants use bed nets to protect themselves from mosquito bites. In the first year of the study, baseline data were collected; in the second year, the village was divided in two parts and all the bed nets in the southern part were sprayed with deltamethrin (25 mg/m2); and in the third year, all the bed nets in both parts of the village were sprayed. The inoculation rate was estimated by hand collection of mosquitos on human volunteers who were not protected by bed nets. The overall inoculation rate in the first year was 55 infected bites per person and was higher in the southern than in the northern part of the village. During the second year the rate increased to 70 bites per person on average (but was slightly lower than this in the southern part of the village). During the third year, the inoculation rate fell to three infected bites per year, i.e., a reduction of 94% compared with the first year. This reduction arose primarily because of a marked decrease in the sporozoitic index and a lower density of vectors. Thus, use of pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets by all members of the community appears to be a major tool in preventing transmission of malaria. PMID:1786622

  15. Evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bangou, Mindiédiba Jean; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Meda, Nâg-Tiero Roland; Coulibaly, Ahmed Yacouba; Compaoré, Moussa; Zeba, Boukaré; Millogo-Rasolodimby, Jeanne; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from Burkina Faso. Methanolic extracts were used for their Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CES) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 microg mL(-1). The total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and ammonium citrate iron reagents, respectively. Among the 11 species tested, the best inhibitory percentages were found with Euphorbia hirta, Sclerocarya birrea and Scoparia dulcis (inhibition > 40%) followed by Annona senegalensis, Annona squamosa, Polygala arenaria and Ceratotheca sesamoides (inhibition > 25%). The best total phenolic and tannin contents were found with S. birrea with 56.10 mg GAE/100 mg extract and 47.75 mg TAE/100 mg extract, respectively. E hirta presented the higher total flavonoids (9.96 mg QE/100 mg extract). It's was found that Sclerocarya birrea has inhibited all enzymes at more than 30% and this activity is correlated to total tannins contents. Contrary to S. birrea, the enzymatic activities of E. hirta and S. dulcis are correlated to total flavonoids contents. Present findings suggest that the methanolic extracts of those plant species are potential inhibitors of GST, AChE, CES and XO and confirm their traditional uses in the treatment of mental disorders, gout, painful inflammations and cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants among Dozo hunters: an ethnobotanical survey in Niamberla village, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tibiri, André; Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Dao, Abou; Elkington, Bethany G; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guissou, Innocent Pierre

    2015-05-01

    This investigation aims to provide a database of Dozo traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of common diseases. The study was conducted through individual interviews using a survey form. Data were recorded in a database allowing statistical analysis. Each plant was recorded and documented with a herbarium specimen. Settings/Location & Subjects: The term Dozo refers to great hunters from Burkina Faso, highly renowned for their knowledge of medicinal plants. Niamberla village was founded by Dozo hunters and is currently the residence of many traditional healers. Unfortunately, their indigenous knowledge is not well recorded and may be lost between two generations. A total of 16 traditional healers were interviewed, giving 89 recipes for the treatment of 37 diseases. The most common diseases are malaria (13%), psychological/spiritual issues (12%), gastric disorders (11%), sexually transmitted diseases (10%), and wounds (8%). A total of 56 medicinal plants have been identified, consisting mostly of trees (44%), shrubs (34%), and herbs (16%). The results of this research provide a basis for pharmacological and toxicological investigations and are necessary to preserve the indigenous knowledge of traditional medicine among Dozo hunters.

  17. Neogene cratonic erosion fluxes and landform evolution processes from regional regolith mapping (Burkina Faso, West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Chardon, Dominique; Metelka, Václav; Beauvais, Anicet; Bamba, Ousmane

    2015-07-01

    The regionally correlated and dated regolith-paleolandform sequence of Sub-Saharan West Africa offers a unique opportunity to constrain continental-scale regolith dynamics as the key part of the sediment routing system. In this study, a regolith mapping protocol is developed and applied at the scale of Southwestern Burkina Faso. Mapping combines field survey and remote sensing data to reconstruct the topography of the last pediplain that formed over West Africa in the Early and Mid-Miocene (24-11 Ma). The nature and preservation pattern of the pediplain are controlled by the spatial variation of bedrock lithology and are partitioned among large drainage basins. Quantification of pediplain dissection and drainage growth allows definition of a cratonic background denudation rate of 2 m/My and a minimum characteristic timescale of 20 Ma for shield resurfacing. These results may be used to simulate minimum export fluxes of drainage basins of constrained size over geological timescales. Background cratonic denudation results in a clastic export flux of ~ 4 t/km2/year, which is limited by low denudation efficiency of slope processes and correlatively high regolith storage capacity of tropical shields. These salient characteristics of shields' surface dynamics would tend to smooth the riverine export fluxes of shields through geological time.

  18. Changing land management practices and vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968-2002)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reij, C.; Tappan, G.; Belemvire, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the situation on the northern part of the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso was characterized by expanding cultivation on lands marginal to agriculture, declining rainfall, low and declining cereal yields, disappearing and impoverishing vegetation, falling ground-water levels and strong outmigration. This crisis situation provoked two reactions. Farmers, as well as technicians working for non-governmental organizations, started to experiment in improving soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques. When these experiments proved successful, donor agencies rapidly designed SWC projects based on simple, effective techniques acceptable to farmers. A study looked at the impact of SWC investments in nine villages and identified a number of major impacts, including: significant increases in millet and sorghum yields since the mid-1980s, cultivated fields treated with SWC techniques have more trees than 10-15 years ago, but the vegetation on most of the non-cultivated areas continues to degrade, greater availability of forage for livestock, increased investment in livestock by men and women and a beginning change in livestock management from extensive to semi-intensive methods, improved soil fertility management by farmers, locally rising ground-water tables, a decrease in outmigration and a significant reduction in rural poverty. Finally, data are presented on the evolution of land use in three villages between 1968 and 2002. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary health care and donor dependency: a case study of nongovernment assistance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Maclure, R

    1995-01-01

    Primary health care assistance has become prominent in the rural development programs of many nongovernment organizations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. By emphasizing education and the promotion of new participatory health systems, most such programs aim to enhance the conditions of women as principal community care givers. Yet village-level health assistance in Africa is not without shortcomings. This is exemplified in a case study of two nongovernment programs in Burkina Faso's Namentenga Province. Although both programs have contributed to maternal health and infant survival, they have also induced new ties of donor dependency. This appears to present a conundrum for the sponsoring agencies which espouse self-reliance as a development assistance goal. In fact, however, where the intervention of nongovernment organizations helps to improve rural health, new dimensions of dependency may prove to be a positive first stage in the mobilization of women and the development of locally managed health systems. For this to be so, much is contingent on the capacity of these organizations to integrate local participation in their own planning and management processes, and to augment the professional status of indigenous health workers.

  20. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700–1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900–1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD. PMID:28350006

  1. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-03-28

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700-1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900-1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD.

  2. The occurence of high nitrate concentration in groundwater in villages in Northwestern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, J.; Schuchmann, J. B.; Geirnaert, W.

    In the ≪Volta Noire≫ rural water supply project 168 boreholes have been drilled and equipped with handpumps in north-western Burkina Faso in the period 1984 - 1986. In 15% of these drilled wells nitrate concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization recommended limit of 45 mg/1. This was also the case in 36% of dug wells sampled during reconnaissance surveys. A review of the field data showed that high nitrate concentrations were more pronounced in villages of certain ethnic groups characterized by a high housing density. Nitrate contamination is caused by the dumping of organic waste in and around the villages. When villages or village-quarters are spread out over larger areas, the contamination is more diffuse and the crops grown between the houses are presumed to take up a substancial part of the nitrogen charge. Groundwater with a high electrical conductivity is positively related to high nitrate concentrations. Near villages with high housing density, conductive groundwater bodies have been detected by routine geo-electrical profiling. It was observed that in horeholes downstream of the village with regard to the direction of groundwater flow, a higher incidence of nitrate contamination is present. It is therefore recommended to site boreholes in villages with a close grouping of houses upstream from the village and to observe a minimum distance from the village center of at least 200m. Siting of boreholes can be improved by applying electrical or electro-magnetic methods.

  3. Active referral: an innovative approach to engaging traditional healthcare providers in TB control in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira

    2013-11-01

    The involvement of traditional healthcare providers (THPs) has been suggested among strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection. Burkina Faso has embarked on such an attempt. This study is a preliminary assessment of that model. Qualitative data were collected using unstructured key informant interviews with policy makers, group interviews with THPs and health workers, and field visits to THPs. Quantitative data were collected from program reports and the national tuberculosis (TB) control database. The distribution of tasks among THPs, intermediary organizations and clinicians is appealing, especially the focus on active referral. THPs are offered incentives based on numbers of suspected cases confirmed by health workers at the clinic, based on microscopy results or clinical assessment. The positivity rate was 23% and 9% for 2006 and 2007, respectively. The contribution of the program to national case detection was estimated at 2% for 2006. Because it relied totally on donor funding, the program suffered from irregular disbursements, resulting in periodic decreases in activities and outcomes. The study shows that single interventions require a broader positive policy environment to be sustainable. Even if the active referral approach seems effective in enhancing TB case detection, more complex policy work and direction, domestic financial contribution and additional evidence for cost-effectiveness are needed before the approach can be established as a national policy. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  4. Childhood mortality and its association with household wealth in rural and semi-urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Schoeps, Anja; Souares, Aurélia; Niamba, Louis; Diboulo, Eric; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Müller, Olaf; Sié, Ali; Becher, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between household wealth and under-5 year mortality in rural and semi-urban Burkina Faso. The study included 15 543 children born between 2005 and 2010 in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Information on household wealth was collected in 2009. Two separate wealth indicators were calculated by principal components analysis for the rural and the semi-urban households, which were then divided into quintiles accordingly. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to study the effect of the respective wealth measure on under-5 mortality. We observed 1201 childhood deaths, corresponding to 5-year survival probability of 93.6% and 88% in the semi-urban and rural area, respectively. In the semi-urban area, household wealth was significantly related to under-5 mortality after adjustment for confounding. There was a similar but non-significant effect of household wealth on infant mortality, too. There was no effect of household wealth on under-5 mortality in rural children. Results from this study indicate that the more privileged children from the semi-urban area with access to piped water and electricity have an advantage in under-5 survival, while under-5 mortality in the rural area is rather homogeneous and still relatively high. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Major sickle cell syndromes and infections associated with this condition in children in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Douamba, Sonia; Nagalo, Kisito; Tamini, Laure; Traoré, Ismaël; Kam, Madibèlè; Kouéta, Fla; Yé, Diarra

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate infections in children with major sickle cell syndrome. We conducted a monocentric descriptive retrospective hospital study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, over a ten-year period. All children with major sickle cell syndrome (homozygous SS and double heterozygous SC, SDPunjab, Sβ thalassemic, SOArab and SE) hospitalized for microbiologically confirmed infections were enrolled in the study. One hundred and thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria. The SS phenotype accounted for 63.2% of cases and SC 36.8%. The frequency of infections was 21.8%. In 45.9% of cases, these affected children aged 0-5 years. The most frequent signs were osteoarticular pain (42.1%), cough (25.7%), abdominal pain (23.3%), pallor (43.6%). The major diagnoses were bronchopneumonia (31.6%), malaria (16.5%), osteomyelitis (12.8%) and septicemia (10.5%). The isolated pathogenic organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (35.5%) and Salmonella spp (33.3%). Third generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. Gros mortality rate was 7.5%. Bacterial infections and malaria dominate the clinical picture of infections in children with major sickle cell syndrome at the at the Pediatrics University Hospital Center Charles De-Gaulle. This study highlights the importance of establishing a national program for the management of sickle-cell anemia, which could help prevent or reduce the occurrence of infections in children with sickle cell syndrome.

  6. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

  7. Active Referral: An Innovative Approach to Engaging Traditional Healthcare Providers in TB Control in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: The involvement of traditional healthcare providers (THPs) has been suggested among strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection. Burkina Faso has embarked on such an attempt. This study is a preliminary assessment of that model. Methods: Qualitative data were collected using unstructured key informant interviews with policy makers, group interviews with THPs and health workers, and field visits to THPs. Quantitative data were collected from program reports and the national tuberculosis (TB) control database. Results and analysis: The distribution of tasks among THPs, intermediary organizations and clinicians is appealing, especially the focus on active referral. THPs are offered incentives based on numbers of suspected cases confirmed by health workers at the clinic, based on microscopy results or clinical assessment. The positivity rate was 23% and 9% for 2006 and 2007, respectively. The contribution of the program to national case detection was estimated at 2% for 2006. Because it relied totally on donor funding, the program suffered from irregular disbursements, resulting in periodic decreases in activities and outcomes. Conclusions: The study shows that single interventions require a broader positive policy environment to be sustainable. Even if the active referral approach seems effective in enhancing TB case detection, more complex policy work and direction, domestic financial contribution and additional evidence for cost-effectiveness are needed before the approach can be established as a national policy. PMID:24359717

  8. Oral Health Status of Children Living in Gorom-Gorom, Oudalan District, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Caruso, Filippo; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    Aim. In order to set up the needs for intervention and to plan oral health prevention and care programmes, this paper aims to describe the oral health status and behaviour in children living in the municipality of Gorom-Gorom, Burkina Faso. Design. The sample size was 692 children, 334 females (48.3%) and 358 males (51.7%). Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children. A statistically significant association was found between caries experience and cleanliness of hands. Community Periodontal Index was statistically associated to toothbrushing and chewingstick use. Conclusion. As suggested by WHO's global strategies, integrated primary oral health care and services meeting the dental needs of the local population are necessary for children living in this area of Africa. PMID:20628563

  9. A spatial analysis of a community-based selection of indigents in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Nikiema, Aude; Kadio, Kadidiatou

    2013-03-01

    Over recent decades, Burkina Faso has improved the geographic accessibility of its health centres. However, patients are still required to pay point-of-service user fees, which excludes the most vulnerable from access to care. In 2010, 259 village committees in the Ouargaye district selected 2649 indigents to be exempted from user fees. The 26 health centre management committees that fund this exemption retained 1097 of those selected indigents. Spatial analysis showed that the management committees retained the indigents who were geographically closer to the health centres, in contrast to the selections of the village committees which were more diversified. Using village committees to select indigents would seem preferable to using management committees. It is not yet known whether the management committees' selections were due to a desire to maximize the benefits of exemption by giving it to those most likely to use it, or to the fact that they did not personally know the indigents who were more geographically distant from them, or that some villages are not represented at the management committees.

  10. Community factors associated with malaria prevention by mosquito nets: an exploratory study in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Okrah, Jane; Traoré, Corneille; Palé, Augustin; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Müller, Olaf

    2002-03-01

    Malaria-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) were examined in a rural and partly urban multiethnic population of Kossi province in north-western Burkina Faso prior to the establishment of a local insecticide-treated bednet (ITN) programme. Various individual and group interviews were conducted, and a structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 210 heads of households in selected villages and the provincial capital of Nouna. Soumaya, the local illness concept closest to the biomedical term malaria, covers a broad range of recognized signs and symptoms. Aetiologically, soumaya is associated with mosquito bites but also with a number of other perceived causes. The disease entity is perceived as a major burden to the community and is usually treated by both traditional and western methods. Malaria preventive practices are restricted to limited chloroquine prophylaxis in pregnant women. Protective measures against mosquitoes are, however, widespread through the use of mosquito nets, mosquito coils, insecticide sprays and traditional repellents. Mosquito nets are mainly used during the rainy season and most of the existing nets are used by adults, particularly heads of households. Mosquito nets treated with insecticide (ITN) are known to the population through various information channels. People are willing to treat existing nets and to buy ITNs, but only if such services would be offered at reduced prices and in closer proximity to the households. These findings have practical implications for the design of ITN programmes in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

  11. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-03-01

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700-1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900-1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD.

  12. Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages

    PubMed Central

    Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané; Kompaoré, C; Millogo, Athanase

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

  13. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  14. How Properties of Kenaf Fibers from Burkina Faso Contribute to the Reinforcement of Earth Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Younoussa; Aubert, Jean-Emmanuel; Hamard, Erwan; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) fibers from Burkina Faso were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical analysis and video microscopy. Kenaf fibers (3 cm long) were used to reinforce earth blocks, and the mechanical properties of reinforced blocks, with fiber contents ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%, were investigated. The fibers were mainly composed of cellulose type I (70.4 wt%), hemicelluloses (18.9 wt%) and lignin (3 wt%) and were characterized by high tensile strength (1 ± 0.25 GPa) and Young’s modulus (136 ± 25 GPa), linked to their high cellulose content. The incorporation of short fibers of kenaf reduced the propagation of cracks in the blocks, through the good adherence of fibers to the clay matrix, and therefore improved their mechanical properties. Fiber incorporation was particularly beneficial for the bending strength of earth blocks because it reinforces these blocks after the failure of soil matrix observed for unreinforced blocks. Blocks reinforced with such fibers had a ductile tensile behavior that made them better building materials for masonry structures than unreinforced blocks.

  15. Seasonal variation of land cover classification accuracy of Landsat 8 images in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Heiskanen, J.; Aynekulu, E.; Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2015-04-01

    In the seasonal tropics, vegetation shows large reflectance variation because of phenology, which complicates land cover change monitoring. Ideally, multi-temporal images for change monitoring should be from the same season, but availability of cloud-free images is limited in wet season in comparison to dry season. Our aim was to investigate how land cover classification accuracy depends on the season in southern Burkina Faso by analyzing 14 Landsat 8 OLI images from April 2013 to April 2014. Because all the images were acquired within one year, we assumed that most of the observed variation between the images was due to phenology. All the images were cloud masked and atmospherically corrected. Field data was collected from 160 field plots located within a 10 km x 10 km study area between December 2013 and February 2014. The plots were classified to closed forest, open forest and cropland, and used as training and validation data. Random forest classifier was employed for classifications. According to the results, there is a tendency for higher classification accuracy towards the dry season. The highest classification accuracy was provided by an image from December, which corresponds to the dry season and minimum NDVI period. In contrast, an image from October, which corresponds to the wet season and maximum NDVI period provided the lowest accuracy. Furthermore, the multi-temporal classification based on dry and wet season images had higher accuracy than single image classifications, but the improvement was small because seasonal changes affect similarly to the different land cover classes.

  16. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction.

  17. Children take the lead in peer education in Burkina Faso villages.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    Plan International, a nongovernmental organization working in 46 villages in Burkina Faso, undertook a pilot project in response to villagers' wishes to have more information on AIDS and its prevention. The 10 pilot villages were identified as high-risk because they had a young population which frequently migrated to the Ivory Coast, were proximate to a weekly market, and were proximate to sites rich in gold (which creates zones of economic activity that attract prostitutes). The villagers were asked to designate 3 young men and 3 young women to be trained in prevention methods, including condom use. Experienced women trainers trained the girls, and men trainers trained the boys using knowledge techniques adapted to everyday village life and developing the dynamic presentation skills of the young people. The youths wore special t-shirts and were able to sell condoms and keep the revenues. Pre/post-tests conducted among 30 individuals per village (5 adults and 5 youth of each sex) revealed that 84% of the population attended discussion groups and that condom use doubled from 9 to 18%. The youth trained in this project went on to form theater and choral groups and to obtain funding to produce a video of their performance for use in other villages. This project has been extended to 105 villages. 1495 village communicators (580 youth) have been trained, and 13,528 condoms have been sold in the first 6 months of 1994.

  18. Counselling on and women's awareness of pregnancy danger signs in selected rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Duysburgh, Els; Ye, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Sié, Ali; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Temmerman, Marleen

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess healthcare workers' counselling practices concerning danger signs during antenatal consultations in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania; to (ii) assess pregnant women's awareness of these danger signs; and (iii) to identify factors affecting counselling practices and women's awareness. Cross-sectional study in rural PHC facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, 12 facilities were randomly selected. WHO guidelines were used as standard for good counselling. We assessed providers' counselling practice on seven danger signs through direct observation study (35 observations/facility). Exit interviews (63 interviews/facility) were used to assess women's awareness of the same seven danger signs. We used negative binomial regression to assess associations with health services' and socio-demographic characteristics and to estimate per study site the average number of danger signs on which counselling was provided and the average number of danger signs mentioned by women. About one in three women was not informed of any danger sign. For most danger signs, fewer than half of the women were counselled. Vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the signs most counselled on (between 52% and 66%). At study facilities in Burkina Faso, 58% of the pregnant women were not able to mention a danger sign, in Ghana this was 22% and in Tanzania 30%. Fever, vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the danger signs most frequently mentioned. The type of health worker (depending on the training they received) was significantly associated with counselling practices. Depending on the study site, characteristics significantly associated with awareness of signs were women's age, gestational age, gravidity and educational level. Counselling practice is poor and not very efficient. A new approach of informing pregnant women on danger signs is needed. However, as effects of

  19. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938

  20. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

  1. Evolution of rainfall and temperature trend and variability in Burkina Faso: Analysis of meteorological data and farmers' perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    Farmers in Burkina Faso are among the most exposed to climate change/ climate variability, as their livelihoods are greatly linked to climate hazards. Rainfall and in some extent temperature are among the inputs farmers use to take decisions in their farming activities. A better understanding of factors that shape farmers' perceptions of climate change and decision to adapt farming practices is needed to take appropriate measures. In the current study farmers' perception of climate change and climate variability- specifically, changes in rainfall and temperature- were compared to historical recorded climate data. Primary data was collected through village focus-group surveys and household surveys. Nine Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the study areas' villages; 450 households were also selected randomly from three locations and sampled out through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Secondary data on the historical precipitation and temperature of Burkina Faso from 1960 to 2012 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Burkina Faso (DGM) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and temperature anomalies methodology have been used to assess anomalies in rainfall and temperature covering a period of 48 years, from 1964 to 2011; and Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator to assess the significance of the trends and the Theil-Sen slope estimator is used to identify their magnitude. The analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change indicates that most farmers perceived a declining trend of precipitation and an increasing trend of temperature in all areas. Results from recorded climate data's analysis, revealed contrasting evidence, while that farmers' perception of temperature match with historical data, their perception of rainfall evolution were not always corroboted by scientific evidence.

  2. Carriage of Neisseria lactamica in 1- to 29-year-old people in Burkina Faso: epidemiology and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Paul A; Diomandé, Fabien; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sanou, Idrissa; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ba, Absatou Ky; Kandolo, Denis; Dolan Thomas, Jennifer; Clark, Thomas A; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; Laforce, F Marc; Caugant, Dominique A

    2012-12-01

    Neisseria lactamica is a true commensal bacterium occupying the same ecological niche as the pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis, which is responsible for outbreaks and large epidemics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the epidemiology of N. lactamica in Africa and its relationship to N. meningitidis, we studied N. lactamica carriage in 1- to 29-year-old people living in three districts of Burkina Faso from 2009 to 2011. N. lactamica was detected in 18.2% of 45,847 oropharyngeal samples. Carriage prevalence was highest among the 2-year-olds (40.1%) and decreased with age. Overall prevalence was higher for males (19.1%) than females (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.18), while among the 18- to 29-year-olds, carriage prevalence was significantly higher in women (9.1%) than in men (3.9%) (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.19). Carriage prevalence of N. lactamica was remarkably homogeneous in the three districts of Burkina Faso and stable over time, in comparison with carriage of N. meningitidis (P. A. Kristiansen et al., Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18:435-443, 2011). There was no significant seasonal variation of N. lactamica carriage and no significant change in carriage prevalence after introduction of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on a selection of 142 isolates. The genetic diversity was high, as we identified 62 different genotypes, of which 56 were new. The epidemiology of N. lactamica carriage and the molecular characteristics of carried isolates were similar to those reported from industrialized countries, in contrast to the particularities of N. meningitidis carriage and disease epidemiology in Burkina Faso.

  3. Carriage of Neisseria lactamica in 1- to 29-Year-Old People in Burkina Faso: Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Paul A.; Diomandé, Fabien; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sanou, Idrissa; Sangaré, Lassana; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ba, Absatou Ky; Kandolo, Denis; Dolan Thomas, Jennifer; Clark, Thomas A.; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria lactamica is a true commensal bacterium occupying the same ecological niche as the pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis, which is responsible for outbreaks and large epidemics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the epidemiology of N. lactamica in Africa and its relationship to N. meningitidis, we studied N. lactamica carriage in 1- to 29-year-old people living in three districts of Burkina Faso from 2009 to 2011. N. lactamica was detected in 18.2% of 45,847 oropharyngeal samples. Carriage prevalence was highest among the 2-year-olds (40.1%) and decreased with age. Overall prevalence was higher for males (19.1%) than females (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.18), while among the 18- to 29-year-olds, carriage prevalence was significantly higher in women (9.1%) than in men (3.9%) (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.19). Carriage prevalence of N. lactamica was remarkably homogeneous in the three districts of Burkina Faso and stable over time, in comparison with carriage of N. meningitidis (P. A. Kristiansen et al., Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18:435–443, 2011). There was no significant seasonal variation of N. lactamica carriage and no significant change in carriage prevalence after introduction of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on a selection of 142 isolates. The genetic diversity was high, as we identified 62 different genotypes, of which 56 were new. The epidemiology of N. lactamica carriage and the molecular characteristics of carried isolates were similar to those reported from industrialized countries, in contrast to the particularities of N. meningitidis carriage and disease epidemiology in Burkina Faso. PMID:23035186

  4. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Maïga, Abdoulaye; Hounton, Sennen; Amouzou, Agbessi; Akinyemi, Akanni; Shiferaw, Solomon; Baya, Banza; Bahan, Dalomi; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Walker, Neff; Friedman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR), and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR). Results Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010), despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving the demand satisfied

  5. [Ivory Coast uprising and returning Burkinabe immigrants: evaluation of the risk for reemergence of sleeping sickness in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Courtin, F; Jamonneau, V; Kambiré, R; Solano, P

    2010-12-01

    Following the sociopolitical unrest that occurred in Ivory Coast in 2002, 360,000 Burkinabe immigrants returned to Burkina Faso that was the epicenter of sleeping sickness last century and is now thought to be free of autochthonous transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine if the massive return of immigrants from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) endemic areas of Ivory Coast to areas in Burkina Faso where the vector (tsetse fly) is currently present could lead to re-emergence of the disease. Risk areas for re-emergence were identified taking into account the number of returning immigrants, history of the disease, and presence of tsetse flies. Based on these criteria, study was focused on two villages, i.e., Folonzo and Gbalara, located in southern Burkina Faso near the Ivory Coast border. Study in these two villages consisted of characterization of the population (repatriates or not, origin, ...) and medical surveys to assess the presence/absence of the disease. Departure of some returning immigrants from areas including sleeping sickness foci in Ivory Coast (e.g. center west) confirmed the potential risk of re-emergence of the disease. Although no case of sleeping sickness was diagnosed, several serologically positive people were identified and will be followed up. This study failed to demonstrate a clear-cut correlation between massive population movements due to war and reemergence of sleeping sickness. However, this study may have been timed too soon after the return of immigrants to detect reemergence of HAT that could require several years.

  6. Seasonal differences in food and nutrient intakes among young children and their mothers in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Nikiema, Laetitia; Allemand, Pauline; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A; Lanou, Hermann; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand and account for seasonal variation in food and nutrient intakes when planning interventions to combat micronutrient deficiencies in resource-poor settings. The objective of the present study was to quantify food and nutrient intakes and assess the adequacy of micronutrient intakes among young children and their mothers during the lean and post-harvest (PH) seasons in rural Burkina Faso. We quantified food intakes by 24-h recall in a representative sample of 480 children aged 36-59 months and their mothers in two provinces in Western Burkina Faso. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of ten micronutrients and an overall mean PA (MPA). Seasonal changes in nutrient intakes and PA were assessed by mixed linear regression and non-parametric tests, respectively. Energy intakes did not differ significantly between seasons for women or children, although the women's intakes were slightly higher in the PH season. Most of the micronutrient intakes were significantly higher in the PH season, with the exception of vitamin A which was lower and vitamin B12 and Zn which were similar across seasons. MPA increased significantly across seasons, from 0·26 to 0·37 for women and from 0·43 to 0·52 for children. PA of Ca, vitamin C, folate and vitamin B12 were very low. Staple grains and vegetables were major sources of micronutrients but intakes were not sufficient to meet nutrient needs for the majority of the subjects. Food-based strategies are needed to increase micronutrient intakes of women and children in Burkina Faso.

  7. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  8. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Dramane; Hilou, Adama; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guenne, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants

  9. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Pare, Dramane; Hilou, Adama; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guenne, Samson

    2016-04-26

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and direct genotyping using minisequencing in free-range pigs in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Sanata; Halos, Lénaïg; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Alanio, Alexandre; Macé, Pauline; Moukoury, Sandrine; Sangaré, Ibrahim; Guiguemdé, Robert; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-08-02

    Swine are a major source of meat for humans. As such, they can play an important role in the epidemiology of human toxoplasmosis. Therefore, we performed an epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in Burkina Fasan swine. The prevalence of T. gondii infection was evaluated in a 3-month prospective study at the slaughterhouse of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG titers were determined on meat juices from pig diaphragms using a commercially available ELISA assay. The DNA was extracted from 25mg of heart biopsies of seropositive animals (IgG ≥50% of the control) and the presence of T. gondii DNA was detected using a quantitative PCR assay. Genotyping was performed directly on DNA from PCR-positive biopsies using high-resolution melting and minisequencing analyses of the repeated B1 gene. The prevalence of carcasses positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 29% (87/300) with no difference according to sex and age in contrast to the village of origin (p=0.018). Of the 87 seropositive animals, two were PCR positive (parasitic load at 64 and 128 parasites/mg of heart biopsy). Two new genotypes belonging to Type II and Type III and different from the genotypes previously described using minisequencing were identified. Our study provides the first T. gondii seroprevalence data in Burkina Fasan swine. In addition, this direct typing method suggests diversity of the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals in Burkina Faso. This needs to be confirmed on a wider sampling of subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P < 0.0001). Differences in IDDS and HFIAS between the 2 y were even more marked after adjustment for confounding factors and food expenditure. Food security and dietary diversity significantly decreased between 2007 and 2008, whereas food prices increased. Households increased their food expenditure, but this was not sufficient to compensate the effects of the crisis.

  12. The Long Term Economic Impact of Severe Obstetric Complications for Women and Their Children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick G. C.; Russell, Steve; D’Exelle, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a “near miss” event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women’s quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children’s education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

  13. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, Gary; Spielman, David J.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2009-01-01

    The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they

  14. Guidelines for maternal and neonatal "point of care": needs of and attitudes towards a computerized clinical decision support system in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Zakane, S Alphonse; Gustafsson, Lars L; Tomson, Göran; Loukanova, Svetla; Sié, Ali; Nasiell, Josefine; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, 245,000 women died due to pregnancy-related causes in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. Our study is nested into the QUALMAT project and seeks to improve the quality of maternal care services through the introduction of a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) to help healthcare workers in rural areas. Healthcare information technology applications in low-income countries may improve healthcare provision but recent studies demonstrate unintended consequences with underuse or resistance to CDSS and that the fit between the system and the clinical needs does present challenges. To explore and describe perceived needs and attitudes among healthcare workers to access WHO guidelines using CDSS in maternal and neonatal care in rural Burkina Faso. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews in two rural districts in Burkina Faso with 45 informants. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of the quantitative part of the interview corresponding to informants' background. Qualitative data were analyzed using manifest content analysis. Four main findings emerged: (a) an appreciable willingness among healthcare workers for and a great interest to adapt and use modern technologies like computers to learn more in the workplace, (b) a positive attitude to easy access of guidelines and implementation of decision-support using computers in the workplace, (c) a fear that the CDSS would require more working time and lead to double-work, and (d) that the CDSS is complicated and requires substantial computer training and extensive instructions to fully implement. The findings can be divided into aspects of motivators and barriers in relation to how the CDSS is perceived and to be used. These aspects are closely connected to each other as the motivating aspects can easily be turned into barriers if not taken care of properly in the final design, during implementation and maintenance of the CDSS at point of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  15. Information Technologies as a Tool for Agricultural Extension and Farmer-to-Farmer Exchange: Mobile-Phone Video Use in Mali and Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Fernando; Nicolay, Gian; Home, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are widespread in the rural areas of Mali and Burkina Faso, but their potential as a tool for knowledge transfer by extension services in the region remains largely unexplored. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in…

  16. [The current situation with regard to nicotine addiction in Burkina Faso: tobacco supply and data from the KAB-P survey of young people in Ouagadougou].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, A; Ouédraogo, T L; Ouoba, D E; Sawadogo, J P

    2000-01-01

    Smoking is a worldwide phenomenon and many studies have demonstrated that tobacco use is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We investigated aspects of the supply of, and demand for, tobacco in Burkina Faso, with a view to helping the public authorities design strategies to combat this phenomenon. We used data on the importation of tobacco and the making of cigarettes in Burkina Faso and carried out a survey of adolescents and young adults (n = 289) with a mean age of 20.9 years. In 1997, Burkina Faso imported 1,905, 214 metric tons of tobacco of all kinds, with a CAF value of 5,808, 905,269 CFA francs. In the survey, 30.7% of those interviewed said that they smoked. These individuals gave various reasons for their use of tobacco including imitating friends (38.6%) and personal liberty (14.1%). These young people were generally aware of the risks of tobacco use, but this did not deter them from smoking. In countries like Burkina Faso, which is faced with many challenges, controlling tobacco advertising and providing ways and means to help young people to stop smoking or to deter them from starting to smoke are of major importance for future public health.

  17. Targeted Water Quality Assessment in Small Reservoirs in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelee, Eline; Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Laamrani, Hammou; Cecchi, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Background Physical and chemical parameters of water in reservoirs can be affected by natural and manmade pollutants, causing damage to the aquatic life and water quality. However, the exact water quality considerations depend on what the water will be used for. Brick making, livestock watering, fisheries, irrigation and domestic uses all have their own specific water quality requirements. In turn, these uses impact on water quality. Methodology Water quality was assessed with a variety of methods in small multipurpose reservoirs in the São Francisco Basin in Brazil, Limpopo in Zimbabwe, Souss Massa in Morocco and Nakambé in Burkina Faso. In each case the first step was to select the reservoirs for which the water quality was to be monitored, then identify the main water uses, followed by a determination of key relevant water quality parameters. In addition, a survey was done in some cases to identify quality perceptions of the users. Samples were taken from the reservoir itself and related water bodies such as canals and wells where relevant. Results Accordingly in the four basins different methods gave different locally relevant results. In the Preto River in the Sao Francisco in Brazil small reservoirs are mainly used for irrigated agriculture. Chemical analysis of various small reservoirs showed that water quality was mainly influenced by geological origins. In addition there was nutrient inflow from surrounding areas of intensive agriculture with high fertilizer use. In the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe small reservoirs are used for almost all community water needs. Plankton was selected as indicator and sampling was carried out in reservoirs in communal areas and in a national park. Park reservoirs were significantly more diversified in phytoplankton taxa compared to those in the communal lands, but not for zooplankton, though communal lands had the highest zooplankton abundance. In Souss Massa in Morocco a combination of perceptions and scientific water

  18. [Understanding and reaching young clandestine sex workers in Burkina Faso to improve response to HIV].

    PubMed

    Berthé, Abdramane; Huygens, Pierre; Ouattara, Cécile; Sanon, Anselme; Ouédraogo, Abdoulaye; Nagot, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, researchers in Burkina Faso enrolled 300 women more or less involved in commercial sex work in an open cohort to determine whether adequate management of their sexually transmitted infections and exposure to well-designed, well-delivered, and plentiful communication for behaviour change (CBC) might reduce their vulnerability to HIV. In 2000, they observed that the non-professional sex workers (occasional or clandestine sex workers) were more difficult to reach, to mobilize and to keep involved in the project's different activities. This group was also infected at the same or higher rates than professional sex workers because they did not use condoms routinely. To accomplish the project objectives, they therefore chose to recruit more non-professional sex workers in the new cohort of 700 women. This social-anthropological study was conducted to help them to enrol young clandestine sex workers. The overall objective of this study was to understand the life of this category of sex workers and to identify strategic actors to reach them. Using a qualitative method, social anthropologists reviewed literature, identified and geo-referenced all local places suitable to encountering these women, obtained life stories from some of them and interviewed key informants and participants in the field. The results showed that in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso): - most young women who are clandestine sex workers are Burkinabe, and girls entering the sex trade are increasingly young and increasingly uneducated; - most of them come from families with low capital (financial, cultural, or social). The parents' socioeconomic status (contextual poverty) results in unmet financial needs, which in turn exposes them to starting work early, including commercial sex work; - of all the income-generating activities available to unskilled young girls, commercial sex work is one of the most profitable and easily accessible; - in the three-fold context of an HIV epidemic, poverty, and

  19. Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Luke

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso L.F.H. Peters and K.A.A Hein School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. The Goren Greenstone Belt (GGB) is a Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary belt situated in the northeast of Burkina Faso in the West African craton (WAC). Basalt is the main volcanic constituent of the GGB, specifically mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBS), which have undergone pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism during at least 2 deformation including the Tangaean Event (2170-2130 Ma) and Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma). Remarkably, many of the primary textures and minerals remain intact in less deformed regions of the GBB. Textural characteristics and petrographic analyses include aphyric and aphanitic textures, amygdales, hyaloclastic brecciation, pillow structures and preserved (chloritised) volcanic glass. Despite the ubiquitous presence of chlorite and epidote, plagioclase and clinopyroxene microlites are fairly common albeit altered. Phenocrysts (< 1 mm) of plagioclase and CPX are present in some samples but aphyric texture is dominant. These textures indicate that the basalts represent coherent units of sub-aqueous extrusion from a proximal volcanic facies setting relative to the original magma conduit. A repetitious succession of Fe-rich meta-siltstones, fine-grained, carbonaceous, Fe-rich exhalatives and volcaniclastic units is intercalated with the basalts. The volcaniclastic units contrast with the MORBs, which raises questions about the source region of the volcaniclastics. In hand sample, the volcaniclastic rocks show an array of various sized fragments, compared to the fine-grained nature of the MORBs. They are dominated by euhedral, zoned, brown volcanic hornblende, large (2.5-5 mm) euhedral plagioclase crystals, and sub-angular to rounded quartz grains in a poorly sorted volcanogenic sedimentary sequence. Due to the

  20. Recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé valley in Southwest Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Koala, Lassane; Nikiema, Achille; Post, Rory J; Paré, Alain Brice; Kafando, Claude Montant; Drabo, François; Traoré, Soungalo

    2017-02-01

    Onchocerciasis control by vector control was instigated in southwest Burkina Faso in January 1969 by ORSTOM/OCCGE, and continued until operations were taken over by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in February 1975, which itself ceased operations in the area in 1989 when onchocerciasis was judged to have been reduced to insignificant levels. Initially (1969-1975) vector immigration maintained unacceptably high levels of transmission, but OCP was much larger than the preceding campaign and in 1975 the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) dropped below 100 at all sites in the Comoé river valley except Folonzo, which continued to be subject to reinvasion, along with the whole of the Léraba river valley. However, after the southern extension of the OCP in 1979, ATPs dropped below 100 everywhere in the Comoé basin (including the Léraba valley), and further dropped to insignificant levels after the western extension of the OCP in 1985. Thus transmission dropped more quickly in the Comoé river valley than the Léraba river valley (which had been subject to vector reinvasion), and this was also reflected in prevalence of microfilaraemia in the human population. After 1986 prevalence was less than 5% in all villages in the Comoé river valley (except for two, which subsequently dropped to 0% and 3.7% by 1999). However, in 2001 (12 years after the cessation of vector control) the prevalence in one village in the Comoé river valley had increased to 39.6%, and two more had increased above 5% by 2007. New epidemiological surveys in 2011 and 2012 showed that in 13 out of 30 villages in the Comoé river valley prevalence of microfilaraemia was above 5%, although this was not observed in the Léraba river valley where prevalence remained low. This is the first documented case of recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the old OCP area, and the reasons are not clear. It is possible that there has been immigration of parasites with humans or vectors from areas where

  1. Routine implementation costs of larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against malaria vectors in a district in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dambach, Peter; Schleicher, Michael; Stahl, Hans-Christian; Traoré, Issouf; Becker, Norbert; Kaiser, Achim; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-07-22

    exhaustive larviciding with Bti during the main malaria transmission period (June-October) in the Nouna health district were calculated to be US$ 1.05. When targeted spraying of the 50 % most productive larval sources is used instead, average annual per capita costs decrease by 27 % to US$ 0.77. Additionally, a high sensitivity of per capita programme costs against changes in total surface of potential larval sources and the number of spraying repetitions was found. The per capita costs for larval source management interventions with Bti are roughly a third of the annual per capita expenditures for anti-malarial drugs and those for LLINs in Burkina Faso which are US$ 3.80 and 3.00, respectively. The average LSM costs compare to those of IRS and LLINs for sub-Saharan Africa. The authors argue that in such a setting LSM based on Bti spraying is within the range of affordable anti-malarial strategies and, consequently, should deserve more attention in practice. Future research includes a cost-benefit calculation, based on entomological and epidemiological data collected during the research project.

  2. Seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Becquey, Elodie; Delpeuch, Francis; Konaté, Amadou M; Delsol, Hervé; Lange, Matthias; Zoungrana, Mahama; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P < 0·0001). This was related to less frequent consumption and consumption of smaller amounts of vegetables and of foods prepared at home. Food security relied heavily on food expenses (P < 0·0001) and on the price of meat/fish (P = 0·026). Households with economically dependent adults (P = 0·021) and larger households (P < 0·0001) were the most vulnerable, whereas education (P = 0·030), social network (P = 0·054) and urban origin other than Ouagadougou (P = 0·040) played a positive role in food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons.

  3. Malaria rapid diagnostic test transport and storage conditions in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ethiopia and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Audrey; Lee, Evan; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Sleshi, Markos; Faye, Babacar; Mationg, Mary Lorraine; Ouedraogo, Kadi; Tsadik, Abeba G; Feleke, Sendeaw Maksha; Diallo, Ibrahima; Gaye, Oumar; Luchavez, Jennifer; Bennett, Jessica; Bell, David

    2012-12-06

    As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8), Senegal (10), Ethiopia (13) and the Philippines (6) over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in supply chains in tropical and sub-tropical climates. This would

  4. Importance of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Cover for Energy Balance partition in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Van De Giesen, N.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface characteristics are the main control on hydrologic processes, the driver of most livelihoods, in semi arid West Africa. We use the energy and water balance measured with two eddy-covariance towers, coupled with a dense network of small, wireless meteorological stations in a small (3.5 km2) catchment to understand these relationships. Time series of monthly averages of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature, cloud cover, components of net radiation, wind speed, and NDVI are presented in relation to the evaporative fraction and energy balance. We found that both latent and sensible heat fluxes are greater over mixed forest and savanna areas compared agricultural land. Sensible heat is found to be most different between the two land-covers at the end of the year, when the grass and vegetation is dry, and latent heat is found to be most different at the beginning of the year, when bare ground dominates. Further examination shows that soil moisture and vegetation indexes provide the main controls on evaporative fraction. These findings have implications for modeling the evaporation over large regions based on remotely sensed land surface temperature. The site is characteristic of the contrasts in vegetation and moisture availability present in the rocky escarpments found in Northern Benin and Southeastern Burkina Faso. Historically these sites are important in location for village choice and land use designation. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of vegetation for climate regulation and may provide support to local farmers for improving the resilience of natural resources and livelihood security.

  5. Drop-out analysis of community-based health insurance membership at Nouna, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hengjin; De Allegri, Manuela; Gnawali, Devendra; Souares, Aurélia; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to identify the reasons why enrolled people decide not to renew their membership in following years. Household survey is used to collect information on the factors influencing dropping out from community-based health insurance (CBI). Information from CBI agency databank is used to describe the general situation of enrolment and drop-out. Since the launch of CBI the enrolment rate has been low ranging from 5.2% to 6.3%. The drop-out rate, however, has been high ranging from 30.9% to 45.7%. It is found, by the multivariate analysis, that female household head, higher age or lower education of a household head, lower number of illness episodes in the past three months, fewer children or elderly in a household, poor perceived health care quality, less seeking care in the past month positively effected on drop-out, increasing the rate. However, the household six-month expenditure and the distance to the contracted health facility did not have the hypothesised sign. In contrast, a higher household expenditure and a shorter distance to the contracted health facility increased the drop-out. High drop-out rates endanger the sustainability of CBI not only because they reduce the size of the insurance pool, but also because they bear a negative impact on further enrolment and drop-out. The drop-out rate in the scheme of the Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso, is very high. The reasons for drop-out may be related to affordability, health-needs and health demand, quality of care, household head and household characteristics. This study represents a valuable attempt towards further increasing the sustainability of CBI schemes, by understanding not what motivates people to first enrol in CBI, but what motivates them to renew membership year after year.

  6. Ethical considerations of providers and clients on HIV testing campaigns in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campaigns have been conducted in a number of low HIV prevalence African settings, as a strategy to expand HIV testing, and it is important to assess the extent to which individual rights and quality of care are protected during campaigns. In this article we investigate provider and client perceptions of ethical issues, including whether they think that accessibility of counseling and testing sites during campaigns may hinder confidentiality. Methods To examine how campaigns have functioned in Burkina Faso, we undertook a qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 52 people (providers and clients tested during or outside campaigns and individuals never tested). Thematic analysis was performed on discourse about perceptions and experiences of HIV-testing campaigns, quality of care and individual rights. Results Respondents value testing accessibility and attractiveness during campaigns; clients emphasize convenience, ripple effect, the sense of not being alone, and the anonymity resulting from high attendance. Confronted with numerous clients, providers develop context-specific strategies to ensure consent, counseling, confidentiality and retention in the testing process, and they adapt to workplace arrangements, local resources and social norms. Clients appreciate the quality of care during campaigns. However, new ethical issues arise about confidentiality and accessibility. Confidentiality of HIV-status may be jeopardized due to local social norms that encourage people to share their results with others, when HIV-positive people may not wish to do so. Providers’ ethical concerns are consistent with WHO norms known as the ‘5 Cs,’ though articulated differently. Clients and providers value the accessibility of testing for all during campaigns, and consider it an ethical matter. The study yields insights on the way global norms are adapted or negotiated locally. Conclusions Future global recommendations for HIV

  7. Human vulnerability to climate variability in the Sahel: farmers' adaptation strategies in northern Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers' vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers' perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers' actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers' dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers' desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  8. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  9. Trauma- and Stressor Related Disorders in the Tuareg Refugees of a Camp in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carta, M.G.; Oumar, F. Wallet; Moro, M.F.; Moro, D.; Preti, A.; Mereu, A.; Bhugra, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reported to be common among refugees. We set out to explore risk of Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders and the associated burden of psychological distress in a refugee camp of Malian Refugees in Burkina Faso. Methods: One out of five persons living in the camp was selected randomly and interviewed using the French version of the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the validated K6 scale to measure psychiatric morbidity. Results: Around 60% of the interviewed sample (N=408) met the criteria for Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders and also reported severe mental distress on K6 scores. Women aged 40 and over were found to be at higher risk of Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders whereas young people (39 or younger) scored higher on K6 ratings. Around 83% of the surveyed subjects had a family member killed in the war, 91% a relative in the war, more than 80% had a family member suffering from physical injuries, and 90% reported problems with food and housing. The frequency of these life events was not surprisingly higher in persons with Trauma- and Stress-or-Related Disorders, with the death of a family member and severe problems with food being specifically related to them.Conclusion: These results point to important psychological suffering in a population that is often ignored by the media and international political authorities. Immediate steps are required to provide urgent legal and humanitarian protection to those who are forced to flee their homes and cross international borders because of disasters. PMID:24285982

  10. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scavenging pullets in Burkina Faso: effect of season, location and breed on feed and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Pousga, S; Boly, H; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, B

    2005-11-01

    A study on scavenging local (n = 64) and crossbred (n = 64) pullets was undertaken in the dry and rainy seasons in two villages in Burkina Faso: Korea in the arid northern Sahelian region and Bounouna in the sub-humid south. After 4 weeks of scavenging, the birds were killed and the crop contents were subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Cereal grains, brans, green and dry forages, insects/worms and household leftovers were the main physical components. The proportion of cereal grains was higher in the rainy season, whereas the proportion of bran, peanut and sand/grit was higher in the dry season (p < 0.05). The proportion of kitchen waste and millet/milo grains was higher in local than in crossbred birds, whereas the opposite was the case for millet/milo bran (p < 0.05). Rice and local beer residues were not found in the crops of birds from Korea. Dry matter, ash, crude fibre and potassium contents were higher in the dry season (p < 0.05), while calculated metabolizable energy content was higher in the rainy season (p < 0.05). There were no location or breed effects on chemical composition parameters (p > 0.05), except that potassium content was higher in Korea. Mean live weight at slaughter was 806 +/- 22.0 g (local breed) and 881 +/- 22.0 g (crossbreds) (p < 0.05). Digestive organ weights, including contents, were higher for crossbred birds (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal tract percentage was higher in the rainy season and in Bounouna (p < 0.05). The nutrient composition of the crop contents indicates the need for supplementation, particularly of protein, for higher levels of production.

  12. Water resources allocation under climatic and population scenarios: case of Loumbila dam in Burkina Faso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of increased pressures on water resources as well as climate change, the need for managing water allocation is important. This study sought to model water allocation under climate change and human pressure. The Loumbila dam located in central Burkina Faso (12°29 N, 01°24 W) plays a great role in the capital's water supply system and is selected as a case study to reconstitute inflows, simulate actual water allocation and predict monthly water allocation under different climate change scenarios using AFR-44-HIRHAM5 bias corrected data. For these purposes, the inflow of the dam was reconstituted through regression method. The water allocation model (WEAP) has been applied to simulate monthly water availability and demand under RCP_8.5 and RCP_4.5 scenarios by 2050. RCMs data bias correction was set up based on delta change method. The assessment of water needs shows an upward trend of water supply meaning that this site will experience great challenges in the near future. The unmet demand for all sites will increase due to the decrease in water availability and increase in water demand. Analysis of the average monthly unmet demands from water supply shows an increase of water need up to 6.5 million of cubic meter in April-May with RCP_8.5 scenarios while scenarios 4.5 simulate a future unmet water supply demand less than 3.5 million of cubic meters in April-May period. Thus both scenarios show increasing unmet water supply demand. The monthly unmet demand from the municipalities needs shows an increase up to 69 000 cubic meters in December under RCP_8.5 scenarios. The analysis shows also an increase of irrigation water need up to 750 000 cubic meters under RCP_8.5 scenarios.

  13. Season of death and birth predict patterns of mortality in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Hammer, Gaël P; Müller, Olaf; Kouyaté, Bocar; Becher, Heiko

    2006-04-01

    Mortality in developing countries has multiple causes. Some of these causes are linked to climatic conditions that differ over the year. Data on season-specific mortality are sparse. We analysed longitudinal data from a population of approximately 35,000 individuals in Burkina Faso. During the observation period 1993-2001, a total number of 4,098 deaths were recorded. The effect of season on mortality was investigated separately by age group as (i) date of death and (ii) date of birth. For (i), age-specific death rates by month of death were calculated. The relative effect of each month was assessed using the floating relative risk method and modelled continuously. For (ii), age-specific death rates by month of birth were calculated and the mean date of birth among deaths and survivors was compared. Overall mortality was found to be consistently higher during the dry season (November to May). The pattern was seen in all age groups except in infants where a peak was seen around the end of the rainy season. In infants we found a strong association between high mortality and being born during the time period September to February. No effect was seen for the other age groups. The observed excess mortality in young children at or around the end of the rainy season can be explained by the effects of infectious diseases and, in particular, malaria during this time period. In contrast, the excess mortality seen in older children and adults during the early dry season remains largely unexplained although specific infectious diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia are possible main causes. The association between high infant mortality and being born at around the end of the rainy season is probably explained by most of the malaria deaths in areas of high transmission intensity occurring in the second half of infancy.

  14. Definition and characterization of localised meningitis epidemics in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tall, Haoua; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Donnen, Philippe; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Kambou, Ludovic; Drabo, Frank; Mueller, Judith E

    2012-01-05

    The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop a definition for localised epidemics to be used in real-time surveillance based on weekly case reports at the health centre level. We used national routine surveillance data on suspected meningitis from January 2004 to December 2008 in six health districts in western and central Burkina Faso. We evaluated eight thresholds composed of weekly incidence rates at health centre level for their performance in predicting annual incidences of 0.4%and 0.8% in health centre areas. The eventually chosen definition was used to describe the spatiotemporal epidemiology and size of localised meningitis epidemics during the included district years. Among eight weekly thresholds evaluated, a weekly incidence rate of 75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during at least two consecutive weeks with at least 5 cases per week had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting an annual incidence of at least 0.8% in health centres. Using this definition, localised epidemics were identified in all but one years during 2004-2008, concerned less than 10% of the districts' population and often were geographically dispersed. Where sufficient laboratory data were available, localised epidemics were exclusively due to meningococci. This definition of localised epidemics a the health centre level will be useful for risk factor and modelling studies to understand the meningitis belt phenomenon and help documenting vaccine impact against epidemic meningitis where no widespread laboratory surveillance exists for quantifying disease reduction after vaccination.

  15. Definition and characterization of localised meningitis epidemics in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop a definition for localised epidemics to be used in real-time surveillance based on weekly case reports at the health centre level. Methods We used national routine surveillance data on suspected meningitis from January 2004 to December 2008 in six health districts in western and central Burkina Faso. We evaluated eight thresholds composed of weekly incidence rates at health centre level for their performance in predicting annual incidences of 0.4%and 0.8% in health centre areas. The eventually chosen definition was used to describe the spatiotemporal epidemiology and size of localised meningitis epidemics during the included district years. Results Among eight weekly thresholds evaluated, a weekly incidence rate of 75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during at least two consecutive weeks with at least 5 cases per week had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting an annual incidence of at least 0.8% in health centres. Using this definition, localised epidemics were identified in all but one years during 2004-2008, concerned less than 10% of the districts' population and often were geographically dispersed. Where sufficient laboratory data were available, localised epidemics were exclusively due to meningococci. Conclusions This definition of localised epidemics a the health centre level will be useful for risk factor and modelling studies to understand the meningitis belt phenomenon and help documenting vaccine impact against epidemic meningitis where no widespread laboratory surveillance exists for quantifying disease reduction after vaccination. PMID:22221583

  16. Spectrum of commercial sex activity in Burkina Faso: classification model and risk of exposure to HIV.

    PubMed

    Nagot, Nicolas; Ouangré, Amadou; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Cartoux, Michel; Huygens, Pierre; Defer, Marie Christine; Zékiba, Tarnagda; Meda, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2002-04-15

    Before designing a sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention study targeting female commercial sex workers in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, we conducted a socioanthropologic survey to analyze the prostitution network in the city in 1998. According to social characteristics, women were classified in six different categories, including four groups of nonprofessional sex workers. The aim of the current study is to assess HIV exposure across this classification model. A total of 447 women belonging to the six categories were enrolled in the study. After collection of social and behavioral data by means of a questionnaire, each woman received a physical examination and a blood sample was taken for HIV serologic testing. The category of "seaters" was the most often infected, with an HIV prevalence of 57% (58 of 101 women). Nonprofessional "sellers" and "bar waitresses" were more often infected than professional "roamers," with an HIV prevalence of 37% (24 of 65 women), 40% (27 of 67 women), and 29% (27 of 92 women), respectively, despite a much lower number of clients per week (average of 2.6 clients, 3.3 clients, and 18.6 clients, respectively). Finally, "students" and "cabarets" (women making and selling local beer in huts) were infected with an HIV prevalence of 15% (9 of 62 women and 9 of 60 women, respectively), which remains higher than the prevalence measured recently in the general female population in the city (6.4%). Our results highlight the high level of vulnerability of nonprofessional sex workers, who need to be considered in the design of any program targeting this population for STI/HIV control purposes.

  17. Fostering low-cost soil moisture monitoring techniques to improve irrigation efficiency in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouleau, Clémence; Baracchini, Theo; Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Bolay, Jean-Claude; Perona, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a significant activity in water stressed semi-arid (e.g., the Sahel) regions, thereby yield and water management are fundamental aspects of irrigation success. Small farmers have often difficulties in managing crops and in evaluating water needs resulting in low yield with excessive water consumption, elevated pumping costs and soil degradation. In different proportions, this overuse of water concerns all irrigation techniques: gravity flows from reservoirs, watering cans irrigation from groundwater wells, micro- or drip irrigation. Baseline requirements for supporting sustainable technology are low costs, easy installation, minimal maintenance, and local production. We present and discuss results from the Info4Dourou2.0 explorative project in Burkina Faso, the main goal of which is to improve small-scale agriculture by the use of sensing and communication technologies. In particular, a support system that couples autonomous and continuous measurements of meteorological variables and soil matrix potential as well as soil humidity with agronomic models has been tested in drip-irrigated fields over a three-year period. In particular, the system is collecting data from three water potential sensors at different locations per field and informs the farmers through a simple interface of the correct amount of water needed by the plant. In its simplicity this system provides an easy to use and install irrigation management setup, and is therefore an ideal candidate in favor of sustainability. Info4Dourou2.0 pilot experiments have shown that farmers can obtain significantly higher yields using lower amounts of water. Overall, this methodology allows facing multiple urgent problems such as the use of environmental data to improve agricultural production towards ecosystem conservation, food security issues and adaptation to climatic change scenarios.

  18. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  19. Investigating rural poverty and marginality in Burkina Faso using remote sensing-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.

    2014-02-01

    Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.

  20. Different delivery mechanisms for insecticide-treated nets in rural Burkina Faso: a provider's perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been confirmed to be a very effective tool in malaria control. Two different delivery strategies for roll-out of ITN programmes have been the focus of debate in the last years: free distribution and distribution through commercial marketing systems. They are now seen as complementary rather than opponent. Acceptance of these programmes by the community and involved providers is an important aspect influencing their sustainability. This paper looks at how providers perceived, understood and accepted two interventions involving two different delivery strategies (subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women attending antenatal care services). Methods The interventions took place in one province of north-western Burkina Faso in 2006 in the frame of a large randomized controlled ITN intervention study. For this descriptive qualitative study data were collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews. A total of four focus group discussions and eleven individual interviews have been conducted with the providers of the study interventions. Results The free distribution intervention was well accepted and perceived as running well. The health care staff had a positive and beneficial view of the intervention and did not feel overwhelmed by the additional workload. The social marketing intervention was also seen as positive by the rural shopkeepers. However, working in market economy, shopkeepers feared the risk of unsold ITNs, due to the low demand and capacity to pay for the product in the community. Conclusion The combination of ITN free distribution and social marketing was in general well accepted by the different providers. However, low purchasing power of clients and the resulting financial insecurities of shopkeepers remain a challenge to ITN social marketing in rural SSA. PMID:21129224

  1. HIV testing and care in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda: ethics on the ground

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ethical discourse about HIV testing has undergone a profound transformation in recent years. The greater availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a global scaling up of HIV testing and counseling as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care. In response, critics raised important ethical questions, including: How do different testing policies and practices undermine or strengthen informed consent and medical confidentiality? How well do different modalities of testing provide benefits that outweigh risks of harm? To what degree do current testing policies and programs provide equitable access to HIV services? And finally, what lessons have been learned from the field about how to improve the delivery of HIV services to achieve public health objectives and protections for human rights? This article reviews the empirical evidence that has emerged to answer these questions, from four sub-Saharan African countries, namely: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda. Discussion Expanding access to treatment and prevention in these four countries has made the biomedical benefits of HIV testing increasingly clear. But serious challenges remain with regard to protecting human rights, informed consent and ensuring linkages to care. Policy makers and practitioners are grappling with difficult ethical issues, including how to protect confidentiality, how to strengthen linkages to care, and how to provide equitable access to services, especially for most at risk populations, including men who have sex with men. Summary The most salient policy questions about HIV testing in these countries no longer address whether to scale up routine PITC (and other strategies), but how. Instead, individuals, health care providers and policy makers are struggling with a host of difficult ethical questions about how to protect rights, maximize benefits, and mitigate risks in the face of resource scarcity. PMID:23343572

  2. HIV testing and care in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda: ethics on the ground.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Bayer, Ron; Desclaux, Alice; Baggaley, Rachel

    2013-01-23

    The ethical discourse about HIV testing has undergone a profound transformation in recent years. The greater availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a global scaling up of HIV testing and counseling as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care. In response, critics raised important ethical questions, including: How do different testing policies and practices undermine or strengthen informed consent and medical confidentiality? How well do different modalities of testing provide benefits that outweigh risks of harm? To what degree do current testing policies and programs provide equitable access to HIV services? And finally, what lessons have been learned from the field about how to improve the delivery of HIV services to achieve public health objectives and protections for human rights? This article reviews the empirical evidence that has emerged to answer these questions, from four sub-Saharan African countries, namely: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda. Expanding access to treatment and prevention in these four countries has made the biomedical benefits of HIV testing increasingly clear. But serious challenges remain with regard to protecting human rights, informed consent and ensuring linkages to care. Policy makers and practitioners are grappling with difficult ethical issues, including how to protect confidentiality, how to strengthen linkages to care, and how to provide equitable access to services, especially for most at risk populations, including men who have sex with men. The most salient policy questions about HIV testing in these countries no longer address whether to scale up routine PITC (and other strategies), but how. Instead, individuals, health care providers and policy makers are struggling with a host of difficult ethical questions about how to protect rights, maximize benefits, and mitigate risks in the face of resource scarcity.

  3. Reasons for attending dental-care services in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Varenne, Benoît; Msellati, Philippe; Zoungrana, Célestin; Fournet, Florence; Salem, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine why patients attend dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and to improve understanding of the capacity of oral health-care services in urban west Africa. METHODS: We studied a randomly selected sample of patients attending 15 dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou over a 1-year period in 2004. Data were collected using a simple daily record form. FINDINGS: From a total of 44,975 patients, the final sample was established at 14,591 patients, of whom 55.4% were new patients and 44.6% were "booking patients". Most patients seeking care (71.9%) were aged 15-44 years. Nongovernmental not-for-profit dental services were used by 41.5% of all patients, 36% attended private dental-care services, and 22.5% of patients visited public services. The most common complaint causing the patient to seek dental-care services was caries with pulpal involvement (52.4%), and 60% of all complaints were associated with pain. The patients' dental-care requirements were found to differ significantly according to sex, health insurance coverage and occupation. CONCLUSION: Urban district health authorities should ensure provision of primary health-care services, at the patients' first point of contact, which are directed towards the relief of pain. In addition to the strengthening of outreach emergency care, health centres should also contribute to the implementation of community-based programmes for the prevention of oral disease and the promotion of oral health. Exchange of experiences from alternative oral health-care systems relevant to developing countries is urgently needed for tackling the growing burden of oral disease. PMID:16211155

  4. Study of a Localized Meningococcal Meningitis Epidemic in Burkina Faso: Incidence, Carriage, and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yaro, Seydou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Drabo, Aly; Idohou, Régina S.; Kroman, Sita S.; Sanou, Oumarou; Diagbouga, Serge; Traoré, Yves; Sangaré, Lassana; Borrow, Raymond; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To better understand localized meningococcal meningitis epidemics, we evaluated a serogroup A (NmA) epidemic in Burkina Faso by surveillance, carriage, and seroprevalence studies. Methods. During March–April 2006, cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients suspected to have meningitis in 3 epidemic villages were analyzed by culture or polymerase chain reaction. We assessed meningococcal carriage and serogroup-specific serum bactericidal antibody titers with baby rabbit complement (rSBA) in a representative population sample (N = 624; age range, 1–39 years). A serogroup A/C polysaccharide vaccine campaign occurred in parallel. Results. Cumulative incidence of Nm meningitis was 0.45% and varied among villages (0.08%–0.91%). NmA carriage prevalence was 16% without variation by vaccination status. NmA carriage and anti-NmA seroprevalence varied by village and incidence. In the 2 villages with highest incidence and seroprevalence, presence of rSBA titers ≥8 was associated with NmA carriage (odds ratio [OR], 9.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.90–45.91]) and vaccination ≤4 days earlier (OR, 0.10 [95% CI, .03–.32]). Visibly purulent or Nm meningitis was significantly associated with recent flulike symptoms and exposure to kitchen smoke (risk ratios >15). Conclusions. A surge of NmA carriage may be involved in the development of meningococcal epidemics and rapidly increase anti-NmA seroprevalence. Flulike infection and kitchen smoke may contribute to the strength of epidemics. PMID:21998478

  5. [Microbial quality assessment of some street food widely consumed in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Barro, Nicolas; Ouattara, Cheik A T; Nikiema, Philippe A; Ouattara, Aboubakar S; Traoré, Alfred S

    2002-01-01

    The major part of the population of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, have their breakfast, dinner and lunch in street food shops. The characteristics of street food vendors are indicated. It appeared clearly that women play a major part (75%) in street food sale. Vendors have only a slight knowledge of food processing and of hygienic practices. There is a high proportion (about 50%) of people among them. This dietary habit has some negative aspects on the consumers' health. Ours studies clearly showed that hygienic practices during sales operations are not respected by all categories of vendors of food products. Also, it was observed that street food vendors sometimes sit close to the waste water drainage system and solid wastes. Sometimes, the food is not covered and it is manipulated by consumers in areas infested by flies and others insects. The water used to wash the materials is of poor quality. The second aspects of our studies showed that, in most cases, when the safety and hygienic practices were not respected, the food became a true microorganism culture medium under tropical climatic conditions. A table reports microbial analysis and contamination rates of some important street foods consumed in Ouagadougou. In general these results showed the failure of microbial quality of some food which is not preheated (milk product, fruit juice, vegetable, fruit) and in the case of food which is not reheated after a long time of exposition (dry meat and meat on sticks). The presence of Salmonella and Shigella species in some food represents a serious danger for consumers. These aspects were observed with most street food vendors. It probably makes street food the source of most diseases caused by bacteria and other microorganisms.

  6. [A survey of sustainable funding mechanisms for essential drugs in Loumbila, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Saouadogo, Hamado; Amoussou, Koffi Miwonovi; Ouedraogo, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Households are the main source of health care financing in Burkina Faso. The current system based on out-of-pocket health payments is a major cause of poverty. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the improvement of local health funding in Loumbila and throughout the country. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 271 household heads, 3 health committee members, the prefet (the top state official in the area), and the secretary general of the municipality between 25 June and 5 August 2010. A survey guide and questionnaires were used to collect data. The standard public health survey method was used to collect, process, analyze and discuss the results. The results of the survey indicate that 82.3% of the participating households were willing to contribute to the creation of a local health fund in the village. The study found that the average contribution rate of each household amounted to 9% of their annual income. The best periods for collecting funds are during the harvest season (in the case of farmers) or any favorable period (in the case of other households). The municipal committee will need to be responsible for managing and coordinating the municipal health fund. This requires the participation of the state, health districts, NGOs and other partners. The cost of effective treatment for the top ten priority diseases in the village in 2010 is estimated to be 4,011,300 FCFA. If all the households in the village were to contribute to the municipal health fund, the total amount of contributions would amount to 15,575,515 FCFA. Under this system, all households within the village can have access to essential drugs. The municipal health fund can also support municipal development boards to improve the independence and sustainability of the system.

  7. Domestic Larval Control Practices and Malaria Prevalence among Under-Five Children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Diabaté, Souleymane; Druetz, Thomas; Millogo, Tiéba; Ly, Antarou; Fregonese, Federica; Kouanda, Seni; Haddad, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission. Methods The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i) estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water); (ii) identify key determinants; and (iii) explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers’ knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children. Results Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers’ participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude. Conclusion Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among under-five. There is a need for national

  8. [Factors associated with the satisfaction of prescribers of blood products in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, S; Kafando, E; Nébié, K; Ouédraogo, A-S; Ouattara, S; Dahourou, H; Fretz, C; Deneys, V

    2017-05-29

    The National Blood Transfusion Centre, unique operator of blood transfusion in Burkina Faso is engaged into the quality process according to ISO 9001. Therefore, the assessment of customer satisfaction is a main part of its system. Our study conceives "customer satisfaction" as dependant to the perceived service quality based on SERVQUAL model. To identify factors associated with the satisfaction of blood products prescribers in order to help decision-makers for continuous improvement of services. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among prescribers of blood components in Ouagadougou, between February 27 and April 30, 2015. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including 13 items associated to the 5 dimensions of SERVQUAL model. The different satisfaction gaps were calculated and linear regression was used to determine statistical associations with a significance level of 5%. The return rate was 94.5% about the 256 questionnaires distributed. A total of 30% of respondents were satisfied to very satisfied. The overall global gap of satisfaction was -5.74. The product delivery time, the efficacy and safety of blood products, the medical and clinical support, the pro-activity of the communication, the management of blood products reservation and the satisfaction of needs in blood products were the factors associated with the prescribers' satisfaction. This first study in blood transfusion services in our context was been useful to assess customer satisfaction and identify the main axes on which targeting priority actions in order to effectively use available resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Retrospective study of urogenital fistula in Burkina Faso from 2001 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Sombie, I; Kambou, T; Conombo, S G; Sankara, O; Ouedraogo, L; Zoungrana, T; Hounton, S; Meda, N

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze aspects of obstetric urogenital fistulae to provide a foundation for implementation of a national control program in Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative components was carried out in 47 hospitals in January 2004. The quantitative component consisted of analyzing available data for 2001, 2002 and 2003. The qualitative component consisted of interviewing women with fistulae to evaluate the impact of the disease on the quality of life and persons in charge of the health reference centers to identify the difficulties and needs of the facility. In the 3-year study period, 1,500,000 deliveries were attended and 347 fistulae were identified in the health reference centers. The incidence rate of obstetric fistulae was 23.1 per 100 000 deliveries (CI 95% 20.8-25.7). Women with fistulae were young and usually without paid employment. Many had a history of dystocia during the labor. Most fistulae were recent, small or average in size and located at the level of the vesico-vaginal septum. The failure rate of surgical treatment was about 17.5%. Four of the 12 women interviewed reported social alienation and ostrasization. Only 4 of the 47 hospitals studied had a personnel qualified to manage women with urogenital fistula on a daily basis. One NGO assisted women in obtaining care. Proposals for improvement of the situation were considered at a national validation workshop. These findings support the need to implement a national program that should be evaluated to see lessons learned from this study.

  10. Land Cover Signature on the Convective Rainfall Mechanism over a Sudanian Savannah Basin, Tambarga, Burkina Faso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    For water limited areas such as southeastern Burkina Faso where the main activity is rainfed agriculture, it is crucial to understand the rainfall mechanism and its main drivers. The triggering convective mechanisms are important and contribute to more than 30% of the total rainfall. Several studies were devoted to the convective rainfall characterization. However, the rainfall partitioning between convective and non-convective events and the effects of land cover signature on the rainfall type at small scales remain relatively unexplored topics. The following study aims to investigate the triggering mechanisms of rainfall and their interaction with land cover. For this purpose a simple realistic model combining the mixed layer growth (ML) and lifting condensation level (LCL) was implemented for convective rainfall tracking. Convective events occur when the LCL and ML curves intersect at the time corresponding to the rain event start. Sensible heat flux, air temperature and humidity measurements used for this analysis were collected over three years with twelve advanced weather monitoring Sensorscope stations and two eddy flux towers distributed over two different landscapes, an agricultural field and an savanna forest The land cover signature evidence is highlighted by the similarity of the pdf of the rainfall over the forested region and agricultural fields with a slope -1.5. While a 10 to 30% difference in total yearly precipitation is observed between the agriculture zone and the forest region. Therefore, in addition to the soil moisture, higher temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron) and CO2 effect on rainfall mechanisms, the local land cover signature should be added for better rainfall modeling.

  11. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  12. [Disclosure of infant HIV status: mothers' experiences and health workers' interpretations in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, Alice; Alfieri, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Disclosure of HIV status in infants is a special case which does not correspond to general recommendations for counseling as defined for adults, and few norms exist. Whereas preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs should result in 700,000 annual disclosures regarding infants born to HIV-positive mothers in Africa, the actual figures are much lower and the conditions for disclosure implementation and its social dimensions in the field are not precisely documented. The aims of this article are to describe and analyze the experience of HIV status disclosure for infants and children on the basis of interviews held with mothers and PMTCT teams in Burkina Faso. The method was based on repeated interviews with 37 mothers and with health workers. Their discourses show the complexity of disclosure in a context characterized by uncertainty. They show delays due to difficulties in venipuncture and in methods for laboratory diagnosis and information management in health services. HIV disclosure is implemented by PMTCT physicians and also other professionals, sometimes in other services. The mother plays a key role, sometimes by requesting disclosure; the father is generally informed only secondarily, in spite of his legal responsibility for the child. Interactions analysis reveals some ambiguities of disclosure, regarding information that doctors keep secret, reciprocal expectations of communication between doctors and mothers, mothers' interpretation of apparent signs regarding their child's health, and uncertain information being given. The information often contains guilt-inducing elements for mothers; communication about follow-up does not reduce this effect. These results encourage the elaboration of a model for specific counseling that should provide mothers with general information, and personalized interaction and support that they need in order to receive and manage disclosure of their child's HIV status.

  13. Regolith landform mapping based on remote sensing data and airborne geophysics in Western Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Vaclav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Naba, Seta

    2010-05-01

    The Precambrian granite-greenstone belts of West Africa are currently of great interest both to scientific community as well as the exploration industry. Studying and observing the geology of these ancient terrains is not an easy task mainly due to complex, deep weathering, which effectively masks the underlying bedrock. It is the weathered regolith material and its landforms that can be directly accessed by surface mapping. Knowing the distribution of these regolith landform units and understanding the processes which led to their formation is crucial for any kind of successful geological mapping or geochemical exploration project. In our research we have focused on regolith units in the Houndé and Boromo greenstone belts in Western Burkina Faso. We examined three approaches to map regolith material and subsequently regolith landform units: subpixel classification, based on spectral characteristics of indicative materials, a polarimetric segmentation of radar data, and a classification of an integrated dataset of remote sensing data and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data. In situ spectral measurements were used to calibrate ASTER and LANDSAT scenes and served as endmember identifiers. A spectral library has been created containing over three hundred unique spectral measurements. ASTER and Landsat data were classified using the Mixture tuned matched filtering method. Wishart supervised classifier was used on ALOS PALSAR data. Classifications based on supervised maximum likelihood method and neural networks have been applied to an integrated dataset which included SRTM elevation data and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Feruginous duricrusts rich in hematite and goethite, clay rich mottled zones relics and fluvial sediments were mapped successfully in the region. The results were compared with existing regolith landform maps and field observations.

  14. Annual Crop Yield Variation, Child Survival and Nutrition among Subsistence Farmers in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Belesova, Kristine; Gasparrini, Antonio; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-06-21

    Whether year to year variation in crop yields affects the nutrition, health, and survival of subsistence farming populations is relevant to the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change. However, the empirical evidence is limited. We examined the association of child survival with inter-annual variation in food crop yield and middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in a subsistence farming population of rural Burkina Faso. The study was of 44,616 children < 5 years of age included in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, 1992-2012, whose survival was analysed in relation to the food crop yield in the year of birth (which ranged from 65% to 120% of the period average) and, for a subset of 16,698 children, to MUAC, using shared frailty Cox proportional hazards models. Survival was appreciably worse in children born in years with low yield (fully adjusted hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.20) for a 90th to 10th centile decrease in annual crop yield) and in children with small MUAC (hazard ratio 2.72 (95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.44) for a 90th to 10th centile decrease in MUAC). These results suggest an adverse impact of variations in crop yields which could increase under climate change. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ethical considerations of providers and clients on HIV testing campaigns in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2014-10-16

    Campaigns have been conducted in a number of low HIV prevalence African settings, as a strategy to expand HIV testing, and it is important to assess the extent to which individual rights and quality of care are protected during campaigns. In this article we investigate provider and client perceptions of ethical issues, including whether they think that accessibility of counseling and testing sites during campaigns may hinder confidentiality. To examine how campaigns have functioned in Burkina Faso, we undertook a qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus group discussions with 52 people (providers and clients tested during or outside campaigns and individuals never tested). Thematic analysis was performed on discourse about perceptions and experiences of HIV-testing campaigns, quality of care and individual rights. Respondents value testing accessibility and attractiveness during campaigns; clients emphasize convenience, ripple effect, the sense of not being alone, and the anonymity resulting from high attendance. Confronted with numerous clients, providers develop context-specific strategies to ensure consent, counseling, confidentiality and retention in the testing process, and they adapt to workplace arrangements, local resources and social norms. Clients appreciate the quality of care during campaigns. However, new ethical issues arise about confidentiality and accessibility. Confidentiality of HIV-status may be jeopardized due to local social norms that encourage people to share their results with others, when HIV-positive people may not wish to do so. Providers' ethical concerns are consistent with WHO norms known as the '5 Cs,' though articulated differently. Clients and providers value the accessibility of testing for all during campaigns, and consider it an ethical matter. The study yields insights on the way global norms are adapted or negotiated locally. Future global recommendations for HIV testing and counseling campaigns should

  16. Access to malaria treatment in young children of rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective and timely treatment is an essential aspect of malaria control, but remains a challenge in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe young children's access to malaria treatment in Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso. Methods In February/March 2006, a survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1,052 households. Results Overall 149/1052 (14%) households reported the current possession of anti-malarial medicine, which was significantly associated with urban area, literacy of household head, having young children, and high socio-economic status. Out of a total of 802 children under five years, at least one malaria episode was reported for 239 (30%) within the last month. Overall 95% of children received treatment, either modern (72%), traditional (18%) or mixed (5%). Most of the medicines were provided as home treatment by the caregiver and half of children received some type of modern treatment within 24 hours of the occurrence of first symptoms. Despite a recent policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy, modern anti-malarials consisted mainly of chloroquine (93%). Modern drugs were obtained more often from a health facility in localities with a health facility compared to those without (60% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.001). In contrast, beside informal providers, volunteer community health workers (CHW) were the main source of modern medicine in localities without a health centre (28% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Access to modern health services providing quality controlled effective combination therapies against malaria needs to be strengthened in rural Africa, which should include a re-investigation of the role of CHW 30 years after Alma Ata. PMID:19930680

  17. Anesthesia for Ambulatory Pediatric Surgery in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Pilot Study in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kabré, Yvette B; Traoré, Idriss S S; Kaboré, Flavien A R; Ki, Bertille; Traoré, Alain I; Ouédraogo, Isso; Bandré, Emile; Wandaogo, Albert; Ouédraogo, Nazinigouba

    2017-02-01

    Long surgical wait times and limited hospital capacity are common obstacles to surgical care in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Introducing ambulatory surgery might contribute to a solution to these problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of introducing ambulatory surgery into a pediatric hospital in SSA. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that took place over 6 months. It includes all patients assigned to undergo ambulatory surgery in the Pediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Eligibility criteria for the ambulatory surgery program included >1 year of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 1 status, surgery with a low risk of bleeding, lasting <90 minutes, and with an expectation of mild to moderate postoperative pain. The family had to live within 1 hour of the hospital and be available by telephone. During the study period, a total of 1250 patients underwent surgery, of whom 515 were elective cases; 115 of these met the criteria for ambulatory surgery; 103 patients, with an average age of 59.74 ± 41.57 months, actually underwent surgery. The principal indications for surgery were inguinal (62) and umbilical (47) hernias. All patients had general anesthesia with halothane. Sixty-five percent also received regional or local anesthesia consisting of caudal block in 79.23% or nerve block in 20.77%. The average duration of surgery was 33 ± 17.47 minutes. No intraoperative complications were noted. All the patients received acetaminophen and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the recovery room. Twelve (11.7%) patients had complications in recovery, principally nausea and vomiting. Eight (7.8%) patients were admitted to the hospital. No serious complications were associated with ambulatory surgery. Its introduction could possibly be a solution to improving pediatric surgical access in low-income countries.

  18. Moving towards universal coverage with malaria control interventions: achievements and challenges in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Souares, Aurelia; Yé, Maurice; Tozan, Yesim; Jahn, Albrecht; Mueller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study, which assessed coverage with malaria control interventions in rural Burkina Faso, namely insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) ownership, intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for under-five children. The study also addressed the distributional impact of such interventions, with specific reference to equity. The study used data from a representative household survey conducted on 1106 households in the Nouna Health District in 2010. Findings indicated that 59% of all households owned at least one ITN, 66% of all pregnant women received IPT at least once and 34% of under-five children reporting a malaria case were treated with ACT. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that higher socio-economic status, ownership of at least one radio and living in a village within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were significantly positively associated with ITN, IPTp and ACT coverage. ITN coverage was higher among households in villages, which had previously hosted an ITN trial and/or the most favourable arm of a trial. Comparing current findings with previous estimates suggests that the country has made substantial progress towards scaling up malaria control interventions but that current coverage rates are still far from achieving the universal coverage targets set by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. In addition, current coverage patterns reveal the existence of multiple inequities across groups, suggesting that current policies are inadequate to achieve equitable scaling up. Future planning of malaria control interventions ought to take into consideration current inadequacies and lead to programmes better designed to overcome them.

  19. Spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso: relevance of human mobility and water resources development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frohelich, Jean-Marc; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Sou, Mariam; Yacouba, Hamma; Maiga, Hamadou; Sokolow, Susanne; De Leo, Giulio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We study the spatial geography of schistosomiasis in the african context of Burkina Faso by means of a spatially explicit model of disease dynamics and spread. The relevance of our work lies in its ability to describe quantitatively a geographic stratification of the disease burden capable of reproducing important spatial differences, and drivers/controls of disease spread. Among the latters, we consider specifically the development and management of water resources which have been singled out empirically as an important risk factor for schistosomiasis. The model includes remotely acquired and objectively manipulated information on the distributions of population, infrastructure, elevation and climatic drivers. It also includes a general description of human mobility and addresses a first-order characterization of the ecology of the intermediate host of the parasite causing the disease based on maximum entropy learning of relevant environmenal covariates. Spatial patterns of the disease were analyzed about their disease-free equilibrium by proper extraction and mapping of suitable eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix subsuming all stability properties of the system. Human mobility was found to be a primary control of both pathogen invasion success and of the overall distribution of disease burden. The effects of water resources development were studied by accounting for the (prior and posterior) average distances of human settlements from water bodies that may serve as suitable habitats to the intermediate host of the parasite. Water developments, in combination with human mobility, were quantitatively related to disease spread into regions previously nearly disease-free and to large-scale empirical incidence patterns. We concluded that while the model still needs refinements based on field and epidemiological evidence, the framework proposed provides a powerful tool for large-scale, long-term public health planning and management of schistosomiasis.

  20. Malaria rapid diagnostic test transport and storage conditions in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ethiopia and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Methods Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8), Senegal (10), Ethiopia (13) and the Philippines (6) over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. Results In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Conclusions Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in supply chains in tropical

  1. Tectonic evolution of the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso: Implications for mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, L.; Metelka, V.; Naba, S.; Ouiya, P.; Siebenaller, L.; Jessell, M. W.; Naré, A.; Salvi, S.; Béziat, D.; Franceschi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of high-resolution airborne geophysical data integrated with field structural and lithological observations were employed in the creation of a litho-structural framework for the Gaoua region, Burkina Faso. The granite-greenstone domain of Paleoproterozoic age was affected by multiple deformation and mineralization events. The early tectonic phase is characterized by the emplacement of voluminous tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas, probably in a volcanic arc setting. The copper mineralization in Gongondy, Dienemera and Mt Biri is concentrated in a diorite/andesite breccia, and is interpreted as porphyry-copper style formed at an early stage of the evolution of the area. Evidence for the first deformation event D1Ga corresponding to N-S shortening was only found in the E-W trending mafic unit bordering the Gaoua batholith to the south. A second deformation phase D2Ga occurred under greenschist facies conditions and lead to a development of more or less penetrative metamorphic foliation and its subsequent folding under overall E-W compression. At later stages, the D2Ga switched to a transcurrent regime characterized by intense N-S to NW-trending steeply dipping shear zones. The first significant gold mineralization event is related to this transcurrent tectonic phase. During subsequent D3Ga, intense network of brittle to brittle-ductile NW and NE faults developed. Economic gold concentrations are attributed to the D3Ga event and are associated with the remobilization of early disseminated low grade gold concentrations. Significant deposits in the area are Nassara, Gomblora, Batié West and Kampti. The last deformation event D4Ga resulted in E-W trending thrust faults and crenulation cleavage planes, under overall N-S compression. No mineralization events related to this stage have been seen.

  2. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: the interface of local norms and global public health practice.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini T; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is 'life-saving care' which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a 'first step' towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion.

  3. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Munos, Melinda; Guiella, Georges; Roberton, Timothy; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Tiendrebeogo, Adama; Tam, Yvonne; Bryce, Jennifer; Baya, Banza

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of the “Rapid Scale-Up” (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of implementation and quality of care, baseline and endline coverage surveys, and estimation of mortality changes using the Lives Saved Tool. Although the program trained large numbers of community health workers, there were implementation shortcomings related to training, supervision, and drug stockouts. The quality of care provided to sick children was poor, and utilization of community health workers was low. Changes in intervention coverage were comparable in RSU and comparison areas. Estimated under-five mortality declined by 6.2% (from 110 to 103 deaths per 1,000 live births) in the RSU area and 4.2% (from 114 to 109 per 1,000 live births) in the comparison area. The RSU did not result in coverage increases or mortality reductions in Burkina Faso, but we cannot draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the iCCM strategy, given implementation shortcomings. The evaluation results highlight the need for greater attention to implementation of iCCM programs. PMID:26787147

  4. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Munos, Melinda; Guiella, Georges; Roberton, Timothy; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Tiendrebeogo, Adama; Tam, Yvonne; Bryce, Jennifer; Baya, Banza

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of the "Rapid Scale-Up" (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of implementation and quality of care, baseline and endline coverage surveys, and estimation of mortality changes using the Lives Saved Tool. Although the program trained large numbers of community health workers, there were implementation shortcomings related to training, supervision, and drug stockouts. The quality of care provided to sick children was poor, and utilization of community health workers was low. Changes in intervention coverage were comparable in RSU and comparison areas. Estimated under-five mortality declined by 6.2% (from 110 to 103 deaths per 1,000 live births) in the RSU area and 4.2% (from 114 to 109 per 1,000 live births) in the comparison area. The RSU did not result in coverage increases or mortality reductions in Burkina Faso, but we cannot draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the iCCM strategy, given implementation shortcomings. The evaluation results highlight the need for greater attention to implementation of iCCM programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Effectiveness of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) for phytoremediation of endosulfan in two cotton soils from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Abaga, Norbert Ondo Zue; Dousset, Sylvie; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Billet, David

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) on the fate of endosulfan was studied using a vertisol and a lixisol soils from cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso. Endosulfan adsorption isotherms were prepared for planted and unplanted soils. Pot experiments were then conducted for six months. For both soils, endosulfan adsorption was higher on planted soils (K(f) = 6.53-9.73 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)) than on unplanted soils (6.27-7.24 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)). In unplanted soils, vertisol adsorbed more endosulfan than lixisol. From the pot experiments, the estimated half-lives of endosulfan in unplanted soils (40.6 to 43.1 days) were higher than in planted soils (34.5 to 40.6 days) containing a greater number of endosulfan-degrading microorganisms. Six months after treatment, endosulfan was not detected in soils. The effectiveness of vetiver in promoting adsorption and the disappearance of endosulfan in both studied soils should be validated on the cotton plot scale in Burkina Faso.

  6. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-11-03

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. © Murray et al.

  7. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

  8. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-01-01

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703

  9. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli detected by 16-plex PCR in children with and without diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bonkoungou, I J O; Lienemann, T; Martikainen, O; Dembelé, R; Sanou, I; Traoré, A S; Siitonen, A; Barro, N; Haukka, K

    2012-09-01

    The importance of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in Africa is poorly understood, and is unknown in Burkina Faso. This study investigated the occurrence of five major DEC pathogroups in primary cultures of stool samples from 658 Burkinabe children under 5 years old using 16-plex PCR for virulence-associated genes. At least one DEC pathogroup was detected in 45% of 471 children with diarrhoea and in 29% of 187 children without diarrhoea (p <0.001). More than one DEC pathogroup was detected in 11% of children with and 1% of children without diarrhoea (p <0.001). Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathogroup in both children with diarrhoea (26%) and children without diarrhoea (21%). Enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli were detected significantly more often in children with diarrhoea (16% and 13%) than in children without diarrhoea (5% and 4%; p <0.001 for both pathogroups). Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli were detected only in children with diarrhoea (2% and 1%, respectively). Diarrhoeagenic E. coli, especially enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic, may be important, unrecognized causes of childhood diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

  10. Population Dynamics of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Jatropha curcas, and Environmental Factors Favoring Its Abundance in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896

  11. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries.

  12. Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: lessons learned from the Nutridev program.

    PubMed

    Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.

  13. [Surveillance system for adverse events following immunization against yellow fever in Burkina Faso in 2008. Good practice recommendations].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, T M; Breugelmans, J G; Kambou, J L; Badolo, O; Tiendrebéogo, S; Traoré, E; Avokey, F; Yactayo, S

    2009-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health problem in Africa. In 2007 and 2008, Togo, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso became the first countries to implement mass YF immunization campaigns within the framework of the Yellow Fever Initiative. The goal of this initiative led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with the support of The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is to organize mass YF immunization campaigns in 12 African countries at high risk forYF transmission between 2006 and 2013. A total of 290 million USD have been allocated for vaccination of 180 million people with the highly effective attenuated 17DYF vaccine. Working in partnership with the WHO, the 12 member states are to identify and target high risk areas with the dual aim of preventing epidemics and increasing immunization coverage. Surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is a mandatory component for organization of these campaigns. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe the AEFI surveillance system implemented in Burkina Faso in 2008. Methods. The strategy used in Burkina Faso was based on a combination of regular passive surveillance and active surveillance. General guidelines and related operational processes were established including reporting forms, investigation forms, and procedures for collection, storage and transport of biological specimens. Classification of cases was based on clearly defined criteria. Any patient meeting the defined criteria and requiring hospitalization was considered as a serious case. In addition to case definition criteria, serious cases were tracked according to presented signs and symptoms using a line-listing form at two university hospital centers in Ouagadougou and one regional hospital center. Emergency room admission records and patient charts were examined during the surveillance period (30 days after the end of the immunization campaign) and on

  14. The Economic Impact of Peacekeeping in Burkina Faso: A Motivation to Contribute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Countries (TCC). With a relatively small military, Burkina Faso’s contribution to UN peacekeeping is considerable and raises questions. This... relatively small military, Burkina Faso’s contribution to UN peacekeeping is considerable and raises questions. This research analyzes the economic...contribution to peacekeeping operations has several implications. For a relatively “small” country, Burkina Faso’s contribution to peacekeeping operations

  15. Equity and health policy in Africa: Using concept mapping in Moore (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2008-01-01

    Background This methodological article is based on a health policy research project conducted in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Concept mapping (CM) was used as a research method to understand the local views of equity among stakeholders, who were concerned by the health policy under consideration. While this technique has been used in North America and elsewhere, to our knowledge it has not yet been applied in Africa in any vernacular language. Its application raises many issues and certain methodological limitations. Our objective in this article is to present its use in this particular context, and to share a number of methodological observations on the subject. Methods Two CMs were done among two different groups of local stakeholders following four steps: generating ideas, structuring the ideas, computing maps using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods, and interpreting maps. Fifteen nurses were invited to take part in the study, all of whom had undergone training on health policies. Of these, nine nurses (60%) ultimately attended the two-day meeting, conducted in French. Of 45 members of village health committees who attended training on health policies, only eight were literate in the local language (Moore). Seven of these (88%) came to the meeting. Results The local perception of equity seems close to the egalitarian model. The actors are not ready to compromise social stability and peace for the benefit of the worst-off. The discussion on the methodological limitations of CM raises the limitations of asking a single question in Moore and the challenge of translating a concept as complex as equity. While the translation of equity into Moore undoubtedly oriented the discussions toward social relations, we believe that, in the context of this study, the open-ended question concerning social justice has a threefold relevance. At the same time, those limitations were transformed into strengths. We understand that it was essential to resort to the

  16. La stigmatisation des PVVIH en Afrique: analyse de ses formes et manifestations au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; Msellati, Philippe; Somé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Introduction l’impact négatif de la stigmatisation sur la prévention du VIH et la prise en charge a été documenté. La stigmatisation a été analysée au plan qualitatif au Burkina Faso, où la prévalence VIH est faible (1 %). Des mesures quantitatives sont encore nécessaires pour identifier les formes et manifestations majeures de la stigmatisation. Méthodologie dans le cadre de l’étude MATCH (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV), une étude transversale a été conduite auprès de personnes ayant déjà fait le test VIH. Les personnes séropositives ont été interrogées sur les conséquences du résultat VIH+. Leur vécu de la stigmatisation a été évalué à travers 20 indicateurs de manifestations de la stigmatisation, regroupés en trois formes de stigmatisation/discrimination. Résultats au total 219 PVVIH ont été recrutées. L’autostigmatisation est la forme majeure de stigmatisation. Elle est estimée dans cette étude à 46 % comparativement à la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles évaluée à 40 % et la stigmatisation dans les services de santé qui est de 11 %. L’expérience de la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles est davantage rapportée par les PVVIH qui ont partagé leur résultat, celles qui ont un faible niveau de scolarisation, les veufs/veuves ou séparés, et les membres d’association. La stigmatisation dans les services de santé est rapportée plus souvent par les membres d’associations. Conclusion les programmes de prise en charge doivent, parallèlement à l’extension des antirétroviraux, intégrer un volet psychologique plus adapté aux besoins. Les activités d’appui psychosocial ciblant davantage l’individu doivent être développées, surtout au sein des associations. PMID:25291886

  17. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou

  18. [Parasitological profile of urinary schistosomiasis of the Sourou hydroagricultural complex of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Poda, J N; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D; Sawadogo, B; Kambou, T; Parent, G; Sondo, B

    2001-03-01

    In the Sourou area of Burkina Faso, parasitological and malacological surveys of urinary schistosomiasis have been carried out in the constructed sites of Guédougou, Niasan and Débé dating respectively from 1967, 1986 and 1996. The investigations covered also the traditional villages of Lanfiera, Di, Poro, Tiao and Mara situated in the middle of the hydroagricultural planning for the first, very close to the lake for the second and about twenty kilometres distant for the three last. These towns represent the main sites in the Sourou area. The results of the parasitological surveys showed that urinary schistosomiasis was present in all sites. The levels of prevalence varied considerably: 70.3% in Guiédougou, 40.8% in Niassan, 8.5% in Débè in the irrigated zone, 55.6% in Lanfiéra, 56.8% in Di, 13.2% in Poro, 83.3% in Tiao and 64.7% in Mara. Concerning the malacological investigation, two species (Bulinus senegalensis and B. truncatus) were shown to be intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. The first was endemic to the area while the second was compatible with S. haematobium from the Sourou and other zones. Compared to the results of earlier investigations, the endemic had worsened with differences according to sites. This disparity of prevalence levels which has already been observed in other hydroagricultural area results from many factors, among which the impact of irrigation activities, the aquatic biotope system (irrigation canals, natural lake, pools and temporary rivers) and the type of contact of human communities with water rank high. Schistosomiasis expansion is amplified by the intermediate host dynamics and the introduction of new schistosomes carried by the new workers arriving from all over the country. In these conditions, in order to reduce rapidly prevalence levels, preventive measures should be centred on chemotherapy for the population. The treatment should be administered during a period of weak intermediate host density and be

  19. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  20. Carbon dynamics with prolonged arable cropping soils in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and < 20 μm (nonPOM). Our results revealed that the extent of change in SOC stock varied with depth and the age of the cropland. The impact of cultivation was greater in the top 10 cm with a decrease in SOC stock of 21 t C/ha after 29 years of cropping indicating that about 60% of the initial stock in the native vegetation had been released. The SOC content and stock in the different POM fractions followed the following pattern: non POM > POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (< 20 μm) after 11 years of cultivation while 79 % occurred in the POM1 C, 75% in the POM2C, 78 % in the POM3 C and 67% in the nonPOM C after 29 years of cultivation. Though most carbon was found as nonPOM, indicating that organo

  1. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Hul, Anke Van; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  2. Assessing Land Management Changes and Population Dynamics in Central Burkina Faso in Response to Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore Bontogho, P. E.; Boubacar, I.; Afouda, A.; Joerg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing landscape and population's dynamics at watershed level contribute to address anthropogenic aspect of climate change issue owing to the close link between LULC and climate changes. The objective of this study is to explore the dependencies of population to land management changes in Massili basin (2612 km²) located in central Burkina Faso. A set of three satellite scenes was acquired for the years 1990 (Landsat 7 ETM), 2002 (Landsat 7 ETM+) and 2013 (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) from the Global Land Cover Facility's (GLCF) website. Census data were provided by the National institute of statistics and demographic (INSD). The satellites images were classified using object-oriented classification method which was supported by historic maps and field data. Those were collected in order to allow for class definition, verification and accuracy assessments. Based on the developed land use maps, change analysis was carried out using post classification comparison in GIS. Finally, derived land use changes were compared with census data in order to explore links between population dynamics and the land use changes. It was found in 1990 that Massili watershed LULC was dominated by Tree/shrub savannah (69%, 1802.28 km2 ), Farm/Fallow was representing 22%, Gallery forest (4%), Settlement (3%), Barre soil (1%), Water bodies (1%). In 2002, the major landscape was Farm (54%). Tree/Shrub savannas were reduced to 36% while the Gallery Forest was decreased to1% of the basin area. The situation has also slightly changed in 2013 with an increase of the area devoted to farm/fallow and settlement at a rate of 3% and Gallery forest has increased to 4%. The changes in land use are in agreement with a notable increase in population. The analysis of census data showed that the number of inhabitants increased from 338 inhabitants per km2 in 1990 to 1150 inhabitants per km2 in 2013. As shown by statistical analysis (Kendall correlation tau=0.9), there is a close relation between both dynamics.

  3. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  4. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  5. Host Genetic Factors Affect Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Nitiema, Léon W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n = 37) of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May). NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p = 0.012 and OR 0.31; p = 0.054; respectively), with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Lea−b−) children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection. PMID:23894502

  6. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children < 5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided

  7. Nursing and midwife staffing needs in maternity wards in Burkina Faso referral hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, Burkina Faso set up a policy to subsidize the cost of obstetric and neonatal emergency care. This policy has undoubtedly increased attendance at all levels of the health pyramid. The aim of this study was to measure the capacity of referral hospitals’ maternity services to cope with the demand for health services after the implementation of this policy. Methods This study was conducted in three referral health centres (CMAs, CHRs, and CHUs). The CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo (tertiary level) and the CMA in Sector 30 (primary level) were selected as health facilities in the capital, along with the Kaya CHR (secondary level). At each health facility, the study included official maternity ward staff only. We combined the two occupational categories (nurses and midwives) because they perform the same activities in these health facilities. We used the WISN method recommended by WHO to assess the availability of nurses and midwives. Results Nurses and midwives represented 38% of staff at the University Hospital, 65% in the CHR and 80% in the CMA. The number of nurses and midwives needed for carrying out the activities in the maternity ward in the University Hospital and the CMA is greater than the current workforce, with WISN ratio of 0.68 and 0.79 respectively. In the CHR, the current workforce is greater than the number required (WISN ratio = 2). This medical centre is known for performing a high number curative and preventive activities compared to the Kaya CHR. Like the CHU, the delivery room is a very busy unit. This activity requires more time and more staff compared to other activities. Conclusion This study showed a shortage of nurses and midwives in two health facilities in Ouagadougou, which confirms that there is considerable demand. At the Kaya CHR, there is currently enough staff to handle the workload in the maternity ward, which may indicate a need to expand the analysis to other health facilities to determine whether a redistribution of

  8. [Neurological complications of infective endocarditis in Burkina Faso. Clinical features, management and evolutionary profile].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, N V; Seghda, A; Kagambèga, L J; Diallo, O; Millogo, G R C; Toguyéni, B J Y; Samadoulougou, A K; Niakara, A; Simporé, J; Zabsonré, P

    2015-04-01

    Neurological complications are the most frequent extracardiac complications of infective endocarditis (IE). This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical aspects, and outcome of neurological complications of infective endocarditis in three hospitals in the city of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. From 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2012, we included all patients suffering from IE and selected those in whom a neurological complication was objectified. Neurological involvement was sought on clinical examination but especially CT brain (ischemic infarcts, hemorrhages, aneurysms and abscesses). Blood cultures were systematic. Echocardiography was done for vegetations and characteristics. Among 63 cases of IE, neurological complications were found in 14 patients (22.2%). The average age of patients with neurological complications was 37.4 ± 5.8 years. The sex ratio was 1.3 for women. Neurological damage consisted of nine cases of stroke (64.3%), three cases of hemorrhagic stroke (21.4%) and two cases of brain abscess (14.3%). Neurological complications had already occurred before hospitalization in 4 cases. Blood cultures were positive in 8 cases. Germs found were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases) and Streptococcus a- viridans (2 cases). All cases of S. aureus were complicated by stroke. At echocardiography, vegetation was found in all cases. It was found on the mitral in 7 cases, the aorta in 3 cases, the mitral and aortic in 2 cases and the mitral and tricuspid in 2 cases also. The EI had occurred on a native valve in 11 cases, prosthesis in 4 cases (2 mitral and 2 aortic). The vegetations average diameter was 11.2 ± 2.1 mm (6.4 and 1 7.7 mm). Vegetations were mobile in 12 cases. The treatment consisted of antibiotics adapted to the antibiogram, neurological and cardiovascular monitoring. The evolution was marked by seven deaths (50%), including 5 deaths related to cerebral complication (71.4% of deaths). This study shows that

  9. Origins, production, and utilization of cassava in Burkina Faso, a contribution of a neglected crop to household food security.

    PubMed

    Guira, Flibert; Some, Koussao; Kabore, Donatien; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Traore, Yves; Savadogo, Aly

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a food plant introduced in Africa from America by the Portuguese in 1558. The objective of this study is to establish cassava origins, production, and utilization in Burkina Faso. The investigation was carried out in the regions of Center West, Cascades, Boucle du Mouhoun, Hauts Bassins, South West, and Center East of Burkina Faso. Eighteen cassava processing units and 226 farmers in 57 communities from the selected regions have been involved in the survey. The investigation showed that cassava was introduced to Burkina Faso, former Upper Volta from the costal countries, Gold Coast (now Ghana), by both local traders and the Roman Catholic White missionaries. This happened between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main variety introduced was Banfti. Some improved varieties like V5 (94/0270), Banké (V2), 68.61, 30572, KTMA developed by research are now available and used by farmers along with the traditional varieties like manchien, santidougou, tchinda yaar, léo. The cases of intoxication evoked by some farmers are evidence that some of those varieties may have a high level of cyanohydric acid content. Cassava is available all the year throughout the country. But the top of cassava production is reached in July. Most of the small-scale farmers (98%) grow cassava both for household use and as income generator. About 83.92% of cassava farmers have less than 10 tons as annual production and only 1.72% of them can produce more than 100 tons. The main food products based on cassava found in communities are raw roots, boiled roots, roasted roots, tô, attiéké, tapioca, ragout, beignets, boiled leaves, soup (with leaves), cassava juice, etc. And the main cassava-processed products in the processing units are attiéké, gari, tapioca, and flour. Cassava contributes greatly to household food security during food shortage period. It sustains families for weeks as food and is also exchanged

  10. Development of a health education intervention strategy using an implementation research method to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Helena; Ozbolt, Ivan; Millogo, Athanase; Dermauw, Veronique; Somé, Télesphore; Spicer, Paul; Jervis, Lori L; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are two diseases caused by Taenia solium, a parasite transmitted between humans and pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and disabilities. Transmission of the parasite is linked to environmental and behavioural factors such as inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor pig management, and consumption of infected pork. This study used implementation research method to design a health education intervention strategy for reducing T. solium infections in Burkina Faso, a country endemic for the parasite. Eighteen group discussions were conducted with 8-18 participants each in three villages. In addition, structured interviews were conducted among 4 777 participants and 2 244 pig owners, who were selected through cluster random sampling in 60 villages of three provinces of Burkina Faso. Both approaches assessed knowledge and practices related to T. solium. The information obtained was used to develop a community-adapted health education intervention strategy to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. The group discussions revealed that participants had a poor quality of life due to the diseases as well as inadequate access to latrines, safe water, and healthcare services. In addition, it was found that pig production was an important economic activity, especially for women. Furthermore, financial and knowledge constraints were important limitations to improved pig management and latrine construction. The survey data also showed that open defecation and drinking unboiled water were common behaviours, enhanced by a lack of knowledge regarding the transmission of the parasite, perceived financial barriers to the implementation of control measures, lack of public sensitization, as well as a lack of self-efficacy towards control of the parasite. Nevertheless, the perceived financial benefits of controlling porcine cysticercosis could be emphasized by an education program that discourages open defecation and encourages drinking safe

  11. Quality of life in persons living with HIV in Burkina Faso: a follow-up over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Bakiono, Fidèle; Guiguimdé, Patrice Wendpouiré Laurent; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Robert, Annie

    2015-11-13

    In Burkina Faso, very little is known about the quality of life of persons living with HIV through their routine follow- up. This study aimed to assess the quality of life of persons living with HIV, and its change over a 1-year period. Four hundred and twenty four (424) persons living with HIV were monitored during twelve (12) months from September 2012 to September 2013 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Three interviews were conducted in order to assess the quality of life of patients and its change over time, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment brief scale in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (WHOQOL HIV-BREF). The Friedman test was used to assess significant differences in quantitative variables at each of the three follow-up interviews. Groups at baseline, at 6 months and at 12 months were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test for quantitative data and McNemar test for qualitative variables. Pearson Chi(2) was used when needed. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Trends in global quality of life score and subgroups (status related to Highly Active Anti Retroviral Treatment (HAART) using univariate repeated measures analysis of variance were assessed. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. At baseline, quality of life scores were highest in the domain of spirituality, religion and personal beliefs (SRPB) and lowest in the environmental domain. This trend was maintained during the 12-month follow-up. The global score increased significantly from the beginning up to the twelfth month of follow-up. Over the 12 months, the baseline factors that were likely to predict an increase in the global quality of life score were: not having support from relatives for medical care (P = 0.04), being under HAART (P = 0.001), being self-perceived as healthy (P = 0.03), and having a global quality of life score

  12. HBV/HIV co-infection and APOBEC3G polymorphisms in a population from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Diarra, Birama; Assih, Maleki; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Tchelougou, Damehan; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier Romuald; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Djigma, Wendkuuni Florencia; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-07-22

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) is a potent host defense factor, which interferes with HIV-1 and HBV. Our study had three objectives, to screen a population of HIV-1 infected and uninfected patients in Burkina Faso for HBV, to screen the population for APOBEC3G variants rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 previously described, and to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1/HBV co-infection in Burkina Faso. HBV detection was performed on samples from HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects using rapid detection tests and real-time PCR. APOBEC3 genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Fisher Exact test, Odds ratio (OR), confidence intervals (CI) at 95 %, Linkage disequilibrium (LD) summary statistics and haplotype frequencies were calculated. The prevalence of HBV was 56.7 % among HIV-1 positive patients of our study while it was about 12.8 % among HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Genotype E was the genotype of HBV present in our hepatitis B positive samples. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 were higher in seronegative subjects. The T minor allele of variant rs35228531 was protective against HIV-1/HBV co-infection with OR = 0.61, 95 % CI (0.42-0.90), p = 0.013. There was also an association between the GGT haplotype and protection against HIV-1/HBV co-infection, OR = 0.57, 95 % CI (0.33-0.99), p = 0.050. The other haplotypes present in the population were not statistically significant. There minor allele T of the rs35228531 was protective against HIV mono-infection OR = 0.53, 95 % CI (0.3-0.93), P = 0.030. But there was no effect of protection against HBV mono-infection. APOBEC3G through its variants rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531, in this study interferes with HIV-1/HBV co-infection could be due the HIV-1 mono-infection in a population from Burkina Faso.

  13. Biological Status and Dietary Intakes of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A among Women and Preschool Children in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Allemand, Pauline; Nikiema, Laetitia; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A.; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Moursi, Mourad; De Moura, Fabiana F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based approaches such as biofortification are meant to sustainably address micronutrient deficiencies in poor settings. Knowing more about micronutrient intakes and deficiencies is a prerequisite to designing and evaluating interventions. Objective The objectives of the study were to assess biological status and dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A among women and children aged 36–59 months in rural Burkina Faso and to study relationships between intake and status to better inform future food-based interventions. Design A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two rural provinces of Burkina Faso on a random cluster sample of 480 mother-child pairs. Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recalls repeated on a random sub-selection of 37.5% of subjects to allow calculation of nutrient’s probability of adequacy (PA). Biomarkers were measured on a sub-sample of 180 mother-child pairs. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), C-reactive protein, alpha-1-glycoprotein, serum zinc concentration (SZnC) and retinol. For each micronutrient the relationship between biomarker and dietary intake was investigated by multiple linear regression models accounting for inflammatory biomarkers. Results Mean PA for iron, zinc and vitamin A was 0.49, 0.87 and 0.21 among women and 0.61, 0.95 and 0.33 among children, respectively. Prevalence of anemia, corrected low serum ferritin and high sTfR was 37.6%, 4.0% and 77.5% among women and 72.1%, 1.5% and 87.6% among children, respectively. Prevalence of low SZnC and corrected low serum retinol was 39.4% and 12.0% among women and 63.7% and 24.8% among children, respectively. There was a tendency for a positive relationship between vitamin A intakes and serum retinol among women (β = 0.0003, P = 0.06). Otherwise, no link was found between micronutrients biomarkers and intakes. Conclusion Our study depicted different images of micronutrient deficiencies when

  14. Mineral values of selected plant foods common to southern Burkina Faso and to Niamey, Niger, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Grivetti, L E

    1996-01-01

    Wild and cultivated fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, spices and vegetables from southern Burkina Faso and Niamey, Niger, were analysed for their copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc concentrations and compared to imported, exotic reference foods found within the study area. The species analysed covered a broad spectrum of local diet; 33 were wild and 16 were cultivated. The edible wild plants were often the highest in mineral concentrations. Five species analysed, exhibited consistently high mineral values, specifically, Adansonia digitata, Boerhavia diffusa, Cerathoteca sesamoides, Sclerocarya birrea and Xylopia sp. The latter was particularly high in zinc, an observation which suggests that there may be a solid rationale for local traditions which recommended its consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Respondents indicated that during times of drought, wild plants were not consumed in the volume they once were, due to changes of infrastructure and in famine relief programmes.

  15. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kürzinger, M L; Pagnier, J; Kahn, J G; Hampshire, R; Wakabi, T; Dye, T D V

    2008-07-01

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. Multivariate analysis indicates that variables such as age, religion, family of origin, the relation between the child and the head of household and the dependency ratio of the household better explain differences in education than does orphan status. This study suggests, therefore, that orphans' educational status is relatively equivalent to non-orphans perhaps as a result of family based or community program safety nets.

  16. Short-term and long-term outcomes following DOTS-based treatment for tuberculosis patients in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Kouanda, S; Nikiéma, L; Ouédraogo, G; Tiendrébeogo, S; Sondo, B; Greenwell, F; Salomon, J A

    2012-03-21

    A cross-sectional study was initiated in Burkina Faso's National Tuberculosis Programme to confirm successful treatment results within 3 months of completing treatment and to characterise longer-term outcomes 12-24 months after completion. The sample (n = 278) included 91 patients who had completed treatment 0-3 months earlier ('short-term' sample) and 187 patients who had completed treatment 12-24 months earlier ('long-term' sample). All sputum specimens from the short-term sample were confirmed as negative. In the long-term sample, among 154 patients with available information, 13 (8%) had died, 24 were not traced, and 117 (76%) were interviewed and had sputum examinations, of which 2 (2%) were smear-positive. Recording of successful treatment outcomes shows good validity.

  17. Effects of a cereal and soy dietary formula on rehabilitation of undernourished children at ouagadougou, in burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Martinetto, Marina; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salavatore; Schumacher, Fabian; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6-48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of -3.10 and a WAZ z-score of -3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of -1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and "nutrigenetics" in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among schoolchildren in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Erismann, Séverine; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Diagbouga, Serge; Odermatt, Peter; Gerold, Jana; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Savadogo, Boubacar; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-19

    Multiple factors determine children's nutritional status, including energy and nutrient intake, recurrent infectious diseases, access (or lack thereof) to clean water and improved sanitation, and hygiene practices, among others. The "Vegetables go to School: improving nutrition through agricultural diversification" (VgtS) project implements an integrated school garden programme in five countries, including Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and its risk factors among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso before the start of the project. In February 2015, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 455 randomly selected children, aged 8-14 years, in eight schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometric assessment. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections were assessed using the Kato-Katz and a formalin-ether concentration method. A urine filtration technique was used to identify Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Prevalence of anaemia was determined by measuring haemoglobin levels in finger-prick blood samples. Questionnaires were administered to children to determine their knowledge of nutrition and health and their related attitudes and practices (KAP). Questionnaires were also administered to the children's caregivers to identify basic household socio-demographic and economic characteristics, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions. To determine the factors associated with schoolchildren's nutritional status, mixed logistic regression models were used. Differences and associations were considered statistically significant if P-values were below 0.05. Complete datasets were available for 385 children. The prevalence of undernutrition, stunting and thinness were 35.1%, 29.4% and 11.2%, respectively. The multivariable analysis revealed that undernutrition was associated with older age (i.e. 12-14 years compared to <12 years; adjusted

  19. Polymorphisms in K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps in parasites isolated from symptomatic malaria patients in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Somé, Anyirékun Fabrice; Sorgho, Hermann; Zongo, Issaka; Bazié, Thomas; Nikiéma, Frédéric; Sawadogo, Amadé; Zongo, Moussa; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in western Cambodia is threatening to revert the recent advances made toward global malaria control and elimination. Known resistance-mediating polymorphisms in the K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes are of greatest importance for monitoring the spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Samples for the present study were collected from 244 patients with uncomplicated malaria in health centers of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Blood sample was collected on filter paper before the subject received any treatment. The parasite DNA was then extracted and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to evaluate the prevalence of polymorphism of pfcrtK76T, pfmdr1 (N86Y, Y184F), and pfdhps (A437G, K540E). The K13 gene polymorphism was analyzed by nested PCR followed by sequencing. The overall results showed 2.26% (5/221) of K13 synonymous mutant alleles (two C469C, one Y493Y, one G496G, and one V589V), 24.78%, 19.58%, 68.75%, 60.9%, 53.7%, 63.8%, and 64.28%, respectively, for mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1-86Y, pfmdr1-184F, pfdhfr51I, pfdhfr59R, pfdhfr108N, and pfdhps 437G. We did not report any mutation at codon 540 of pfdhps. These results provide baseline prevalence of known drug resistance polymorphisms and suggest that artemisinin combination therapies may retain good efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso. © A.F. Somé et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  20. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Background There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). Objective The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health

  1. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health data requires further exploration.

  2. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Kambiré, Dinanibè; Soeters, Heidi M; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1-4 years), 7.2 (5-14 years), and 3.0 (≥15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults ≥30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated. In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  3. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T.; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Methods Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). Results During 2011–2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1–4 years), 7.2 (5–14 years), and 3.0 (≥15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults ≥30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated. Conclusions In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden. PMID:27832151

  4. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in eastern centre province, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tamboura, H H; Banga-Mboko, H; Maes, D; Youssao, I; Traore, A; Bayala, B; Dembele, M A

    2006-03-01

    The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG) counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months) were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91% were infected by one or more parasites. Ascaris suum (40%; 100-1 400 EPG) was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21%; 100-4200 EPG), Oesophagostomum spp. (18%; 100-1000 EPG), Hyostrongylus rubidus (11%; 100-1 800 EPG), Globocephalus spp. (10%; 100-400 EPG) and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG). The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239) than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05) more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  5. Efficacy of home-based lymphoedema management in reducing acute attacks in subjects with lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Patrick; Somé, Jeanne d'Arc; Brantus, Pierre; Bougma, Roland W; Bamba, Issouf; Kyelem, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    One of the two main goals of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is to provide care for those suffering from the devastating clinical manifestations of this filarial infection. Among the 120 million infected people worldwide, up to 16 million have lymphoedema. The WHO strategy for managing lymphoedema is based on rigorous skin hygiene, exercise, antibiotics and antifungals when indicated. The aim is to reduce acute attacks of adenolymphangitis and cellulitis responsible for lymphoedema progression and disability. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of home-based lymphoedema management implemented by the national health system of Burkina Faso. Any patient was eligible to participate in the study if suffering from LF-related lymphoedema of a lower limb at any stage, and receiving care as part of the health education and washing project between April 2005 and December 2007. The primary readout was the occurrence of an acute attack in the month preceding the consultation reported by the patient or observed by the care-giver. In all, 1089 patients were enrolled in the study. Before lymphoedema management intervention, 78.1% (95%CI: 75.5-80.5) of the patients had an acute attack in the month preceding the consultation; after four and half months of lymphoedema management, this was reduced to 39.1% (95%CI: 36.2-42.1). A reduction of acute attacks related to the number of consultations or related to the patients' age and gender was not observed. Our results suggest that the home-based lymphoedema management programme in the primary health care system of Burkina Faso is effective in reducing morbidity due to LF in the short-term (4.5 months). The lymphoedema management requires no additional human resources, but whether its effect can be sustained remains to be seen.

  6. Seasonal and temporal trends in all-cause and malaria mortality in rural Burkina Faso, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Otte im Kampe, Eveline; Müller, Olaf; Sie, Ali; Becher, Heiko

    2015-08-05

    High mortality levels in sub-Saharan Africa are still a major public health problem. Children are the most affected group with malaria as one of the major causes of death in this region. To plan health interventions, reliable empirical information on cause-specific mortality patterns is essential, yet such data are often not available in developing countries. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS) implementing the verbal autopsy (VA) method provide such data on a longitudinal basis. Physician Coded VA is usually used to determine cause of death, but recently a computerized method, Interpreting VA (InterVA) was alternatively introduced. This study investigates the effect of season on all-cause and malaria mortality analysing cause of death data from 1998 to 2007 obtained by the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso and derived by InterVA. Monthly mortality rates were calculated for different age groups (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly). Seasonal and temporal trends were modelled with parametric Poisson regression adjusted for sex, area of residence and year of death. Overall, 7,378 deaths occurred corresponding to a mortality rate of 11.9/1,000 with highest rates in infants (56.8/1,000) and children (22.0/1,000). Young children were most affected by malaria. Malaria mortality patterns in children showed significantly higher rates during the rainy season and a stagnant long-term trend. The seasonal trend is well described parametrically with a sinusoidal function. InterVA assigned about half as many deaths to malaria than physicians. Malaria mortality remains highly seasonal in rural Burkina Faso. The InterVA method appears to determine reasonably well seasonal mortality patterns, which should be considered for the planning of health resources and activities.

  7. [National External Quality Assessment for medical biology laboratories in Burkina Faso: an overview of three years of activity].

    PubMed

    Sakande, Jean; Nikièma, Abdoulaye; Kabré, Elie; Nacoulma, Eric; Sawadogo, Charles; Lingani, Virginie; Traoré, Lady Kady; Kouanda, Abdoulaye; Kientéga, Youssouf; Somda, Joseph; Kagambéga, Faustin; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Sangaré, Lassana; Traoré-Ouédraogo, Rasmata

    2010-01-01

    We report results of the National External Quality Assessment for (NEQA) laboratories in Burkina Faso, a country with limited resources located in West Africa whose epidemiology is dominated by infectious diseases. The national laboratory network consists of 160 laboratories including 40 private. The Government of Burkina Faso has adopted a national laboratory policy. One of the objectives of this policy is to improve the quality of laboratory results. One of the strategies to achieve this objective is the establishment of a NEQA. The NEQA is a panel testing also called proficiency testing. It is mandatory for all laboratories to participate to the NEQA. The NEQA is organized twice a year and covers all areas of laboratories (bacteriology-virology, biochemistry, hematology, parasitology and immunology). The review of three years of activity (2006-2008) shows the following results: (1) for microscopic examination of bacteria after Gram staining, the error rate decreased from 24.7% in 2006 to 13.1% in 2007 and 13% in 2008; (2) errors rate in reading slides for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria were 23.4%, 14.6% and 10.2% respectively in 2006, 2007 and 2008; (3) for biochemistry, the percentages of unsatisfactory results were respectively 12.5%, 14.8% and 13.8% in 2006, 2007 and 2008 for the overall parameters assessed. The analysis of the results generated by the laboratories during these three years shows a quality improvement. However, the NEQA should be strengthened through ongoing training and quality control of reagents and equipment.

  8. Characteristics of neonatal near miss in hospitals in Benin, Burkina Faso and Morocco in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, Carine; Cresswell, Jenny A; Goufodji, Sourou; Agbla, Schadrac; Ganaba, Rasmané; Assarag, Bouchra; Tonouhéoua, Oscar; Diallo, Cheick; Meski, Fatima-Zahra; Filippi, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the usefulness of neonatal near miss in low- and middle-income countries by examining the incidence of neonatal near miss and pre-discharge neonatal deaths across various obstetric risk categories in 17 hospitals in Benin, Burkina Faso and Morocco. Data were collected on all maternal deaths, maternal near miss, neonatal near miss (based on organ-dysfunction markers), Caesarean sections, stillbirths, neonatal deaths before discharge and non-cephalic presentations, and on a sample of births not falling in any of the above categories. The burden of stillbirth, pre-discharge neonatal death or neonatal near miss ranged from 23 to 129 per 1000 births in Moroccan and Beninese hospitals, respectively. Perinatal deaths (range 17-89 per 1000 births) were more common than neonatal near miss (range 6-43 per 1000 live births), and between a fifth and a third of women who had suffered a maternal near miss lost their baby. Pre-discharge neonatal deaths and neonatal near miss had a similar distribution of markers of organ dysfunction, but unlike pre-discharge neonatal deaths most neonatal near miss (63%, 81% and 71% in Benin, Burkina Faso and Morocco, respectively) occurred among babies who were not considered premature, low birthweight or with a low 5-min Apgar score as defined by WHO's pragmatic markers of severe neonatal morbidity. Whether the measurement of neonatal near miss adds useful insights into the quality of perinatal or newborn care in settings where facility-based intrapartum and early newborn mortality is very high is uncertain. Perhaps the greatest advantage of adding near miss is the shift in focus from failure to success so that lessons can be learned on how to save lives even when clinical conditions are life-threatening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population. PMID:21251265

  10. Irradiated male tsetse from a 40-year-old colony are still competitive in a Riparian forest in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sow, Adama; Sidibé, Issa; Bengaly, Zakaria; Bancé, Augustin Z; Sawadogo, Germain J; Solano, Philippe; Vreysen, Marc J B; Lancelot, Renaud; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The project plans to use flies from a Glossina palpalis gambiensis colony that has been maintained for about 40 years at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES). It was thus necessary to test the competitiveness of the sterile males originating from this colony. During the period January-February 2010, 16,000 sterile male G. p. gambiensis were released along a tributary of the Mouhoun river. The study revealed that with a mean sterile to wild male ratio of 1.16 (s.d. 0.38), the abortion rate of the wild female flies was significantly higher than before (p = 0.026) and after (p = 0.019) the release period. The estimated competitiveness of the sterile males (Fried index) was 0.07 (s.d. 0.02), indicating that a sterile to wild male ratio of 14.4 would be necessary to obtain nearly complete induced sterility in the female population. The aggregation patterns of sterile and wild male flies were similar. The survival rate of the released sterile male flies was similar to that observed in 1983-1985 for the same colony. We conclude that gamma sterilised male G. p. gambiensis derived from the CIRDES colony have a competitiveness that is comparable to their competitiveness obtained 35 years ago and can still be used for an area-wide integrated pest management campaign with a sterile insect component in Burkina Faso.

  11. Women's sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication ("near-miss"): a cohort study in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum. Methods Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss) pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women's reproductive intentions. Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso. Results Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group. Conclusions Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life) of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication. PMID:20799964

  12. Community structure, seasonal variations and interactions between native and invasive cattle tick species in Benin and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Biguezoton, Abel; Adehan, Safiou; Adakal, Hassane; Zoungrana, Sébastien; Farougou, Souaïbou; Chevillon, Christine

    2016-01-27

    The variation of tick abundance on ruminants had received little attention in West Africa before Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus started to invade this region in the early 2000s. Ten years later, R. microplus was suspected to have replaced the native ticks. In addition to testing this hypothesis, this study investigated the interactions between native and invasive ticks and the relative role of climatic and geographical variables in the variations of tick community composition (beta diversity) on cattle herds. A one-year-long survey was performed in Benin and Burkina Faso during which adult ticks were collected from 144 steers from 12 localities in four different areas once a month. Morphological features were used to assign the collected ticks to different species (A. variegatum, R. annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. microplus and R. geigyi). Beta diversity analyses and generalized linear models allowed characterizing the geographical variations in species assemblage and the effect of co-infestation patterns on the seasonal variations in the abundance and incidence rates of each taxon. About 68% (22,491/32,148) of all the adult ticks collected in one year were R. microplus. The most heterogeneously distributed taxa were Hyalomma spp and R. microplus and the lowest specific diversity was found in Central Burkina Faso. Although climatic variables did not provide any additional information on the variation in species assemblages compared with the sampling geography, adult tick abundance tended to peak during the late (Boophilus subgenus) or early (other taxa) rainy season. In most taxon-per-locality analyses, the abundance and incidence rate of a given tick taxon significantly increased when the host was co-infested by other taxa. The comparison with previous estimates (when possible) did not support the hypothesis that R. microplus invasion led to a decrease in native tick species abundance. The co-infestation patterns among native and invasive tick species are key

  13. Factors associated with the prevalence of circulating antigens to porcine cysticercosis in three villages of burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Ganaba, Rasmané; Praet, Nicolas; Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Dorny, Pierre; Hounton, Sennen; Sow, Adama; Nitiéma, Pascal; Cowan, Linda D

    2011-01-04

    little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré) and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo). a clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals) and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4-40.3), 39.6% (31.9-47.8), and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season. the results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.

  14. Genetic structure among sorghum landraces as revealed by morphological variation and microsatellite markers in three agroclimatic regions of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Barro-Kondombo, Clarisse; Sagnard, Fabrice; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Vom Brocke, Kirsten; Durand, Patrick; Gozé, Eric; Zongo, Jean Didier

    2010-05-01

    Diversity among 124 sorghum landraces from 10 villages surveyed in 3 regions of Burkina Faso covering different agroecological zones was assessed by 28 agromorphological traits and 29 microsatellite markers. 94.4% of the landraces collected belonged to the botanical race guinea (consisting of 96.6% guinea gambicum and 3.4% guinea margaritiferum), 74.2% had white kernels, 13.7% had orange and 12.1% had red kernels. Compared to the "village nested within zone" factor, the "variety nested within village within zone" factor predominately contributed to the diversity pattern for all nine statistically analysed quantitative traits. The multivariate analyses performed on ten morphological traits identified five landrace groups, and of these, the red kernel sorghum types appeared the most homogenous. 2 to 17 alleles were detected per locus with a mean 4.9 alleles per locus and a gene diversity (He) of 0.37. Landraces from the sub-Sahelian zone had the highest gene diversity (He = 0.38). Cluster analysis revealed that the diversity was weakly stratified and could not be explained by any biophysical criteria. One homogenous guinea margaritiferum group was distinguished from other guinea landraces. The red kernel type appeared to be genetically distinct from all other guinea landraces. The kernel colour was the principal structuring factor. This is an example of a homogeneous group of varieties selected for a specific use (for local beer preparation), mainly grown around the households in compound fields, and presenting particular agromorphological and genetic traits. This is the most original feature of sorghum diversity in Burkina Faso and should be the focus of special conservation efforts.

  15. Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed

    Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Dousset, Sylvie; Mbengue, Saliou; Munier-Lamy, Colette

    2014-10-01

    In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges.

  16. Polymorphisms in K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps in parasites isolated from symptomatic malaria patients in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, Anyirékun Fabrice; Sorgho, Hermann; Zongo, Issaka; Bazié, Thomas; Nikiéma, Frédéric; Sawadogo, Amadé; Zongo, Moussa; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in western Cambodia is threatening to revert the recent advances made toward global malaria control and elimination. Known resistance-mediating polymorphisms in the K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes are of greatest importance for monitoring the spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Methods: Samples for the present study were collected from 244 patients with uncomplicated malaria in health centers of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Blood sample was collected on filter paper before the subject received any treatment. The parasite DNA was then extracted and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to evaluate the prevalence of polymorphism of pfcrtK76T, pfmdr1 (N86Y, Y184F), and pfdhps (A437G, K540E). The K13 gene polymorphism was analyzed by nested PCR followed by sequencing. Results: The overall results showed 2.26% (5/221) of K13 synonymous mutant alleles (two C469C, one Y493Y, one G496G, and one V589V), 24.78%, 19.58%, 68.75%, 60.9%, 53.7%, 63.8%, and 64.28%, respectively, for mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1-86Y, pfmdr1-184F, pfdhfr51I, pfdhfr59R, pfdhfr108N, and pfdhps 437G. We did not report any mutation at codon 540 of pfdhps. Conclusion: These results provide baseline prevalence of known drug resistance polymorphisms and suggest that artemisinin combination therapies may retain good efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso. PMID:28004634

  17. The Day-Hospital of the University Hospital, Bobo Dioulasso: An Example of Optimized HIV Management in Southern Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chas, Julie; Hema, Arsène; Slama, Laurence; Kabore, Nongondo Firmin; Lescure, François-Xavier; Fontaine, Camille; Pialoux, Gilles; Sawadogo, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological evolution of patients with HIV (PtHIV), between 2002 and 2012, in a day-hospital that became an HIV reference centre for south-west Burkina Faso. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of PtHIV followed in the Bobo Dioulasso university hospital since 2002. The study was based on clinical data recorded using ESOPE software and analysed using Excel and SAS. Results A total of 7320 patients have been treated at the centre since 2002; the active file of patients increased from 147 in 2002 to 3684 patients in 2012. Mean age was stable at 38.4 years and the majority were female (71%). The delay to initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment after HIV diagnosis decreased from 12.9 months in 2002 to 7.2 months in 2012. The percentage of PtHIV lost to follow-up, untreated for HIV and deaths all decreased after 2005. Voluntary anonymous screening and/or an evocative clinical picture were the main reasons for HIV diagnosis, usually at a late stage (41.1% at WHO stage 3). Virological success increased due to a decrease in time to initiation of ARV treatment and an increase in percentage of patients treated (90.5% in 2012, mainly with 1st line drugs). However, there was also a slight increase in the rate of therapeutic failures and the percentage of patients who progressed to 2nd or 3rd line-ARVs. Conclusion Our day-hospital is a good example of the implementation of a specialist centre for the management of PtHIV in a resource-limited country (Burkina Faso). PMID:25970181

  18. Equivalent susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms and Anopheles arabiensis to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Gnémé, Awa; Guelbéogo, Wamdaogo M; Riehle, Michelle M; Sanou, Antoine; Traoré, Alphonse; Zongo, Soumanaba; Eiglmeier, Karin; Kabré, Gustave B; Sagnon, N'Falé; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2013-06-14

    The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) species complex in Burkina Faso consists of Anopheles arabiensis, and molecular forms M and S of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.). Previous studies comparing the M and S forms for level of infection with Plasmodium falciparum have yielded conflicting results. Mosquito larvae were sampled from natural pools, reared to adulthood under controlled conditions, and challenged with natural P. falciparum by experimental feeding with blood from gametocyte carriers. Oocyst infection prevalence and intensity was determined one week after infection. DNA from carcasses was genotyped to identify species and molecular form. In total, 7,400 adult mosquitoes grown from wild-caught larvae were challenged with gametocytes in 29 experimental infections spanning four transmission seasons. The overall infection prevalence averaged 40.7% for A. gambiae M form, 41.4% for A. gambiae S form, and 40.1% for A. arabiensis. There was no significant difference in infection prevalence or intensity between the three population groups. Notably, infection experiments in which the population groups were challenged in parallel on the same infective blood displayed less infection difference between population groups, while infections with less balanced composition of population groups had lower statistical power and displayed apparent differences that fluctuated more often from the null average. The study clearly establishes that, at the study site in Burkina Faso, there is no difference in genetic susceptibility to P. falciparum infection between three sympatric population groups of the A. gambiae s.l. complex. Feeding the mosquito groups on the same infective blood meal greatly increases statistical power. Conversely, comparison of the different mosquito groups between, rather than within, infections yields larger apparent difference between mosquito groups, resulting from lower statistical power and greater noise, and could lead to false-positive results

  19. Equivalent susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms and Anopheles arabiensis to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) species complex in Burkina Faso consists of Anopheles arabiensis, and molecular forms M and S of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.). Previous studies comparing the M and S forms for level of infection with Plasmodium falciparum have yielded conflicting results. Methods Mosquito larvae were sampled from natural pools, reared to adulthood under controlled conditions, and challenged with natural P. falciparum by experimental feeding with blood from gametocyte carriers. Oocyst infection prevalence and intensity was determined one week after infection. DNA from carcasses was genotyped to identify species and molecular form. Results In total, 7,400 adult mosquitoes grown from wild-caught larvae were challenged with gametocytes in 29 experimental infections spanning four transmission seasons. The overall infection prevalence averaged 40.7% for A. gambiae M form, 41.4% for A. gambiae S form, and 40.1% for A. arabiensis. There was no significant difference in infection prevalence or intensity between the three population groups. Notably, infection experiments in which the population groups were challenged in parallel on the same infective blood displayed less infection difference between population groups, while infections with less balanced composition of population groups had lower statistical power and displayed apparent differences that fluctuated more often from the null average. Conclusion The study clearly establishes that, at the study site in Burkina Faso, there is no difference in genetic susceptibility to P. falciparum infection between three sympatric population groups of the A. gambiae s.l. complex. Feeding the mosquito groups on the same infective blood meal greatly increases statistical power. Conversely, comparison of the different mosquito groups between, rather than within, infections yields larger apparent difference between mosquito groups, resulting from lower statistical power and greater noise

  20. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol Greenstone Belt (OGGB) forms part of the Palaeoproterozoic as the Baoulé-Mossi domain of the West African Craton (WAC) and hosts gold deposits at Essakane, Gossey, Korizena, and Falagountou in NE Burkina Faso, and Kossa goldfield in Niger. The Birimian supracrustal sequences in the OGGB are dominated by meta-volcanoclastic greywacke intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale, carbonate (dolomite) and volcanic units pillow basalts). The belt is surrounded by plutonic rocks including granite, TTG suite granitoids and granite gneiss. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation, and several phases of contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite, granodiorite-tonalite and gabbro dykes and porphyritic sills. The OGGB is bounded and/or crosscut by several major NNE to NE-trending shear zones including the steeply east-dipping Markoye Shear Zone (western margin of the OGGB), Tin Takanet-Bellekcire Shear Zone, Dori Shear Zone, Kargouna Shear Zone, Takabougou Shear Zone, and Bom Kodjelé Shear Zone (transects the centre of the OGGB). The structures were readily identified using LANDSAT, Aster, aeromagnetic and RTP magnetic data, with follow-up strategic mapping, highlighting the value of interpreting geophysical and remotely sensed data in regional mapping in Burkina Faso and Niger. Structural studies completed in 2007 adjacent to the Essakane gold mine indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation (Tshibubudze et al., 2009). The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation predates the Eburnean Orogeny is termed the Tangaean Event (meaning low hills in the Moré language of Burkina Faso) and is tentatively dated at ca. 2170

  1. Dynamic of plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Nakanabo, Seydou Diallo; Zampa, Odile; Kazienga, Adama; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the evolution of Pfcrt K76T mutation five years after the withdrawal of chloroquine in Burkina Faso. A total of 675 clinical isolates collected from October 2010 to September 2012 were successfully genotyped. Single nucleotide polymorphism in Pfcrt (codon 76) gene was analyzed. The prevalence of resistant Pfcrt 76T allele was 20.55%. There was a progressive decrease of the proportion of mutant type pfcrt T76 from 2010 to 2012 (X2=5.508 p=0.0189). Our results suggest a progressive return of the wild type Pfcrt K76 in Burkina Faso but the prevalence of the mutants Pfcrt T76 still remains high. PMID:26516402

  2. [Parasitological profile of two forms of schistosomiasis (urinary and intestinal forms) at ten sites in Burkina Faso (Sub-Saharan Africa country)].

    PubMed

    Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulaye, D.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  4. River contract in Wallonia (Belgium) and its application for water management in the Sourou valley (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Rosillon, F; Vander Borght, P; Bado Sama, H

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the experience of a river contract in Wallonia (Belgium) since 1990, the implementation of a first river contract has been initiated in a West African country, Burkina Faso. This application is not limited to a simple transposition of the Walloon model. The Burkina context calls for adaptation to the local environmental and socio-economical realities with an adequate partnership management. The importance of the mobilization around this project of institutional partners, as well as local collectivities, agricultural producers and water users in general reveals the great expectations of the actors concerning this new tool of water participative management. But will the latter be equal to the task? A first assessment has been drawn up one year after the launch. During the first year of the project, a participative diagnostic was implemented but the understanding of basic notions of water management such as 'river' (not translatable in the local language), 'watershed', 'contract' were not obvious. After the identification of functions and uses of water in the basin, an environmental survey was started. This approach allows study with the river committees of the priority actions to be developed as a first project of restoration of the gallery forest alongside the stream to fight against desertification. This project of integrated and participative management of water at sub-basin level is a concrete example of solidarity and exchange know-how between North and South in the context of a sustainable development.

  5. Potentials for Indication of Potentially Harmful Toxic Algal Blooms Using PROBA1-CHRIS Hyperspectral Imagery- A Case Study in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiermann, Timo

    2010-12-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an issue affecting water quality and can cause harmful health impacts. The aim of the conducted case study is to assess such blooms by chlorophyll a and phycocyanin detection as indicators of the occurrence. Using demonstrated single reflectance ratio algorithms published as in [7] and processed with provided tools for hyperspectral Proba1-CHRIS imagery in a study site including Loumbila reservoir near Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso to investigate potentials of this approach.

  6. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  7. Geology of the world-class Kiaka polyphase gold deposit, West African Craton, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Arnaud; Eglinger, Aurélien; Ada, Koumangdiwè; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Reisberg, Laurie; Siebenaller, Luc; Le Mignot, Elodie; Ganne, Jérôme; Poujol, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4. Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions. The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold. Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and

  8. La cardiothyréose au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Compaoré, Yves Daniel; Ouédraogo, Tinoago Laurent; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La cardiothyréose est une affection fréquente et grave à l’ouest du Burkina Faso. Notre objectif était d’étudier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des cardiothyréoses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Etude prospective de 12 mois pourtant sur des cas de cardiothyréose colligés dans les services de cardiologie et de médecine interne. Résultats Quatorze (14) cas de cardiothyréose ont été colligés soit 33,3% des patients hospitalisés pour hyperthyroïdies. L’âge moyen des patients était de 53,57 ans ± 9,97. Les femmes au foyer (71,40%) aux conditions socio-économiques défavorables étaient les plus touchées. Parmi nos cas 21,42% des patients avaient déjà un antécédent d’hyperthyroïdie et l’HTA était le facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur (64,28%). Tous les patients présentaient une insuffisance cardiaque associée à un trouble du rythme (57,14%), essentiellement à type de fibrillation auriculaire (42,9%), une insuffisance coronarienne (7,14%) et un trouble de la conduction (7,14%). Le goitre multi-nodulaire a été l’entité étiopathogénique la plus fréquente (57,10%). Les antithyroïdiens de synthèse, les mesures hygiéno-diététiques et un traitement spécifique de l’insuffisance cardiaque ont été constamment utilisés pendant une durée d’hospitalisation moyenne de 23,57 jours ± 7,54. Si l’évolution immédiate peut être satisfaisante avec une euthyroïdie à 28,5% à moyen terme, les ruptures thérapeutiques peuvent être mortelles (un patient soit 7,14%) chez des patients généralement âgés majoritairement de sexe féminin avec un niveau socio-économique bas. Conclusion Le traitement de la cardiothyréose est efficace d’où l’intérêt d’une politique sanitaire pour une prise en charge adéquate. PMID:22593774

  9. Les péricardites tuberculeuses au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Aimé Arsène; Kyelem, Carole Gilberte; Nikiéma, Zakari; Birba, Emile; Yaméogo, Téné Marceline; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose constitue toujours un problème de santé publique. Sa localisation péricardique reste fréquente. L’objectif de cette étude rétrospective descriptive était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques et évolutives des cas de péricardites tuberculeuses dans le service de cardiologie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive des cas de péricardite tuberculeuse colligés en deux ans à partir des dossiers et registres dans le service de cardiologie du CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso de janvier 2009 à décembre 2010. Résultats De janvier 2009 à décembre 2010, parmi 945 hospitalisations dans le service de cardiologie, une péricardite tuberculeuse a été diagnostiquée chez dix patients âgés de 18 à 82 ans. L’âge moyen était de 46,8±25 ans avec un sexe ratio de un. Soixante pour cent des patients avaient moins de 40 ans. Tous les patients avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Une notion de contage tuberculeux a été retrouvée chez six patients. Trois patients présentaient une tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive. L’insuffisance cardiaque était constante chez tous les patients avec deux cas de tamponnade à l’admission ayant nécessité une ponction péricardique d’urgence. Tous les patients avaient une sérologie VIH négative. L’échocardiographie a été importante pour le diagnostic positif et dans la prise en charge. L’évolution sous traitement antituberculeux et de l’IC a été bonne chez neuf patients à la fin de la première phase du traitement antituberculeux. Un cas de décès a cependant été enregistré chez un patient avec une HTA déjà compliquée d’accident vasculaire cérébrale ischémique. Conclusion Les péricardiques tuberculeuses sont fréquentes au Burkina Faso. Elles touchent surtout les sujets jeunes et un intérêt particulier devrait être accordé au dépistage et au traitement précoce des

  10. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-05-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso's subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21-1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09-1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11-1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02-1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06-1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3-24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4-25%) at 2 years. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policy making in Burkina Faso and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by

  11. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-03-09

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8-14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i) the 'complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention' arm; and the (ii) 'control' arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children's nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be conducted with their caregivers and school personnel. The studies will

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of meningococcal carriage and disease isolates in Burkina Faso after mass vaccination with a serogroup a conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA), MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of the 1-29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize meningococcal isolates circulating in Burkina Faso before and up to 13 months after MenAfriVac mass vaccination. Methods A total of 1,659 meningococcal carriage isolates were collected in a repeated cross-sectional carriage study of the 1-29-year-olds in three districts of Burkina Faso in 2010 and 2011, before and up to 13 months after mass vaccination. Forty-two invasive isolates were collected through the national surveillance in Burkina Faso in the same period. All the invasive isolates and 817 carriage isolates were characterized by serogroup, multilocus sequence typing and porA-fetA sequencing. Results Seven serogroup A isolates were identified, six in 2010, before vaccination (4 from carriers and 2 from patients), and one in 2011 from an unvaccinated patient; all were assigned to sequence type (ST)-2859 of the ST-5 clonal complex. No NmA carriage isolate and no ST-2859 isolate with another capsule were identified after vaccination. Serogroup X carriage and disease prevalence increased before vaccine introduction, due to the expansion of ST-181, which comprised 48.5% of all the characterized carriage isolates. The hypervirulent serogroup W ST-11 clone that was responsible for most of meningococcal disease in 2011 and 2012 was not observed in 2010; it appeared during the epidemic season of 2011, when it represented 40.6% of the serogroup W carriage isolates. Conclusions Successive clonal waves of ST-181 and ST-11 may explain the changing epidemiology in Burkina Faso after the virtual disappearance of NmA disease and carriage. No ST-2859 strain of any serogroup was found after vaccination, suggesting that capsule switching of ST-2859 did not occur, at least not during the first 13 months after vaccination. PMID:23914778

  13. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child’s cognitive performance at 6–8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Holding, Penny; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Meda, Nicolas; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Kashala-Abotnes, Esperance

    2017-01-01

    Background In Burkina Faso, it is not uncommon for mothers to drink alcohol, even during pregnancy. We aimed to study the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the child’s cognitive performance using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II) and the Children’s Category Test Level 1 (CCT-1) in rural Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of a community cluster-randomised Exclusive breastfeeding trial, and re-enrolled the children in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 518 children (268 boys and 250 girls) aged 6–8 years were assessed using the KABC-II and the CCT-1. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen’s d and conducted a linear regression analysis to examine the association. Results Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 18.5% (96/518). Children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorly for memory and spatial abilities tests from small effect size difference for ‘Atlantis’ (0.27) and ‘Triangle’ (0.29) to moderate effect size difference for ‘Number recall’ (0.72) compared to children whose mothers did not consume alcohol during pregnancy; the exposed children scored significantly higher errors with a small effect size (0.37) at problem solving (CCT-1) test compared to unexposed children. At unstandardized and standardized multivariable analysis, children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorer for memory-‘Atlantis’ (p = 0.03) and ‘Number recall’ (p = 0.0001), and spatial ability tests-‘Triangle’ (p = 0.03); they scored significantly higher errors at problem solving CCT-1 test (p = 0.002); all the results were adjusted for age, sex, schooling, stunting, father’s education, mother’s employment and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. No statistical association was found for visual abilities-‘Conceptual Thinking’,

  14. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  15. Immune Reconstitution During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1-Infected Adults in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tiba, Fabrice; Nauwelaers, Frans; Traoré, Siaka; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Thierry; Compaoré, Adama; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Böhler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There are no data on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected adults in rural Burkina Faso. We therefore assessed CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load (VL), the proportion of naive T-cells (co-expressing CCR7 and CD45RA) and T-cell activation (expression of CD95 or CD38) in 61 previously untreated adult patients from Nouna, Burkina Faso, at baseline and 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after starting therapy. Median CD4+ T-cell counts increased from 174 (10th-90th percentile: 33-314) cells/µl at baseline to 300 (114- 505) cells/µl after 3 months and 360 (169-562) cells/µl after 12 months of HAART. Median VL decreased from 5.8 (4.6- 6.6) log10 copies/ml at baseline to 1.6 (1.6-2.3) log10 copies/ml after 12 months. Early CD4+ T-cell recovery was accompanied by a reduction of the expression levels of CD95 and CD38 on T-cells. Out of 42 patients with complete virological follow-up under HAART, 19 (45%) achieved concordant good immunological (gain of ≥100 CD4+ T-cells/µl above baseline) and virological (undetectable VL) responses after 12 months of treatment (intention-to-treat analysis). Neither a decreased expression of the T-cell activation markers CD38 and CD95, nor an increase in the percentage of naive T-cells reliably predicted good virological treatment responses in patients with good CD4+ T-cell reconstitution. Repeated measurement of CD4+ T-cell counts during HAART remains the most important parameter for immunologic monitoring. Substitution of repeated VL testing by determination of T-cell activation levels (e.g., CD38 expression on CD8+ T-cells) should be applied with caution. PMID:22435082

  16. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

    PubMed

    Gaisberger, Hannes; Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in the

  17. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. Methods The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. Results All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the

  18. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2012-12-08

    To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the effectiveness of the policy

  19. Irradiated Male Tsetse from a 40-Year-Old Colony Are Still Competitive in a Riparian Forest in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Adama; Sidibé, Issa; Bengaly, Zakaria; Bancé, Augustin Z.; Sawadogo, Germain J.; Solano, Philippe; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Lancelot, Renaud; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African trypanosomosis that constitute a major constraint to development in Africa. Their control is an important component of the integrated management of these diseases, and among the techniques available, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is the sole that is efficient at low densities. The government of Burkina Faso has embarked on a tsetse eradication programme in the framework of the PATTEC, where SIT is an important component. The project plans to use flies from a Glossina palpalis gambiensis colony that has been maintained for about 40 years at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES). It was thus necessary to test the competitiveness of the sterile males originating from this colony. Methodology/Principal Findings During the period January–February 2010, 16,000 sterile male G. p. gambiensis were released along a tributary of the Mouhoun river. The study revealed that with a mean sterile to wild male ratio of 1.16 (s.d. 0.38), the abortion rate of the wild female flies was significantly higher than before (p = 0.026) and after (p = 0.019) the release period. The estimated competitiveness of the sterile males (Fried index) was 0.07 (s.d. 0.02), indicating that a sterile to wild male ratio of 14.4 would be necessary to obtain nearly complete induced sterility in the female population. The aggregation patterns of sterile and wild male flies were similar. The survival rate of the released sterile male flies was similar to that observed in 1983–1985 for the same colony. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that gamma sterilised male G. p. gambiensis derived from the CIRDES colony have a competitiveness that is comparable to their competitiveness obtained 35 years ago and can still be used for an area-wide integrated pest management campaign with a sterile insect component in Burkina Faso. PMID:22590652

  20. Anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso, west Africa, 1995-96: prevalence and associated factors. DITRAME Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Mandelbrot, L.; Cartoux, M.; Dao, B.; Ouangré, A.; Dabis, F.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out in 1995-96 on anaemia in pregnant women who were attending two antenatal clinics in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, as part of a research programme including a clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnancy (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). For women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa, anaemia is of particular concern when considering the use of ZDV to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for maternal anaemia in the study population, and the effect of HIV infection on the severity of maternal anaemia. HIV counselling and testing were offered to all women, and haemograms were determined for those women who consented to serological testing. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were available for 2308 of the 2667 women who accepted HIV testing. The prevalence of HIV infection was 9.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-10.8%). The overall prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy (Hb level < 11 g/dl) was 66% (95% CI: 64-68%). The prevalence of mild (10 g/dl < or = Hb < 11 g/dl), moderate (7 g/dl < or = Hb < 10 g/dl) and severe (Hb < 7 g/dl) anaemia was 30.8%, 33.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 78.4% in HIV-infected women versus 64.7% in HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001). Although the relative risk of HIV-seropositivity increased with the severity of anaemia, no significant association was found between degree of anaemia and HIV serostatus among the study women with anaemia. Logistic regression analysis showed that anaemia was significantly and independently related to HIV infection, advanced gestational age, and low socioeconomic status. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Antenatal care in this population must include iron supplementation. Although HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of anaemia, severe anaemia was infrequent, possibly because few

  1. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach

    PubMed Central

    Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as ‘highly threatened’ due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in

  2. Introducing onsite antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso: implementation and evaluation of a feasibility intervention tailored to a local context.

    PubMed

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Bationo, Fabrice; Savadogo, Justin R; Nacro, Sarata; Kouanda, Séni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2017-05-30

    Although the advantages of introducing point of care testing for syphilis in antenatal care (ANC) are well documented, there is little evidence on how to address structural issues within health systems. A better understanding of how these interventions work in a range of settings and contexts is needed in order to overcome bottlenecks at health system level. To better understand the relationships between implementation and context we developed and implemented an intervention focused on integrating a rapid screening test for syphilis in ANC services in rural primary health care facilities in Burkina Faso. This manuscript describes the intervention and reports on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of this intervention and the likelihood that point of care test for syphilis will become routinely incorporated in practice. In Kaya Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kaya HDSS), all 7 primary healthcare facilities were selected for intervention in 2013. A participatory approach was used to design and implement an antenatal syphilis screening intervention. The Normalization Process Model (NPM) proposed by May et al. was adapted in order to identify barriers and facilitators and to explore the likelihood to become routinely incorporated in practice. Registers, Observations (n = 14 ANC 1) of interactions between patients and health workers during ANC and interviews with health workers (n = 14) were our data sources. An intervention that included onsite training, provision of supplies and medicines, quality control and supervision was implemented in 7 health facilities in 2013. Rapid syphilis test and treatment were delivered during ANC within the examination room with no specific additional mechanism regarding staff organization. The perceived barriers were lack of training of all staff, workload, stock-outs of consumables and lack of motivation of staff. Key facilitators included political

  3. Personality and Personality Disorders in Urban and Rural Africa: Results from a Field Trial in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Jérôme; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Dahourou, Donatien; Verardi, Sabrina; Meyer de Stadelhofen, Franz

    2013-01-01

    When conducting research in different cultural settings, assessing measurement equivalence is of prime importance to determine if constructs and scores can be compared across groups. Structural equivalence implies that constructs have the same meaning across groups, metric equivalence implies that the metric of the scales remains stable across groups, and full scale or scalar equivalence implies that the origin of the scales is the same across groups. Several studies have observed that the structure underlying both normal personality and personality disorders (PDs) is stable across cultures. Most of this cross-cultural research was conducted in Western and Asian cultures. In Africa, the few studies were conducted with well-educated participants using French or English instruments. No research was conducted in Africa with less privileged or preliterate samples. The aim of this research was to study the structure and expression of normal and abnormal personality in an urban and a rural sample in Burkina Faso. The sample included 1,750 participants, with a sub-sample from the urban area of Ouagadougou (n = 1,249) and another sub-sample from a rural village, Soumiaga (n = 501). Most participants answered an interview consisting of a Mooré language adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and of the International Personality Disorders Examination. Mooré is the language of the Mossi ethnic group, and the most frequently spoken local language in Burkina Faso. A sub-sample completed the same self-report instruments in French. Demographic variables only had a small impact on normal and abnormal personality traits mean levels. The structure underlying normal personality was unstable across regions and languages, illustrating that translating a complex psychological inventory into a native African language is a very difficult task. The structure underlying abnormal personality and the metric of PDs scales were stable across regions. As scalar equivalence

  4. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health

  5. Knowledge of Obstetric Fistula Prevention amongst Young Women in Urban and Rural Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O.; Kouraogo, Salam F.; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B.; Mueller, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16–0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18–0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09–0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became ‘aware’ through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  6. Serological diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus in Burkina Faso: reliable, practical strategies using less expensive commercial test kits.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Gautier-Charpentier, L.; Soudré, R. B.; Dahourou, H.; Ouedraogo-Traoré, R.; Ouangré, A.; Bambara, A.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sanou, H.; Valéa, D.; Ky, F.; Cartoux, M.; Barin, F.; Van de Perre, P.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test

  7. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto M and S molecular form larvae to an aquatic predator in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Predation of aquatic immature stages has been identified as a major evolutionary force driving habitat segregation and niche partitioning in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in the humid savannahs of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Here, we explored behavioural responses to the presence of a predator in wild populations of the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae that typically breed in permanent (e.g., rice field paddies) and temporary (e.g., road ruts) water collections. Methods Larvae used in these experiments were obtained from eggs laid by wild female An. gambiae collected from two localities in south-western Burkina Faso during the 2008 rainy season. Single larvae were observed in an experimental arena, and behavioural traits were recorded and quantified a) in the absence of a predator and b) in the presence of a widespread mosquito predator, the backswimmer Anisops jaczewskii. Differences in the proportion of time allocated to each behaviour were assessed using Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results The behaviour of M and S form larvae was found to differ significantly; although both forms mainly foraged at the water surface, spending 60-90% of their time filtering water at the surface or along the wall of the container, M form larvae spent on average significantly more time browsing at the bottom of the container than S form larvae (4.5 vs. 1.3% of their overall time, respectively; P < 0.05). In the presence of a predator, larvae of both forms modified their behaviour, spending significantly more time resting along the container wall (P < 0.001). This change in behaviour was at least twice as great in the M form (from 38.6 to 66.6% of the time at the wall in the absence and presence of the predator, respectively) than in the S form (from 48.3 to 64.1%). Thrashing at the water surface exposed larvae to a significantly greater risk of predation by the notonectid (P < 0.01), whereas predation

  8. [Malaria transmission in 1999 in the rice field area of the Kou Valley (Bama), (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Baldet, Thierry; Diabaté, Abdoutaye; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study based on mosquitoes sampled by larvae prospecting and adult catches on humans was carried out during 1999 in the rice field area of the Kou Valley (South-West Burkina Faso) to evaluate the malaria transmission level. Two sites were studied: VK5 located in the rice field centre and VK7 in the periphery. Irrigation is sub-permanent and two crops are grown each year: from February to June during the dry season and from July to November during the rainy season. A man sleeping in VK5 without any protection is exposed to more than 60,000 mosquito bites/year. Two majors vectors are present: Anopheles gambiae sl. and An. funestus. The An. gambiae M form which breeds in rice fields constitutes the majority of the complex. At the periphery of the rice fields, we observed a mix of M and S forms during the rainy season, the latter form coming from classical breeding sites created by rainfall (residual puddles). An. arabiensis is rare in this environment while we can find it in sympathy with An. gambiae in the surrounding savannah. An. gambiae remains present throughout the year. Its dynamics depends closely on both season and rice cycle. There are two density peaks, in March (210 bites/man/night) and in July (306 b/m/n), corresponding to the moment when rice is planted. The latter peak is more important due to additional productivity of residual puddles created by rainfall. These large and very young populations can not transmit malaria. Growing rice reduces larvae productivity: transmission occurs when the adult population decreases and becomes older. Variations in parity rate and sporozoitic index are inversely related to mosquito density. Finally, the An. gambiae population is lowest during the dry season in January when irrigation stops. An. funestus does not develop in rice fields but rather in drains made of dirt, in addition to the classical natural breeding sites at the end of the rainy season. The density of An. funestus is 25 to 30 times smaller

  9. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso’s subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. Results. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19–1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21–1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09–1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11–1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02–1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06–1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3–24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4–25%) at 2 years. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policymaking in Burkina Faso and other

  10. Savannas Ecosystems Services: Local Knowledge On Vulnerability And Adaptation To Climate Change In South-Western Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimobe, K.; Goetze, D.; Ouédraogo, A.; Thiombiano, A.; Porembski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Local knowledge could form an effective channel and base through which climate change adaptation and mitigation can be realized. This paper uses the context of savannas ecosystem services in Burkina Faso to examine local knowledge and perspectives on the changing trends in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. The survey targeted farmers, traditional authorities and administrators at the local government level. Semi-structured questionnaires were employed for one-on-one interviews and focused group discussions for data collection. Descriptive statistics and explanatory factor analysis were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 230 farmers, 6 traditional authorities and 5 administrators belonging to 32 villages were interviewed. Most of local people (95.1-96.7%) believe that climate change is occurring, and cited general increases in average temperatures, fluctuating rainfall regimes and extended drought periods as some of their observations. They explain the increasing changes and vulnerability of savannas ecosystems through the longer time spent and distance covered to collect medicinal plants and forest food; decreasing productivity and availability of fodder, fuel wood, forest food and medicinal plant, changing uses of forest food and medicinal plant species. The views of farmers were generally shared by the traditional authorities and administrators. Adaptation actions employed by local communities are tree planting, protection of forestry resources, migration, awareness raising, conservation of soil and water resources.

  11. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Martinetto, Marina; Pietra, Virginio; Pignatelli, Salavatore; Schumacher, Fabian; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently. PMID:22175011

  12. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  13. Evaluation of a knowledge transfer strategy from a user fee exemption program for vulnerable populations in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Christian; Queuille, Ludovic; Ridde, Valéry

    2013-03-01

    As part of this special issue contributing to the development of knowledge on vulnerability and health in Africa, this article analyzes one example of a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving the use of research results that could help reduce the vulnerability of certain populations. In this case, since September 2008, the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Hilfe zur Selbsthilfe e.V. (HELP) has conducted a trial of subsidizing 100% of the costs of health care for vulnerable populations in two health districts of Burkina Faso. A scientific partnership was created to produce evidence on the intervention, and a knowledge transfer strategy was developed to promote the use of that evidence by stakeholders (decision-makers, people working in the health system, funding partners, etc.). The results showed that considerable efforts were invested in knowledge transfer activities and that these led to all types of use (instrumental, conceptual, persuasive). However, considerable variation in use was observed from one setting to another. This article presents some lessons to be drawn from this experience.

  14. Termite mounds as hot spots of nitrous oxide emissions in South-Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    Despite a considerable knowledge of the significant role of termites in the global methane budget, very little is known about their contribution to the global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget. Release of N2O from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds was measured at a natural savanna site in the southwest of Burkina Faso from May to September 2006. Termite N2O emissions were around 20 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the end of the dry season, and up to two orders of magnitude higher than N2O emissions from the surrounding termite-free soil after the onset of the rainy season. The average N2O emission rate from termite mounds during the observation period was 204 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, and termite mounds contributed 3.0% to total N2O emissions from this savanna ecosystem. However, in other tropical terrestrial ecosystems with other termite species and/or higher termite density this share might be significantly higher.

  15. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  16. Home births in the context of free health care: The case of Kaya health district in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kouanda, Seni; Bado, Aristide; Meda, Ivlabèhiré Bertrand; Yameogo, Gisèle S; Coulibaly, Abou; Haddad, Slim

    2016-11-01

    To identify the factors associated with home births in the Kaya health district in Burkina Faso, where child delivery was free of charge between 2007 and 2011. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the Kaya Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kaya HDSS) among women who delivered at home or in a health facility between January 2008 and December 2010. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to quantitative data, while the qualitative data were analyzed thematically based on emerging themes, subthemes, and patterns across group and individual cases. The findings indicate that 12% (n=311) of childbirths occurred at home (n=2560). Key factors associated with home birth were age, distance from the household to the primary health center, and prenatal visits. The qualitative analysis showed that immediate child delivery, previous experience of giving birth at home, negative experiences with health centers, fear of cesarean delivery, and lack of transport are key predictors of home births. Though relevant, addressing the financial barrier to health care is not enough. Additional measures are necessary to further reduce the rate of home births. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  18. Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed

    Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-10-19

    Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.

  19. [Risk factors for death from severe malaria in children at the Charles de Gaulle pediatric hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Yé, Diarra; Zoungrana, Alice; Kaboré, Aïssata; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2007-01-01

    To determine the risk factors for death from severe malaria in children in Burkina Faso, we conducted a retrospective case-control study covering a period of 24 months from January 2004 through December 2005, at the Charles de Gaulle Pediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou. Cases (n=72) were defined as all children hospitalized for and dying of confirmed severe malaria. The control subjects (n=72), matched for age, sex and date of hospitalization; were children hospitalized for confirmed severe malaria who were discharged after recovery. Risk factors assessed included: place of residence, socioeconomic level, self-medication, promptness of hospitalization, nutritional status, temperature and parasitemia. Case and control children were compared with pairwise tests. Low socioeconomic level (OR=5.4), late care (OR=15.5), poor nutritional status (OR=7.9) and a parasitemia greater than or equal to 5% (OR=2.8) were associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. In contrast, the malaria deaths were not associated with place of residence (OR=0.5), self-medication (OR=1) or fever of 41 degrees C or higher (OR=1.1). These results show the need for more health education to encourage early care-seeking in the event of fever, community-based interventions, and strengthening of the technical support centers for health facilities, as part of a national poverty reduction program.

  20. Assessing the diversity of preferences of suburban smallholder sheep keepers for breeding rams in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tindano, K; Moula, N; Traoré, A; Leroy, P; Antoine-Moussiaux, N

    2017-08-01

    Urbanisation in developing countries entails deep changes in the livestock sector and the management of animal genetic resources (AnGR). Sheep breeding around Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) illustrates these changes and the need to coordinate genetic improvement in general and the use of crossbreeding in particular. For this, it is important to understand breeders' choices and improvement strategy, to accompany them within a national plan for AnGR management. In a context of missing market for breeding rams, a stated choice experiment was conducted with 137 farmers, together with a characterisation of herd management practices. This survey analyses farmers' preferences for breeding rams, estimating their willingness to pay (WTP) for different traits (attributes). Their practices were characterised by a high reliance on natural pastures (82% of farmers) and a minority of crossbreeding (23%). The highest WTP was observed for disease resistance. However, the subgroup of farmers practicing crossbreeding showed a tolerance to high susceptibility. A strong preference for the white colour was revealed. Although significant, the influence of sheep body size on decision-making showed a lesser importance, again with a distinct behaviour in the subgroup practicing crossbreeding. These results illustrate the need to take account of the diversity of goals and preferences among smallholder sheep keepers to gain their adhesion to a coordinated genetic improvement framework.

  1. HIV treatment and reproductive health in the health system in Burkina Faso: resource allocation and the need for integration.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar

    2011-11-01

    Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems.

  2. Implementation of a national external quality assessment program for medical laboratories in Burkina Faso: challenges, lessons learned, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sakandé, Jean; Nikièma, Abdoulaye; Kabré, Elie; Sawadogo, Charles; Nacoulma, Eric W; Sanou, Mamadou; Sangaré, Lassana; Traoré-Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sawadogo, Mamadou; Gershy-Damet, Guy Michel

    2014-02-01

    The National External Quality Assessment (NEQA) program of Burkina Faso is a proficiency testing program mandatory for all laboratories in the country since 2006. The program runs two cycles per year and covers all areas of laboratories. All panels were validated by the expert committee before dispatch under optimal storage and transport conditions to participating laboratories along with report forms. Performance in the last 5 years varied by panel, with average annual performance of bacteriology panels for all laboratories rising from 75% in 2006 to 81% in 2010 and with a best average performance of 87% in 2007 and 2008. During the same period, malaria microscopy performance varied from 85% to 94%, with a best average performance of 94% in 2010; chemistry performance increased from 87% to 94%, with a best average annual performance of 97% in 2009. Hematology showed more variation in performance, ranging from 61% to 86%, with a best annual average performance of 90% in 2008. Average annual performance for immunology varied less between 2006 and 2010, recording 97%, 90%, and 95%. Except for malaria microscopy, annual performances for enrolled panels varied substantially from year to year, indicating some difficulty in maintaining consistency in quality. The main challenges of the NEQA program observed between 2006 to 2010 were funding, sourcing, and safe transportation of quality panels to all laboratories countrywide.

  3. Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) System: Meningitis in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somda, Zana C.; Perry, Helen N.; Messonnier, Nancy R.; Djingarey, Mamadou H.; Ki, Salimata Ouedraogo; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential component of public health. There are few studies estimating the cost-effectiveness of starting or improving disease surveillance. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the impact of the IDSR in Africa, we used pre- and post- IDSR meningococcal meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso (1996–2002 and 2003–2007). IDSR implementation was correlated with a median reduction of 2 weeks to peak of outbreaks (25th percentile 1 week; 75th percentile 4 weeks). IDSR was also correlated with a reduction of 43 meningitis cases per 100,000 (25th–40: 75th-129). Assuming the correlations between reductions in time to peak of outbreaks and cases are related, the cost-effectiveness of IDSR was $23 per case averted (25th-$30; 75th - cost saving), and $98 per meningitis-related death averted (25th-$140: 75th – cost saving). Conclusions/Significance We cannot absolutely claim that the measured differences were due to IDSR. We believe, however, that it is reasonable to claim that IDSR can improve the cost-effectiveness of public health surveillance. PMID:20927386

  4. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  5. [Behavior linked to orodental health in 12-year-old students in the province of Kadiogo, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, H; Baumann, M; Bakayoko-Ly, R

    1998-06-01

    The authors present the results of a study carried out within the context of a diagnosis of the state of dental health among 300 twelve years old students in school in the province of Kadiogo (Burkina Faso). The data collected by questionnaires explore the range of behaviours linked to dental health: dental hygiene, eating habits, use of fluoride and use of dental health services. Half of students report that they brush their teeth at least once a day. Among them, there are 2 girls out of three, and one boy out of two. For half of the children, their mothers are the main people who teach them how to brush their teeth. For three children out of four, a tooth brush and tooth paste are the most common methods. Roughly 17% understand the usefulness of fluoride and 70% have never heard of it. Four children out of five consume sugared drinks on a daily basis. 85% say they have never been to the dentist. The information collected could serve as a base for the development and implementation of health promotion and education programmes for dental health within schools.

  6. [Atypical etiology of malaria: local perceptions and practices for treatment and prevention in the department of Gaoua, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Some, D T; Zerbo, R

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is still a public health problem in many sub-Saharan countries. This study was undertaken to understand and analyze the relationship between local perceptions of malaria and practices for prevention and management in the department of Gaoua in Burkina Faso. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of prevention and management of malaria in the target population, i.e., children under the age of five. Individual interviews and focus groups using a semi-structured guide were carried out with mothers, traditional healthcare providers and elderly persons in four villages of the department of Gaoua. Findings showed that practices used for treatment and prevention were directly related to perceptions about malaria. Due to poverty, inadequate health service delivery and ignorance, people do not always seek medical attention and express doubts about the efficacy of modern care. Endogenous practices for malaria prevention are directly related to causes described by the population. Modern preventive techniques are not used by the population. For instance nets are misused to protect corpses from flies or for shelter during funerals.

  7. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  8. Field studies of drug-resistant cattle trypanosomes in Kénédougou Province, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    McDermott, John; Woitag, Tanja; Sidibé, Issa; Bauer, Burkhard; Diarra, Boucader; Ouédraogo, Denis; Kamuanga, Mulumba; Peregrine, Andrew; Eisler, Mark; Zessin, Karl-Heinz; Mehlitz, Dieter; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2003-04-01

    Field studies were conducted to assess the occurrence of resistance to isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate in trypanosomes infecting cattle in Kénédougou Province of Burkina Faso. Forty-five of the 166 villages in Kénédougou were randomly sampled and visited to assess livestock numbers, trypanosomosis risk, and tsetse challenge. The proportion of cattle infections associated with drug-resistant trypanosomes was assessed in the nine villages with the highest trypanosome infection prevalence and one village with a confirmed history of drug-resistant infections. These studies showed that resistance to both isometamidium and diminazene was widespread. However, there was considerable variation between villages in drug-resistance parameters, with the proportion of treated cattle with trypanosome infections 3 months after isometamidium prophylaxis varying from 6.9 to 63.8% and the proportion of cattle having infections 2 weeks after treatment with diminazene varying from 0 to 36.8%. The demonstration of widespread resistance to both isometamidium and diminazene has important implications, as administration of trypanocides is the most commonly employed method to control trypanosomosis in this area.

  9. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  10. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-03-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  11. Evaluability Assessment of an immunization improvement strategy in rural Burkina Faso: intervention theory versus reality, information need and evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Kouyaté, Bocar; Bibeau, Gilles; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2011-08-01

    An innovative immunization improvement strategy was proposed by the CRSN (Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna) to improve the low coverage rate for children aged 0-11 months in the health district of Nouna in Burkina Faso. This article reports on the Evaluability Assessment (EA) study that aimed to orient decisions for its evaluation in close relationship with the information needs of the stakeholders. Various methods were used, including document reviews, individual interviews, focus group discussions, meetings, literature reviews and site visits. A description of the intervention theory and philosophy is provided with its logic models and its reality documented. Lessons on the procedure include the importance of the position of the evaluability assessor, the value of replicating some steps of the assessment and the relationships between EA and process evaluation. The evaluability study concludes that the intervention had some evaluable components. To satisfy the stakeholders' needs, the initially planned community randomized controlled trial can be maintained and complemented with a process evaluation. There is a need to provide sufficient information on the cost of the intervention. This will inform decision makers on the possibility of replicating the intervention in other contexts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Claverie, Sohini; Traoré, Edgar Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Varsani, Arvind; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-22

    This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.

  13. Mother-to-Children Plasmodium falciparum Asymptomatic Malaria Transmission at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Douamba, Zoenabo; Dao, Nangnéré Ginette Laure; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukédé; Bisseye, Cyrille; Compaoré, Tegwindé Rebeca; Kafando, Jacques Gilbert; Sombie, Bavouma Charles; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouedraogo, Paul; Ghilat, Nadine; Colizzi, Vittorio; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria's prevalence during pregnancy varies widely in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mother-to-child malaria transmission during childbirth at St. Camille Medical Centre in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) women and their newborns were included in the study. Women consenting to participate in this study responded to a questionnaire that identified their demographic characteristics. Asymptomatic malaria infection was assessed by rapid detection test Acon (Acon Malaria Pf, San Diego, USA) and by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Birth weights were recorded and the biological analyses of mothers and newborns' blood were also performed. Results. The utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) were 86.6% and 84.4%, respectively. The parasitic infection rates of 9.5%, 8.9%, and 2.8% were recorded, respectively, for the peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Placental infection was strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the maternal peripheral blood and a parasite density of >1000 parasites/µL. Conclusion. The prevalence of congenital malaria was reduced but was associated with a high rate of mother-to-child malaria transmission. PMID:25506464

  14. Fees-for-services, cost recovery, and equity in a district of Burkina Faso operating the Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gauge the effects of operating the Bamako Initiative in Kongoussi district, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Qualitative and quasi-experimental quantitative methodologies were used. FINDINGS: Following the introduction of fees-for-services in July 1997, the number of consultations for curative care fell over a period of three years by an average of 15.4% at "case" health centres but increased by 30.5% at "control" health centres. Moreover, although the operational results for essential drugs depots were not known, expenditure increased on average 2.7 times more than income and did not keep pace with the decline in the utilization of services. Persons in charge of the management committees had difficulties in releasing funds to ensure access to care for the poor. CONCLUSION: The introduction of fees-for-services had an adverse effect on service utilization. The study district is in a position to bear the financial cost of taking care of the poor and the community is able to identify such people. Incentives must be introduced by the state and be swiftly applied so that the communities agree to a more equitable system and thereby allow access to care for those excluded from services because they are unable to pay. PMID:12973646

  15. Love, lifestyles and the risk of AIDS: the moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a profound impact on people's everyday life in most African societies. A large proportion of all new HIV infections involves young people between 15 and 25 years. The objective of this paper is to explore local moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and discuss how the HIVS epidemic affects their reflections on their everyday life and their perceptions of sexual relationships. Based on anthropological fieldwork, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and participant observation, a total of 57 young people between 15 and 25 years were followed over a 3-month period. Using the notion of 'lifestyle', the paper shows how structural factors of unemployment and poverty paired with global discourse on AIDS present the young people with frustrations and quandaries in relation to their hopes and images of love, faithfulness and modern living. The data shows that the HIV epidemic contributes to and accelerates their feeling of living in a risk society and of being at risk. In order to cope with these uncertainties and contingencies, local discourses of trust and fidelity become extremely important and to most young people HIV prevention is synonymous with finding a faithful partner and/or using condoms.

  16. Fragmentation analysis for prediction of suitable habitat for vectors: example of riverine tsetse flies in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, L; Bord, J P; Ducheyne, E; Bouyer, J

    2008-11-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclic vectors of sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis. The possibility to classify the natural habitat of riverine tsetse species is explored in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso: the objectives were to discriminate the riverine forests community types and their fragmentation levels by using Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper images, to map tsetse densities. Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) and G. tachinoides Westwood, 1850 are the vectors of trypanosomoses in this area. After a supervised classification, the community types were discriminated using the water area in 400-m-wide polygons around the river. A fragmentation analysis of the swamp forest unit, cross-tabulated with the community types, lead to identification of the final landscapes where tsetse apparent densities (ADT) were implemented using a training data set of 608 trap locations. The predicted ADT were then compared with an independent validation data set of 78 trap locations. The correlation between the model predictions and the validation data set was high, validating this approach (P < 0.001). The riverine forest community type and fragmentation level are critical factors for riverine tsetse species, which should be taken into consideration to map their suitable habitat.

  17. Population structuring of the tsetse Glossina tachinoides resulting from landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kone, N; De Meeûs, T; Bouyer, J; Ravel, S; Guerrini, L; N'Goran, E K; Vial, L

    2010-06-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation resulting from human- and climate-mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso, was investigated. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci were compared in four populations. The average distance between samples was 72 km. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river loop that enlarged from upstream to downstream. Microsatellite DNA demonstrated no structuring among the groups studied (F(ST) = 0.015, P = 0.07), which is contrary to findings pertaining to Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank in the same geographical area. The populations of G. tachinoides showed complete panmixia (F(IS) = 0, P = 0.5 for the whole sample) and no genetic differentiation among populations or global positioning system trap locations. This is in line with the results of dispersal studies which indicated higher diffusion coefficients for G. tachinoides than for G. p. gambiensis. The impact of these findings is discussed within the framework of control campaigns currently promoted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  18. Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jeremy; Ravel, Sophie; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; de Meeüs, Thierry; Vial, Laurence; Thévenon, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Sidibé, Issa; Solano, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation due to human and climatic mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was investigated in the Mouhoun river basin, Burkina Faso. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci, and metric properties based on 11 wing landmarks, were compared between four populations. The populations originated from the Mouhoun river and one of its tributaries. The average distance between samples was 72 km with the two most widely spaced populations being 216 km apart. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river enlarging from downstream to upstream and oriented south to north. Microsatellite DNA comparison demonstrated structuring between the populations, but not complete isolation, with an overall Fst = 0.012 (P < 0.001). Wing geometry revealed significant centroid size and shape differences between populations, especially between the two most distant populations. There was no significant correlation between gene flow and geographic distance at this scale, but there was a positive correlation in females between metric distances (wing shape differences) and geographic distances that might be attributed to the cline of environmental conditions. The impact of the fragmentation of riparian landscapes on tsetse population structure is discussed in the context of control campaigns currently promoted by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  19. Twelve months of implementation of health care performance-based financing in Burkina Faso: A qualitative multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Zongo, Sylvie; Somé, Paul-André; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-03

    To improve health services' quantity and quality, African countries are increasingly engaging in performance-based financing (PBF) interventions. Studies to understand their implementation in francophone West Africa are rare. This study analysed PBF implementation in Burkina Faso 12 months post-launch in late 2014. The design was a multiple and contrasted case study involving 18 cases (health centres). Empirical data were collected from observations, informal (n = 224) and formal (n = 459) interviews, and documents. Outside the circle of persons trained in PBF, few in the community had knowledge of it. In some health centres, the fact that staff were receiving bonuses was intentionally not announced to populations and community leaders. Most local actors thought PBF was just another project, but the majority appreciated it. There were significant delays in setting up agencies for performance monitoring, auditing, and contracting, as well as in the payment. The first audits led rapidly to coping strategies among health workers and occasionally to some staging beforehand. No community-based audits had yet been done. Distribution of bonuses varied from one centre to another. This study shows the importance of understanding the implementation of public health interventions in Africa and of uncovering coping strategies. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications.

  1. Effect of interrupting free healthcare for children: Drawing lessons at the critical moment of national scale-up in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Druetz, Thomas; Bicaba, Abel; Some, Telesphore; Kouanda, Seni; Ly, Antarou; Haddad, Slim

    2017-07-01

    With solid evidence that free healthcare increases the utilization of health services, Burkina Faso recently exempted all children under five and pregnant women from direct payment at health facilities. However, there is little insight into the capacity to maintain the gains attributable to free healthcare under routine conditions of implementation at the national scale. In particular, the repercussions of its interruption are unknown. The objective is to assess the effects of a sequence of natural interventions including the introduction, interruption and reintroduction of free healthcare on health-seeking practices and utilization of healthcare facilities by children under five. This is an embedded mixed methods study conducted in Kaya district, Burkina Faso. The quantitative component is based on a reversal longitudinal design. Pooled interrupted time-series analysis was performed to assess changes in the monthly number of visits from January 2005 to March 2015. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with health personnel and mothers to better understand the quantitative results. The results show that visits to health centres dropped immediately and significantly when free healthcare was interrupted (-146, CI95% [-255; -37]). They increased again when free healthcare was reintroduced (+89, CI95% [-11; 187]). Both urban and rural centres were affected. Self-medication and visits to traditional healers were reported more frequently during the withdrawal of free healthcare, and tensions between the population and health personnel increased. Implementation problems other than insufficient funding limited the coverage or intensity of free healthcare. While removing user fees could potentially improve mothers and children's health in Burkina Faso, this study shows that demand for healthcare remains highly sensitive to price changes. Gains in utilization attributable to free healthcare may vanish rapidly if user fees are reintroduced. It is

  2. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets in rural Burkina Faso: assessment of coverage and equity in the wake of a universal distribution campaign.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Caroline; De Allegri, Manuela; Louis, Valérie R; Yé, Maurice; Sié, Ali; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) are an essential tool of the Roll Back Malaria strategy. An increasing number of African countries have embarked on mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) with the ultimate goal of universal coverage. Such a national campaign with the goal of one ITN for every two people has been conducted in Burkina Faso in 2010. Our aim was to assess the coverage and equity effect of the universal distribution campaign of LLINs in Burkina Faso and to identify determinants of ITN ownership across households after the campaign. We evaluated its effects through comparison of data from two household surveys conducted in early 2010 (before the campaign) and early 2011 (after the campaign) on a representative rural district in north-western Burkina Faso. Data were collected on household characteristics (including socio-economic status) and ITN ownership. We used concentration curves and indices to compare ITN coverage indicators before and after the campaign and multilevel multivariate logistic regression to estimate factors associated with achievement of the universal coverage target in 2011. The survey included 1106 households in 2010 and 1094 in 2011. We found that the proportion of households with at least one ITN increased from 59% before the campaign to 99% afterwards, whereas the concentration index dropped from 0.087 (standard error (SE): 0.014) to 0.002 (SE: 0.002). Fifty-two per cent of households reached the target of one ITN for every two people per household, with the relevant concentration index at -0.031 (SE: 0.016). Eighty-six per cent of households owned at least one ITN for every three people. The main characteristics significantly associated with the targeted intra-household coverage were family size and distance to the health centre but not socio-economic status. In conclusion, despite not having fully met its target, the national LLIN campaign achieved a high level of coverage and

  3. Integrated monitoring and evaluation and environmental risk factors for urogenital schistosomiasis and active trachoma in Burkina Faso before preventative chemotherapy using sentinel sites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over 1 billion of the world's poorest inhabitants are afflicted by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Integrated control programmes aimed at tackling these debilitating NTDs have been recently initiated, mainly using preventative chemotherapy. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of these integrated programs presents particular challenges over and above those required for single disease vertical programmes. We used baseline data from the National NTD Control Programme in Burkina Faso in order to assess the feasibility of an integrated survey design, as well as to elucidate the contribution of environmental variables to the risk of either Schistosoma haematobium, trachoma, or both among school-aged children. Methods S. haematobium infection was diagnosed by detecting eggs in urine. A trachoma case was defined by the presence of Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF) and/or Trachomatous inflammation-Intense (TI) in either eye. Baseline data collected from 3,324 children aged 7-11 years in 21 sentinel sites across 11 regions of Burkina Faso were analyzed using simple and multivariable hierarchical binomial logistic regression models fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation methods. Probabilities of the risk of belonging to each infection/disease category were estimated as a function of age, gender (individual level), and environmental variables (at sentinel site level, interpolated from national meteorological stations). Results Overall prevalence at the sentinel sites was 11.79% (95% CI: 10.70-12.89) for S. haematobium; 13.30% (12.14-14.45) for trachoma and 0.84% (0.53-1.15) for co-infections. The only significant predictor of S. haematobium infection was altitude. There were significant negative associations between the prevalence of active trachoma signs and minimum temperature, and air pressure. Conditional upon these predictors, these data are consistent with the two pathogens being independent. Conclusions Urogenital schistosomiasis and trachoma

  4. Challenges and opportunities associated with the introduction of next-generation long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Traore, Adama; Ranson, Hilary; N'Fale, Sagnon; Hill, Jenny; Worrall, Eve

    2016-07-22

    Reductions in malaria incidence in Africa can largely be attributed to increases in malaria vector control activities; predominately the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). With insecticide resistance affecting an increasing number of malaria-endemic countries and threatening the effectiveness of conventional LLINs, there is an increasing urgency to implement alternative tools that control these resistant populations. The aim of this study was to identify potential challenges and opportunities for accelerating access to next-generation LLINs in Burkina Faso, a country with areas of high levels of insecticide resistance. An analytical framework was used to guide the selection of interviewees, data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with key informants in April 2014 in Burkina Faso. Interviews were conducted in French and English, audio recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo 10 for data management and analysis. Data were coded according to the framework themes and then analysed to provide a description of the key points and explain patterns in the data. Interviewees reported that the policy architecture in Burkina Faso is characterised by a strong framework of actors that contribute to policymaking and strong national research capacity which indirectly contributes to national policy change via collaboration with internationally led research. Financing significantly impacts the potential adoption, availability and affordability of next-generation LLINs. This confers significant power on international donors that fund vector control. National decisions around which LLINs to procure were restricted to quantity and delivery dates; the potential to tackle insecticide resistance was not part of the decision-making process. Furthermore, at the time of the study, there was no World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on where and when next-generation LLINs might positively impact on malaria transmission, severely limiting

  5. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two

  6. Identification of dengue type 2 virus in febrile travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France, related to an ongoing outbreak, October to November 2016

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Gautret, Philippe; Nougairede, Antoine; Sentis, Mélanie; Ninove, Laetitia; Saidani, Nadia; Million, Matthieu; Brouqui, Philippe; Charrel, Remi; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is rarely reported in travellers returning from Africa. We report two cases of dengue fever in travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France. One of them presented a severe dengue fever with ALT > 1,000 IU/L and pericarditis. Serotype 2 was identified. The cases reflect a large ongoing outbreak with over 1,000 reported cases between August and November in the capital city. Clinicians should consider dengue fever in malaria-negative febrile travellers returning from Africa. PMID:28006651

  7. Identification of dengue type 2 virus in febrile travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France, related to an ongoing outbreak, October to November 2016.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Gautret, Philippe; Nougairede, Antoine; Sentis, Mélanie; Ninove, Laetitia; Saidani, Nadia; Million, Matthieu; Brouqui, Philippe; Charrel, Remi; Parola, Philippe

    2016-12-15

    Dengue fever is rarely reported in travellers returning from Africa. We report two cases of dengue fever in travellers returning from Burkina Faso to France. One of them presented a severe dengue fever with ALT > 1,000 IU/L and pericarditis. Serotype 2 was identified. The cases reflect a large ongoing outbreak with over 1,000 reported cases between August and November in the capital city. Clinicians should consider dengue fever in malaria-negative febrile travellers returning from Africa. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  8. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: a comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Prytherch, Helen; Kagoné, Moubassira; Aninanya, Gifty A; Williams, John E; Kakoko, Deodatus C V; Leshabari, Melkidezek T; Yé, Maurice; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2013-04-25

    In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania strong efforts are being made to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. However, progress is impeded by challenges, especially in the area of human resources. All three countries are striving not only to scale up the number of available health staff, but also to improve performance by raising skill levels and enhancing provider motivation. In-depth interviews were used to explore MNH provider views about motivation and incentives at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. Interviews were held with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers in each country. Across the three countries some differences were found in the reasons why people became health workers. Commitment to remaining a health worker was generally high. The readiness to remain at a rural facility was far less, although in all settings there were some providers that were willing to stay. In Burkina Faso it appeared to be particularly difficult to recruit female MNH providers to rural areas. There were indications that MNH providers in all the settings sometimes failed to treat their patients well. This was shown to be interlinked with differences in how the term 'motivation' was understood, and in the views held about remuneration and the status of rural health work. Job satisfaction was shown to be quite high, and was particularly linked to community appreciation. With some important exceptions, there was a strong level of agreement regarding the financial and non-financial incentives that were suggested by these providers, but there were clear country preferences as to whether incentives should be for individuals or teams. Understandings of the terms and concepts pertaining to motivation differed between the three countries. The findings from Burkina Faso underline the importance of gender-sensitive health workforce planning. The training that all levels of MNH providers receive in

  9. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: a comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania strong efforts are being made to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. However, progress is impeded by challenges, especially in the area of human resources. All three countries are striving not only to scale up the number of available health staff, but also to improve performance by raising skill levels and enhancing provider motivation. Methods In-depth interviews were used to explore MNH provider views about motivation and incentives at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. Interviews were held with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers in each country. Results Across the three countries some differences were found in the reasons why people became health workers. Commitment to remaining a health worker was generally high. The readiness to remain at a rural facility was far less, although in all settings there were some providers that were willing to stay. In Burkina Faso it appeared to be particularly difficult to recruit female MNH providers to rural areas. There were indications that MNH providers in all the settings sometimes failed to treat their patients well. This was shown to be interlinked with differences in how the term ‘motivation’ was understood, and in the views held about remuneration and the status of rural health work. Job satisfaction was shown to be quite high, and was particularly linked to community appreciation. With some important exceptions, there was a strong level of agreement regarding the financial and non-financial incentives that were suggested by these providers, but there were clear country preferences as to whether incentives should be for individuals or teams. Conclusions Understandings of the terms and concepts pertaining to motivation differed between the three countries. The findings from Burkina Faso underline the importance of gender-sensitive health workforce planning. The training that all

  10. Monitoring compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in west Africa: multisite cross sectional survey in Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Victor M; Ross, Jay S; Kanon, Souleyman; Ouedraogo, Andre N

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To monitor compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in health systems, sales outlets, distribution points, and the news media in Togo and Burkina Faso, west Africa. Design Multisite cross sectional survey. Participants Staff at 43 health facilities and 66 sales outlets and distribution points, 186 health providers, and 105 mothers of infants aged ⩽5 months in 16 cities. Results Six (14%) health facilities had received donations of breast milk substitutes. All donations were being given to mothers free of charge. Health providers in five (12%) health facilities had received free samples of breast milk substitutes for purposes other than professional research or evaluation. Health professionals in five (12%) health facilities had received promotional gifts from manufacturers. Promotional materials of commercial breast milk substitutes were found in seven (16%) health facilities. Special displays to market commercial breast milk substitutes were found in 29 (44%) sales and distribution points. Forty commercial breast milk substitutes violated the labelling standards of the code: 21 were manufactured by Danone, 11 by Nestlé, and eight by other national and international manufacturers. Most (148, 90%) health providers had never heard of the code, and 66 mothers (63%) had never received any counselling on breast feeding by their health providers. Conclusion In west Africa manufacturers are violating the code of marketing of breast milk substitutes. Comparable levels of code violations are observed with (Burkina Faso) or without (Togo) regulating legislation. Legislation must be accompanied by effective information, training, and monitoring systems to ensure that healthcare providers and manufacturers comply with evidence based practice and the code. What is already known on this topicAll member states of the World Health Assembly have reaffirmed their support for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk

  11. Potential of remote sensing data for improving water resources management in semi-arid regions: a case study in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, M. N.; Ciervo, F.; Koussoube, y.; Di Martino, G.; Iodice, A.; Natale, A.; Riccio, D.; Ruello, G.; Zinno, I.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the rationale and the first results of a Cosmo-SkyMed AO project devoted to use high resolution synthetic aperture radar data for water resource management in semi-arid regions. A case study was developed in Burkina Faso, one of the poorest countries of the world, where almost 80% of the population lives in rural areas depending from agriculture and livestock. It is characterized by the alternation of a rainy (3 months) and a dry (9 months) season, with extreme climate conditions (drought and floods). The project was approved by the Italian Space Agency, that provided Cosmo SkyMed Stripmap (3m resolution) and Spotligth (1m resolution) SAR images. The study area is in the northern part of Burkina Faso around the village of Bidi. A first study is related on the identification of eroded areas, which are indicative of desertification processes. Eroded soils are no more able to absorb and drain water, so that their humidity and, as a consequence, their dielectric constant and conductivity are almost independent by the precipitation. By comparing SAR images acquired during the rainy and the dry seasons, the eroded soils do not change their reflectivity and they can be identified by change detection techniques. In this work we employ innovative fractal change detection techniques, based on the image spectrum evaluation and the comparison of the fractal dimension. As the precipitations occur only during three months, it is crucial to collect water in the rainy season, by the means of artificial basins, in order to irrigate the fields in the dry season. The construction of little artificial basins is usually carried out under the initiative of small associations of farmers. The location, design and management of the basins sometimes is not rational, for the lack of all the information needed for the design. The best location for the construction of a new artificial basin depends on the total volume of surface water that may be collected in one year

  12. Development of a spatial sampling protocol using GIS to measure health disparities in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, a medium-sized African city.

    PubMed

    Kassié, Daouda; Roudot, Anna; Dessay, Nadine; Piermay, Jean-Luc; Salem, Gérard; Fournet, Florence

    2017-04-18

    Many cities in developing countries experience an unplanned and rapid growth. Several studies have shown that the irregular urbanization and equipment of cities produce different health risks and uneven exposure to specific diseases. Consequently, health surveys within cities should be carried out at the micro-local scale and sampling methods should try to capture this urban diversity. This article describes the methodology used to develop a multi-stage sampling protocol to select a population for a demographic survey that investigates health disparities in the medium-sized city of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. It is based on the characterization of Bobo-Dioulasso city typology by taking into account the city heterogeneity, as determined by analysis of the built environment and of the distribution of urban infrastructures, such as healthcare structures or even water fountains, by photo-interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. Principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification were then used to generate the city typology. Five groups of spaces with specific profiles were identified according to a set of variables which could be considered as proxy indicators of health status. Within these five groups, four sub-spaces were randomly selected for the study. We were then able to survey 1045 households in all the selected sub-spaces. The pertinence of this approach is discussed regarding to classical sampling as random walk method for example. This urban space typology allowed to select a population living in areas representative of the uneven urbanization process, and to characterize its health status in regards to several indicators (nutritional status, communicable and non-communicable diseases, and anaemia). Although this method should be validated and compared with more established methods, it appears as an alternative in developing countries where geographic and population data are scarce.

  13. Impact of untreated urban waste on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of human opportunistic pathogens in agricultural soils from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Youenou, Benjamin; Hien, Edmond; Deredjian, Amélie; Brothier, Elisabeth; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-term effects of the landfill disposal of untreated urban waste for soil fertilization on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of various human opportunistic pathogens in soils from Burkina Faso. Samples were collected at three sites in the periphery of Ouagadougou during two campaigns in 2008 and 2011. At each site, amendment led to changes in physico-chemical characteristics as shown by the increase in pH, CEC, total C, total N, and metal contents. Similarly, the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria were higher in the amended fields than in the control ones. No sanitation indicators, i.e., coliforms, Staphylococci, and Enterococci, were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) were detected at a low level in one amended field. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was detected from both campaigns at the three sites in the amended fields and only once in an unamended field. Diversity analysis showed some opportunistic pathogen isolates to be closely related to reference clinical strains responsible for nosocomial- or community-acquired infections in Northern countries. Antibiotic resistance tests showed that P. aeruginosa and Bcc isolates had a wild-type phenotype and that most S. maltophilia isolates had a multi-drug resistance profile with resistance to 7 to 15 antibiotics. Then we were able to show that amendment led to an increase of some human opportunistic pathogens including multi-drug resistant isolates. Although the application of untreated urban waste increases both soil organic matter content and therefore soil fertility, the consequences of this practice on human health should be considered.

  14. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A.; Kakoko, Deodatus C.V.; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated. PMID

  15. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A; Kakoko, Deodatus C V; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated.

  16. Rates of coverage and determinants of complete vaccination of children in rural areas of Burkina Faso (1998-2003)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso's immunization program has benefited regularly from national and international support. However, national immunization coverage has been irregular, decreasing from 34.7% in 1993 to 29.3% in 1998, and then increasing to 43.9% in 2003. Undoubtedly, a variety of factors contributed to this pattern. This study aims to identify both individual and systemic factors associated with complete vaccination in 1998 and 2003 and relate them to variations in national and international policies and strategies on vaccination of rural Burkinabé children aged 12-23 months. Methods Data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys and the Ministry of Health's 1997 and 2002 Statistical Yearbooks, as well as individual interviews with central and regional decision-makers and with field workers in Burkina's healthcare system, were used to carry out a multilevel study that included 805 children in 1998 and 1,360 children in 2003, aged 12-23 months, spread over 44 and 48 rural health districts respectively. Results In rural areas, complete vaccination coverage went from 25.9% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2003. District resources had no significant effect on coverage and the impact of education declined over time. The factors that continued to have the greatest impact on coverage rates were poverty, with its various dimensions, and the utilization of other healthcare services. However, these factors do not explain the persistent differences in complete vaccination between districts. In 2003, despite a trend toward district homogenization, differences between health districts still accounted for a 7.4% variance in complete vaccination. Conclusion Complete vaccination coverage of children is improving in a context of worsening poverty. Education no longer represents an advantage in relation to vaccination. Continuity from prenatal care to institutional delivery creates a loyalty to healthcare services and is the most significant and stable explanatory factor

  17. Biomass smoke in Burkina Faso: what is the relationship between particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and kitchen characteristics?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S S; Louis, V R; Sié, A; Sauerborn, R

    2014-02-01

    In Burkina Faso where cooking with biomass is very common, little information exists regarding kitchen characteristics and their impact on air pollutant levels. The measurement of air pollutants such as respirable particulate matter (PM10), an important component of biomass smoke that has been linked to adverse health outcomes, can also pose challenges in terms of cost and the type of equipment needed. Carbon monoxide could potentially be a more economical and simpler measure of air pollution. The focus of this study was to first assess the association of kitchen characteristics with measured PM10 and CO levels and second, the relationship of PM10 with CO concentrations, across these different kitchen characteristics in households in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Twenty-four-hour concentrations of PM10 (area) were measured with portable monitors and CO (area and personal) estimated using color dosimeter tubes. Data on kitchen characteristics were collected through surveys. Most households used both wood and charcoal burned in three-stone and charcoal stoves. Mean outdoor kitchen PM10 levels were relatively high (774 μg/m(3), 95 % CI 329-1,218 μg/m(3)), but lower than indoor concentrations (Satterthwaite t value, -6.14; p < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, outdoor kitchens were negatively associated with PM10 (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.02-0.16, p value <0.0001) and CO (OR = 0.03, 95 % CI 0.01-0.11, p value <0.0001) concentrations. Strong area PM10 and area CO correlations were found with indoor kitchens (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), indoor stove use (Spearman's r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), and the presence of a smoker in the household (Spearman's r = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Weak correlations between area PM10 and personal CO levels were observed with three-stone (Spearman's r = 0.23, p = 0.008) and improved stoves (Spearman's r = 0.34, p = 0.003). This indicates that the extensive use of biomass fuels and multiple stove types for

  18. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  19. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Télesphore D.; Boileau-Falardeau, Michèle; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB), effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1) the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2) the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3) this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level. PMID:25630708

  20. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  1. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area.

  2. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  3. Gender asymmetry in healthcare-facility attendance of people living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bila, Blandine; Egrot, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Anthropological research in Burkina Faso indicates that more HIV-positive women than HIV-positive men are attending care facilities for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and accessing antiretroviral medicine. This article, situated in the field of study of interactions between gender and AIDS, offers a description of this asymmetry and an anthropological analysis of the socio-cultural determinants, through analysis of data from ethnographic research among PLWH and health actors. Examining social representations of femininity and masculinity in Burkinabe society and the organisation of the healthcare system in connection with gender shed light on the decision-making processes of both sexes around therapeutic choices and the itinerary of care. On the one hand, the social values attached to femininity, maternity and the status of wife create conditions for women that favour their attendance at care facilities for PLWH and encourage a widespread practice where wives take the place of their husbands in healthcare queues. Moreover, health policies and the effects of women's empowerment within the healthcare system strengthen women's access to health services. On the other hand, representations of masculinity are fully implicated in the cultural construction of men's reluctance to attend care facilities for PLWH. The values associated with this masculinity cause men to run great health, economic and social risks, not only for themselves, but also for their wives and children. By better understanding the interaction between gender, the experience of HIV and the institutional organisation of healthcare, we can identify ways to reduce men's reluctance to attend care facilities for PLWH and improve both prevention and treatment-oriented programmes.

  4. How Does Gender Affect Sustainable Intensification of Cereal Production in the West African Sahel? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Theriault, Veronique; Smale, Melinda; Haider, Hamza

    2017-04-01

    Better understanding of gender differences in the adoption of agricultural intensification strategies is crucial for designing effective policies to close the gender gap while sustainably enhancing farm productivity. We examine gender differences in adoption rates, likelihood and determinants of adopting strategy sets that enhance yields, protect crops, and restore soils in the West African Sahel, based on analysis of cereal production in Burkina Faso. Applying a multivariate probit model to a nationally representative household panel, we exploit the individual plot as unit of analysis and control for plot manager characteristics along with other covariates. Reflecting the socio-cultural context of farming combined with the economic attributes of inputs, we find that female managers of individual cereal fields are less likely than their male counterparts to adopt yield-enhancing and soil-restoring strategies, although no differential is apparent for yield-protecting strategies. More broadly, gender-disaggregated regressions demonstrate that adoption determinants differ by gender. Plot manager characteristics, including age, marital status, and access to credit or extension services do influence adoption decisions. Furthermore, household resources influence the probability of adopting intensification strategy sets differently by gender of the plot manager. Variables expressing the availability of household labor strongly influence the adoption of soil-restoring strategies by female plot managers. By contrast, household resources such as extent of livestock owned, value of non-farm income, and area planted to cotton affect the adoption choices of male plot managers. Rectifying the male bias in extension services along with improving access to credit, income, and equipment to female plot managers could contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification.

  5. Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2, water and energy in natural savannah in Burkina Faso (W Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Bruemmer, C.; Oltchev, A.; Brueggemann, N.; Szarzynski, J.; Papen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Tropical savannahs cover an area of 17 x 106 km2 worldwide. Their role in the global greenhouse gas budget still remains uncertain. In the past large parts of the former native African savannahs have been converted to agricultural land. To contribute to evaluating greenhouse gas exchange of tropical savannah ecosystems, especially in sub- Saharan Africa, biosphere-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was quantified in natural savannah and in rainfed agricultural land in Burkina Faso by means of eddy covariance (EC) and chamber measurements. An EC tower was established in a nature reserve to determine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEEC) and energy fluxes from November 2004 to October 2006. A Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transport (SVAT) model MixFor-SVAT (Oltchev et al., 2002) was used to compute the heat exchange between canopy and atmosphere, to conduct a plausibility test to the measured fluxes, and to investigate the component fluxes. MixFor-SVAT is a multi- layer model that describes the vertical distribution of radiation, momentum, energy and matter fluxes within and above mono- or multi-specific tree stands at 30-min resolution. Water fluxes in the plants are computed using a non-steady-state approach (HUNT et al., 1991). The EC measurements revealed that the natural savannah acted as a small C source in the dry period, whereas large amounts of CO2-C were bound during the rainy seasons, particularly from June to September. The balance of the first year of our observations indicated a C uptake of 373 g m-2 of the ecosystem, which is comparable to deciduous forests in Europe. The CO2 fluxes showed clear diurnal patterns with the highest uptake rates at noon (up to 1 mg m-2 s-1 in July and August) and a permanent slight release to the atmosphere during night-time.

  6. Collaborative development and implementation of a knowledge brokering program to promote research use in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Christian; Somé, Télesphore D; Boileau-Falardeau, Michèle; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts expended over recent decades, there is a persistent gap between the production of scientific evidence and its use. This is mainly due to the difficulty of bringing such knowledge to health workers and decision-makers so that it can inform practices and decisions on a timely basis. One strategy for transferring knowledge to potential users, that is, gaining increasing legitimacy, is knowledge brokering (KB), effectiveness of which in certain conditions has been demonstrated through empirical research. However, little is known about how to implement such a strategy, especially in the African context. The KB program presented here is aimed specifically at narrowing the gap by making scientific knowledge available to users with the potential to improve health-related practices and decision making in Burkina Faso. The program involves Canadian and African researchers, a knowledge broker, health practitioners, and policy-makers. This article presents the collaborative development of the KB strategy and the evaluation of its implementation at year 1. The KB strategy was developed in stages, beginning with a scoping study to ensure the most recent studies were considered. Two one-day workshops were then conducted to explore the problem of low research use and to adapt the strategy to the Burkinabè context. Based on these workshops, the KB program was developed and brokers were recruited and trained. Evaluation of the program's implementation after the first year showed that: 1) the preparatory activities were greatly appreciated by participants, and most considered the content useful for their work; 2) the broker had carried out his role in accordance with the logic model; and 3) this role was seen as important by the participants targeted by the activities and outputs. Participants made suggestions for program improvements in subsequent years, stressing particularly the need to involve decision-makers at the central level.

  7. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored.

  8. Dietary diversity scores and nutritional status of women change during the seasonal food shortage in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Savy, Mathilde; Martin-Prével, Yves; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis

    2006-10-01

    In developing countries, dietary diversity is usually assessed during a single yearly period and the effects of seasonal variations remain unknown. We studied these variations in women living in a Sahelian rural area (Burkina Faso). A representative sample of 550 women was surveyed at the beginning and at the end of the seasonal cereal shortage in April and September 2003, respectively. For each season, a dietary diversity score (DDS) representing the number of food groups consumed over a 24-h period, was computed and nutritional status was assessed by the BMI. The DDS increased from 3.4 +/- 1.1 to 3.8 +/- 1.5 food groups between the beginning and the end of the shortage season (P < 0.0001), and the proportion of women exhibiting low DDS decreased from 31.6 to 8.1%. This was due to the consumption of foods available during the cereal shortage season and despite the decrease in the consumption of some purchased foods. The increase in DDS was lower in women for whom DDS was already high in April and vice versa. Over the same period, the percentage of underweight women (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) increased from 11.1 to 17.1%. The relation between DDS and the women's socioeconomic characteristics or nutritional status was weakened in September. Thus, in April, fewer women were underweight when their DDS was high than when it was medium or low [odds ratio = 0.3 (0.2; 0.6)], but not in September [odds ratio = 0.6 (0.3; 1.0)]. In such a context, it would be useful to measure dietary diversity at the beginning of the cereal shortage season, when many women exhibit low DDS.

  9. Monitoring water turbidity and surface suspended sediment concentration of the Bagre Reservoir (Burkina Faso) using MODIS and field reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Pinet, Sylvain; Gal, Laetitia; Cochonneau, Gérard; Martinez, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters is essential to address several important issues: erosion, sediment transport and deposition throughout watersheds, reservoir siltation, water pollution, human health risks, etc. This is especially important in regions with limited conventional monitoring capacities such as West Africa. In this study, we explore the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (MODIS, MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1 products, red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands) to monitor turbidity and SSSC for the Bagre Reservoir in Burkina Faso. High values ​​of these parameters associated with high spatial and temporal variability potentially challenge the methodologies developed so far for less turbid waters. Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The NIR/R ratio is found to be the most suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity for both in-situ spectoradiometer measurements and satellite reflectance from MODIS. The spatio temporal variability of MODIS NIR/R together with rainfall estimated by the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) and altimetry data from Jason-2 is analyzed over the Bagre Reservoir for the 2000-2015 period. It is found that rain events of the early rainy season (February-March) through mid-rainy season (August) are decisive in triggering turbidity increase. Sediment transport is observed in the reservoir from upstream to downstream between June and September. Furthermore, a significant increase of 19% in turbidity values is observed between 2000 and 2015, mainly for the July to December period. It is especially well marked for August, with the central and downstream areas showing the largest increase. The most probable hypothesis to explain this evolution is a change in land use, and particularly an increase in the amount of bare soils, which enhances particle transport by runoff.

  10. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Sanou, Aboubakary; Wladarsch, Evelyn; De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Müller, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes. PMID:17686147

  11. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Diboulo, Eric; Sié, Ali; Rocklöv, Joacim; Niamba, Louis; Yé, Maurice; Bagagnan, Cheik; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-11-23

    A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area during 1999-2009. Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Contextual factors as a key to understanding the heterogeneity of effects of a maternal health policy in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed Central

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Burkina Faso implemented a national subsidy for emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) covering 80% of the cost of normal childbirth in public health facilities. The objective was to increase coverage of facility-based deliveries. After implementation of the EmONC policy, coverage increased across the country, but disparities were observed between districts and between primary healthcare centres (PHC). To understand the variation in coverage, we assessed the contextual factors and the implementation of EmONC in six PHCs in a district. We conducted a contrasted multiple case study. We interviewed women (n = 71), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), clinic management committees (n = 11), and health workers and district health managers (n = 26). Focus groups (n = 62) were conducted within communities. Observations were carried out in the six PHCs. Implementation was nearly homogeneous in the six PHCs but the contexts and human factors appeared to explain the variations observed on the coverage of facility-based deliveries. In the PHCs of Nogo and Tara, the immediate increase in coverage was attributed to health workers’ leadership in creatively promoting facility-based deliveries and strengthening relationships of trust with communities, users’ positive perceptions of quality of care and the arrival of female professional staff. The change of healthcare team at Iata’s PHC and a penalty fee imposed for home births in Belem may have caused the delayed effects there. Finally, the unchanged coverage in the PHCs of Fati and Mata was likely due to lack of promotion of facility-based deliveries, users’ negative perceptions of quality of care, and conflicts between health workers and users. Before implementation, decision-makers should perform pilot studies to adapt policies according to contexts and human factors. PMID:24633914

  13. Barriers to Linkage to Care for Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Qualitative Analysis in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Hejoaka, Fabienne; Sanou, Armande; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Bamba, Issiaka; Traoré, Abdoulaye

    2016-12-07

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a critical global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently developed a global elimination strategy for HBV infection. Increasing access to screening, liver assessment, and antiviral treatment are crucial steps in achieving this goal. Little is known, however, about obstacles to linkage to care in low- and middle-income countries. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study sought to characterize the diagnostic itineraries of people with chronic HBV infection in Burkina Faso, a west African country with high HBV prevalence, to identify barriers to linkage from screening to specialist care with hepatic assessment (alanine transaminase and hepatitis B e antigen or HBV DNA). We conducted 80 semistructured interviews with chronically infected people, their families, medical personnel, and traditional practitioners, and participant observation of HBV diagnostic announcements and consultations. Of 30 individuals diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis, 18 inadvertently discovered their status through blood screening and 12 actively sought diagnosis for their symptoms. Only a quarter (8/30) were linked to care. Barriers included: 1) patients' ability to pay for testing and treatment; 2) a formal health system lacking trained personnel, diagnostic infrastructures, and other resources; 3) patients' familial and social networks that discouraged access to testing and HBV knowledge; 4) a well-developed demand for and provisioning of traditional medicine for hepatitis; and 5) a weak global politics around HBV. More training for medical personnel would improve linkage to care in sub-Saharan Africa. Developing effective communications between medical workers and patients should be a major priority in this elimination strategy. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Impact of contaminated household environment on stunting in children aged 12-59 months in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Fregonese, Federica; Siekmans, Kendra; Kouanda, Seni; Druetz, Thomas; Ly, Antarou; Diabaté, Souleymane; Haddad, Slim

    2017-04-01

    Stunting affects 165 million children worldwide, with repercussions on their survival and development. A contaminated environment is likely to contribute to stunting: frequent faecal-oral transmission possibly causes environmental enteropathy, a chronic inflammatory disorder that may contribute to faltering growth in children. This study's objective was to assess the effect of contaminated environment on stunting in Burkina Faso, where stunting prevalence is persistently high. Panel study of children aged 1-5 years in Kaya. Household socioeconomic characteristics, food needs and sanitary conditions were measured once, and child growth every year (2011-2014). Using multiple correspondence analysis and 12 questions and observations on water, sanitation, hygiene behaviours, yard cleanliness and animal proximity, we constructed a 'contaminated environment' index as a proxy of faecal-oral transmission exposure. Analysis was performed using a generalised structural equation model (SEM), adjusting for repeat observations and hierarchical data. Stunting (<2 SD height-for-age) prevalence was 29% among 3121 children (median (IQR) age 36 (25-48) months). Environment contamination was widespread, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas, and was associated with stunting (prevalence ratio 1.30; p=0.008), controlling for sex, age, survey year, setting, mother's education, father's occupation, household food security and wealth. This association was significant for children of all ages (1-5 years) and settings. Lower contamination and higher food security had effects of comparable magnitude. Environment contamination can be at least as influential as nutritional components in the pathway to stunting. There is a rationale for including interventions to reduce environment contamination in stunting prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability in old age: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Onadja, Yentéma; Atchessi, Nicole; Soura, Bassiahi Abdramane; Rossier, Clémentine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability between older men and women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and to assess the extent to which these differences could be attributable to gender inequalities in life course social and health conditions. Data were collected on 981 men and women aged 50 and older in a 2010 cross-sectional health survey conducted in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Leganés cognitive test. Mobility disability was self-reported as having any difficulty walking 400 m without assistance. We used logistic regression to assess gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 27.6% in women and 7.7% in men, and mobility disability was present in 51.7% of women and 26.5% of men. The women to men odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for cognitive impairment and mobility disability was 3.52 (1.98-6.28) and 3.79 (2.47-5.85), respectively, after adjusting for the observed life course social and health conditions. The female excess was only partially explained by gender inequalities in nutritional status, marital status and, to a lesser extent, education. Among men and women, age, childhood hunger, lack of education, absence of a partner and being underweight were independent risk factors for cognitive impairment, while age, childhood poor health, food insecurity and being overweight were risk factors for mobility disability. Enhancing nutritional status and education opportunities throughout life span could prevent cognitive impairment and mobility disability and partly reduce the female excess in these disabilities.

  16. Situating mobile health: a qualitative study of mHealth expectations in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Vincent; Yé, Maurice; Moubassira, Kagoné; Sanou, Hamidou; Sawadogo, N Hélène; Bibeau, Gilles; Sié, Ali

    2017-07-12

    The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) projects in low- and middle-income countries raises high and well-documented expectations among development agencies, policymakers and researchers. By contrast, the expectations of direct and indirect mHealth users are not often examined. In preparation for a proposed intervention in the Nouna Health District, in rural Burkina Faso, this study investigates the expected benefits, challenges and limitations associated with mHealth, approaching these expectations as a form of situated knowledge, inseparable from local conditions, practices and experiences. The study was conducted within the Nouna Health District. We used a qualitative approach, and conducted individual semi-structured interviews and group interviews (n = 10). Participants included healthcare workers (n = 19), godmothers (n = 24), pregnant women (n = 19), women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 33), and women of childbearing age (n = 92). Thematic and content qualitative analyses were conducted. Participants expect mHealth to help retrieve patients lost to follow-up, improve maternal care monitoring, and build stronger relationships between pregnant women and primary health centres. Expected benefits are not reducible to a technological realisation (sending messages), but rather point towards a wider network of support. mHealth implementation is expected to present considerable challenges, including technological barriers, organisational challenges, gender issues, confidentiality concerns and unplanned aftereffects. mHealth is also expected to come with intrinsic limitations, to be found as obstacles to maternal care access with which pregnant women are confronted and on which mHealth is not expected to have any significant impact. mHealth expectations appear as situated knowledges, inseparable from local health-related experiences, practices and constraints. This problematises universalistic approaches to mHealth knowledge, while nevertheless hinting at

  17. Protocol for the process evaluation of interventions combining performance-based financing with health equity in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Souares, Aurélia; Lohmann, Julia; Zombré, David; Koulidiati, Jean Louis; Yaogo, Maurice; Hien, Hervé; Hunt, Matthew; Zongo, Sylvie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-10-12

    The low quality of healthcare and the presence of user fees in Burkina Faso contribute to low utilization of healthcare and elevated levels of mortality. To improve access to high-quality healthcare and equity, national authorities are testing different intervention arms that combine performance-based financing with community-based health insurance and pro-poor targeting. There is a need to evaluate the implementation of these unique approaches. We developed a research protocol to analyze the conditions that led to the emergence of these intervention arms, the fidelity between the activities initially planned and those conducted, the implementation and adaptation processes, the sustainability of the interventions, the possibilities for scaling them up, and their ethical implications. The study adopts a longitudinal multiple case study design with several embedded levels of analyses. To represent the diversity of contexts where the intervention arms are carried out, we will select three districts. Within districts, we will select both primary healthcare centers (n =18) representing different intervention arms and the district or regional hospital (n =3). We will select contrasted cases in relation to their initial performance (good, fair, poor). Over a period of 18 months, we will use quantitative and qualitative data collection and analytical tools to study these cases including in-depth interviews, participatory observation, research diaries, and questionnaires. We will give more weight to qualitative methods compared to quantitative methods. Performance-based financing is expanding rapidly across low- and middle-income countries. The results of this study will enable researchers and decision makers to gain a better understanding of the factors that can influence the implementation and the sustainability of complex interventions aiming to increase healthcare quality as well as equity.

  18. Caregiver perceptions and utilization of oral rehydration solution and other treatments for diarrhea among young children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Digre, Peder; Simpson, Evan; Cali, Shannon; Lartey, Belinda; Moodley, Melissa; Diop, Ndack

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 500 000 young children die from dehydration caused by severe diarrhea each year, globally. Although routine use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) could prevent almost all of these deaths, ORS utilization remains low in many low–income countries. Previous research has suggested that misperceptions among caregivers may be an obstacle to wider use of ORS. Methods To better understand the extent of ORS utilization and the reasons for use or non–use in low–resource settings, the project team conducted a semi–structured, quantitative survey of 400 caregivers in Burkina Faso in 2014. All caregivers had a child below the age of five who had diarrhea lasting 2 days or more in the previous 2 months. Results Although more than 80% of caregivers were aware of ORS, less than half reported using it to treat their child’s diarrhea. Replacing fluids lost due to diarrhea was considered a low priority by most caregivers, and many said they considered antibiotics more effective for treating diarrhea. Users and non–users of ORS held substantially different perceptions of the product, though all caregivers tended to follow recommendations of health care workers. A significant proportion of users reported difficulty in getting a child to drink ORS. Costs and access to ORS were not found to be significant barriers to use. Conclusions Misperceptions among caregivers and health workers contribute to low utilization of ORS. Better caregiver understanding of diarrheal disease and the importance of rehydration, as well as increased recommendation by health workers, will help to increase ORS utilization. Improving product presentation and taste will also help to increase use. PMID:27699000

  19. Combining user fees exemption with training and supervision helps to maintain the quality of drug prescriptions in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Atchessi, Nicole; Ridde, Valéry; Haddad, Slim

    2013-09-01

    To improve access to health care services, an intervention was implemented in Burkina Faso granting full exemption from user fees. Two further components, staff training and supervision, were added to support the intervention. Our aim in this study was to examine how this tripartite intervention affected the quality of drug prescriptions. Using a mixed methodology, we first conducted an interrupted time series over 24 months. Nine health centres were studied that had previously undergone a process analysis. A total of 14 956 prescriptions for children 0-4 years old were selected by interval sampling from the visit registries from 1 year before to 1 year after the intervention's launch. We then interviewed 14 prescribers. We used three World Health Organization (WHO) indicators to assess drug prescription quality. Analysis was carried out using linear regression and logistic regression. The prescribers' statements underwent content analysis, to understand their perceptions and changes in their practice since the subsidy's introduction. One effect of the intervention was a reduced use of injections (odd ratio (OR) = 0.28 [0.17; 0.46]) in cases of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) without comorbidity. Another was a reduction in the inappropriate use of antibiotics in malaria without comorbidity (OR = 0.48 [0.33; 0.70]). The average number of drugs prescribed also decreased (coefficient = -0.14 [-0.20; -0.08]) in cases of ALRTI without comorbidity. The prescribers reported that their practices were either maintained or improved. The user fees exemption programme, combined with health staff training and supervision, did not lead to any deterioration in the quality of drug prescriptions.

  20. A qualitative case study of evaluation use in the context of a collaborative program evaluation strategy in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    D'Ostie-Racine, Léna; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-05-26

    Program evaluation is widely recognized in the international humanitarian sector as a means to make interventions and policies more evidence based, equitable, and accountable. Yet, little is known about the way humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) actually use evaluations. The current qualitative evaluation employed an instrumental case study design to examine evaluation use (EU) by a humanitarian NGO based in Burkina Faso. This organization developed an evaluation strategy in 2008 to document the implementation and effects of its maternal and child healthcare user fee exemption program. Program evaluations have been undertaken ever since, and the present study examined the discourses of evaluation partners in 2009 (n = 15) and 2011 (n = 17). Semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview were conducted to identify instances of EU over time. Alkin and Taut's (Stud Educ Eval 29:1-12, 2003) conceptualization of EU was used as the basis for thematic qualitative analyses of the different forms of EU identified by stakeholders of the exemption program in the two data collection periods. Results demonstrated that stakeholders began to understand and value the utility of program evaluations once they were exposed to evaluation findings and then progressively used evaluations over time. EU was manifested in a variety of ways, including instrumental and conceptual use of evaluation processes and findings, as well as the persuasive use of findings. Such EU supported planning, decision-making, program practices, evaluation capacity, and advocacy. The study sheds light on the many ways evaluations can be used by different actors in the humanitarian sector. Conceptualizations of EU are also critically discussed.

  1. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  2. Late introduction and poor diversity were the main weaknesses of complementary foods in a cohort study in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, S P; Yves, Martin-Prével; Claire, Mouquet-Rivier; Alain, Bambara; Alfred, Traoré S; Serge, Trèche; Francis, Delpeuch

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, the complementary feeding period is critical to the growth of children, notably because of inappropriate complementary feeding practices. A longitudinal study was carried out in a food vulnerable area in Burkina Faso to better understand and describe these practices. A cohort of 114 children was followed at the ages of 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 mo. At each visit details on the complementary foods (CF) were recorded and intakes were measured by direct weighing. At 6 mo of age all infants were breastfed and 61% were still breastfed at 24 mo. Infants not receiving any CF were 97% at enrollment, 53% at 9 mo, and 11% at 12 mo (mean age of introduction = 9.2 +/- 1.7 mo). Porridge was the type of CF introduced first (46%) but was of poor diversity; special dishes were less often given but did contain more numerous ingredients. However, less than half of the children received the recommended minimum of four different food groups/d before being 2 y old. At 12 mo and after, more than 75% of the children had at least 3 meals/d. Quantities of CF consumed increased from 133 +/- 121 g/d (19 +/- 17 g per kg of body weight/d) at 9 mo to 480 +/- 237 g/d (49 +/- 25 g/kg/d) at 24 mo (for breastfed children). Late introduction of CF and poor diversity of ingredients, more than quantity of food, were the main weaknesses observed in this context. At least part of these issues can be addressed through educational activities. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of information, education, and communication campaign on a community-based health insurance scheme in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Cofie, Patience; De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI) scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Design Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. Results The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households’ knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: (1) frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels), including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and (2) community heads’ participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. Conclusion The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations. PMID:24314344

  4. Modeling land use change impacts on water resources in a tropical West African catchment (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007, and 2013. A reclassification procedure levels out differences between the classification schemes of the four maps. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during calibration and validation ranged between 0.6 and 0.9 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating a good agreement between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multivariate validation the model was applied to the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The conversion rate of savannah was lower than the annual population growth of 3%. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that are not available for plant growth and human consumption and (ii) an alteration of flood risk for both the population within and

  5. [Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in the pediatric teaching hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo Yugbaré, S O; Ouédraogo, R; Nenebi, A; Traoré, B; Congo, L; Yonli, F; Kima, D; Bonané, P; Yé, D; Plantier, J-C; Vabret, A; Marguet, C; Gueudin, M

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are little known in Burkina Faso. The objective of our work is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of RSV infections in infants in the Pediatric Teaching Hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou. Between July 1(st) 2010 and June 30(th) 2011, we analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR nasopharyngeal swabs from children from 0 to 36 months old. All in all, 210 patients among whom 74 from the external consultation (35.2%) and 136 hospitalized (64.7%) benefited from a nasopharyngeal aspiration. The motives for consultation were cough (91.7%), rhinitis (79.2%), fever (79.2%) and respiratory distress syndrome (66.7%). The evoked diagnoses were predominantly the acute bronchiolitis in 14 cases (58.3%) followed by the acute pulmonary disease in 7 patients (26.2%) then flue in 1 patient (16.7%). We detected by direct immunofluorescence the antigens of the respiratory viruses in 21 nasopharyngeal aspirations with 10 cases of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (47.6%). The PCR realized on 208 samples allowed to identify 153 positive samples (73.2%) with 24 RSV, i.e. a global prevalence of 16.1% with a peak of 18 cases (75%). In October, all the patients benefited from an often multiple antibiotic treatment of at least 10 days which was not still necessary. The evolution was favorable for all patients. This study confirms the important place of the viruses which are detected in 70% of the cases. The PCR multiplex, certainly expensive but effective and successful, deserves to be used in our developing countries to avoid the irrational prescription of antibiotic.

  6. The impacts of land cover change to savannah on the convective rainfall in the southeastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mande, T.; Ceperley, N. C.; Katul, G. G.; Yacouba, H.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Resolving the pathways by which landcover changes impact rainfall occurrences is essential to sustaining ecosystem goods and services in water limited areas such as West Africa (southeastern Burkina Faso) where agriculture is primarily rain-fed. The focus of this work is to investigate the main causes of enhanced rainfall observed over savannah forest versus agricultural areas within this region. These two areas experience similar synoptic scale weather patterns but there are significant differences in land-cover properties. A model for predicting the time evolution of the mixed layer (ML) height as driven by measured sensible heat flux using a thermodynamic encroachment hypothesis was combined with a model for predicting the lifting condensation level (LCL) driven by measured mean air temperature and relative humidity collected above both land-cover types. Measured convective rainfall events from tipping bucket gauges were then identified following the crossing of the LCL and ML heights. The analysis revealed that the crossing of ML and LCL was 30% more frequent above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural area because of increased sensible heat flux and not because of significant differences in LCL heights between the two sites. These enhancements in crossing statistics were commensurate with the 10-30% increases in annual rainfall recorded above the savannah forest when compared to the agricultural site. The probability density function (pdf) of the measured intensity (mm h-1) of the identified convective rainfall events (=x) at both sites scaled as an approximate power given by pdf(x)~xa, where the exponent a=-1.5 was computed for both sites. This exponent is in good agreement with reported exponents for summertime convective rainfall in other regions, lending further confidence in the identification of convective rainfall events here. The biotic (leaf area index) and abiotic (well drained soil) factors causing the enhanced sensible heat flux at

  7. Energy partitioning over the West African savanna: Multi-year evaporation and surface conductance measurements in Eastern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayoko, Fafre; Yonkeu, Samuel; Elbers, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2007-02-01

    SummarySeasonal variability of the energy partitioning was analyzed with a combination of eddy fluxes of sensible and latent heat and weather data on intensely farmed land in the savanna area of Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa. The analysis covers two rainy seasons (May-October 2003 and 2004), one dry season (December-April 2004), one dry to wet transition period (May-June 2004) and two wet to dry transition periods (October-November 2003 and 2004). This is the first long-term flux measurement reported upon for this part of the world. The inter-annual partitioning of the available energy between the latent heat (actual evaporation) and sensible heat flux shows a conservative relationship between a decrease in annual rainfall (33%) and the sum of the increase in sensible heat flux (20%) and decrease in latent heat flux (10%). The latent heat flux was the main consumer of the available energy during the rainy season (71%), while sensible heat flux was dominant during the dry season (77%). In terms of the rainy season water balance, 1229 mm of rainfall was observed in 2003, of which 351 mm evaporated, while 825 mm of rainfall was observed in 2004, of which 268 mm evaporated. During the dry season, the latent heat flux was strongly coupled to the atmosphere, with the decoupling coefficient ( Ω) ranging from 0.18 to 0.4. These low values were due to low soil moisture availability and high vapor pressure deficit (VPD > 4 kPa). During the rainy season, the latent heat flux was decoupled from the atmosphere (0.6 ⩽ Ω < 0.9). Following this pattern of coupling and decoupling, a new formulation of actual evaporation and surface conductance was proposed. The results are thought to be relevant inputs for eco-hydrological models in the semi-arid region of West Africa.

  8. Quality of antenatal and childbirth care in rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Duysburgh, Els; Temmerman, Marleen; Yé, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of an intervention consisting of a computer-assisted clinical decision support system and performance-based incentives, aiming at improving quality of antenatal and childbirth care. Intervention study in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, six intervention and six non-intervention PHC facilities, located in one intervention and one non-intervention rural districts, were selected. Quality was assessed in each facility by health facility surveys, direct observation of antenatal and childbirth care, exit interviews, and reviews of patient records and maternal and child health registers. Findings of pre- and post-intervention and of intervention and non-intervention health facility quality assessments were analysed and assessed for significant (P < 0.05) quality of care differences. Post-intervention quality scores do not show a clear difference to pre-intervention scores and scores at non-intervention facilities. Only a few variables had a statistically significant better post-intervention quality score and when this is the case this is mostly observed in only one study-arm, being pre-/post-intervention or intervention/non-intervention. Post-intervention care shows similar deficiencies in quality of antenatal and childbirth care and in detection, prevention, and management of obstetric complications as at baseline and non-intervention study facilities. Our intervention study did not show a significant improvement in quality of care during the study period. However, the use of new technology seems acceptable and feasible in rural PHC facilities in resource-constrained settings, creating the opportunity to use this technology to improve quality of care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Norovirus and rotavirus survival in urine collected from a public ecological sanitation system in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Makaya, Joseph M; Kaplon, Jérôme; Fremy, Céline; Barro, Nicolas; Aho, Serge; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël; Traoré, Alfred S

    2015-03-01

    Urine from urine-diversion toilets (UDTs) is routinely used as fertilizer for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Because urine from UDTs can be accidentally spoiled by feces, we determined whether virulent enteric viruses could persist in urine that is used for agricultural purposes and pose a threat to human health. Urine samples (N = 60) were first collected from 42 UDTs during the months of January and February 2012 in Ouagadougou and screened negative for the presence of norovirus (NoV) and group A rotavirus (RV). Composite urine from five collection sites was used to determine whether spiked murine norovirus (MNV) and group A bovine rotavirus (boRVA) could remain infectious at 15, 25, and 42 °C over an incubation period of 42 days in phosphate buffered saline (control) and urine. For both viruses, infectivity was determined by plaque assay and the presence of viral genome was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. A decrease in the infectious titer was observed in composite urines that were experimentally seeded with MNV and boRVA. The decrease in the infectious titer was greater for MNV than for boRVA. Given that MNV was more labile to urine than boRVA was, MNV and boRVA genomes were still detectable after the 42 and 49 days incubation period for MNV and boRVA, respectively. Our data using substitutes of human NoV and RV suggested that there is a virucidal activity of urine against RVs and NoVs, given that the effect was lesser for RV. In spite of disappointing results for boRVA, the use of urine as fertilizer is still promising provided that future safety studies are extended to other enteric viruses.

  10. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-11-01

    Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control cysticercosis infection.

  11. Carbon monoxide concentrations in outdoor wood-fired kitchens in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso--implications for women's and children's health.

    PubMed

    Thorsson, Sofia; Holmer, Björn; Andjelic, Andreas; Lindén, Jenny; Cimerman, Sandra; Barregard, Lars

    2014-07-01

    A majority of households in developing countries rely on biomass fuel for cooking, typically burned in open fires or simple stoves. The incomplete combustion of these fuels causes adverse health effects such as respiratory diseases, especially among women and children. However, quantitative data on pollution levels and on associated diseases are limited. We examined cooking habits and self-reported health in 31 households with outdoor open wood fires in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, using structured interviews. In eight households, carbon monoxide (CO) was measured using passive sampling. In addition, meteorology and ambient CO concentrations were assessed. The average CO concentration during cooking was 4.3 ppm, with a maximum of 65.3 ppm and minimum of 0.3 ppm (1-min values). A clear daily pattern was observed, with relatively low concentrations during the day and high during the evening, occasionally exceeding the World Health Organization 1- and 8-h guidelines when the air stabilised. On average, CO concentrations were 43 % higher in kitchens located in closed yards than in those located in open yards, showing that fireplace location affected the levels. Eye irritation and coughing among women and children were reported by 30 % of the households. Based on previously reported relations between CO concentrations and fine particles (<2.5 μm), the exposure to biomass smoke appears to be high enough to pose a considerable health risk among women and children in households with outdoor open wood fires. The results suggest that burning should be limited between sunset and dawn and in areas with limited ventilation to reduce pollutions levels.

  12. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their poten