Science.gov

Sample records for burn rate catalysts

  1. Theoretical Study on Nano-Catalyst Burn Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-26

    energetic materials, within this project the computer aided design and property prediction of titania -based nano-catalysts have been performed using first...AP molecule are equal to 1.52 eV and 0.88 eV, respectively. The stronger interaction is associated with the presence of OH group on titania surface

  2. Synthesis of ethylene diamine-based ferrocene terminated dendrimers and their application as burning rate catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zain-Ul-Abdin; Wang, Li; Yu, Haojie; Saleem, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Khalid, Hamad; Abbasi, Nasir M; Yang, Xianpeng

    2017-02-01

    Ferrocene-based derivatives are widely used as ferrocene-based burning rate catalysts (BRCs) for ammonium perchlorate (AP)-based propellant. However, in long storage, small ferrocene-based derivatives migrate to the surface of the propellant, which results in changes in the designed burning parameters and finally causes unstable combustion. To retard the migration of ferrocene-based BRCs in the propellant and to increase the combustion of the solid propellant, zero to third generation ethylene diamine-based ferrocene terminated dendrimers (0G, 1G, 2G and 3G) were synthesized. The synthesis of these dendrimers was confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of 0G, 1G, 2G and 3G was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the burning rate catalytic activity of 0G, 1G, 2G and 3G on thermal disintegration of AP was examined by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Anti-migration studies show that 1G, 2G and 3G exhibit improved anti-migration behavior in the AP-based propellant.

  3. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  4. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  5. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  6. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  7. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  8. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  9. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  10. Burning Rate Transitions for HMX Burned as a Binderless Propellant,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    have shown that the regression attains velocities up to 6000 cm/s at high pressure , with pressure exponents as low as 0.3, depending on sample...base of the charge, extremely high burn rate propellant (several thou- sand cm/s or more depending on gun pressure and muzzle velocity desired) is...experiments were carried out, the calculated flame heights range from 17 to 700 cm, depending on particle size and pressure . Thus, it is not surprising that

  11. High-pressure burning rate studies of solid rocket propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, A. I.; Ford, K. P.; Wheeler, C. J.

    2013-03-01

    Increased rocket motor performance is a major driver in the development of solid rocket propellant formulations for chemical propulsion systems. The use of increased operating pressure is an option to improve performance potentially without the cost of reformulation. A technique has been developed to obtain burning rate data across a range of pressures from ambient to 345 MPa. The technique combines the use of a low loading density combustion bomb with a high loading density closed bomb technique. A series of nine ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellants were used to demonstrate the use of the technique, and the results were compared to the neat AP burning rate "barrier". The effect of plasticizer, oxidizer particle size, catalyst, and binder type were investigated.

  12. The Combustion of HMX. [burning rate at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.; Price, C. F.; Atwood, A. I.; Zurn, D. E.; Eisel, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The burn rate of HMX was measured at high pressures (p more than 1000 psi). The self deflagration rate of HMX was determined from 1 atmosphere to 50,000 psi. The burning rate shows no significant slope breaks.

  13. Effects of propellant composition variables on acceleration-induced burning-rate augmentation of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    This work was conducted to define further the effects of propellant composition variables on the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation of solid propellants. The rate augmentation at a given acceleration was found to be a nonlinear inverse function of the reference burning rate and not controlled by binder or catalyst type at a given reference rate. A nonaluminized propellant and a low rate double-base propellant exhibited strong transient rate augmentation due to surface pitting resulting from the retention of hot particles on the propellant surface.

  14. Initial fuel temperature effects on burning rate of pool fire.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lu, Shou-Xiang; Li, Chang-Hai; Kang, Quan-Sheng; Lecoustre, Vivien

    2011-04-15

    The influence of the initial fuel temperature on the burning behavior of n-heptane pool fire was experimentally studied at the State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (SKLFS) large test hall. Circular pool fires with diameters of 100mm, 141 mm, and 200 mm were considered with initial fuel temperatures ranging from 290 K to 363 K. Burning rate and temperature distributions in fuel and vessel wall were recorded during the combustion. The burning rate exhibited five typical stages: initial development, steady burning, transition, bulk boiling burning, and decay. The burning rate during the steady burning stage was observed to be relatively independent of the initial fuel temperature. In contrast, the burning rate of the bulk boiling burning stage increases with increased initial fuel temperature. It was also observed that increased initial fuel temperature decreases the duration of steady burning stage. When the initial temperature approaches the boiling point, the steady burning stage nearly disappears and the burning rate moves directly from the initial development stage to the transition stage. The fuel surface temperature increases to its boiling point at the steady burning stage, shortly after ignition, and the bulk liquid reaches boiling temperature at the bulk boiling burning stage. No distinguished cold zone is formed in the fuel bed. However, boiling zone is observed and the thickness increases to its maximum value when the bulk boiling phenomena occurs.

  15. Effect of structure of energetic materials on burning rate

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelzang, A.E.; Sinditskii, V.P.; Egorshev, V.Y.; Serushkin, V.V.

    1996-07-01

    Data on the steady-state combustion in a constant-pressure bomb at 0.1--40 MPa are presented for energetic materials from the following classes: metal salts of organic explosive acids, salts of organic bases with inorganic oxidizing acids, explosive coordination compounds, and endothermic polynitrogen compounds. For combustion of salts of organic bases with oxidizing acids it has been found that an increase in the oxidant redox potential, whose value serves as an estimate of the oxidizer reactivity, causes the burning rate value to increase. The same tendency has been disclosed for explosive coordination compounds which can formally be considered as metal-containing analogs of the salts of organic bases with oxidizing acids. The introduction of a metal atom in an organic explosive acid has been shown to result generally in an enhancement of the burning rate, with the effectiveness of the metal as the combustion catalyst being dependent not only on the nature of the metal but on its position in the molecule as well. Neither the nature of the metal, nor the nature and structure of the ligand really affects the combustion of coordination compounds of metal azides, whose combustion occurs at the expense of the heat produced in the decomposition process. All the coordination azides seem to have the same rate-limiting stage, namely, the decomposition of the intermediate HN{sub 3} and differ from one another by their burning temperatures. The similar behavior is also characteristic of metalless analogs of the coordination azides: salts of HN{sub 3} with amines.

  16. Burning Rate Studies of HMX Propellants at High Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    propellant burning should take place rather than HMX burning. The compounds selected for evaluation were: Melting Point Boiling Point (0C) (0 C) acetanilide ... Acetanilide and phenylsulfone, the two very la,, melting cxnpounds, greatly suppressed the KV exotherm peak (rigue 3). However, this change in the TV...Percent IM (Class A/E, 70/30), 2 Percent Additive] Phenyl Hydro- Additive None Acetanilide Anthracene Sulfone Quinone Pressure (Psi) Burning Rate @ 70

  17. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and

  18. Advanced digital methods for solid propellant burning rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel A.

    The work presented here is a study of a digital method for determining the combustion bomb burning rate of a fuel-rich gas generator propellant sample using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The advanced digital method, which places user defined limits on the search for the ultrasonic echo from the burning surface, is computationally faster than the previous cross correlation method, and is able to analyze data for this class of propellant that the previous cross correlation data reduction method could not. For the conditions investigated, the best fit burning rate law at 800 psi from the ultrasonic technique and advanced cross correlation method is within 3 percent of an independent analysis of the same data, and is within 5 percent of the best fit burning rate law found from parallel research of the same propellant in a motor configuration.

  19. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  20. A Burning Rate Emulator (BRE) for Study in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markan, A.; Sunderland, P. B.; Quintiere, J. G.; DeRis, J.; Stocker, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    A gas-fueled burner, the Burning Rate Emulator (BRE), is used to emulate condensed-phase fuel flames. The design has been validated to easily measure the burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels by igniting a controlled stream of gas fuel and diluent. Four properties, including the heat of combustion, the heat of gasification, the surface temperature, and the laminar smoke point, are assumed to be sufficient to define the steady burning rate of a condensed-phase fuel. The heat of gasification of the fuel is determined by measuring the heat flux and the fuel flow rate. Microgravity BRE tests in the NASA 5.2 s drop facility have examined the burning of pure methane and ethylene (pure and 50 in N2 balance). Fuel flow rates, chamber oxygen concentration and initial pressure have been varied. Two burner sizes, 25 and 50 mm respectively, are chosen to examine the nature of initial microgravity burning. The tests reveal bubble-like flames that increase within the 5.2s drop but the heat flux received from the flame appears to asymptotically approach steady state. Portions of the methane flames appear to locally detach and extinguish at center, while its shape remains fixed, but growing. The effective heat of gasification is computed from the final measured net heat flux and the fuel flow rate under the assumption of an achieved steady burning. Heat flux (or mass flux) and flame position are compared with stagnant layer burning theory. The analysis offers the prospect of more complete findings from future longer duration ISS experiments.

  1. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates.

    PubMed

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

    2014-09-23

    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks.

  2. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates

    PubMed Central

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30–500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks. PMID:25201981

  3. A model for the burning rates of composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical model of the steady-state burning of composite solid propellants is presented. An improved burning rate model is achieved by incorporating an improved AP monopropellant model, a separate energy balance for the binder in which a portion of the diffusion flame is used to heat the binder, proper use of the binder regression rate in the model, and a model for the combustion of the energetic binder component of CMDB propellants. Also, an improved correlation and model of aluminum agglomeration is developed which properly describes compositional trends.

  4. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-10-29

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  5. Rates of dysfunction in parents of pediatric patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Kendall-Grove; Ehde, D M; Patterson, D R; Johnson, V

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the rates of family and child dysfunction in a prospectively, consecutively admitted sample of children. One hundred eleven parents of children consecutively admitted for burn treatment were interviewed using a demographic questionnaire during their child's stay. Results of the questionnaire indicated that in 36% of the families, at least one parent reported significant dysfunction (history of substance abuse, involvement with Child Protective Services, incarceration, or psychiatric history). Results also indicated that 29% of the children over the age of 4 years had significant dysfunction (physical or sexual abuse, or both, psychiatric disorder, behavior problems, or learning disability. It was concluded that (1) parents of children with burns had a substantially high rate of dysfunction, (2) psychologic and preventive interventions should be focused on parents as well as children, and (3) burn injuries often should be regarded as a symptom rather than a cause of psychosocial problems in the family.

  6. Solid Propellant Burn Rate Modifiers Based on Reactive Nanocomposite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-26

    increase in the burn rate over a broad range of pressures achieved with replacement of only 5 % of aluminum in aluminized propellant with new...current high performance aluminized HTPB propellants. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...rate over a broad range of pressures achieved with replacement of only 5 % of aluminum in aluminized propellant with new materials. Furthermore

  7. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-06-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  8. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  9. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... if signs of infection develop. These signs include: Drainage or pus from the burned skin Fever Increased pain Red streaks spreading from the burn Swollen lymph nodes Also call a provider right away if ...

  10. Flame surface density and burning rate in premixed turbulent flames

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, I.G.

    1995-10-01

    The flame surface density has been measured in hydrocarbon/air stagnation point and v-shaped premixed turbulent flames. A method is proposed to determine the flame surface density from the data obtained by laser sheet tomography. The average flame length and flame zone area as a function of the progress variable are calculated from a map of progress variable and a set of flame edges obtained from the tomographs. From these results a surface density estimate in two dimensions is determined. By this technique it is possible to avoid the difficulties which arise when using an algebraic model based on the measurement of the flame front geometry and a scalar length scale. From these results the burning rate can be obtained which compares well with estimates calculated using the fractal technique. The present method, however, is not constrained by a minimum window size as is the case for the fractal determinations.

  11. Effect of pressure on rate of burning /decomposition with flame/ of liquid hydrazine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine decomposition process to determine what chemical or physical changes may be occurring that cause breaks in burning rate/ pressure curves, measuring flame temperature and light emission

  12. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fairweather, M.; Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W.; Woolley, R.

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  13. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock, and even death. They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of the ...

  14. High-Pressure Burning Rate Studies of Solid Rocket Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    due to unstable burning in this pressure regime and a critical dependence on the method of data reduction. The burning becomes more stable at pressures ... depends only on pressure and propellant temperature. 2. Heat losses from the bomb are minimal. 3. The equation of state for the gases is known...to obtain the thermochemical parameters of impetus, covolume , temperature, and speci¦c heat as a function of pressure for the propellants. The

  15. BURNING RATES OF SOLID COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS AT PRESSURES UP TO 20,000 PSIG

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Strand burning rates of ammonium perchlorate-containing composite propellants having plastisol -nitrocellulose, carboxyl-terminated-polybutadiene, and...little effect on the pressure-dependence of the burning rate at high pressure. The pressure exponents of plastisol -nitrocellulose formulations reach

  16. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  17. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  18. Burn rates of pristine and degraded explosives at elevated temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, J B; Maienschein, J L

    1998-08-10

    We measure the Laminar burn rates of explosives at extreme conditions (up to 520K and 1 GPa) in a hybrid strand burner, to provide reaction rate data for prediction of violence of thermal response. Data from a series of HMX-based explosives show that explosives with high binder content (15 wt%) burn smoothly over the entire pressure range regardless of particle size, while explosives with less binder eventually transition to a rapid erratic burn 10-100 times faster. When heated to ~ 440K, an HMX formulation with fine particles and 15% binder exhibits different burning behav- ior depending on the details of the temperature-pressure history, apparently as a result of the {beta} {yields} {delta} phase transition in HMX. Burn rates can be increased by 1000-fold under certain conditions.

  19. Burning rate of merged pool fire on the hollow square tray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changjian; Guo, Jin; Ding, Yanming; Wen, Jennifer; Lu, Shouxiang

    2015-06-15

    In order to characterize fire merging, pool fires on hollow trays with varying side lengths were burned under quasi-quiescent condition and in a wind tunnel with the wind speed ranging from 0m/s to 7.5m/s. Burning rate and flame images were recorded in the whole combustion process. The results show that even though the pool surface area was kept identical for hollow trays of different sizes, the measured burning rates and fire evolutions were found to be significantly different. Besides the five stages identified by previous studies, an extra stage, fire merging, was observed. Fire merging appeared possibly at any of the first four stages and moreover resulted in 50-100% increases of the fire burning rates and heights in the present tests. The tests in wind tunnel suggested that, as the wind speed ranges from 0 m/s to 2 m/s, the burning rates decrease. However with further increase of the wind speed from 2 m/s to 7.5 m/s, the burning rate was found to increase for smaller hollow trays while it remains almost constant for larger hollow trays. Two empirical correlations are presented to predict critical burning rate of fire merging on the hollow tray. The predictions were found to be in reasonably good agreement with the measurements.

  20. A miniscale ballistic test motor for propellant burning rate characterization from one motor firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Robert H.; Boyles, Sharon M.; Obney, Phyllis

    1992-07-01

    A mini ballistic test motor for burn rate characterization from one motor firing has been developed. The small charge weight required for this motor allows ballistic characterization of small scale lot set evaluation and R&D propellant mixes in a rocket motor environment. This paper presents results comparing the mini-motor to the standard Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (IHDIVNAVSURFWARCEN) ballistic test motor, (BTM). Burn rate data from the standard BTM and mini BTM show excellent agreement.

  1. Deuterium Isotope Effects During HMX Combustion: Chemical Kinetic Burn Rate Control Mechanism Verified

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    propellant contain- controls the I-IMX burn rate in the pressure range cited. The ing a chemically modified double base ( CMDB ) high oxygen 1.41 KDIE...controlling the observed overall or global burn rate of the could expect from the deuterium labeled HMX methylene HMX/ CMDB composite propellant. It is...measured in the HMX/ CMDB system. A graphic representa- densed phase KDIE investigation of thermochemical decom- non of one cornposic HMX binder

  2. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-averaged values to represent FC for whole

  3. Strand Burn Rates of Black Powder to One Hundred Atmospheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Mechanism of SUper-Pate Burning of CataZtaed Double Base PropeZlant.," Report No. AMS 1087, Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Sciences, Pinceton University...so often reported as affecting response, is proportional to its density. This author is guided by A. Kirshenbaum’s 7K. White and R. &azeee...Development laboratory ATTN: ATSH-CD-CSO-OR Ames Research Center Fort Benning, GA 31905 Moffett Field , CA 94035 J 29 - DISTRXBITITO1l LIST No. Of No. Of

  4. Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-11-08

    As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

  5. Enhancement in Rate of Photocatalysis Upon Catalyst Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Sorathiya, Kalpesh; Mishra, Biswajit; Kalarikkal, Abhishek; Reddy, Kasala Prabhakar; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S.; Khushalani, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Recyclability is an important aspect for heterogeneous photo-catalysts. Ease of recovery and stability of the photo-catalyst in terms of efficiency over the number of cycles are highly desired and in fact it is ideal if the efficiency is constant and it should not decrease marginally with each cycle. Presented here is a seminal observation in which the photocatalytic activity is shown to improve with increasing number of catalytic cycles (it is 1.7 times better after the 1st cycle and 3.1 times better after the 2nd cycle). Specifically, nanorods of pure TiO2 and TiO2 doped with controlled amount of tungsten have been used to degrade two model pollutants: Phenol and Rhodamine B under exclusive visible light illumination. It was found that, in case of 1 mol.% W incorporation, rate of photocatalysis and also the range of visible light absorption of the photocatalyst increased after the photocatalysis as compared to before photocatalysis. This aspect is unique for doped TiO2 and hence provides an intriguing way to mitigate low photoactivity. PMID:27731347

  6. Enhancement in Rate of Photocatalysis Upon Catalyst Recycling.

    PubMed

    Sorathiya, Kalpesh; Mishra, Biswajit; Kalarikkal, Abhishek; Reddy, Kasala Prabhakar; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S; Khushalani, Deepa

    2016-10-12

    Recyclability is an important aspect for heterogeneous photo-catalysts. Ease of recovery and stability of the photo-catalyst in terms of efficiency over the number of cycles are highly desired and in fact it is ideal if the efficiency is constant and it should not decrease marginally with each cycle. Presented here is a seminal observation in which the photocatalytic activity is shown to improve with increasing number of catalytic cycles (it is 1.7 times better after the 1(st) cycle and 3.1 times better after the 2(nd) cycle). Specifically, nanorods of pure TiO2 and TiO2 doped with controlled amount of tungsten have been used to degrade two model pollutants: Phenol and Rhodamine B under exclusive visible light illumination. It was found that, in case of 1 mol.% W incorporation, rate of photocatalysis and also the range of visible light absorption of the photocatalyst increased after the photocatalysis as compared to before photocatalysis. This aspect is unique for doped TiO2 and hence provides an intriguing way to mitigate low photoactivity.

  7. Enhancement in Rate of Photocatalysis Upon Catalyst Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorathiya, Kalpesh; Mishra, Biswajit; Kalarikkal, Abhishek; Reddy, Kasala Prabhakar; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S.; Khushalani, Deepa

    2016-10-01

    Recyclability is an important aspect for heterogeneous photo-catalysts. Ease of recovery and stability of the photo-catalyst in terms of efficiency over the number of cycles are highly desired and in fact it is ideal if the efficiency is constant and it should not decrease marginally with each cycle. Presented here is a seminal observation in which the photocatalytic activity is shown to improve with increasing number of catalytic cycles (it is 1.7 times better after the 1st cycle and 3.1 times better after the 2nd cycle). Specifically, nanorods of pure TiO2 and TiO2 doped with controlled amount of tungsten have been used to degrade two model pollutants: Phenol and Rhodamine B under exclusive visible light illumination. It was found that, in case of 1 mol.% W incorporation, rate of photocatalysis and also the range of visible light absorption of the photocatalyst increased after the photocatalysis as compared to before photocatalysis. This aspect is unique for doped TiO2 and hence provides an intriguing way to mitigate low photoactivity.

  8. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  9. Reaction rate and composition dependence of the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Heger, A.

    2014-06-01

    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a 10 times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of 3α and the hot-CNO breakout reactions {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne and {sup 18}Ne(α, p){sup 21}Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor 10 decrease of the {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depending on the true {sup 15}O(α, γ){sup 19}Ne reaction rate, the actual discrepancy may be substantially larger. We find that the width of the interval of accretion rates with marginally stable burning depends strongly on both composition and reaction rates. Furthermore, close to the stability transition, our models predict that X-ray bursts have extended tails where freshly accreted fuel prolongs nuclear burning.

  10. Effective helium burning rates and the production of the neutrino nuclei.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sam M; West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander

    2014-03-21

    Effective values for the key helium burning reaction rates, triple-α and (12)C(α, γ)(16)O, are obtained by adjusting their strengths so as to obtain the best match with the solar abundance pattern of isotopes uniquely or predominately made in core-collapse supernovae. These effective rates are then used to determine the production of the neutrino isotopes. The use of effective rates considerably reduces the uncertainties in the production factors arising from uncertainties in the helium burning rates, and improves our ability to use the production of B11 to constrain the neutrino emission from supernovae.

  11. Plasma physics effects on thermonuclear burn rate in the presence of hydrodynamic mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua; Kagan, Grigory; McDevitt, Christopher; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic mix can significantly degrade thermonuclear burn rate in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Successful mitigation requires a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms by which mix affects burn. Here we summarize the roles of three distinct plasma physics effects on burn rate. The first is the well-known effect of enhanced thermal energy loss from the hot spot and the mitigating role of self-generated or externally-applied magnetic field. The second is the fuel ion separation via inter-species ion diffusion driven by the powerful thermodynamic forces exacerbated by mix during the implosion process. The third is the fusion reactivity modification by fast ion transport in a mix-dominated ICF target, where hot plasma is intermingled with cold fuel.

  12. Health professionals' and consumers' opinion: what is considered important when rating burn scars from photographs?

    PubMed

    Simons, Megan; Tyack, Zephanie

    2011-01-01

    With advances in wound care technology, there is a trend toward patients undertaking specialist burns treatment in an outpatient capacity. Photographic scar evaluation is a part of this trend in some health services because it permits scar assessment by different health professionals, both within and across outpatient services, to assess the impact of scar management strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the parameters considered integral to scar assessment when completing photographic scar evaluation. First, opinions were sought from 38 burn health professionals in 2 tertiary pediatric hospitals who participated in focus groups where in-person and in-photograph scar rating were completed using three burn scar rating scales (modified Vancouver scar scale, Manchester scar scale, and patient and observer scar assessment scale) presented with a standard format and instructions. Second, 36 occupational therapists and physiotherapists from Australia and New Zealand completed questionnaires. Third, 10 healthcare consumers from 1 tertiary pediatric hospital participated in face-to-face or telephone interviews. Parameters believed to be assessed using photographic evaluation of burns scarring were vascularity, surface area, color, contour, height, and overall opinion. However, surface area was considered questionable as an indicator of scar maturity. These parameters mostly differ from those considered important in a burn scar outcome measure when rating scars in-person: height/thickness, vascularity, color, pliability, joint function, and patient/client opinion. A categorical scale with visual descriptors, as well as specific strategies to improve photographic technique, may go some way to addressing the perceived difficulty in rating these parameters using burn scar photographs.

  13. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0.017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0.15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0.38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0.38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Alumina-supported catalysts for the catalytic purification of lean-burn automobile exhaust].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian-le; Hao, Ji-ming; Fu, Li-xin; Wang, Jian-xin; Li, Jun-hua; Liu, Zhi-ming; Cui, Xiang-yu

    2004-05-01

    Catalytic properties of Ag/Al2O3, In/Al2O3, Sn/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3, Pt/Al2O3 and a two-stage catalyst composed of Ag/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3 were investigated for the selective reduction of NO by C3H6 or C2H5OH in excess oxygen. The Ag/Al2O3 showed the highest NO reduction activity among the catalysts studied. A substantial amount of CO was formed over alumina-based transient metal oxides. HC and CO oxidations over Pt/Al2O3 occurred in relatively low temperatures, compared with the other catalysts. The sequential use of Ag/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3 was effective to broaden the temperature window for the reduction of NO, to improve oxidation of HC and CO and to inhibit the formation of N2O and CH3CHO.

  15. Origins of initiation rate differences in ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts containing chelating benzylidenes.

    PubMed

    Engle, Keary M; Lu, Gang; Luo, Shao-Xiong; Henling, Lawrence M; Takase, Michael K; Liu, Peng; Houk, K N; Grubbs, Robert H

    2015-05-06

    A series of second-generation ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts was investigated using a combination of reaction kinetics, X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations in order to determine the relationship between the structure of the chelating o-alkoxybenzylidene and the observed initiation rate. Included in this series were previously reported catalysts containing a variety of benzylidene modifications as well as four new catalysts containing cyclopropoxy, neopentyloxy, 1-adamantyloxy, and 2-adamantyloxy groups. The initiation rates of this series of catalysts were determined using a UV/vis assay. All four new catalysts were observed to be faster-initiating than the corresponding isopropoxy control, and the 2-adamantyloxy catalyst was found to be among the fastest-initiating Hoveyda-type catalysts reported to date. Analysis of the X-ray crystal structures and computed energy-minimized structures of these catalysts revealed no correlation between the Ru-O bond length and Ru-O bond strength. On the other hand, the initiation rate was found to correlate strongly with the computed Ru-O bond strength. This latter finding enables both the rationalization and prediction of catalyst initiation through the calculation of a single thermodynamic parameter in which no assumptions about the mechanism of the initiation step are made.

  16. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2012-08-01

    is considered "the burning continent". Our new modelling results, together with existing literature, indicate that no definitive conclusions can be drawn about unprecedentedly high or low biomass burning rates from current data analyses.

  17. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2013-01-01

    ; satellite data indicates that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even in Africa, which is considered "the burning continent". Although we have not considered increased charcoal burning or changes in OH concentrations as potential causes for the elevated CO concentrations found at SPO, it is unlikely they can explain the large increase found in the CO concentrations in ice core data. Confirmation of the CO ice core data would therefore call for radical new thinking about causes of variable global fire rates over recent centuries.

  18. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    2014-12-30

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  19. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  20. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  1. Impact of oxidation catalysts on exhaust NO2/NOx ratio from lean-burn natural gas engines.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Daniel B; Kohls, Morgan; Arney, Gregg

    2010-07-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted from internal combustion engines are composed primarily of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exhaust from most combustion sources contains NOx composed primarily of NO. There are two important scenarios specific to lean-burn natural gas engines in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be significant: (1) when the engine is operated at ultralean conditions and (2) when an oxidation catalyst is used. Large NO2/NOx ratios may result in additional uncertainty in NOx emissions measurements because the most common technique (chemiluminescence) was developed for low NO2/NOx ratios. In this work, scenarios are explored in which the NO2/NOx ratio can be large. Additionally, three NOx measurement approaches are compared for exhaust with various NO2/NOx ratios. The three measurement approaches are chemiluminescence, chemical cell, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A portable analyzer with chemical cell technology was found to be the most accurate for measuring exhaust NOx with large NO2/NOx ratios.

  2. An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward

    1999-12-01

    By performing this experiment, students in general and introductory physical chemistry can learn more about the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction. This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy. This experiment is designed so that students will notice that the amount of catalyst used is important. Furthermore, the slight amount (~10-5 M MoO42-) of catalyst needed to increase the overall reaction rate and the abrupt color change that occurs seem to pique the interest of our students.

  3. NOx abatement in the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas engines over Ag-supported γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Y.; Kambolis, A.; Boréave, A.; Giroir-Fendler, A.; Retailleau-Mevel, L.; Guiot, B.; Marchand, O.; Walter, M.; Desse, M.-L.; Marchin, L.; Vernoux, P.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ag catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3, including two different γ-Al2O3 supports and various Ag loadings (2-8 wt.%), was prepared, characterized (SEM, TEM, BET, physisorption, TPR, NH3-TPD) and tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by CH4 for lean-burn natural gas engines exhausts. The catalysts containing 2 wt.% Ag supported on γ-Al2O3 were found to be most efficient for the NOx reduction into N2 with a maximal conversion of 23% at 650 °C. This activity was clearly linked with the ability of the catalyst to concomitantly produce CO, via the methane steam reforming, and NO2. The presence of small AgOx nanoparticles seems to be crucial for the methane activation and NOx reduction.

  4. The influence of fuel mass load, oxygen supply and burning rate on emission factor and size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter from indoor corn straw burning

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bing; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainty in emission estimation is strongly associated with the variation in emission factor which could be influenced by a variety of factors, like fuel property, stove type, fire management and even methods used in measurements. The impacts of these factors were usually complicated and often interacted with each other. In the present study, controlled burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel mass load, air supply and burning rate on the emission of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) from indoor corn straw burning. Their impacts on PM size distribution were also studied. The results showed that EFs of PM (EFPM), organic carbon (EFOC) and element carbon (EFEC) was independent of the fuel mass load. The differences among them under different burning rates or air supply amounts were also found to be insignificant (p > 0.05) in the tested circumstances. PM from the indoor corn straw burning was dominated by fine PM, and PM with diameter less than 2.1 μm contributed about 86.4±3.9% of the total. The size distribution of PM was also influenced by the burning rate and changed air supply conditions. On average, EFPM, EFOC and EFEC for corn straw burned in a residential cooking stove were 3.84±1.02, 0.846±0.895 and 0.391±0.350 g/kg, respectively. EFPM, EFOC and EFEC were found to be positively correlated with each other, but they were not significantly correlated with EF of co-emitted CO, suggesting a special attention should be paid to the use of CO acting as a surrogate for other incomplete pollutants. PMID:23923424

  5. Evaluation of magnesium-aluminum eutectic to improve combustion efficiency in low burning rate propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, B. G.; Sullivan, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that combustion efficiency of low burning-rate propellants could be improved if the aluminum fuel was replaced by aluminum particles coated with a magnesium-aluminum eutectic alloy (ALCAL). The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the possibility of improving the combustion efficiency of these propellants by admixing the eutectic with the aluminum rather than coating the aluminum. Tests of three propellants similar in every respect except for the metal fuel were conducted in test motors with 4.54 kg (10 lbm) of propellant. The first propellant used aluminum fuel; the second contained aluminum admixed with magnesium-aluminum eutectic; the third used ALCAL. The test results show the the admixed fuel gave better low burning-rate combustion efficiency than the other two. The test results also showed that the ALCAL was deficient in that much, if not all, of the coating material could be found as the fine particles in a bimodal mix of aluminum and eutectic. The combustion efficiency of low burning-rate aluminized propellants can be significantly improved by mixing a small amount of magnesium-aluminum alloy with the aluminum fuel.

  6. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  7. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chèze, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Jenichen, B.; Riechert, H.

    2010-10-01

    The catalyst- and self-induced pathways of GaN nanowire growth by molecular beam epitaxy are compared. The catalyst-induced nanowires elongate faster than the self-induced ones and their growth rate is fully determined by the impinging N rate. The self-induced nanowire growth rate is identical on both Si(111) and Si(001) and approaches the impinging N rate only for the few longest nanowires. This difference is attributed to the presence of the Ni-catalyst which enhances the incorporation of Ga at the nanowire tip while for the self-induced nanowires, growth is limited by the different incorporation rates on the nanowire tip and sidewall facets.

  9. Rate-equation model for multi-mode semiconductor lasers with spatial hole burning.

    PubMed

    Lenstra, Daan; Yousefi, Mirvais

    2014-04-07

    We present a set of rate equations for the modal amplitudes and carrier-inversion moments that describe the deterministic multi-mode dynamics of a semiconductor laser due to spatial hole burning. Mutual interactions among the lasing modes, induced by high- frequency modulations of the carrier distribution, are included by carrier-inversion moments for which rate equations are given as well. We derive the Bogatov effect of asymmetric gain suppression in semiconductor lasers and illustrate the potential of the model for a two and three-mode laser by numerical and analytical methods.

  10. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  11. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  12. Predicted and Measured Effects of Pressure and Crossflow Velocity on Composite Propellant Burning Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    7~ SIECUq, ry CL AS51 FICATION Oir TIS1 PAGE II sitenlea.F e’ j -.,REPOR OUEt ibtRPA E" REA~D ISRC~iNS [)~)REP Auq 2I GOVT ACCESSION No. 3...crassflow veloCity’ oil propellant burning rate has beon developed and used P (over) DD I "j’ TA 4 1473 EDITION Of I NIOV465 It 01119LCI UNCLASSIFIEID q55_7...unreasonable. With substitution of (12) into (11), one finds: FH90= kQ p (dp 2 sin0) kiip dp 2 (13)•.sin0 as in the case of no crossflow. However, this

  13. THE IMPACT OF HELIUM-BURNING REACTION RATES ON MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander; Austin, Sam M. E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu

    2013-05-20

    We study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O and 3{alpha} reaction rates, denoted R{sub {alpha},12} and R{sub 3{alpha}}, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A = 16-40) and the s-only isotopes along the weak s-process path ({sup 70}Ge, {sup 76}Se, {sup 80}Kr, {sup 82}Kr, {sup 86}Sr, and {sup 87}Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R{sub 3{alpha}} and R{sub {alpha},12} of {+-}25%; the s-only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R{sub 3{alpha}} than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R{sub 3{alpha}}(R{sub {alpha},12}) is approximately {+-}10%({+-}25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  14. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  15. A compact, rugged, high repetition rate CO2 laser incorporating catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarzenberger, P. M.; Matzangou, X.

    1990-01-01

    The principal design features and operating characteristics of a high repetition rate CO2 laser are outlined. The laser is a compact, rugged unit, completely sealed and incorporating an unheated solid catalyst. Stable operation has been successfully demonstrated over a temperature range of -35 C to 65 C.

  16. Fischer Tropsch synthesis : influence of Mn on the carburization rates and activities of Fe-based catalysts by TPR-EXAFS/XANES and catalyst testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, M. C.; Jacobs, G.; Pendyala, R.; Davis, B. H.; Cronauer, D. C.; Kropf, A. J.; Marshall, C. L.

    2011-03-24

    Fe-based catalysts containing different amounts of Mn were tested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a stirred tank reactor at 270 C, 1.21 MPa, and H{sub 2}:CO = 0.7. Catalyst activation by carburization with 10% CO/He was followed by Temperature Programmed Reduction/X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TPR-EXAFS/XANES) from room temperature to 300 C. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into iron carbides, whereas MnO{sub x} was reduced to oxygen deficient MnO. Mn hindered Fe carburization, such that the carburized catalyst displayed higher Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content than the catalyst without Mn. EXAFS fitting indicates that the carburized catalyst contained a mixture of Hgg carbide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Mn oxides. Increasing Mn content led to higher CH{sub 4} and light product selectivities, and lower light olefin selectivities. Higher and stable conversions were obtained with a catalyst containing an almost equimolar Fe/Mn ratio relative to the catalyst without Mn. Selectivity trends are attributed to the higher WGS rates observed on the FeMn catalysts, consistent with the structural differences observed.

  17. Thermal behaviors, nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, thermal safety and burning rates of BTATz-CMDB propellant.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Cheng; Hu, Rong-Zu; Ren, Ying-Hui; Xu, Si-Yu; Xu, Kang-Zhen; Ren, Xiao-Ning

    2010-09-15

    The composite modified double base (CMDB) propellants (nos. RB0601 and RB0602) containing 3,6-bis (1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl-amino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (BTATz) without and with the ballistic modifier were prepared and their thermal behaviors, nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, thermal safety and burning rates were investigated. The results show that there are three mass-loss stages in TG curve and two exothermic peaks in DSC curve for the BTATz-CMDB propellant. The first two mass-loss stages occur in succession and the temperature ranges are near apart, and the decomposition peaks of the two stages overlap each other, inducing only one visible exothermic peak appear in DSC curve during 350-550 K. The reaction mechanisms of the main exothermal decomposition processes of RB0601 and RB0602 are all classified as chemical reaction, the mechanism functions are f(alpha)=(1-alpha)(2), and the kinetic equations are dalpha/dt = 10(19.24)(1-alpha)(2)e(-2.32x10(4)/T) and dalpha/dt = 10(20.32)(1-alpha)(2)e(-2.32x10(4)/T). The thermal safety evaluation on the BTATz-CMDB propellants was obtained. With the substitution of 26% RDX by BTATz and with the help of the ballistic modifier in the CMDB propellant formulation, the burning rate can be improved by 89.0% at 8 MPa and 47.1% at 22 MPa, the pressure exponent can be reduced to 0.353 at 14-20 MPa.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of CO-oxidation catalysts for high repetition rate CO2 TEA lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Thomas P.

    1990-01-01

    An extremely active class of noble metal catalysts supported on titania was developed and fabricated at Hughes for the recombination of oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in closed-cycle CO2 TEA lasers. The incipient wetness technique was used to impregnate titania and alumina pellets with precious metals including platinum and palladium. In particular, the addition of cerium (used as an oxygen storage promoter) produced an extremely active Pt/Ce/TiO2 catalyst. By comparison, the complementary Pt/Ce/ gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was considerably less active. In general, chloride-free catalyst precursors proved critical in obtaining an active catalyst while also providing uniform metal distributions throughout the support structure. Detailed characterization of the Pt/Ce/TiO2 catalyst demonstrated uniform dendritic crystal growth of the metals throughout the support. Electron spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) analysis was used to characterize the oxidation states of Pt, Ce and Ti. The performance of the catalysts was evaluated with an integral flow reactor system incorporating real time analysis of O2 and CO. With this system, the transient and steady-state behavior of the catalysts were evaluated. The kinetic evaluation was complemented by tests in a compact, closed-cycle Hughes CO2 TEA laser operating at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz with a catalyst temperature of 75 to 95 C. The Pt/Ce/TiO2 catalyst was compatible with a C(13)O(16)2 gas fill.

  19. Experimental Methodology for Estimation of Local Heat Fluxes and Burning Rates in Steady Laminar Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay V; Gollner, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided.

  20. Experimental Methodology for Estimation of Local Heat Fluxes and Burning Rates in Steady Laminar Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay V.; Gollner, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided. PMID:27285827

  1. Use of Crystalline Boron as a Burn Rate Retardant Toward the Development of Green-Colored Handheld Signal Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Table 1 M125A1 baseline formulation Components Weight, % Barium Nitrate 46 Magnesium 30=50 33 Polyvinyl Chloride 16 Laminac 4116=Lupersol 5 Crystalline... polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a known color enhancer and participated as a chlorine donor during the combustion process. Another reason for the utilization...Boron as a Burn Rate Retardant toward the Development of Green- Colored Handheld Signal Formulations Jesse J. Sabatini a , Jay C. Poret a & Russell N

  2. Convective Heat Transfer Scaling of Ignition Delay and Burning Rate with Heat Flux and Stretch Rate in the Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    To better evaluate the buoyant contributions to the convective cooling (or heating) inherent in normal-gravity material flammability test methods, we derive a convective heat transfer correlation that can be used to account for the forced convective stretch effects on the net radiant heat flux for both ignition delay time and burning rate. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone heater to minimize buoyant effects while at the same time providing a forced stagnation flow on the sample, which ignites and burns as a ceiling fire. Ignition delay and burning rate data is correlated with incident heat flux and convective heat transfer and compared to results from other test methods and fuel geometries using similarity to determine the equivalent stretch rates and thus convective cooling (or heating) rates for those geometries. With this correlation methodology, buoyant effects inherent in normal gravity material flammability test methods can be estimated, to better apply the test results to low stretch environments relevant to spacecraft material selection.

  3. Oxygen additive amount dependence of rate of photoresist removal by H radicals generated on a tungsten hot-wire catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Umemoto, Hironobu; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Shikama, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Takashi; Horibe, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    We examined an environmentally friendly photoresist removal method using radicals produced by decomposing mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen on a hot tungsten catalyst. The photoresist removal rate increased with the oxygen additive amount (the flow rate ratio of oxygen to hydrogen) up to an optimal amount and then decreased gradually. When the catalyst temperature was 1600 °C, the optimal oxygen additive amount was 1.0% and the removal rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the pure hydrogen system. At 2000 °C, the optimal amount increased to 2.5% but the increase ratio decreased by 1.3 times. At high catalyst temperatures, the absolute removal rate as well as the optimal oxygen additive amount is high, but the increase ratio is low. At the optimal oxygen additive amount, H, O, and OH radicals may exert their effects together to decompose photosensitive polymers.

  4. Self-deflagration rates of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). [burning tate, thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.; Price, C. F.; Zurn, D. E.; Atwood, A. I.; Eisel, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability and resistance to impact was investigated for the ingredient TABA. Particular attention was given to determining the use of TABA as a possible alternative ingredient or substitute for HMX in explosives and high energy propellants. The burn rate of TABA was investigated as a function of pressure. It was concluded that the self deflagration rate of TABA is an order of magnitude lower than HMX over the range 2000-15000 psi; TABA will not sustain self deflagration at low pressures (less than or equal to 1500 psi) in the sample configuration and apparatus used.

  5. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  6. Comparison of iso-octane burning rates between single-phase and two-phase combustion for small droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Lawes, M.; Lee, Y.; Marquez, N.

    2006-02-01

    Two-phase combustion is a widespread mechanism of energy conversion that is of practical importance in gas turbines, diesel and spark ignition engines, furnaces, and hazardous environments. However, the exploration of important parameters in combustion systems of practical application is difficult, due to the multiplicity of dependent variables. In the present work, combustion rates of well-defined droplet suspensions of iso-octane have been measured using techniques employed for gaseous combustion. This required a full characterization of the aerosols produced in the combustion apparatus, which determined that the maximum droplet size produced was around 30 {mu}m. Comparisons of two-phase with single-phase laminar mixtures suggest that there were negligible differences in the burning velocity of an aerosol and a gaseous mixture at the same overall equivalence ratio and similar conditions for iso-octane. At high stretch rates, flames remained smooth and droplet enhancement was negligible. However, at lower rates of stretch, both gaseous and aerosol flames became unstable and cellular, and this cellularity, in some cases, increased the burning rate. The values of Markstein length measured for aerosol flames had trends similar to those for gaseous-phase mixtures (Markstein length decreased with equivalence ratio), but were lower than in gaseous combustion. The values of Markstein length in aerosol flames also decreased with liquid equivalence ratio and/or Sauter mean diameter. All this indicates a higher tendency to instabilities in aerosol flames compared to gaseous combustion. A qualitative explanation for the lower values of Markstein length in aerosol combustion is given. It is suggested in the present work that aerosol flames became unstable, and hence had faster burning rates, under conditions that would not result in unstable gaseous flames. Comparisons, qualitative and in terms of dimensionless groups, of two-phase with single-phase turbulent combustion also

  7. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  8. High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, Bryce C; Mason, Benjamin A

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

  9. Turnover rate, reaction order, and elementary steps for the hydrodechlorination of chlorofluorocarbon compounds on palladium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Rioux, R.M.; Chen, N.; Ribeiro, F.H.

    2000-04-13

    The rates of hydrodechlorination catalyzed by Pd supported on carbon for four chlorofluorocarbons spanned a range of 7 orders of magnitude. The rates scaled up to the bond strength of the carbon-chlorine bond for the gas-phase reactant. This finding demonstrates that the rate-determining step involves the scission of the C-Cl bond and suggests, through Polanyi and linear free-energy relationships, that rates for other compounds can be estimated if the C-Cl bond strength is known. The reaction orders for the most abundant products are approximately first-order for the chlorine-containing compound, half-order in H{sub 2}, and inverse first-order in HCl. The reaction steps consistent with these orders include a rate-determining step involving the adsorption of the chlorofluorocarbon to a single site (which could be a single surface palladium atom) and equilibrated steps between gas-phase H{sub 2}, gas-phase HCl, and adsorbed hydrogen and chlorine atoms. The rates on the supported catalysts are comparable to the ones reported before on a Pd foil, indicating that the support does not play a role in the reaction. The product distribution is independent of conversion, implying that the various products are formed from a single visit of the reactant on the surface and not from readsorption of gas-phase products. The four compounds studied were chloropentafluoroethane (CF{sub 3}-CF{sub 2}Cl), 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CF{sub 3}-CFClH), 1,1-dichlorotetrafluoroethane (CF{sub 3}-CFCl{sub 2}), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (CF{sub 3}-CCl{sub 3}).

  10. Modeling rates of life form cover change in burned and unburned alpine heathland subject to experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Camac, James S; Williams, Richard J; Wahren, Carl-Henrik; Jarrad, Frith; Hoffmann, Ary A; Vesk, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Elevated global temperatures are expected to alter vegetation dynamics by interacting with physiological processes, biotic relationships and disturbance regimes. However, few studies have explicitly modeled the effects of these interactions on rates of vegetation change, despite such information being critical to forecasting temporal patterns in vegetation dynamics. In this study, we build and parameterize rate-change models for three dominant alpine life forms using data from a 7-year warming experiment. These models allowed us to examine how the interactions between experimental warming, the abundance of bare ground (a measure of past disturbance) and neighboring life forms (a measure of life form interaction) affect rates of cover change in alpine shrubs, graminoids and forbs. We show that experimental warming altered rates of life form cover change by reducing the negative effects of neighboring life forms and positive effects of bare ground. Furthermore, we show that our models can predict the observed direction and rate of life form cover change at burned and unburned long-term monitoring sites. Model simulations revealed that warming in unburned vegetation is expected to result in increased forb and shrub cover and decreased graminoid cover. In contrast, in burned vegetation, warming is predicted to slow post-fire regeneration in both graminoids and forbs and facilitate rapid expansion in shrub cover. These findings illustrate the applicability of modeling rates of vegetation change using experimental data. Our results also highlight the need to account for both disturbance and the abundance of other life forms when examining and forecasting vegetation dynamics under climatic change.

  11. Ultrasonic measurements of burning rates in full-size rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurabayashi, H.; Sato, A.; Yamashita, K.; Nakayama, H.; Hori, K.; Honda, M.; Hasegawa, K.

    2011-10-01

    A new ultrasonic sounding technique to measure the instantaneous propellant thickness in a solid rocket motor has been developed and was used successfully in the static firing tests with full-size motors. The technique applies a low-frequency ultrasonic wave (50 or 100 kHz) [1, 2]. Sets of transducers were installed in the motor case using magnets, with each set comprising a transmitter/receiver and receivers. Transducer installation required careful setup to maintain good acoustic coupling between each transducer and motor case and to withstand the harsh vibrations of the environment. Time histories were obtained for the propellant thickness at various locations during the burning tests. This paper presents in detail the ultrasonic sounding and installation techniques and the results obtained.

  12. Experimental study on burning rates of square/rectangular gasoline and methanol pool fires under longitudinal air flow in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Hu, L H; Liu, S; Peng, W; Huo, R

    2009-09-30

    Square pool fires with length of 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm and rectangular pool fires with dimensions of 10 cm x 20 cm and 10 cm x 40 cm were burned in a wind tunnel, under a longitudinal air flow ranged from 0 to 3m/s with incremental change of about 0.5m/s. Methanol and gasoline were burned and compared, with results indicated that their burning rates showed different response to the longitudinal air flow. With the increase of the longitudinal air flow speed, the burning rates of methanol pool fires, except the 5 cm square one, first decreased and then increased, but those of the 5 cm methanol square one and the gasoline pool fires increased monotonously. The burning rate of smaller square pool fires increased more significantly than that of the larger ones, as well as the enlargement of their flame attachment length along the ground. The burning rate of a rectangular pool fire with longer rim parallel to the longitudinal flow increased faster, but the flame attachment length seemed to increase more gradually, with the increase of the longitudinal air flow speed than that perpendicular to.

  13. The effectiveness of session rating of perceived exertion to monitor resistance training load in acute burns patients.

    PubMed

    Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Gittings, Paul M; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2017-02-01

    Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a method frequently utilised in exercise and sports science to quantify training load of an entire aerobic exercise session. It has also been demonstrated that session-RPE is a valid and reliable method to quantify training load during resistance exercise, in healthy and athletic populations. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of session-RPE as a method to quantify exercise intensity during resistance training in patients with acute burns. Twenty burns patients (mean age=31.65 (±10.09) years), with a mean TBSA of 16.4% (range=6-40%) were recruited for this study. Patients were randomly allocated to the resistance training (n=10) or control group (n=10). All patients completed a four week resistance training programme. Training load (session-RPE×session duration), resistance training session-volume and pre-exercise pain were recorded for each exercise session. The influence of; age, gender, %TBSA, exercise group (resistance training vs. control), pre-exercise pain, resistance training history and session-volume on training load were analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Session-volume did not influence training load in the final regression model, however training load was significantly greater in the resistance training group, compared with the control group (p<0.001). Pre-exercise pain significantly influenced training load, where increasing pain was associated with a higher session-RPE (p=0.004). Further research is indicated to determine the exact relationship between pain, resistance training history, exercise intensity and session-RPE and training load before it can be used as a method to monitor and prescribe resistance training load in acute burns patients.

  14. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  15. Enclosure fire hazard analysis using relative energy release criteria. [burning rate and combustion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A method for predicting the probable course of fire development in an enclosure is presented. This fire modeling approach uses a graphic plot of five fire development constraints, the relative energy release criteria (RERC), to bound the heat release rates in an enclosure as a function of time. The five RERC are flame spread rate, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclosure volume, and total fuel load. They may be calculated versus time based on the specified or empirical conditions describing the specific enclosure, the fuel type and load, and the ventilation. The calculation of these five criteria, using the common basis of energy release rates versus time, provides a unifying framework for the utilization of available experimental data from all phases of fire development. The plot of these criteria reveals the probable fire development envelope and indicates which fire constraint will be controlling during a criteria time period. Examples of RERC application to fire characterization and control and to hazard analysis are presented along with recommendations for the further development of the concept.

  16. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Puglia, S. M. R.

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  17. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ≤60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion.

  18. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  19. Burn Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs - Fire and Burn Prevention - - Fire Safe Kids - - Senior Smoke Alarm Program - - National Scald Campaign - - Community Services - Burn Survivor Support - - Camp Beyond the Scars - - Retreats - - Burn Survivor & Caregiver Support Groups - - Scholarship Program - - Emergency Needs & Special Assistance Fund - - Red ...

  20. Accelerating the initial rate of hydrolysis of methyl parathion with laser excitation using monolayer protected 10 nm Au nanoparticles capped with a Cu(bpy) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Trammell, Scott A; Nita, Rafaela; Moore, Martin; Zabetakis, Dan; Chang, Eddie; Knight, D Andrew

    2012-04-28

    Using a low power green laser, we have demonstrated a rate acceleration of ~2-fold for the hydrolysis of methyl parathion by irradiating the plasmon absorption band of Au nanoparticles capped with a Cu(bpy) catalyst.

  1. Homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous inorganic/organic particles representative of biomass burning: water activity, freezing temperatures, nucleation rates.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Daniel A; Rigg, Yannick J

    2011-02-10

    Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. Here we report on homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients of aqueous droplets serving as surrogates of biomass burning aerosol. Micrometer-sized (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/levoglucosan droplets with mass ratios of 10:1, 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 and aqueous multicomponent organic droplets with and without (NH(4))(2)SO(4) under typical tropospheric temperatures and relative humidities are investigated experimentally using a droplet conditioning and ice nucleation apparatus coupled to an optical microscope with image analysis. Homogeneous freezing was determined as a function of temperature and water activity, a(w), which was set at droplet preparation conditions. The ice nucleation data indicate that minor addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to the aqueous organic droplets renders the temperature dependency of water activity negligible in contrast to the case of aqueous organic solution droplets. The mean homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient derived from 8 different aqueous droplet compositions with average diameters of ∼60 μm for temperatures as low as 195 K and a(w) of 0.82-1 is 2.18 × 10(6) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with predictions of the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory when taking predictive uncertainties into account. However, the presented ice nucleation data indicate that the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory overpredicts the freezing temperatures by up to 3 K and corresponding ice nucleation rate coefficients by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude. A shift of 0.01 in a(w), which is well within the uncertainty of typical field and laboratory relative humidity measurements, brings experimental and predicted freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice

  2. β -decay rate of 59Fe in shell burning environment and its influence on the production of 60Fe in a massive star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. A.; Lam, Y. H.; Qi, C.; Tang, X. D.; Zhang, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    We deduced the stellar β -decay rate of 59Fe at typical carbon-shell burning temperature by taking the experimental Gamow-Teller transition strengths of the 59Fe excited states. The result is also compared with those derived from large-scale shell model calculations. The new rate is up to a factor of 2.5 lower than the theoretical rate of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (FFN) and up to a factor of 5 higher than decay rate of Langanke and Martínez-Pinedo (LMP) in the temperature region 0.5 ≤T ≤2 GK. We estimated the impact of the newly determined rate on the synthesis of cosmic γ emitter 60Fe in C-shell burning and explosive C/Ne burning using a one-zone model calculation. Our results show that 59Fe stellar β decay plays an important role in 60Fe nucleosynthesis, even though the uncertainty of the decay rate is rather large due to the error of B (GT) strengths.

  3. Carborane Burning Rate Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-20

    octyne, 1-pentyne and 5-chloro-l-pentyne) are much smaller than those of the less electrophilic acetylenes. - The values of AHt reflect the... fluorine containing derivatives (III) and (V) were prepared by re- acting (I) and (II) with excess PF5 in hexane. Thus, 0.0032 moles of the carborane

  4. Impacts of Biomass Burning on the Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa and Associated Alteration of Local Emission Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major anthropogenic event in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), which contributes 15-20% of the global annual total of particulate matter emissions from fires. This burning is mostly for agricultural, grazing or hunting purposes, and thus has a great potential for driving changes in the land use and land cover distribution in that region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have two complimentary data products to support this research: the MOD14/MYD14 active fire products measuring fire locations and strengths, and the MCD12 land cover type product, which includes the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover classification system used in this analysis. More specifically, the MCD12Q1 tiled data product at 500 m was used to match against the 1 km active fire product resolution for the current analysis. Paired data between instantaneous fire measurements and the underlying land cover types for the particular year over the study period of 2003-2013 reveals a dominant burning of savanna, followed by cropland land cover type throughout the region. There are a few indications of the interchange between savanna and cropland due to burning practices. Even though the fire activity in the whole NSSA region is decreasing at a rate of 1.4%/yr during the study period, some land cover types in parts of NSSA show an increase, including local increases in sensitive land cover types such as forest and wetland, which could have serious ecological implications. The changes in the overall redistribution of biomass burning amongst the different land cover types in NSSA dictate that there is also a redistribution of biomass burning emissions. The extent of these changes will also be covered in this presentation.

  5. Synchronizing Substrate Activation Rates in Multicomponent Reactions with Metal-Organic Framework Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Díaz, Lina María; Iglesias, Marta; Snejko, Natalia; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles

    2016-05-04

    A study on the influence of the cation coordination number, number of Lewis acid centers, concurrent existence of Lewis base sites, and structure topology on the catalytic activity of six new indium MOFs, has been carried out for multicomponent reactions (MCRs). The new indium polymeric frameworks, namely [In8 (OH)6 (popha)6 (H2 O)4 ]⋅3 H2 O (InPF-16), [In(popha)(2,2'-bipy)]⋅3 H2 O (InPF-17), [In3 (OH)3 (popha)2 (4,4'-bipy)]⋅4 H2 O (InPF-18), [In2 (popha)2 (4,4'-bipy)2 ]⋅3 H2 O (InPF-19), [In(OH)(Hpopha)]⋅0.5 (1,7-phen) (InPF-20), and [In(popha)(1,10-phen)]⋅4 H2 O (InPF-21) (InPF=indium polymeric framework, H3 popha=5-(4-carboxy-2-nitrophenoxy)isophthalic acid, phen=phenanthroline, bipy=bipyridine), have been hydrothermally obtained by using both conventional heating (CH) and microwave (MW) procedures. These indium frameworks show efficient Lewis acid behavior for the solvent-free cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds, the one pot Passerini 3-component (P-3CR) and the Ugi 4-component (U-4CR) reactions. In addition, InPF-17 was found to be a highly reactive, recyclable, and environmentally benign catalyst, which allows the efficient synthesis of α-aminoacyl amides. The relationship between the Lewis base/acid active site and the catalytic performance is explained by the 2D seven-coordinated indium framework of the catalyst InPF-17. This study is an attempt to highlight the main structural and synthetic factors that have to be taken into account when planning a new, effective MOF-based heterogeneous catalyst for multicomponent reactions.

  6. Ambiguities in the rate of oxygen formation during stellar helium burning in the 12C(α,γ) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2013-12-01

    The rate of oxygen formation determines the C/O ratio during stellar helium burning. It is the single most important nuclear input in stellar evolution theory, including the evolution of type II and type Ia supernova. However, the low-energy cross section of the fusion of 4He +12C, denoted as the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction, still remains uncertain. I analyze and critically review the most recent measurements of complete angular distributions of the outgoing γ rays at very low energies (Ec.m.≥1.0 MeV). My analysis of the angular distributions measured with the EUROGAM/GANDI arrays leads to considerably larger error bars than have been published, which excludes them from the current sample of “world data.” I show that the current sample of “world data” of the measured E2 cross-section factors below 1.7 MeV cluster into two distinct groups that lead to two distinct extrapolations: SE2(300)≈60 or SE2(300)≈154 keVb. There is a discrepancy between the measured E1-E2 phase difference (ϕ12) and unitarity as required by the Watson theorem, which suggests systematic problem(s) in some of the measured γ-ray angular distributions. The ambiguity of the extrapolated SE2(300) together with the previously observed ambiguity of SE1(300) (approximately 80 or 10 keVb) must be resolved by future measurements of complete and detailed angular distributions of the 12C(α,γ) reaction at very low energies (Ec.m.≤1.0 MeV).

  7. Cooking-related pediatric burns: risk factors and the role of differential cooling rates among commonly implicated substances.

    PubMed

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Boshart, Kimberly; Coleman, Alan; Wishnew, Jenna; Hester, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Cooking-related injuries are a common problem worldwide, resulting in more pediatric burns than any other cause. We identified risk factors-associated mechanisms and determined cooling curves for common substances. A retrospective review of children admitted to a Level I burn center between 2001 and 2006 was performed. Variables including injury mechanism, age, sex, race, burn area, length of stay, and outcome were recorded. Commonly implicated substances were identified, and cooling curves for each were measured at room temperature. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for cooking injury. A total of 541 pediatric burn patients were admitted, of whom 123 had cooking-related injuries. Common substances involved included soup (27%), grease (26%), coffee (18%), beans (9%), and menudo (2.3%), a traditional Mexican soup based on tripe, hominy, and chile. Children with cooking injuries were significantly younger than other groups, with a mean age of 2.7 years. The most common mechanism was the child pulling the substance down from a height, accounting for nearly half of all injuries. This resulted in a characteristic scald pattern involving a wide area across chest and shoulders narrowing to a point near the pelvis. The average burn area was 7%, associated with a hospital stay of 4 days and mortality below 1%. Analysis of cooling curves revealed surprising variation in heat retention, with semisolid or high-density liquids posing a markedly increased burn risk. Cooking injuries predominantly affect toddlers, with clearly recognized mechanisms and risk factors. Injury prevention measures should be targeted accordingly.

  8. Amorphous molybdenum sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Hu, Xile

    2014-08-19

    Providing energy for a population projected to reach 9 billion people within the middle of this century is one of the most pressing societal issues. Burning fossil fuels at a rate and scale that satisfy our near-term demand will irreversibly damage the living environment. Among the various sources of alternative and CO2-emission-free energies, the sun is the only source that is capable of providing enough energy for the whole world. Sunlight energy, however, is intermittent and requires an efficient storage mechanism. Sunlight-driven water splitting to make hydrogen is widely considered as one of the most attractive methods for solar energy storage. Water splitting needs a hydrogen evolution catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrogen production and to lower the energy loss in this process. Precious metals such as Pt are superior catalysts, but they are too expensive and scarce for large-scale applications. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and application of amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The catalysts can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition under ambient conditions from readily available and inexpensive precursors. The catalytic activity is among the highest for nonprecious catalysts. For example, at a loading of 0.2 mg/cm(2), the optimal catalyst delivers a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 160 mV. The growth mechanism of the electrochemically deposited film catalysts was revealed by an electrochemical quartz microcrystal balance study. While different electrochemical deposition methods produce films with different initial compositions, the active catalysts are the same and are identified as a "MoS(2+x)" species. The activity of the film catalysts can be further promoted by divalent Fe, Co, and Ni ions, and the origins of the promotional effects have been probed. Highly active amorphous molybdenum sulfide particles can also be prepared

  9. Burn Wise

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  10. The combustion of large particles of char in bubbling fluidized beds: The dependence of Sherwood number and the rate of burning on particle diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.; Scott, S.A.

    2006-11-15

    Particles of char derived from a variety of fuels (e.g., biomass, sewage sludge, coal, or graphite), with diameters in excess of {approx}1.5mm, burn in fluidized bed combustors containing smaller particles of, e.g., sand, such that the rate is controlled by the diffusion both of O{sub 2} to the burning solid and of the products CO and CO{sub 2} away from it into the particulate phase. It is therefore important to characterize these mass transfer processes accurately. Measurements of the burning rate of char particles made from sewage sludge suggest that the Sherwood number, Sh, increases linearly with the diameter of the fuel particle, d{sub char} (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). This linear dependence of Sh on d{sub char} is expected from the basic equation Sh=2{epsilon}{sub mf}(1+d{sub char}/2{delta}{sub diff})/{tau}, provided the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer, {delta}{sub diff}, is constant in the region of interest (d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). Such a dependence is not seen in the empirical equations currently used and based on the Frossling expression. It is found here that for chars made from sewage sludge (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm), the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer in a fluidized bed, {delta}{sub diff}, is less than that predicted by empirical correlations based on the Frossling expression. In fact, {delta}{sub diff} is not more than the diameter of the fluidized sand particles. Finally, the experiments in this study indicate that models based on surface renewal theory should be rejected for a fluidized bed, because they give unrealistically short contact times for packets of fluidized particles at the surface of a burning sphere. The result is the new correlation Sh = 2{epsilon}{sub mf}/{tau} + (A{sub cush}/A{sub char})(d{sub char}/ {delta}{sub diff}) for the dependence of Sh on d{sub char}, the diameter of a burning char particle. This equation is based on there being a gas-cushion of fluidizing gas underneath a

  11. An Examination of Binder Systems and Their Influences on Burn Rates of High-Nitrogen Containing Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Defense spends tens of billions of dollars annually on per- chlorate remediation efforts. Therefore, efforts to elimi- nate perchlorate from military...develop per- chlorate -free formulations of the M126A1 red star para- chute. To maximize the performance of these formula- tions, KClO4 was replaced...replacement (Table 3). As detailed in Table 4, the burn time of the per- chlorate -containing baseline outperformed all Laminac 4116/Lupersol-based

  12. Catalyst mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Rosen, Brian A.

    2017-02-14

    Catalysts that include at least one catalytically active element and one helper catalyst can be used to increase the rate or lower the overpotential of chemical reactions. The helper catalyst can simultaneously act as a director molecule, suppressing undesired reactions and thus increasing selectivity toward the desired reaction. These catalysts can be useful for a variety of chemical reactions including, in particular, the electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2 or formic acid. The catalysts can also suppress H.sub.2 evolution, permitting electrochemical cell operation at potentials below RHE. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts are also disclosed, including processes to produce CO, OH.sup.-, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, O.sub.2, H.sub.2, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  13. The role of a dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on H2-production catalysts: influence on catalytic rates and electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Reback, Matthew L; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Jain, Avijita; Squier, Thomas C; Raugei, Simone; Roberts, John A S; Shaw, Wendy J

    2013-02-04

    The outer-coordination sphere of enzymes acts to fine-tune the active site reactivity and control catalytic rates, suggesting that incorporation of analogous structural elements into molecular catalysts may be necessary to achieve rates comparable to those observed in enzyme systems at low overpotentials. In this work, we evaluate the effect of an amino acid and dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on [Ni(P(Ph)(2)N(Ph-R)(2))(2)](2+) hydrogen production catalysts. A series of 12 new complexes containing non-natural amino acids or dipeptides was prepared to test the effects of positioning, size, polarity and aromaticity on catalytic activity. The non-natural amino acid was either 3-(meta- or para-aminophenyl)propionic acid terminated as an acid, an ester or an amide. Dipeptides consisted of one of the non-natural amino acids coupled to one of four amino acid esters: alanine, serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine. All of the catalysts are active for hydrogen production, with rates averaging ∼1000 s(-1), 40 % faster than the unmodified catalyst. Structure and polarity of the aliphatic or aromatic side chains of the C-terminal peptide do not strongly influence rates. However, the presence of an amide bond increases rates, suggesting a role for the amide in assisting catalysis. Overpotentials were lower with substituents at the N-phenyl meta position. This is consistent with slower electron transfer in the less compact, para-substituted complexes, as shown in digital simulations of catalyst cyclic voltammograms and computational modeling of the complexes. Combining the current results with insights from previous results, we propose a mechanism for the role of the amino acid and dipeptide based outer-coordination sphere in molecular hydrogen production catalysts.

  14. The Role of a Dipeptide Outer-Coordination Sphere on H2 -Production Catalysts: Influence on Catalytic Rates and Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Reback, Matthew L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Jain, Avijita; Squier, Thomas C.; Raugei, Simone; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2013-02-04

    The outer-coordination sphere of enzymes acts to fine-tune the active site reactivity and control catalytic rates, suggesting that incorporation of analogous structural elements into molecular catalysts may be necessary to achieve rates comparable to those observed in enzyme systems at low overpotentials. In this work, we evaluate the effect of an amino acid and dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on [Ni(PPh2NPh-R2)2]2+ hydrogen production catalysts. A series of 12 new complexes containing non-natural amino acids or dipeptides were prepared to test the effects of positioning, size, polarity and aromaticity on catalytic activity. The non-natural amino acid was either 3-(meta- or para-aminophenyl)propionic acid terminated as an acid, an ester or an amide. Dipeptides consisted of one of the non-natural amino acids coupled to one of four amino acid esters: alanine, serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine. All of the catalysts are active for hydrogen production, with rates averaging ~1000 s-1, 40% faster than the unmodified catalyst. Structure and polarity of the aliphatic or aromatic side chains of the C-terminal peptide do not strongly influence rates. However, the presence of an amide bond increases rates, suggesting a role for the amide in assisting catalysis. Overpotentials were lower with substituents at the N-phenyl meta position. This is consistent with slower electron transfer in the less compact, para-substituted complexes, as shown in digital simulations of catalyst cyclic voltammograms and computational modeling of the complexes. Combining the current results with insights from previous results, we propose a mechanism for the role of the amino acid and dipeptide based outer-coordination sphere in molecular hydrogen production catalysts.

  15. The Influence of Fuel Moisture, Charge Size, Burning Rate and Air Ventilation Conditions on Emissions of PM, OC, EC, Parent PAHs, and Their Derivatives from Residential Wood Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; TAO, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Controlled combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel charge size, moisture, air ventilation and burning rate on the emission factors (EFs) of carbonaceous particulate matter, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives from residential wood combustion in a typical brick cooking stove. Measured EFs were found to be independent of fuel charge size, but increased with increasing fuel moisture. Pollution emissions from a normal burning under an adequate air supply condition were the lowest for most pollutants, while more pollutants were emitted when the oxygen deficient atmosphere was formed in stove chamber during fast burning. The impact of these 4 factors on particulate matter size distribution was also studied. Modified combustion efficiency and the four investigated factors explained 68, 72, and 64% of total variations in EFs of PM, organic carbon, and oxygenated PAHs, respectively, but only 36, 38 and 42% of the total variations in EFs of elemental carbon, pPAHs and nitro-PAHs, respectively. PMID:24520723

  16. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  17. Burn rates of TiH2/KClO4/Viton and output testing of NASA SKD26100098-301 pressure cartridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holy, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The burn rates of the pyrotechnic TiH2/KClO4/Viton with a mass ratio of 30/65/5 have been measured as a function of pressure in nitrogen up to 312 MPa(45 Kpsi). The burn rates were fit to R = a pn, with a = 2.055 cm/sec/MPan and n = 0.472 between 0.15 MPa (22 psi) and 21.6 MPa (3.13 Kpsi) and a = 4.38 cm/sec/MPan and n = 0.266 between 70 MPa (10.15 Kpsi) and 312 MPa (45.25 Kpsi). The decrease in slope at the higher pressures is attributed to a diffusion limited reaction. No acoustically driven flame instabilities or large conductive-to-convective burn transitions were observed. Solid reaction products were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction detected only TiO2 and KC1. SEM showed that the particle size of the reaction products increased as the nitrogen pressure increased. There were no anomalous characteristics of the burn of this pyrotechnic that could be interpreted as a cause of the o-ring blow-by problem in the forward shear bolt assembly. Three NASA SKD26100098-301 pressure cartridges were fired into a fixed volume vessel that was sealed with an O-ring. A maximum pressure of 181.7 MPa(26,350 psi) was reached in around 100 ,mu sec for two shots fired into a volume of 16.3 cm3(0.996 in3). A maximum pressure of 33,460 psi was reached for one shot fired into a volume of 9.55 cm3(0.583 in3). The O-ring burned through on one shot in the larger volume and leaked on the other two thereby simulating the effects of an O-ring leak. The results imply that the piston in the shear bolt assembly would receive a large impulse even if there was a leak in an O-ring seal.

  18. Four-man rated dual catalyst system for the recovery of water from urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The catalytic system was integrated with a 4-man rated urine wick evaporator. During operation, urine vapor produced by the wick-evaporator was treated in the catalytic system to remove ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons, and water was recovered by condensation in a water cooled condenser. The system operated completely automatically and required no manual adjustments, except periodic supply of urine and removal of the recovered water. Although the system was designed for treating 0.325 kg urine per hour, this rate could be achieved only with a fresh wick, then gradually decreased as the wick became saturated with urine solids. The average urine treatment rates achieved during each of the three endurance tests were 0.137, 0.217, and 0.235 kg/hr. The quality of the recovered water meets drinking water standards, with the exception of a generally low pH.

  19. Mathematical model of reaction rate oscillations on a chain of nm-sized catalyst particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskov, N. V.; Slinko, M. M.; Jaeger, N. I.

    2003-05-01

    The model of reaction rate oscillations over the surface of nanoparticles embedded into zeolite matrix is numerically investigated. The reaction rate oscillations on each particle are described by a lumped model. The reactions on separate particles interact via the gas diffusion through the pores, which is modeled in the frame of the Maxwell-Stefan approach. The reaction reveals a complex dynamical behavior if a nonhomogeneous distribution of reagent concentrations exists along the chain of particles with a sufficiently large gradient near the ends of the chain.

  20. The β-decay rates of 59Fe isotopes in shell burning environments and their influences on the production of 60Fe in massive star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Lam, Y. H.; Qi, C.; Tang, X.; Zhang, N.

    2016-02-01

    The experimental B(GT) strengths of the 59Fe excited states were employed to determine the transition strengths which greatly contribute 59Fe stellar β-decay at typical carbon shell burning temperature. The result has been compared with the theoretical rates FFN (Fuller-Fowler-Newman) and LMP (Langanke&Martinez-Pinedo). Impact of the newly determined rate on the synthesis of cosmic γ emitter 60Fe has also been studied using one-zone model calculation. Our results show 59Fe stellar β-decay rate plays an important role in the 60Fe nucleosynthesis. However the uncertainty of the decay rate is rather large due to the error of B(GT) strength that requires further studies.

  1. Cement Burns

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munir; Moynagh, M.; Lawlor, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cement burns account for relatively few admissions to a burn unit; however, these burns deserve separate consideration because of special features of diagnosis and management. Cement burns, even though potentially disabling, have rarely been reported in literature. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients admitted with cement burns injuries to the national burns unit at the St James's Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, over a 10-year period for the years 1996–2005. Results: A total of 46 patients with cement burns were admitted. The majority of patients were aged 16–74 years (mean age = 32 years). Eighty-seven percent of injuries occurred in an industrial and 13% in a domestic setting. The upper and lower extremities were involved in all the patients, and the mean total body surface area affected was 6.5%. The mean length of hospital stay was 21 days with a range of 1–40 days. Thirty-eight (82%) were surgically managed involving debridement and split-thickness skin graft (SSG) and four (9%) were conservatively managed. A further four did not have data available. Conclusion: Widespread inexperience in dealing with this group of cement burns patients and delays in referral to burns unit highlights the potential for greater levels of general awareness and knowledge in both prevention and treatment of these burns. As well, early debridement and split-thickness skin grafting at diagnosis constitutes the best means of reducing the high socioeconomic costs and allows for early return to work. PMID:18091981

  2. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  3. Disilane as a growth rate catalyst of plasma deposited microcrystalline silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakellis, P.; Kalampounias, A. G.; Spiliopoulos, N.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Lahootun, V.; Coeuret, F.; Madec, A.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of small disilane addition on the gas phase properties of silane-hydrogen plasmas and the microcrystalline silicon thin films growth is presented. The investigation was conducted in the high pressure regime and for constant power dissipation in the discharge with the support of plasma diagnostics, thin film studies and calculations of discharge microscopic parameters and gas dissociation rates. The experimental data and the calculations show a strong effect of disilane on the electrical properties of the discharge in the pressure window from 2 to 3 Torr that is followed by significant raise of the electron number density and the drop of the sheaths electric field intensity. Deposition rate measurements show an important four to six times increase even for disilane mole fractions as low as 0.3 %. The deposition rate enhancement was followed by a drop of the material crystalline volume fraction but films with crystallinity above 40 % were deposited with different combinations of total gas pressure, disilane and silane molar ratios. The enhancement was partly explained by the increase of the electron impact dissociation rate of silane which rises by 40% even for 0.1% disilane mole fraction. The calculations of the gas usage, the dissociation and the deposition efficiencies show that the beneficial effect on the growth rate is not just the result of the increase of Si-containing molecules density but significant changes on the species participating to the deposition and the mechanism of the film growth are caused by the disilane addition. The enhanced participation of the highly sticking to the surface radical such as disilylene, which is the main product of disilane dissociation, was considered as the most probable reason for the significant raise of the deposition efficiency. The catalytic effect of such type of radical on the surface reactivity of species with lower sticking probability is further discussed, while it is also used to explain the restricted

  4. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  5. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984–2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984–2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046–2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire

  6. High repetition rate sealed CO2 TEA lasers using heterogeneous catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. T.; Shaw, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The significant operational advantages offered by CO2 lasers, operating in the 10.6 micron region of the spectrum, over current solid state lasers, emitting in the near IR region, have prompted increased interest in the development of compact, reliable, rugged CO2 laser sources. Perhaps the most critical aspect associated with achieving a laser compatible with military use is the development of lasers which require no gas replenishment. Sealed, single shot, CO2 TEA lasers have been available for a number of years. Stark et al were first to demonstrate reliable sealed operation in single shot CO2 TEA lasers in 1975 using gas catalysis. GEC Avionics reported the compact, environmentally qualified, MKIII CO2 TEA laser with a pulse life of greater than 10 to the 6th power pulses in 1980. A sealed laser lifetime of greater than 10 to the 6th power pulses is acceptable for single shot cases, such as direct detection rangefinders for tank laser sights. However, in many other applications, such as tracking of fast moving targets, it is essential that a repetition rate of typically 30Hz to 100Hz is employed. In such cases, a pulse lifetime of 10 to the 6th power pulses is no longer sufficient and a minimum pulse lifetime 10 to the 7th power pulses is essential to ensure a useful service life. In 1983 Stark el al described a sealed, 100Hz CO2 TEA laser, with a life of greater than 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power, which employed heterogeneous catalysis. Following this pioneering work, GEC Avionics has been engaged in the development of sealed high repetition rate lasers with a pulse lifetime of 20 million pulses.

  7. Effects of the Distributions of Energy or Charge Transfer Rates on Spectral Hole Burning in Pigment-Protein Complexes at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Herascu, N.; Ahmouda, S.; Picorel, R.; Seibert, M.; Jankowiak, R.; Zazubovich, V.

    2011-12-22

    Effects of the distributions of excitation energy transfer (EET) rates (homogeneous line widths) on the nonphotochemical (resonant) spectral hole burning (SHB) processes in photosynthetic chlorophyll-protein complexes (reaction center [RC] and CP43 antenna of Photosystem II from spinach) are considered. It is demonstrated that inclusion of such a distribution results in somewhat more dispersive hole burning kinetics. More importantly, however, inclusion of the EET rate distributions strongly affects the dependence of the hole width on the fractional hole depth. Different types of line width distributions have been explored, including those resulting from Foerster type EET between weakly interacting pigments as well as Gaussian ones, which may be a reasonable approximation for those resulting, for instance, from so-called extended Foerster models. For Gaussian line width distributions, it is possible to determine the parameters of both line width and tunneling parameter distributions from SHB data without a priori knowledge of any of them. Concerning more realistic asymmetric distributions, we demonstrate, using the simple example of CP43 antenna, that one can use SHB modeling to estimate electrostatic couplings between pigments and support or exclude assignment of certain pigment(s) to a particular state.

  8. Burn Pits

    MedlinePlus

    ... unexploded ordnance, petroleum and lubricant products, plastics, rubber, wood, and discarded food. Burning waste in open air ... Regulations Web Policies No FEAR Act Whistleblower Rights & Protections Site Index USA.gov White House Inspector General ...

  9. CAD tool for burn diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images.

  10. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

  11. Simulations of the Neutral-beam-induced Rotation, Radial Electric Field, and Flow Shearing Rate in Next-step Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2002-08-13

    Toroidal rotation of plasmas in present tokamaks is beneficial for increasing the stability to wall-induced MHD and appears to reduce the anomalous transport associated with micro-turbulence. This paper calculates the toroidal rotation expected from neutral-beam injection in the proposed FIRE and ITER-FEAT tokamak reactors. Self-consistent burning plasmas for these tokamaks have been constructed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Neutral-beam injection has been proposed for FIRE and ITER-FEAT. The neutral-beam-induced torques are computed, and assumptions for the anomalous transport of toroidal angular momentum are used to calculate the toroidal rotation profiles. The central Mach numbers are about 3-8%. The ratio of the rotation speed to the Alfvin speed is less than 1%. Assuming neoclassical poloidal rotation and force balance, the radial electric field and flow shearing rate are calculated. Peak shearing rates near the outboard edge are in the 10-100 krad/s range.

  12. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it…

  13. Burn Wise - Outreach Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  14. Burn Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    areas involving large areas of skin the patient is exposed to death first from shock . . .’’ [10]. In describing the pathophysiology leading to the shock...state seen in burns he postulated that various irritants , mental and physical, caused vasomotor paresis leading to accumulation of blood in the...resuscitation volumes. Subsequent studies suggested a decrease in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Oda et al., in 2006, published their experience

  15. Management of burns in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sittah, G.S.; Chahine, F.M.; Janom, H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns are one of the most devastating forms of trauma worldwide. While geriatric burns are uncommon in the developing world - accounting for less than 5% of burns in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries - they account for almost 20% of burns in economically developed countries such as the USA. The elderly population in general is at higher risk for burn injury, moreover mortality rate, as well as severity of complications, is more pronounced in this group of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate risk factors as well as pathophysiological and immunological conditions that affect response to burn injury in the elderly population. Surgical and medical interventions used for the management of geriatric burns remain a field of controversy and ongoing debate. Improvement of burn management with reduction in mortality in this age group warrants addressing survivors’ quality of life, with a special focus on rehabilitation and support. PMID:28289356

  16. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

    2005-06-30

    Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. During this past quarter, it was discovered that long periods (12 - 24 hours) are required to equilibrate the catalysts in the system. In addition, after the system has been equilibrated, operational changes to temperature, gas concentration, or flow rate shifts the equilibrium, and steady-state must be reestablished, which can require as much as twelve additional hours per condition change. In the last quarter of testing, it was shown that the inclusion of ammonia had a strong effect on the oxidation of mercury by SCR catalysts, both in the short-term (a transitional period of elemental and oxidized mercury off gassing) and the long-term (less steady-state mercury oxidation). All experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. In the next quarter, parametric testing will be expanded to include flue gases simulating power plants burning

  17. Highly efficient and robust molecular ruthenium catalysts for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lele; Araujo, Carlos Moyses; Ahlquist, Mårten S G; Sun, Licheng

    2012-09-25

    Water oxidation catalysts are essential components of light-driven water splitting systems, which could convert water to H(2) driven by solar radiation (H(2)O + hν → 1/2O(2) + H(2)). The oxidation of water (H(2)O → 1/2O(2) + 2H(+) + 2e(-)) provides protons and electrons for the production of dihydrogen (2H(+) + 2e(-) → H(2)), a clean-burning and high-capacity energy carrier. One of the obstacles now is the lack of effective and robust water oxidation catalysts. Aiming at developing robust molecular Ru-bda (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts, we carried out density functional theory studies, correlated the robustness of catalysts against hydration with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of a set of ligands, and successfully directed the synthesis of robust Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts. A series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(bda)L(2)] (L = pyridazine, pyrimidine, and phthalazine) were subsequently synthesized and shown to effectively catalyze Ce(IV)-driven [Ce(IV) = Ce(NH(4))(2)(NO(3))(6)] water oxidation with high oxygen production rates up to 286 s(-1) and high turnover numbers up to 55,400.

  18. Highly efficient and robust molecular ruthenium catalysts for water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lele; Araujo, Carlos Moyses; Ahlquist, Mårten S.G.; Sun, Licheng

    2012-01-01

    Water oxidation catalysts are essential components of light-driven water splitting systems, which could convert water to H2 driven by solar radiation (H2O + hν → 1/2O2 + H2). The oxidation of water (H2O → 1/2O2 + 2H+ + 2e-) provides protons and electrons for the production of dihydrogen (2H+ + 2e- → H2), a clean-burning and high-capacity energy carrier. One of the obstacles now is the lack of effective and robust water oxidation catalysts. Aiming at developing robust molecular Ru-bda (H2bda = 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts, we carried out density functional theory studies, correlated the robustness of catalysts against hydration with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of a set of ligands, and successfully directed the synthesis of robust Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts. A series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(bda)L2] (L = pyridazine, pyrimidine, and phthalazine) were subsequently synthesized and shown to effectively catalyze CeIV-driven [CeIV = Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6] water oxidation with high oxygen production rates up to 286 s-1 and high turnover numbers up to 55,400. PMID:22753518

  19. Assault by burning in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, W

    2012-12-31

    Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

  20. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  1. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  2. Study of insect succession and rate of decomposition on a partially burned pig carcass in an oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heo, Chong Chin; Mohamad, Abdullah Marwi; Ahmad, Firdaus Mohd Salleh; Jeffery, John; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Omar, Baharudin

    2008-12-01

    Insects found associated with corpse can be used as one of the indicators in estimating postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of this study was to compare the stages of decomposition and faunal succession between a partially burnt pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) and natural pig (as control). The burning simulated a real crime whereby the victim was burnt by murderer. Two young pigs weighed approximately 10 kg were used in this study. Both pigs died from pneumonia and immediately placed in an oil palm plantation near a pig farm in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia. One pig was partially burnt by 1-liter petrol while the other served as control. Both carcasses were visited twice per day for the first week and once thereafter. Adult flies and larvae on the carcasses were collected and later processed in a forensic entomology laboratory. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the rate of decomposition and sequence of faunal succession on both pig carcasses. Both carcasses were completely decomposed to remain stage after nine days. The species of flies visiting the pig carcasses consisted of blow flies (Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Hemipyrellia ligurriens), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae.), muscid fly (Ophyra spinigera), soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), coffin fly (Phoridae) and scavenger fly (Sepsidae). The only difference noted was in the number of adult flies, whereby more flies were seen in the control carcass. Faunal succession on both pig carcasses was in the following sequence: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and lastly Stratiomyidae. However, there was overlap in the appearance of members of these families. Blowflies continued to oviposit on both carcasses. Hence postmortem interval (PMI) can still be estimated from the partially burnt pig carcass.

  3. American Burn Association Practice Guidelines: Burn Shock Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    hypernatremia. • Administration of high-dose ascorbic acid may decrease overall fluid requirements, and is wor- thy of further study. OVERVIEW Purpose...The purpose of this guideline is to review the princi- ples of resuscitation after burn injury, including type and rate of fluid administration , and...organ dysfunction caused by inadequate resuscitation has become uncommon in modern American burn care. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well

  4. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  5. Acetic acid effects on enhancement of growth rate and reduction of amorphous carbon deposition on CNT arrays along a growth window in a floating catalyst reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Morteza; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Sane, Ali; Rahimi, Mohsen; Shirazi, Yaser; Tsakadze, Zviad; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2009-11-01

    The mm-long carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were grown in a floating catalyst reactor, using xylene-ferrocene and a small amount of acetic acid as the feed. The CNT arrays deposited on a quartz substrate at several positions along the reactor were extensively characterized using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. Various characterization methods consistently reveal that the acetic acid additive to the feed alleviates deposition of amorphous carbon layer, which gradually thickens CNTs along the reactor. The acetic acid also resulted in a higher growth rate along the so-called growth window, where CNT arrays are deposited on the quartz substrate. High-performance liquid chromatography of extracted byproducts (PAHs) confirmed the presence of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The solid weight of PAHs decreased upon addition of ferrocene as the catalyst precursor, as well as of acetic acid to xylene feed. The results suggest that primary light products of xylene pyrolysis can be competitive reactants for both catalytic and subsequent pyrolytic reactions. They may also be more efficient feeds for CNT growth than xylene itself.

  6. A half-century of burn epidemiology and burn care in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Chace, Reeve; Hallagan, Lee D; Clark, David E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the changes in incidence, severity, and mortality in burn injuries in the state of Maine over the past 50 years from both prevention and treatment perspectives. The authors analyzed the data from multiple sources, including the U.S. Census, death certificates, hospital discharge abstracts, and institutional burn registries in Maine and Boston. The average annual number of burn-related deaths decreased from 53 in 1960-1964 to 14 in 2004-2008. The Maine age-adjusted rate of burn deaths was 8.6% above the national rate in 1960 and 1.4% below it in 2006. The annual number of burn patients admitted to Maine hospitals declined by 65% from 1978 to 2009. Since 1999, 12% of hospitalized patients in Maine were treated in an American Burn Association-certified burn center in Boston. Mortality for Maine burn patients, including those treated at Boston hospitals, is directly related to age and burn severity and similar to stratified mortality in the National Burn Repository. Incidence, severity, and mortality of burn injuries in Maine have decreased dramatically over the past 5 decades. Prevention programs, legislation, and a regionalized system of burn care have all likely contributed to bringing Maine's morbidity and mortality rate below the national average.

  7. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  9. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  10. Pediatric burns in Mosul: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S

    2014-06-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric burns in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was burn patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the Burns Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency burn admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of burn and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame burns were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric burn accidents occur at home, burn prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents.

  11. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  12. Toward Rational Design of 3d Transition Metal Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation Based on Insights into Hydricity-Controlled Rate-Determining Steps.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa

    2016-06-06

    Carbon dioxide functionalization attracts much interest due to the current environmental and energy challenges. Our earlier work (Mondal, B.; Neese, F.; Ye, S. Inorg. Chem. 2015, 54, 7192-7198) demonstrated that CO2 hydrogenation mediated by base metal catalysts [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Co(III) and Fe(II), n = 1, 2; PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) features discrete rate-determining steps (RDSs). Specifically, the reaction with [Co(III)(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](2+) passes through a hydride-transfer RDS, whereas the conversion with [Fe(II)(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](+) traverses a H2-splitting RDS. More importantly, we found that the nature and barrier of the RDS likely correlate with the hydride affinity or hydricity of the dihydride intermediate [M(H)2(PP3(Ph))]((n-1)+) generated by H2-splitting. In the present contribution, following this notion we design a series of potential Fe(II) and Co(III) catalysts, for which the respective dihydride species possess differential hydricities, and computationally investigated their reactivity toward CO2 hydrogenation. Our results reveal that lowering the hydrictiy of [Co(III)(H)2(PP3(Ph))](+) by introducing anionic anchors in PP3(Ph) dramatically decreases the hydride-transfer RDS barrier, as shown for the enhanced reactivity of [Co(H)(η(2)-H2)(CP3(Ph))](+) and [Co(H)(η(2)-H2)(SiP3(Ph))](+) (CP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methyl, SiP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)silyl), while the same ligand modification increases the H2-splitting RDS barriers for [Fe(H)(η(2)-H2)(CP3(Ph))] and [Fe(H)(η(2)-H2)(SiP3(Ph))] relative to that for [Fe(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](+). Conversely, upon increasing the hydricity of [Fe(II)(H)2(PP3(Ph))] by adding an electron-withdrawing group to PP3(Ph), the transformation with [Fe(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(PhNO2))](+) (PP3(PhNO2) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)-4-nitrophenyl)phosphine) is predicted to encounter a lower barrier for H2-splitting and a higher barrier for

  13. Reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Givens, E.N.; Plank, C.J.; Rosinski, E.J.

    1980-03-04

    Crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites are mixed with conventional reforming catalysts to produce new catalytic compositions with high catalytic activity and selectivity and excellent aging characteristics. These new catalytic compositions may be utilized alone or in conjunction with conventional reforming catalysts. The acidic activity of the total catalyst system is controlled within defined limits. When so controlled the utility of these catalyst systems in reforming hydrocarbon mixtures is to reduce the C1 and C2 concentrations in reformer gas product, while increasing the C3 and C4 concentrations and maintaining high liquid yield at high octane numbers.

  14. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out.

  15. Mechanistic role of water on the rate and selectivity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on ruthenium catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hibbitts, David D; Loveless, Brett T; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique

    2013-11-18

    Water increases Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) rates on Ru through H-shuttling processes. Chemisorbed hydrogen (H*) transfers its electron to the metal and protonates the O-atom of CO* to form COH*, which subsequently hydrogenates to *HCOH* in the kinetically relevant step. H2 O also increases the chain length of FTS products by mediating the H-transfer steps during reactions of alkyl groups with CO* to form longer-chain alkylidynes and OH*.

  16. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  17. Equations for Composite-Propellant Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, N. S.

    1983-01-01

    Reported study of composite-propellant burning summarizes recent advances in understanding behavior of propellant formulations based on ammonium perchlorate (AOP), binder, and aluminum in various proportions and particle size distributions. Approach presented incorporates adapted version of earlier model for monopropellant AP. Objective is to predict burning-rate characteristics of composite propellants at high pressure.

  18. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  19. A molecular copper catalyst for electrochemical water reduction with a large hydrogen-generation rate constant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peili; Wang, Mei; Yang, Yong; Yao, Tianyi; Sun, Licheng

    2014-12-08

    The copper complex [(bztpen)Cu](BF4)2 (bztpen=N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethylenediamine) displays high catalytic activity for electrochemical proton reduction in acidic aqueous solutions, with a calculated hydrogen-generation rate constant (k(obs)) of over 10000 s(-1). A turnover frequency (TOF) of 7000 h(-1) cm(-2) and a Faradaic efficiency of 96% were obtained from a controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) experiment with [(bztpen)Cu](2+) in pH 2.5 buffer solution at -0.90 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) over two hours using a glassy carbon electrode. A mechanism involving two proton-coupled reduction steps was proposed for the dihydrogen generation reaction catalyzed by [(bztpen)Cu](2+).

  20. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  1. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, H; Montevalian, A; Motabar, A R; Safari, R; Parvas, M S; Vasigh, M

    2012-09-30

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children's increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface area and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the burn surface area. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for burn injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe burns. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in burn wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive burn wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame burn, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface area burned above 40%, and sepsis.

  2. In situ burning of oil spills: Mesoscale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    In 1991 a series of 14 mesoscale fire experiments were performed to measure the burning characteristics of crude oil on salt water. These oil burns in a pan ranged in size from 6 m square to 15 m square. Results of the measurements for burning rate, oil temperature, water temperature, smoke particle size distribution, smoke plume trajectory, and smoke particulate yield are provided. The burning rate as indicated by the regression rate of the oil surface was found to be 0.055 (+ or -) 0.005 mm/s and smoke particulate yields were found to be approximately 0.13 of the oil burned on a mass basis.

  3. LA50 in burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  4. LA50 in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M

    2016-03-31

    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  5. PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

    2000-09-01

    Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

  6. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Journal's website MONTHLY HEADLINES from MSKTC (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center) The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care professionals. The ABA Web site is not intended ...

  7. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  8. Nutrition in burns: Galveston contributions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

  9. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  10. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  11. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  12. Electric heating pad burns.

    PubMed

    Bill, T J; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    Patients with sensory deficits are especially prone to heating pad burns. Two cases are reported of patients with anesthetic skin who received partial and full-thickness burns of their feet from an electric heating pad. These burn injuries could have been prevented if the patients understood the potential hazard of heating pads.

  13. Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in a Segmented Bed Using Oxide-based Catalysts and Oxygen-conducting Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark W.

    reactor inlet, followed by a reforming catalyst. This approach demonstrated that BNHA can be used in the reactor inlet to promote combustion with 1 wt% Rh-substituted pyrochlore in the reactor outlet, but the combustion catalyst should fill less than 50% of the reactor. The second approach placed specific catalysts in regions of the reactor that have conditions in which they are less likely to deactivate. This showed the most benefit in the use of a sulfur-tolerant noble metal catalyst in the reactor outlet. The carbon formation study was conducted on a 2 wt% Rh-substituted pyrochlore. POX of TD for various run times, followed by temperature programmed oxidation, revealed two different types of carbon deposits in the catalyst bed: carbon that burned off at relatively low temperature (LTC), and carbon that burned off at higher temperatures (HTC). The LTC reached a steady state level within two hours of reaction, and was determined not to lead to catalyst deactivation. The HTC continued to accumulate with time on stream. A mathematical expression was developed to predict the rate of formation of the HTC for a given set of reaction conditions (O/C = 1.25). This expression was modified from data from a test under different reaction conditions (O/C = 1.1) for one length of time, and was found to predict the carbon formation for a different run time within 3%.

  14. Occupational burns in Washington State, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J E; Henderson, A K; Kaufman, J D

    1998-12-01

    Occupational burns cause significant morbidity in the United States each year; however, there are few studies that report industries or workplaces where workers are at an increased risk of burn injuries. Washington State's Department of Labor and Industries (L and I) computerized workers' compensation database was used to describe work-related burns over 5 years. From 1989 to 1993, L and I accepted 27,323 claims for occupational burns, 71.4% of them thermal burns and 26.8% chemical burns. The most common sources of injury were cooking oils (14%) and hot water/steam (13%). Workers involved in food preparation or food handling accounted for the highest proportion of injured workers (30%). Industries involved in the smelting, sintering, or refining of ore had the highest rate for thermal burns, with a rate of 15.0 burn injuries per 100 full-time equivalent workers per year, followed by paper, pulp, or wood fiber manufacturing, with a rate of 5.8, then roof work, with a rate of 4.3. Industries involved in hazardous waste landfill clean-up had the highest rate for chemical burns, with a rate of 4.9, followed by portable cleaning and washing, with a rate of 3.5, and paper, pulp, and wood fiber manufacturing, with a rate of 2.6. Further study is needed to identify work practices that result in burn injuries in order to decrease the incidence of this preventable occupational injury.

  15. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Chander, S.; Gutterman, C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases. This effect is also demonstrated by improved catalyst precursor impregnation with increased contact temperature. Laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent.

  16. Description of Missouri children who suffer burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Quayle, K; Wick, N; Gnauck, K; Schootman, M; Jaffe, D

    2000-01-01

    Objective—This study uses Missouri's inpatient and outpatient E code data system to describe the demographic characteristics of Missouri children who suffered burn injuries during 1994 and 1995. Methods—Retrospective review of Missouri E code data. Results—Altogether 8404 children aged 0–14 years were treated for burn injuries in Missouri hospitals during 1994 and 1995. The rate of burn injury in Missouri children was 339 per 100 000/year. African-American boys 0–4 years living in urban counties were at increased risk. In addition, African-American girls ages 0–4 years living in counties with a high poverty rate had raised burn injury rates. Burns from hot objects and scalds from hot liquids caused more than half of the burns. Conclusions—Hospital based E coding has proven an invaluable tool for the study of burns and will, no doubt, prove equally useful for other injuries. PMID:11144622

  17. Incidence and cost of non-fatal burns in Iran: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Abouie, Abolfazl; Salamati, Payman; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Saadat, Soheil; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-04-07

    To determine the incidence and cost of non-fatal burns in Iran; this cross-sectional household survey of a nationally representative sample of 15-64 years old was conducted. Through face-to-face interviews and telephone calls, the data on the demographics, history and cost of burns were collected. The annual incidence rate of burns was estimated 129.85 per 1000 population. Burns occurred higher in younger age, female gender and urban residency. The most common burn description was as follows: unpaid work (activity during burn), home (place of burn), heat and hot substances (mechanism of burn) and upper limb (site of burn). The average total cost of burn includes victims seeking medical care was US$124 per case. The main findings of this study suggest that burns are a major public health concern in Iran. To stop this important health issue, a national program for burn prevention and education must be developed.

  18. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning.

  19. Highly dispersed metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.

    2016-11-08

    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  20. Reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.; Swan, G.A.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a catalyst useful for reforming a naphtha feed at high severity reforming conditions. It comprises the metals, platinum, rhenium and iridium on a refractory porous inorganic oxide support, the support consisting essentially of alumina, wherein the concentration by weight of each of the metals platinum and rhenium is at least 0.1 percent and iridium at least 0.15 percent and at least one of the metals is present in a concentration of at least 0.3 percent, and the sum-total; concentration of the metals is greater than 0.9 percent, and wherein each catalyst particle contains all three of the metals platinum, rhenium and iridium. This patent also describes this composition wherein the catalyst contains from about 0.1 percent to about 3 percent of a halogen and from about 0.05 percent to about 0.02 percent sulfur.

  1. Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.

    PubMed

    Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described.

  2. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  3. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  4. Bizarre paediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W

    2000-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.

  5. [The pain from burns].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  6. The promoter effect and a rate expression of the catalytic incineration of (CH3)2S2 over an improved CuO-MoO3/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Huei; Lin, Shiow-Shyung; Liou, Shen-Ben; Weng, Hung-Shan

    2002-10-01

    The CuO-MoO3/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst, confirmed previously as having good activity in the catalytic incineration of (CH3)2S2, was employed as the principal catalyst in this study. With the aim of improving catalyst activity and resistance to deactivation by sulfur compounds, a promoter was added either before adding the precursors of Cu and Mo or together with Cu and Mo onto the gamma-Al2O3. Promoters included transition metals and elements from groups IA-VIIA in the chemical periodic table. Experimental results reveal Cr2O3 as the most effective promoter, with an optimal composition of 5 wt.% Cu, 6 wt.% Mo and 4 wt.% Cr (designated as Cu(5)-Mo(6)-Cr(4)/gamma-Al2O3). Knowing that higher acidity can improve activity, we further investigated the effect of acid treatment on the performance of the Cu(5)-Mo(6)-Cr(4)/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. Experimental results indicate the H2SO4-treated catalyst (Cu(5)-Mo(6)-Cr(4)/sulfated-gamma-Al2O3) has a better activity and durability. A study for finding an appropriate rate expression for the catalytic incineration of (CH3)2S2 by Cu(5)-Mo(6)-Cr(4)/sulfated-gamma-Al2O3 was carried out in a differential reactor. The results show that the Mars-Van Krevelen model is applicable to this destructive oxidation reaction. Results additionally reveal that competitive adsorption of CH4 reduces conversion of (CH3)2S2.

  7. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM(2.5) generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karine Vila Real; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the exposure to fine particulate matter and circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Brazilian Amazon. An ecological study of circulatory disease, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in micro areas of the Brazilian Amazon was carried out. The environmental exposure indicator used was percentage hours of PM(2.5) concentrations > 25µg/m(3) divided by the total number of estimated hours of PM(2.5) in 2005. The association between exposure and circulatory disease mortality rates was strongest in the oldest age group. No significant statistical association was found between cerebrovascular disease mortality rates and exposure. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Amazon have been influenced by atmospheric pollution from emissions caused by forest fires.

  8. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  9. Predictors of Muscle Protein Synthesis after Severe Pediatric Burns

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Eva C.; Herndon, David N.; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases, but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months post-injury, and identify predictors that influence this response. Study design 87 children with ≥40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2 and ~ 4 weeks post-burn, and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury to determine skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Results Patients (8±6 years) had large (62, 51–72% TBSA) and deep (47±21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months post-burn compared to established values from healthy young adults. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, children >3 years old, and when burns were >80% TBSA. Conclusions Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least one year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiological response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by gender, age and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn victims. PMID:25807408

  10. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  11. Determination of reaction rate constants for phenol oxidation using SnO2/Ti anodes coupled with activated carbon adsorption in the presence of TiO2 as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuemin; Ding, Yi; Wang, Lizhang; Wang, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Series of experiments for phenol degradation with assistance of TiO2 catalyst at pH of 6.5 and temperature of 25 degrees C were conducted using a lab-scale electrochemical reactor constructed in our laboratory. According to the results, at the presence of the TiO2 catalyst the removal of phenol was increased and first-order kinetics could describe the evolution of phenol concentration. For inspecting the relationship between rate constants and dosage of TiO2, two possible kinetics were proposed in this study. Contrasted to the abundant experimental data, a reasonable kinetics was obtained for the estimation of phenol concentration effluent during continuous flow of raw wastewater, especially when the TiO2 dosage was less than 0.5g L(-1). The model obtained from these experiments could employed for the calculation of rate constants at different TiO2 dosage and the necessary dosage of catalyst when a discharge standard was designed.

  12. One Burn, One Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    for supporting burn treatment has induced a rethinking of current medical documentation processes of burns, especially with respect to the Lund...Browder burn diagram. In the past, the lack of comparability, scientific evalu- ation possibilities, and as a consequence, missing medical evidence in...to interested parties after registration. To that end, a protected (everyone is able to read the content, one has to register to edit) wiki (www

  13. Combination of best promoter and micellar catalyst for more than kilo-fold rate acceleration in favor of chromic acid oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in aqueous media at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Sar, Pintu; Saha, Indrajit; Ghosh, Sumanta K.; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-12-01

    Picolinic acid, 2,2‧-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline promoted Cr(VI) oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in three representative aqueous micellar media has been studied. The anionic surfactant (SDS) accelerated the rate of reaction while the cationic surfactant (CPC) and neutral surfactant (TX-100) retarded the reaction rate. Combination of bipy and SDS is the best choice for chromic acid oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in aqueous media although 1,10-phenanthroline is best promoter in absence of micellar catalyst.

  14. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  15. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  16. Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    wound invasion was identified only Nine of 97 patients (9%) with histologic burn wound after septic or cardiogenic shock had been present in invasion...051= ADA12589 Th JouRHAL oP TRAUMA Vol. 21, No. 9 Copyright 0 1981 by The Williams & Wilkins Co. ,r, Prin U.S.A. . Burn Wound Infection WILLIAM F...admitted to a burn center during a 3-year period C had histologically confirmed bacterial or tungal burn wound invasion. Nine of t X Q these 97

  17. Characteristics of burn patients injured in methamphetamine laboratory explosions.

    PubMed

    Spann, Matthew D; McGwin, Gerald; Kerby, Jeffrey D; George, Richard L; Dunn, Shane; Rue, Loring W; Cross, James M

    2006-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) as a recreational drug has increased exponentially in recent years, resulting in an emergence of clandestine laboratories. Consequently, the frequency with which burn centers across the country are admitting patients injured as a consequence of the volatile manufacturing process of MA is increasing. This study focused on comparing outcomes between burn patients injured secondary to MA laboratory explosions and patients sustaining burns from other mechanisms. All patients identified to have suffered burns secondary to MA laboratory explosions between 1998 and 2004 were included in this study. These patients were compared with those who did not experience such burns during this same time period. In total, 19 patients were identified as having been burned in MA laboratory explosions. These patients had a larger component of third-degree burns (24.8% vs 13.5%; P < .05) as well as TBSA burned (28.4% vs 20.7%; P < .05). In addition, patients using MA had an increased incidence of inhalation injury (31.2% vs 6.1%; P < .05). They also exhibited a significantly increased frequency of complications, such as nosocomial pneumonia, respiratory failure, and sepsis. Overall, the rate of mortality was significantly increased in patients using MA (26.3% vs 8.5%; P < .05); however, no significant difference was observed after adjustment for age, burn size, and inhalation injury. MA burn patients have larger burn size, incidence of inhalation injury, and increased morbidity when compared with non-MA burn patients.

  18. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  19. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  20. Stability of Beta Limited Thermonuclear Burn.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-28

    wunboeJ e burn stability of a thermonuclear reacting plasma Is examined under the assumption that a bum equilibrium exists due to the rapid Increase...of loss rate with plasma beta once a critical beta value is exceeded, it is found that perturbations about equilibrium generally result in a rapidly...exceeded, in order to establish a thermonuclear burn equilibrium , it is necessary that plasma losses increase sufficiently rapidly with temperature. In

  1. Pharmacological Sparing of Protein in Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-10

    protein breakdown rates and factors other than insulin resistance are responsible for stimulating the net protein catabolism of severe burn injury and...suggest that the " insulin resistance " of sepsis may be different from that of severe trauma uncompli- cated by infection, we further tested the effect of...suggesting that factors other than insulin resistance were responsible for mediating the deranged protein metabolism of burns and sepsis. From studies by

  2. Catalyst suppliers consolidate further, offer more catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-10-02

    The list of suppliers of catalysts to the petroleum refining industry has decreased by five since Oil and Gas Journal`s survey of refining catalysts and catalytic additives was last published. Despite the consolidation, the list of catalyst designations has grown to about 950 in this latest survey, compared to 820 listed in 1993. The table divides the catalysts by use and gives data on their primary differentiating characteristics, feedstock, products, form, bulk density,catalyst support, active agents, availability, and manufactures.

  3. [Burn rehabilitation and community reintegration-new challenge to burn surgery in China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Guo

    2010-12-01

    Burn patients often have severe disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder after discharge, which may last for a long time, even for a whole life. These problems may prevent patients from returning to normal life and re-entering society. Because of demographic and socioeconomic reasons, the number of burn patients in China is huge. The rising cure rate further increases the number of patients that need rehabilitation treatment. However, the level of burn rehabilitation in China is relatively low as compared with that in the developed countries. Along with the social and economical development, it is no longer satisfied to just save the life of patient. Improving the quality of wound healing, avoiding or decreasing disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder, and finally helping patients re-enter society is the ultimate goal of burn treatment. Modern concept of rehabilitation is to restore health or normal life for patients by medical, psychosocial, educational and occupational methods. Although increasing attention has been paid to burn rehabilitation in China recently, so far it is mainly focused on the fields of improving patients' appearance and body function, whereas the importance of psychosocial, educational, occupational, and social rehabilitation has still not been realized. Some fields of burn rehabilitation have not been well established and many are not carried out by professionals. The model of multidisciplinary team in burn centers of developed countries including surgeons and nurses, as well as allied professionals such as psychologists, physical and occupational therapists, dietitians, anesthesiologists and social workers has seldom been introduced into China. In most burn centers in China, psychological support is mainly given by nurses in their spare time of nursing. Burn treatment used to be divided into the early stage of life saving and wound repair, and the late stage of rehabilitation. It has not been realized until

  4. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  5. Burns Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... for fluid resuscitation, wound cleaning, skin replacement, infection control and nutritional support. What is on the horizon for burn research? Improving methods for wound healing and tissue repair offer tremendous opportunities to enhance the quality of life for burn patients and may also ...

  6. Pain in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  7. Hydrocracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, B.; Galiasso, R.; Kum, H.

    1985-02-12

    The invention relates to a particular method for the preparation of a hydrocracking catalyst, using a high iron content bauxite as a basis. This bauxite is ground and screened to a specific size and mixed with three types of additives: a promoter additive of the P, Mo, Co, Ni, W type. A hardener additive of the phosphoric acid type, ammonium phosphate. And a lubricant and pore-generating additive of the polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene-glycol, starch type. The particularity consists in that the three additives are added simultaneously during the extrusion of the sample. That way, a particular surface composition is obtained which allows for the activity of the catalyst. Extruded products are obtained in sizes of 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32'' and submitted to drying and calcination programs for their activation. The obtained catalyst offers a good mechanical strength, a high content in macropores and a high activity, specifically for the hydrocracking of heavy Venezuelan crudes or residues.

  8. Biomass burning a driver for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. Jr.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-03-01

    Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of many radiatively and chemically active gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride - and elemental carbon particulates. International field experiments and satellite data are yielding a clearer understanding of this important global source of atmospheric gases and particulates. It is seen that in addition to being a significant instantaneous global source of atmospheric gases and particulates, burning enhances the biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the world`s soils. Biomass burning affects the reflectivity and emissivity of the Earth`s surface as well as the hydrological cycle by changing rates of land evaporation and water runoff. For these reasons, it appears that biomass burning is a significant driver of global change. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain, burning mouth Syndrome (BMS) is defined as a burning pain in the tongue or other oral mucous membrane in the absence of clinical signs or laboratory findings. The etiology is unknown and presents a challenge for both researchers and clinicians. The management of BMS is still not satisfactory. The prognosis is poor and the burning sensation can last for many years causing a dramatic impact on the patient's quality of life. It is important to distinguish between true BMS and symptomatic burning sensation which occurs when the burning sensation is secondary to a local or systemic pathologic condition. Currently, there are no defined diagnostic criteria for BMS. A diagnosis is usually reached by exclusion of other diseases. This may lead to misdiagnoses, presenting an obstacle to successful treatment.

  11. Effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in the outpatient treatment of burns.

    PubMed

    Boss, W K; Brand, D A; Acampora, D; Barese, S; Frazier, W H

    1985-03-01

    We compared wound infection rates in 133 outpatient burns treated with prophylactic antibiotics in our emergency room and 161 similar, untreated burns. Infection rates in the treated and untreated groups were 3.8% (5/133) and 3.1% (5/161), respectively. Since this was an observational cohort study, it was necessary to demonstrate the comparability of treated and untreated groups with respect to risk factors for infection, including patient age, size, location, and etiology of the burn injury, time since injury, and presence of co-morbidity. The groups were found to be comparable for all risk factors except size of burn: larger burns were over-represented in the treated group (p less than 0.05). Even after controlling for size, antibiotic use did not lower the infection rate. These results argue strongly against routine use of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of outpatient burns.

  12. Catalyst deactivation in residue hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Oballa, M.C.; Wong, C.; Krzywicki, A.

    1994-12-31

    The existence of a computer-controlled bench scale hydrocracking units at the authors site has made cheaper the non-stop running of experiments for long periods of time. It was, therefore possible to show, at minimal costs, when three hydrocracking catalysts in service reach their maximum lifetime. Different parameters which are helpful for catalyst life and activity predictions were calculated, e.g., relative catalyst age and the effectiveness factor. Experimental results compared well with model, giving them the minimum and maximum catalyst lifetime, as well as the deactivation profile with regard to sulfur and metals removal. Reaction rate constants for demetallization and desulfurization were also determined. Six commercial catalysts were evaluated at short term runs and the three most active were used for long term runs. Out of three catalysts tested for deactivation at long term runs, it was possible to choose one whose useful life was higher than the others. All runs were carried out in a Robinson-Mahoney continuous flow stirred tank reactor, using 50/50 volumetric mixture of Cold Lake/Lloydminster atmospheric residue and NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst.

  13. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons.

  14. Epidemiology of Burn Injuries at a Newly Established Burn Care Center in Rasht

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Cyrus Emir; Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Tolouei, Mohammad; Paydary, Koosha; Samidoust, Pirouz; Mobayen, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in the care of burn injuries have resulted from the efforts of regional patient-based specialist teams at burn care centers. Objectives We conducted this study to assess the four-year epidemiology of burn injuries in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, medical records of 2274 burn patients, treated at Velayat hospital from January 2007 to December 2010 in Rasht, Iran, were assessed. Age, sex, level of education, occupation, severity and degree of burn, burn surface area, burn cause and outcome of patients were evaluated. Results In our study the overall mortality rate was 8.7%; 65.7% of patients were men and 34.3% were women. Mean age of patients was 31.47 ± 22.67 years. Mean Total Burn Surface Area (TBSA) was 15.24 ± 18.4. Lowest TBSA was 0.5% and highest TBSA was 100%. Significant associations were observed between age (P = 0.0001), place of residence (P = 0.004), level of education (P = 0.0001), unemployment (P = 0.0001), marital status (P = 0.021), causes of burn (P = 0.0001), TBSA (P = 0.0001) and mortality rate. In our study, no significant difference was observed between age and sex (P = 0.071). Conclusions Due to high prevalence of burn injuries in Iran, increasing the level of awareness of the society as well as adhering to safety procedures both at home and workplace is recommended via implementing effective national safety policies. PMID:24350121

  15. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles

  16. Investigation of critical burning of fuel droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, C. B.; Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements were made on the burning of liquid hydrazine, MMH, and UDMH in a combustion gas environment. The experimental range of these tests involved gas temperatures of 1660-2530 K, oxygen concentrations of 0-42% by mass and droplet diameters (employing both droplets and porous spheres) of 0.11-1.91 cm. at atmospheric pressure. A simplified hybrid combustion theory was developed which was found to correlate the present results as well as the experimental measurements of other investigators. Measurements were also made of the monopropellant strand burning rates and liquid surface temperatures of a number of nitrate ester fuels and hydrazine at elevated pressures. The temperature measurements for the nitrate esters were found to be in good agreement with a theoretical model which allowed for gas solubility in the liquid phase at high pressures. Experimental results were also obtained on the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures of a number of paraffin and alcohol fuels burning in air pressures up to 72 atm. For these tests, the fuels were burned from porous spheres in a natural convection environment. Initial findings on a pressurized flat flame burner are also described as well as the design of an oscillatory combustion apparatus to test the response of burning liquid fuels.

  17. Nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotube/graphene sandwiches: facile catalytic growth on bifunctional natural catalysts and their applications as scaffolds for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Tian, Gui-Li; Peng, Hong-Jie; Wei, Fei

    2014-09-17

    Nitrogen-doped aligned CNT/graphene sandwiches are rationally designed and in-situ fabricated by a facile catalytic growth on bifunctional natural catalysts that exhibit high-rate performances as scaffolds for lithium-sulfur batteries, with a high initial capacity of 1152 mA h g(-1) at 1.0 C. A remarkable capacity of 770 mA h g(-1) can be achieved at 5.0 C. Such a design strategy for materials opens up new perspectives to novel advanced functional composites, especially interface-modified hierarchical nanocarbons for broad applications.

  18. Burn encephalopathy in children.

    PubMed

    Mohnot, D; Snead, O C; Benton, J W

    1982-07-01

    Among 287 children with burns treated over a recent two-year period, 13 (5%) showed evidence of encephalopathy. The major clinical symptoms were an altered sensorium and seizures. The majority of symptoms began later than 48 hours after the burn and were accompanied by multiple metabolic aberrations including hypocalcemia. Three children had a relapsing course, and 1 had temporarily enlarged cerebral ventricles. Eleven children improved to normal. In the majority of instances, burn encephalopathy probably reflects central nervous system dysfunction resulting from complex metabolic, hematological, and hemodynamic abnormalities rather than from a single metabolic abnormality.

  19. Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

    SciTech Connect

    Heinekey, Dennis M.

    2009-10-31

    Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

  20. Cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Otterstedt, J. E. A.; Jaras, S. G.; Pudas, R.; Upson, L. L.

    1985-05-07

    A cracking catalyst having good resistance to metal poisoning has at least two particle fractions of different particle sizes, the cracking catalyzing zeolite material being concentrated to the coarser particle size fractions, and the finer particle size fractions being formed from material having relatively lower or no or insignificant cracking catalyzing activity. The particles of the finer particle size fractions have a matrix of kaolin and amorphous alumina--silica and may contain for example, an SO /SUB x/ eliminating additive such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO and/or MgO. The coarser particle size fractions having cracking catalyzing effect have a mean particle size of from 80 to 125 ..mu..m and the finer particle size fractions a mean particle size of from 30 to 75 ..mu..m. The coarser particle size fractions have a zeolite content of at least 20 weight % and may have a zeolite content of up to 100 weight %, the remainder consisting essentially of material which has relatively lower or no or insignificant cracking-catalyzing activity and which consists of kaolin and amorphous alumina-silica. The catalyst mass as a whole may have a zeolite content of up to 50 weight %.

  1. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J Burn Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918-925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...

  2. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arrives. previous continue What to Do (continued) For Flame Burns: Extinguish the flames by having your child roll on the ground. ... a hot-steam one. Choose sleepwear that's labeled flame retardant (either polyester or treated cotton). Cotton sweatshirts ...

  3. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  4. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  5. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  6. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes.

  7. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  8. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  9. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N

    2013-07-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care.

  11. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  12. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  13. Diabetes and burns: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Beth; Wasif, Nabil; Rabbitts, Angela; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Yurt, Roger W; Schwartz, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Burn injuries are often associated with multisystemic complications, even in otherwise healthy individuals. It is therefore intuitive that for the diabetic patient, the underlying pathophysiologic alterations in vascular supply, peripheral neuropathy, and immune function could have a profoundly devastating impact on patient outcome. The effects of diabetes on morbidity and mortality of the burn-injured patient have not been examined in great detail. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients. We reviewed the charts of 181 diabetic (DM) and 190 nondiabetic (nDM) patients admitted with burns between January 1996 and May 2000, matched by sex and date of admission. Burn cause and size, time to presentation, clinical course, and outcomes were evaluated. Because age was a factor, the analysis was done by three age groups: younger than 18 years, 18 to 65 years, and older than 65 years. Of patients 18 to 65 years, 51% (98/191) were diabetic, whereas 84% (81/96) of those older than 65 and only 4% (3/85) of patients younger than 18 were diabetic. Because of the disproportion in numbers of diabetics compared with nondiabetics in the younger than 18 and older than 65 years-old groups, these patients will not be discussed. Diabetics were more likely to incur scald injury from tub or shower water rather than hot fluid spills (33% DM vs 15% nDM; P < or = 0.01), and have a delayed presentation (45 vs 23%; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in total burn size in all groups. Diabetics in the 18 to 65 years group had a higher rate of full-thickness burns (51 vs 31%; P = 0.025), skin grafts (50 vs 28%; P = 0.01) and burn-related procedures (57 vs 32%; P = 0.001), infections (65 vs 51%; P = 0.05), and longer lengths of stay (23 vs 12 days; P = 0.0001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in incidence of specific infections, the rates of cellulitis, wound infection, urinary tract

  14. Effect of carbachol on intestinal mucosal blood flow, activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, expression of aquaporin-1, and intestinal absorption rate during enteral resuscitation of burn shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chengmei; Hu, Sen; Zhou, Guoyong; Tian, Yijun; Wu, Yan; Sheng, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    /CAR group, the levels of these parameters were significantly increased compared with scald groups (P < .05). The results indicate that CAR promotes intestinal absorption rate of water and Na by improving IMBF, ATPase activity, and AQP-1 expression in gut mucosa during resuscitation with enteral GES of burn shock in rats.

  15. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  16. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  17. Analysis of 1089 burn patients in province of Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Groohi, Bahram; Alaghehbandan, Reza; Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar

    2002-09-01

    Burn injuries still produce a significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. This study was carried out to analyze the epidemiology, mortality, and current etiological factors of 1089 burn patients in the province of Kurdistan in the west of Iran during the 6 years from 21 March 1994 to 20 March 2000. There were two burn centers in Kurdistan, serving 1.4 million people in an area of 28,000 km(2). The incidence rate of burn hospitalization was 13.5 per 100,000 person-years. The median age was 18 years with 58% of the patients under 20 years. The median Body Surface Area (BSA) burned was 40%. Incidence rate of burns for females was 18 per 100,000 person-years and 9.1 per 100,000 person-years for males (P((2))<0.000001). Also there was a statistically significant association between mortality rate and age groups/gender/BBS (P((2))<0.000001). Flame was the most common type of burn (694/1089, 63.7%). There was also a significant correlation between the age groups and types of burn (P((2))<0.000001). Ninety-one percent (991/1089) of the burns were unintentional (12.3 per 100,000 person-years), while suicide attempts by burning for the population aged 13 and older accounted for 12.7% (98/771) (2 per 100,000 person-years). The mortality rate was 4.5 per 100,000 person-years. The study results provide a valuable baseline by which to assess future efforts directed toward the prevention of burn injuries in Kurdistan.

  18. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  19. Coking characteristics of reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mieville, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    Coking rates were measured for two different ..gamma..-aluminas, each with and without platinum, under near commercial conditions using a gravimetric reactor. Coke on catalyst was characterized by a Temperature-Programmed Oxidation (TPO) technique. With a naphtha feed, coke formed on both aluminas at rates related to the respective population of ..cap alpha..-sites as measured by IR. For the corresponding Pt on alumina catalysts, coke, as measured by TPO, predominantly formed on sites associated with alumina (alumina coke), while coke associated with Pt (Pt coke), was relatively minor. With a n-heptane feed, under the same conditions, coke formation on both aluminas was much less than with the naphtha feed. However, the corresponding Pt on alumina catalysts generated comparatively more coke with a higher proportion associated with Pt. A correspondence between this proportion of Pt coke and the decline in reforming activity was observed. It is postulated that most of the coke produced during naphtha reforming with an active catalyst is formed by a reaction between ..cap alpha..-sites on alumina and certain components in the feed via a polymerization mechanism. This type of coke has minimal effect on the reforming reactivity of the catalyst. However, in n-heptane reforming, about 50% of the coke also results from precursors formed from reactions with Pt. In either case, coke associated with Pt appears to be the probable cause of deactivation. 22 references.

  20. Financial burden of burn injuries in iran: a report from the burn registry program.

    PubMed

    Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Ghadarjani, M

    2015-12-31

    Understanding the cost of burn treatment is very important for patients, their families, governmental authorities and insurance companies. It alleviates patient and familial stress, provides a framework for better use of resources, and facilitates better performance between burn centers. Hospital burn costs can provide a basis for authorities to budget for acute burn treatment, for further management of chronic complications, and for planning prevention and public educational programs in Iran. To identify costs we used data from our burn registry program. Over the two-year assessment period, we treated roughly 28,700 burn patients, 1,721 of whom were admitted, with a mortality rate of 5.9%. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1 (63% male; 37% female). Flame burns were most frequent (49.8%) followed by scalds (35.7%). Mean hospital stay was 14.41 days (range 0-64 days). Mean TBSA was 17.39%. Skin grafts were carried out in 65.4% of the patients, with a mean of 5.2 surgeries per patient. The total cost of all patient admissions over the two years was US$ 4,835,000. The maximum treatment cost for one patient was US$ 91,000. The mean cost per patient was US$ 2,810 (29,500,000 Rials). The mean cost for each percent of burn was US$ 162. The mean cost for a one-day stay in hospital was US$ 195. The mean cost of each operation was US$ 540. Patients who contracted infections endured longer hospital stays, meaning increased costs of US$ 195 per day. With comparable outcome and results, the cost of burn treatment in Iran is cheaper than in the US and Europe.

  1. Financial burden of burn injuries in iran: a report from the burn registry program

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Ghadarjani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the cost of burn treatment is very important for patients, their families, governmental authorities and insurance companies. It alleviates patient and familial stress, provides a framework for better use of resources, and facilitates better performance between burn centers. Hospital burn costs can provide a basis for authorities to budget for acute burn treatment, for further management of chronic complications, and for planning prevention and public educational programs in Iran. To identify costs we used data from our burn registry program. Over the two-year assessment period, we treated roughly 28,700 burn patients, 1,721 of whom were admitted, with a mortality rate of 5.9%. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1 (63% male; 37% female). Flame burns were most frequent (49.8%) followed by scalds (35.7%). Mean hospital stay was 14.41 days (range 0-64 days). Mean TBSA was 17.39%. Skin grafts were carried out in 65.4% of the patients, with a mean of 5.2 surgeries per patient. The total cost of all patient admissions over the two years was US$ 4,835,000. The maximum treatment cost for one patient was US$ 91,000. The mean cost per patient was US$ 2,810 (29,500,000 Rials). The mean cost for each percent of burn was US$ 162. The mean cost for a one-day stay in hospital was US$ 195. The mean cost of each operation was US$ 540. Patients who contracted infections endured longer hospital stays, meaning increased costs of US$ 195 per day. With comparable outcome and results, the cost of burn treatment in Iran is cheaper than in the US and Europe PMID:27777552

  2. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  3. Tar burns in the southwest.

    PubMed

    Schiller, W R

    1983-07-01

    The burns which result from contact of human skin with hot tar may be quite serious in proportion to the body surface area involved. Although tending toward partial thickness burns, patchy areas of full thickness skin loss are commonly observed. The use of petrolatum-based ointments on the burn initially to dissolve the tar into the dressings seems like the most efficient and humane method of tar removal. Subsequently, care of the wound is like that of any other burn. Tar burns involving greater than 10 per cent of the body surface area are likely to be the most serious and require intravenous fluid resuscitation. Many tar burns appear to be preventable.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and burns. Part II-outcomes from burn injuries and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Goutos, Ioannis; Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Pandya, Atisha A; Ghosh, Sudip J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent comorbidity in patients presenting to burn facilities. Diabetic patients tend to be older and present in a delayed manner with deeper injuries predominantly affecting the lower limb. Morbidity from burns is higher in this cohort including a longer length of hospital stay, greater need for surgical interventions and increased rate of infective complications. Nevertheless, there seems to be little effect of diabetes on associated mortality. The second part of this review article concentrates on the epidemiological profile of diabetic burn patients and the effect of the disease on morbidity and mortality. In addition, we present a review of therapeutic adjuncts, which may hold promise for the future management of this cohort of burn patients. PMID:26064798

  5. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  7. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2010-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition characterized by burning of the oral mucosa, with or without dysgeusia and xerostomia, in the setting of no underlying systemic disease or identifiable abnormalities on physical examination or laboratory testing. BMS disproportionately affects postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown; no single treatment has proven universally successful. In light of these shortcomings, having a practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with BMS can improve both patient quality of life and physician satisfaction.

  8. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  9. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  10. Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.

    PubMed

    Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-08-20

    The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  12. Novel platinum/KL catalysts for the aromatization of N-hexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gary

    A number of studies were conducted to understand the underlying reasons for the uniqueness of Pt/KL for its high activity and selectivity for benzene production. Catalytic screening of basic supported Pt catalysts revealed that aromatization passes through dehydrogenated intermediates, including hexenes. Pt/KL was found to more efficiently convert hexenes to benzene than nonmicroporous basic supported Pt catalysts. The role of L-zeolite was found to protect the Pt clusters from bimolecular pathways leading to the deposition of coke on the surface of the Pt. Sulfur deactivates Pt/KL by agglomeration of Pt clusters and the formation of Pt-S, breaking up Pt ensembles required for aromatization. The role of morphology of Pt inside the L-zeolite channels was found to play an important role on catalytic stability. Series of catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness and vapor phase impregnation and characterized by a variety of techniques, including H2 chemisorption, EXAFS, FTIR of adsorbed CO, MCP ring opening, and TEM and tested by both pulse and flow mode n-hexane reaction. While both catalysts exhibited small Pt clusters inside the channels of the L-zeolite, the IWI had a fraction near the surface region large enough to block channels. Under reaction, the IWI catalysts deactivated to about half the initial activity. However, VPI had Pt clusters small enough to reside in the lobes of the ellipsoid cages of the channels; these catalysts were remarkably stable. Addition of a small amount of thulium to KL was found to aid in dispersing the Pt. Using TPO, thulium was found to act a sulfur getter. Electronic modification to Pt by exchanging the zeolite cation from potassium to lithium was studied by shape resonance XANES, microcalorimetry, and pulse neopentane hydrogenolysis. Addition of lithium resulted in a shift of the Fermi level of Pt away from the antibonding state of Pt-H, strengthening the chemisorption bond. Increased hydrogenolysis rates were observed for both

  13. Methamphetamine-related burns in the cornbelt.

    PubMed

    Burke, Bridget A; Lewis, Robert W; Latenser, Barbara A; Chung, Joseph Y; Willoughby, Clark; Kealey, G Patrick; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive drug that is easily manufactured from everyday household products and chemicals found at local farm stores. The proliferation of small MA labs has led to a dramatic increase in patients sustaining thermal injury while making and/or using MA. We hypothesized that these patients have larger injuries with longer hospital stays, and larger, nonreimbursed hospital bills compared with burn patients not manufacturing or using MA. In a retrospective case-control study, all burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted to our burn center from January 2002 to December 2005 were stratified into two groups based on urine MA status. Of the 660 burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted during this 4 year period, urine drug screens were obtained at admission on 410 patients (62%); 10% of urine drug screens were MA (+). MA (+) patients have larger burns compared with MA (-) patients (9.3 vs 8.6% body surface area burns), have higher rates of inhalation injuries (20.4 vs 9.3%, P = .015), and more nonthermal trauma (13.0 vs 3.1%, P = .001). When compared with MA (-) patients, MA (+) patients require longer hospital stays (median 9.5 vs 7.0 days, P = .036), accrue greater hospital bills per day (dollars 4292 vs dollars 2797, P = .01), and lack medical insurance (66.7 vs 17.7%, P < .0001). The epidemic of MA use and its manufacture mandates that burn centers monitor patients for MA use and develop and institute protocols to ensure proper care of this increasingly costly population.

  14. Burn injury secondary to air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Ingrid; Mancini, Luca Livio; Guizzardi, Marco; Monti, Marcello

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of air bags has been proven in diminishing the rate of fatalities and severity of injury in motor vehicle crashes. Unfortunately, as with any developing technology, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the air bag itself. Most air bag-related injuries are minor and, surprisingly, more than 7% are burns typically involving the upper extremity or head or neck. Fortunately, these are superficial burns that usually require only expectant therapy, but a high degree of suspicion in these circumstances is needed to make the proper diagnosis.

  15. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, KI; Sedlacek, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  16. Epidemiology and outcome of burns at the Saud Al Babtain Burns, Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Center, Kuwait: our experience over five years (from 2006 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Khashaba, H A; Al-Fadhli, A N; Al-Tarrah, K S; Wilson, Y T; Moiemen, N

    2012-12-31

    Aim To determine the epidemiology and clinical presentation, and any contributing factors responsible for burns and outcome of care in Kuwait over the 5-yr period January 2006 to December 2010. Patients and methods. The study reviewed 1702 burn patients admitted over the study period to the Saud Al Babtain Burns, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Center, Kuwait. Patient characteristics, including age, sex, type of burn, nationality, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, hospital stay in days, and mortality were recorded. Results. Seventy-one per cent of the 1702 burn patients admitted were males; 540 were children. The majority of patients (64%) had less than 15% TBSA burns and only 14% had more than 50% TBSA burns. Flame burns were the most common cause of burn injuries (60%), followed by scalds (29%). Scalds were most common in children. The mortality rate was 5.75%. Flame burn was the leading cause of mortality. Lethal dose 50 (% TBSA at which a certain group has a 50% chance of survival) for adults (16-40 yr) and for the elderly (>65 yr) was 76.5% and 41.8% TBSA respectively. Conclusion. Burn injury is an important public health concern and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Flame and scald burns are commonly a result of domestic and occupational accidents and they are preventable. Effective initial resuscitation, infection control, and adequate surgical treatment improve outcomes.

  17. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  18. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  19. [Burns in an aeronautic environment].

    PubMed

    Rigotti, G

    1979-10-27

    Following an examination of the aetiology of burns in aeronautic environments, the physiopathology, classification and general and local treatment of the burn case is discussed. Special mention is then made of aircraft as an extremely useful means of transport.

  20. Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn

    NASA Video Gallery

    The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted ...

  1. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  2. Burn Care in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    tent configuration and later occupied Ibn Sina Hospital, in the international zone in Baghdad, Iraq. In the tent configura- tion, the 28th CSH provided...at Ibn Sina Hos- pital continuously. In a relatively austere general hospital environment, burn care has been provided with a focus on the

  3. Burn and Scald Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry oven mitts or potholders. Hot cookware can heat moisture in a potholder or hot pad, resulting in a scald burn. • Wear short, close-fitting or tightly rolled sleeves when cooking. • Have a “kid-free zone” of at least 3 feet around the stove. ...

  4. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  5. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  6. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  7. The FLUORINE-17(PROTON, PHOTON)NEON-18 and Oxygen -14(ALPHA Particle, PROTON)FLUORINE-17 Reaction Rates and the Structure of NEON-18 (NEON-18, FLUORINE-17, Oxygen -14, Astrophysical Hydrogen Burning)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Kevin Insik

    1993-01-01

    The 14O(alpha,p) 17F and ^ {17}F(p,gamma)18Ne reactions play crucial roles in the advanced stages of astrophysical hydrogen burning. The ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F(p,gamma) ^ {18}Ne(beta^+nu) 18F(p,alpha)^ {15}O reaction sequence can provide a path around the relatively slow positron decay of 14O in the HCNO cycle, while the similar reaction sequence, ^{14 }O(alpha ,p) 17F(p,gamma)^ {18}Ne(beta ^+nu) 18F(p,gamma)^ {19}Ne, can provide an alternate path from the HCNO cycle to the rp-process. The 17F(p,gamma)18Ne reaction rate could provide the principal source of 18O. Under some astrophysical conditions, the ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F reaction is expected to compete with the 15O(alpha, gamma)19Ne reaction in providing a path through which nuclei involved in the HCNO cycle can be transformed into heavier nuclei with Z >= 10.. In order to better determine the rates of these two reactions, we measured the properties of the resonances in 18Ne; the excitation energies, the spins, and the partial and total widths of the relevant resonances. By comparing the previously observed states in 18Ne to the well-studied isospin mirror nucleus, ^{18 }O, it is clear that there are a number of missing levels in 18Ne in the region rm Ex > 4 MeV. These missing states in ^ {18}Ne could be important in determining the 17F(p, gamma)18rm Ne and 14O(alpha ,p)17F reaction rates. We have studied the ^{12 }C(12C,^6He)^{18 }Ne, 20rm Ne(p{,}t)18Ne, and 16O(^3He{, }n)18Ne reactions to measure new nuclear structure information of ^{18 }Ne. From our experiments, we have the following major results: (a) an evidence of the 3^+ <=vel at E_{rm x} = 4.56 MeV, (b) new levels at E_ {rm x} = 6.15 MeV, 7.12 MeV, 7.35 MeV, 7.62 MeV, 8.30 MeV, (8.45 MeV), 8.55 MeV, 8.94 MeV, and 9.58 MeV. (c) new J^pi assignments to the 5.11/5.15-MeV doublet and the 6.15-MeV state. Our discovery of the 3^+<=vel at an energy ~230 keV higher than calculated by Wiescher, Gorres, and Thielemann causes the contribution of the 17 F

  8. Microreactor for efficient catalyst evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besser, Ronald S.; Ouyang, Sean; Surangalikar, Harshal; Prevot, Michelle

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes ongoing work in the development of microreactor-based systems for applications in the chemical process industry. The microreactors discussed here are formed from silicon using robust micromachining processes to produce devices with micrometer-scale fluidic structures including passageways for the introduction and removal of gases, and a reaction zone with a thin-film catalyst. We describe experiments done to characterize these reactors for use as development tools for industrial catalytic processes in terms of catalyst screening, acquisition of rate laws, and determination of optimal process conditions. The system studied here, the reaction of a cyclic olefin (cyclohexene) with hydrogen in the presence of platinum catalyst, is a model for industrially important catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

  9. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  10. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  11. Burning Mouth Syndrome: update.

    PubMed

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jané; López López, José

    2014-06-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "burning mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "burning mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral burning sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research.

  12. Burn Wise Outreach Materials for Retailers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  13. Thermoregulation in burn patients during exercise.

    PubMed

    Austin, K G; Hansbrough, J F; Dore, C; Noordenbos, J; Buono, M J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of patients with burns on 30 to 40% and 60% or greater of their BSA to thermoregulate their core temperature during exercise in the heat. Two groups (n = 3 in each) of subjects with healed third-degree burns (34.0 +/- 1.4% and 77.7 +/- 12.4%, respectively) and a group of unburned subjects (n = 2) exercised for 1 hour on a cycle ergometer at 75 Watts in an environmental chamber set at 35 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Subjects were monitored for rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, whole body sweat rate, skin blood flow, and active sweat gland density (number per cm ) in unburned, burned, and harvested skin. The results demonstrated that patients with burns on 60% or greater BSA did not show an intolerance to moderate exercise in the heat, as evidenced by only a moderate rise in rectal temperature and heart rate. Furthermore, the responses were similar to those of the unburned subjects.

  14. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  15. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Composition ...

  16. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  17. Hypocupremia in a major burn.

    PubMed

    Brian, J E; Caldwell, F T; Woody, R C; Bowser-Wallace, B H

    1987-03-01

    Trace element deficiency in burns is an area which apparently has not been investigated. We recently encountered a severely burned patient with profound copper depletion. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and delayed healing may have been secondary to this deficiency. Further study is needed to clearly delineate the role of acquired copper deficiency in recovering burned patients.

  18. Modified zeolite-based catalyst for effective extinction hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1989-10-01

    The shape selectivity of zeolites makes them generally ineffective for extinction hydrocracking of polycyclic aromatic feeds. To overcome this problem, the zeolite can be modified with an amorphous cracking component to form a composite catalyst. This composite catalyst will be effective for extinction hydrocracking and retain the superior performance characteristics of a zeolite catalyst at the same time because the zeolite and the amorphous components of the catalyst operate complementarily. To illustrate this principle, NiW/REX-NiW/SiO/sub 2/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composite catalyst was tested in the pilot plant. It was active, low in aging rate, resistant to nitrogen poisoning and high in selectivities for naphthas. The aged catalyst could be oxidatively regenerated to fully recover the activity and the product selectivities. This composite catalyst was superior to both individual (zeolite and amorphous) components for extinction hydrocracking. Catalysts similar to this have been used commercially for many years.

  19. The Effect of Burn Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National Burn Repository.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Erica I; Saeman, Melody R; Subramanian, Madhu; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burn center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in burned children. The National Burn Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American Burn Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on average annual burn volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger burns were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very high-volume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very high-volume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified burn center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, burn size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric burn patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as burn size, inhalation injury, and burn cause. Average annual admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered.

  20. Heparin Reduced Mortality and Sepsis in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, G.J.; Bonilla, A.M.; Saliba, M.J

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives. In El Salvador, before 1999, morbidity and mortality in severely burned children were high. In 1998, all children with burns of 40% or larger size died and sepsis was found. With heparin use in 1999, some similarly burned children survived, and sepsis, pain, procedures, and scars were noted to be less. This retrospective study presents the details. Methods. A study was conducted at the National Children's Hospital in El Salvador of all children with burns over 20% size treated in 1998, when no heparin was used, and in 1999, when heparin was added to burns treatment, using an ethics committee approved protocol in use in twelve other countries. Sodium aqueous heparin solution USP from an intestinal source was infused intravenously and applied topically onto burn surfaces and within blisters for the first 1-3 days post-burn. Then heparin, in diminishing doses, was continued only topically until healing. The treatments in 1998 and 1999 were otherwise the same, except that fewer procedures were needed in 1999. Results. There were no significant differences in gender, age, weight, burn aetiology, or burn size between the burned children in 1998 and those in 1999. Burn pain was relieved and pain medicine was not needed in children treated with heparin in 1999. In 1998, one child survived who had a 35% size burn, and the eight children died who had burns of 40% and over. The survival rate was one out of nine (11%). The average burn size was 51.7%. With heparin use in 1999, six of the ten children survived burns of 50.7% average size. The increase in survival with heparin from 11% to 60% and, therefore, the decrease in mortality from 89% to 40% were significant (p < 0.04). Clinical symptoms and positive blood cultures documented bacterial sepsis in the nine children in 1998. In 1999, the blood cultures for sepsis were positive in the four children who died and negative in the six who survived. The nine versus four differences in the incidence of sepsis

  1. Lewis Base Catalysts 6: Carbene Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as catalysts for organic transformations has received increased attention in the past 10 years. A discussion of catalyst development and nucleophilic characteristics precedes a description of recent advancements and new reactions using N-heterocyclic carbenes in catalysis. PMID:21494949

  2. Longitudinal burn scar quantification.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are

  3. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  4. The year in burns 2011.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2012-12-01

    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  5. Deactivation of Oxidation Catalysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    the fresh catalyst . The loss in chromium may be related to the formation of volatile chromium oxychlorde which vaporizes from the catalyst . It is...CeO2 only marginally improved the thtrmal stability. The addition of 2% water vapor inhibited the oxidation of ethanol for all three copper catalysts ...original activity. Field tests of a copper chromite catalyst on process gas containing H2S, methyl mercaptan, n-aldehydes, and furfural showed

  6. Prescribed burning consumes key forest structural components: implications for landscape heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Holland, Greg J; Clarke, Michael F; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-12-19

    Prescribed burning to achieve management objectives is a common practice in fire-prone regions worldwide. Structural components of habitat that are combustible and slow to develop are particularly susceptible to change associated with prescribed burning. We used an experimental, "whole-landscape" approach to investigate the effect of differing patterns of prescribed burning on key habitat components (logs, stumps, dead trees, litter cover, litter depth, and understorey vegetation). Twenty-two landscapes (each ~100 ha) were selected in a dry forest ecosystem in southeast Australia. Experimental burns were conducted in 16 landscapes (stratified by burn extent) while six served as untreated controls. We measured habitat components prior to and after burning. Landscape burn extent ranged from 22% to 89% across the 16 burn treatments. With the exception of dead standing trees (no change), all measures of habitat components declined as a consequence of burning. The degree of loss increased as the extent to which a landscape was burned also increased. Prescribed burning had complex effects on the spatial heterogeneity (beta diversity) of structural components within landscapes. Landscapes that were more heterogeneous pre-fire were homogenized by burning, while those that were more homogenous pre-fire tended to display greater differentiation post-burning. Thus, the notion that patch mosaic burning enhances heterogeneity at the landscape-scale depends on prior conditions. These findings have important management implications. Where prescribed burns must be undertaken, effects on important resources can be moderated via control of burn characteristics (e.g., burn extent). Longer-term impacts of prescribed burning will be strongly influenced by the return interval, given the slow rate at which some structural components accumulate (decades to centuries). Management of habitat structural components is important given the critical role they play in (1) provision of habitat

  7. Burns in mobile home fires--descriptive study at a regional burn center.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Robert F; Alarm, Badrul; Huq Mian, Mohammad Anwarul; Samples, Jancie M; Friedman, Bruce C; Shaver, Joseph R; Brandigi, Claus; Hassan, Zaheed

    2009-01-01

    Death from fires and burns are the sixth most common cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. More than (3/4) of burn deaths occurring in the United States are in the home. Mobile home fires carry twice the death rate as other dwellings. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of deaths and injuries in mobile home fire admitted in a regional Burn Center and to identify possible risk factors. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out among all burn patients admitted to a regional Burn Center between January 2002 and December 2004 (3469 patients). The study included patients who suffered a burn injury from a mobile home fire. The demographic characteristics of the patients, location of mobile home, associated inhalation injury, source of fire, comorbidity of the victims, employment status, insurance status, family history of burns, and outcomes of the treatment were incorporated in a data collection record. There were 65 burn patients in mobile home fires admitted to the Burn Center during the studied period. The average age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 2 to 81 years, SD=16.06), 77% were male, 67% were white, and 79% were the residents in the suburban areas of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. The average TBSA of burns was about 21% (ranging from 1 to 63%, SD=17.66), 63% of the patients had associated inhalation, three inhalation injury only, and 69% patients required ventilator support. The average length of stay per TBSA percentage of burn was 1.01 days (P=0.00), controlling for age, preexisting medical comorbidities, and inhalation injury. About 88% of the patients had preexisting medical comorbid conditions, 74% were smokers, 64% reported as alcoholic, and 72% had at least some form of health insurance coverage. In 40% of the cases, the cause of the fire was unknown, 31% were caused by accidental explosions, such as electric, gasoline, or kerosene appliances, and 29% were due to other

  8. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  9. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  10. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  11. Prelife catalysts and replicators

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Life is based on replication and evolution. But replication cannot be taken for granted. We must ask what there was prior to replication and evolution. How does evolution begin? We have proposed prelife as a generative system that produces information and diversity in the absence of replication. We model prelife as a binary soup of active monomers that form random polymers. ‘Prevolutionary’ dynamics can have mutation and selection prior to replication. Some sequences might have catalytic activity, thereby enhancing the rates of certain prelife reactions. We study the selection criteria for these prelife catalysts. Their catalytic efficiency must be above certain critical values. We find a maintenance threshold and an initiation threshold. The former is a linear function of sequence length, and the latter is an exponential function of sequence length. Therefore, it is extremely hard to select for prelife catalysts that have long sequences. We compare prelife catalysis with a simple model for replication. Assuming fast template-based elongation reactions, we can show that replicators have selection thresholds that are independent of their sequence length. Our calculation demonstrates the efficiency of replication and provides an explanation of why replication was selected over other forms of prelife catalysis. PMID:19692408

  12. Determination of PM10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass burning in the chamber for estimation of open burning emissions.

    PubMed

    Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Chantara, Somporn; Tengjaroenkul, Urai; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Prapamontol, Tippawan

    2013-11-01

    Biomass samples including agricultural waste (rice straw and maize residue) and forest leaf litter were collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand for the burning experiment in the self-designed stainless steel chamber to simulate the emissions of PM10. The burning of leaf litter emitted the highest PM10 (1.52±0.65 g kg(-1)). The PM10-bound ions emitted from the burning of rice straw and maize residue showed the same trend, which was K(+)>Cl(-)>SO4(2-)>NH4(+)>NO3(-). However, the emissions from maize residue burning were ~1.5-2.0 times higher than those from the rice straw burning. The ion content emitted from leaf litter burning was almost the same for all ion species. Noticeably, K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were ~2-4 times lower than those emitted from agricultural waste burning. It can be deduced that K(+) and Cl(-) were highly emitted from agricultural waste burning due to the use of fertilizer and herbicides in the field, respectively. Based on emission values obtained from the chamber, the pollutant emission rate from open burning was calculated. Burned areas in Chiang Mai Province were 3510 and 866 km(2) in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Forest burning was 71-88%, while agricultural land burning accounted for 12-29% (rice field: crop field=1:3) of total burned area. Therefore, emissions of PM10 from open burning in Chiang Mai were 3051 ton (2010) and 705 ton (2011). Major ions emitted from agricultural waste burning were found to be K(+) and Cl(-), while those from forest burning were SO4(2-) and K(+).

  13. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  14. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging.

    PubMed

    Krezdorn, N; Limbourg, A; Paprottka, F J; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R; Vogt, P M

    2016-09-30

    Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours.

  15. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  16. [Burn out of formal carers in geriatric facilities].

    PubMed

    Courty, Bénédicte; Bouisson, Jean; Compagnone, Philippe

    2004-09-01

    From a person-centered perspective, this study investigates the relationship between burn out and anxiety-depression, among geriatric caregivers, according to the helplessness-hopelessness theory. The population studied consists of 150 caregivers, drawn from different geriatric facilities throughout France. Data was collected from three self-administered questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) measures burn out, whereas the STAI measures anxiety and the CES-D assesses symptoms of depression. These tools have been used to analyze the effects of several potential vulnerability factors. Three distinct groups have been identified by cluster analysis on the MBI's dimensions. Subjects from the first cluster (n = 88) did not suffer from burn out, whereas subjects from group 2 (n = 46) and group 3 (n = 16) have been rated "at risk" and "at high risk" of developing burn out. The three groups have significantly different levels of anxiety and depression. Age, profession and type of facility appeared as vulnerability factors for professional burn out.

  17. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  18. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  19. Segmentation and classification of burn images by color and texture information.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a burn color image segmentation and classification system is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and to distinguish among the different types of burns (burn depths). Digital color photographs are used as inputs to the system. The system is based on color and texture information, since these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to form a diagnosis. A perceptually uniform color space (L*u*v*) was used, since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptual color differences. After the burn is segmented, a set of color and texture features is calculated that serves as the input to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies burns into three types of burn depths: superficial dermal, deep dermal, and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images, yielding an average classification success rate of 82%.

  20. History of burns: The past, present and the future.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Chear; Joory, Kavita; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2014-01-01

    Burn injuries are one of the most common and devastating afflictions on the human body. In this article we look back at how the treatment of burns has evolved over the centuries from a primarily topical therapy consisting of weird and wonderful topical concoctions in ancient times to one that spans multiple scientific fields of topical therapy, antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, skin excision and grafting, respiratory and metabolic care and nutrition. Most major advances in burn care occurred in the last 50 years, spurred on by wars and great fires. The use of systemic antibiotics and topical silver therapy greatly reduced sepsis related mortality. This along with the advent of antiseptic surgical techniques, burn depth classification and skin grafting allowed the excision and coverage of full-thickness burns which resulted in greatly improved survival rates. Advancements in the methods of assessing the surface area of burns paved way for more accurate fluid resuscitation, minimising the effects of shock and avoiding fluid over-loading. The introduction of metabolic care, nutritional support and care of inhalational injuries further improved the outcome of burn patients. We also briefly discuss some future directions in burn care such as the use of cell and pharmalogical therapies.

  1. Recent trends in burn epidemiology worldwide: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Christian; Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Forbes, Abigail A; Wurzer, Paul; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Branski, Ludwik K; Huss, Fredrik; Kamolz, Lars-Peter

    2017-03-01

    Burns have been more prevalent among low socioeconomic populations and in less developed regions. Incredible advances in burn care and social development over the recent decades, however, should have placed the incidence and severity of burns in a downwards trend. The aim of this review was to give an overview on current trends in burn epidemiology across the world. Also the socioeconomic development in countries that have published epidemiological data used in this study has been taken into account when comparing the results. There was a worldwide downwards trend of burn incidence, burn severity, length of hospital stay, and mortality rate. These findings were particularly pronounced in very highly developed countries. Data from highly and medium developed countries were more heterogeneous. No studies could be obtained from low and middle income countries. Comparisons between the different studies were compromised by the fact that studies emerged from specialized facilities on one hand and general hospitals on the other. Analyzed studies were also frequently focusing on limited patient populations such as "children" or "elderly". Our findings indicate the need for an international burn database with a minimal data-set in order to obtain objective and comparable results in respect of burn epidemiology.

  2. System for reactivating catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  3. Burns in Baghdad from 2003–2014: results of a randomized household cluster survey

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Lafta, Riyadh; Shatari, Sahar A Esa Al; Cherewick, Megan; Burnham, Gilbert; Hagopian, Amy; Galway, Lindsay P; Kushner, Adam L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Civilians living amid conflict are at high-risk of burns. However, the epidemiology of burns among this vulnerable group is poorly understood, yet vital for health policy and relief planning. To address this gap, we aimed to determine the death and disability, healthcare needs and household financial consequences of burns in post-invasion Baghdad. Methods A two-stage, cluster randomized, community-based household survey was performed in May of 2014 to determine the civilian burden of injury from 2003 to 2014 in Baghdad. In addition to questions about cause of household member death, households were interviewed regarding burn specifics, healthcare required, disability, relationship to conflict and resultant financial hardship. Results Nine-hundred households, totaling 5,148 individuals, were interviewed. There were 55 burns, which were 10% of all injuries reported. There were an estimated 2,340 serious burn injures (39 per 100,000 persons) in Baghdad in 2003. The frequency of serious burn injuries generally increased post-invasion to 8,780 burns in 2013 (117 per 100,000 persons). Eight burns (15%) were the direct result of conflict. Individuals aged over 45 years had more than twice the odds of burn injury than children aged less than 13 years (aOR 2.42; 95%CI 1.08 – 5.44). Nineteen burns (35%) involved ≥20% body surface area. Death (16% of burn injuries), disability (40%), household financial hardship (48%) and food insecurity (50%) were common after burn injury. Conclusion Civilian burn injury in Baghdad is epidemic, increasing in frequency and associated with household financial hardship. Challenges of healthcare provision during prolonged conflict were evidenced by a high mortality rate and likelihood of disability after burn injury. Ongoing conflict will directly and indirectly generate more burns, which mandates planning for burn prevention and care within local capacity development initiatives, as well as humanitarian assistance. PMID:26526376

  4. The impact of patient demographics and comorbidities upon burns admitted to Tygerberg Hospital Burns Unit, Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloake, T; Haigh, T; Cheshire, J; Walker, D

    2017-03-01

    In South Africa, burns are a major public health problem responsible for significant morbidity and long-term physical disability. This is, in part, due to a significant proportion of the urban population living in poorly constructed, combustible accommodation. The presence of co-morbid diseases such as diabetes and malignancy in patients with burns has been associated with a poorer outcome. The impact of other diseases such as HIV has yet to be defined. A retrospective data collection study analysed the 221 patients admitted to Tygerberg Hospital Burns Unit in 2011 and the first six months of 2013. Using hospital records, patient demographic data was collected alongside burn agent, ICU admission, complications, and patient outcome in terms of length of stay and mortality. The most common burn agent was hot liquid (45.7%). A significant proportion of patients were subject to intentional attacks (34.3%). Shack fires and flame accounted cumulatively for 85% of total inhalational burns, the highest rates of admission to ICU (85.5%), the highest rate of complications, as well as 92.3% of all total fatalities. HIV+ patients had a higher mortality (13.3% vs 5%, p=0.22) and a higher complication rate (46.7% vs 30%, p=0.21). There was no difference in length of stay between the HIV+ and HIV- cohort (12days vs. 15.5 days, p=0.916). Burns are a significant yet preventable cause of mortality and morbidity. The rising number of shack fires, responsible for extensive burns and resultant mortality is concerning and indicates urgent attention and action. HIV complicates the recovery from burn and is responsible for an increased rate of in hospital mortality.

  5. Hydroliquefaction of coal with supported catalysts: 1980 status review

    SciTech Connect

    Polinski, Leon M.; Stiegel, Gary J.; Tischer, Richard E.

    1981-06-01

    The objectives of the program have been to determine catalyst deactivation kinetic models and catalyst deactivation modes for supported Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts used primarily in coal liquefaction via the H-COAL process. Emphasis has been on developing methods to increase catalyst usage by determining how to decrease catalyst replacement rates in the process and how to decrease catalyst poisoning. An important conclusion reached via model analysis and verified by experiment is that larger diameter (1/16 in.) catalysts resist poisoning deactivation much more than smaller (1/32 in.) catalysts over extended periods (60 to 110 hours) of time. If this trend can be verified, it gives a powerful tool for reducing catalyst replacement rate in the H-COAL ebullated bed system by factors of 2 or more. A second conclusion is that poisoning of catalysts occurs by several possible mechanisms or modes. Indirect or direct evidence of all these modes can be presented, though the relative importance of each mechanism has not been established. The modes include (a) poisoning by coking - with gradual increase in C/H ratio (more refractory coke) with time, (b) poisoning by metallization (selective/non-selective adsorption of inorganics such as Ti and Fe on the catalyst), (c) sintering - increase in larger pores/decrease in surface area, and (d) parallel poisoning by irreversible nitrogen compound adsorption.

  6. Catalyst patterning for nanowire devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nanowire devices may be provided that are based on carbon nanotubes or single-crystal semiconductor nanowires. The nanowire devices may be formed on a substrate. Catalyst sites may be formed on the substrate. The catalyst sites may be formed using lithography, thin metal layers that form individual catalyst sites when heated, collapsible porous catalyst-filled microscopic spheres, microscopic spheres that serve as masks for catalyst deposition, electrochemical deposition techniques, and catalyst inks. Nanowires may be grown from the catalyst sites.

  7. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  8. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Janom, H H

    2014-03-31

    Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures.

  9. [The organization of burn care].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  10. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  11. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph S; Shaw, Milton S

    2010-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  12. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  13. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  14. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  15. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  16. Textured catalysts and methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2007-03-06

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  17. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  18. Exercise following burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  19. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome.

  1. Mafenide acetate solution dressings: an adjunct in burn wound care.

    PubMed

    Shuck, J M; Thorne, L W; Cooper, C G

    1975-07-01

    A continuation of the study of 5% aqueous Sulfamylon solution dressings in burned patients was analyzed in 150 consecutive cases. The rate of invasive infection and mortality was not excessive. Dressings were used as an adjunct to other topical chemotherapeutic agents as well as homo/heterograft skin in the overall burn care program. Sulfamylon soaks were shown to be effective for debridement, granulation tissue protection and preparation, and bacterial control. The dressings were comfortable when in place and the wounds appeared clean. Epithelialization was not hampered so that the dressings could be utilized in partial thickness wounds as well as for mesh autografts on extensive burn surfaces=

  2. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk.

  3. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  4. Burning Fuel Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

  5. [Burns and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Rochet, J M; Hareb, F

    2002-03-01

    Necessary principles of rehabilitation for burn patient are based on empirical findings recently corroborated by discoveries about healing pathophysiology. Risks are assessable immediately from the extensive, depth and situation of the burns, problems appear only if the dermis is affected: retraction, hypertrophy and losses of substances. To cutaneous problems it is necessary to add those linked to the prolonged immobilization and to complications of the resuscitation. To be effective, re-education has to be precocious, continuously suited to cicatricial processing and to the different therapeutic steps: resuscitation, surgical treatment, processing in a re-education and rehabilitation center, steady at home and processing of the sequelae. The processing rests on the repressive cloth port 23/24 hours during more of a year, the port of orthesis of immobilization and segmental posture (to stretch the dermis permanently) and the mobilization of articulations to avoid their stiffening. The cooperation of the patient is essential, it needs the share of therapies as well as the totality of problems and difficulties met by the patient, that they are physical, psychological, social, family or occupational. The steady has to be insured by a pluridisciplinarity team during at least the two necessary years for the cicatricial maturation.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-02-07

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

  7. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  8. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  9. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  10. Burning of CP Titanium (Grade 2) in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Jeffers, Nathan; Gallus, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The flammability in oxygen-enriched atmospheres of commercially pure (CP) titanium rods as a function of diameter and test gas pressure was determined. Test samples of varying diameters were ignited at the bottom and burned upward in 70% O2/balance N2 and in 99.5+% O2 at various pressures. The burning rate of each ignited sample was determined by observing the apparent regression rate of the melting interface (RRMI) of the burning samples. The burning rate or RRMI increased with decreasing test sample diameter and with increasing test gas pressure and oxygen concentration

  11. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase production among burn and non-burn clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Naseh, Ziaeldin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for up to 10% of nosocomial infections. The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae, mostly due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemases, is often responsible for antibiotic treatment failure of these infections. We compared the antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL and carbapenemase production as well as presence of KPC-type genes in burn and non-burn clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. Materials and Methods: Fifty five clinical isolates were collected from Shahid Motahari (25 burn isolates) and Shariati (30 non-burn isolates) hospitals between August 2011 to January 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined to 12 antibiotics using disc diffusion. The phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT) was used to screen for ESBL production. Carbapenemase activity was measured by the modified Hodge test (MHT) and KPC-type carbapenemases were further sought by PCR using specific primers. Results: Both groups were highly resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime (>92%). Burn isolates were significantly more resistant to cefepime, amoxiclav, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin compared to the non-burn strains (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed in ESBL production between the two groups. Carbapenem resistance was only observed among the burn isolates (n=5, 9.1%). Five carbapenem-resistant isolates produced carbapenemases. However, none of the isolates harbored the KPC-type genes. Conclusion: Higher rates of drug resistance were observed in burn isolates of K. pneumoniae compared to the non-burn strains. Carbapenemase phenotype was only observed among the burn isolates but KPC-type gene was not detected. PMID:26668701

  12. Henslow's sparrow winter-survival estimates and response to prescribed burning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, B.S.; Krementz, D.G.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Wintering Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) populations rely on lands managed with prescribed burning, but the effects of various burn regimes on their overwinter survival are unknown. We studied wintering Henslow's sparrows in coastal pine savannas at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi, USA, during January and February 2001 and 2002. We used the known-fate modeling procedure in program MARK to evaluate the effects of burn age (1 or 2 growing seasons elapsed), burn season (growing, dormant), and calendar year on the survival rates of 83 radiomarked Henslow's sparrows. We found strong evidence that Henslow's sparrow survival rates differed by burn age (with higher survival in recently burned sites) and by year (with lower survival rates in 2001 likely because of drought conditions). We found some evidence that survival rates also differed by bum season (with higher survival in growing-season sites), although the effects of burn season were only apparent in recently burned sites. Avian predation was the suspected major cause of mortality (causing 6 of 14 deaths) with 1 confirmed loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) depredation. Our results indicated that recently burned savannas provide high-quality wintering habitats and suggested that managers can improve conditions for wintering Henslow's sparrows by burning a large percentage of savannas each year.

  13. Ceramic catalyst materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J.; Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  14. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.; Hamdeh, H.; Davis, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and working catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.

  15. Liquefaction with microencapsulated catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Sol W.

    1985-01-01

    A method of dispersing a liquefaction catalyst within coal or other carbonaceous solids involves providing a suspension in oil of microcapsules containing the catalyst. An aqueous solution of a catalytic metal salt is emulsified in the water-immiscible oil and the resulting minute droplets microencapsulated in polymeric shells by interfacial polycondensation. The catalyst is subsequently blended and dispersed throughout the powdered carbonaceous material to be liquefied. At liquefaction temperatures the polymeric microcapsules are destroyed and the catalyst converted to minute crystallites in intimate contact with the carbonaceous material.

  16. Polyolefin catalyst manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Inkrott, K.E.; Scinta, J.; Smith, P.D. )

    1989-10-16

    Statistical process control (SPC) procedures are absolutely essential for making new-generation polyolefin catalysts with the consistent high quality required by modern polyolefin processes. Stringent quality assurance is critical to the production of today's high-performance catalysts. Research and development efforts during the last 20 years have led to major technological improvements in the polyolefin industry. New generation catalysts, which once were laboratory curiosities, must now be produced commercially on a regular and consistent basis to meet the increasing requirements of the plastics manufacturing industry. To illustrate the more stringent requirements for producing the new generation polyolefin catalysts, the authors compare the relatively simple, first-generation polypropylene catalyst production requirements with some of the basic requirements of manufacturing a more complex new-generation catalyst, such as Catalyst Resources Inc.'s LYNX 900. The principles which hold true for the new-generation catalysts such as LYNX 900 are shown to apply equally to the scale-up of other advanced technology polyolefin catalysts.

  17. METHOD OF PURIFYING CATALYSTS

    DOEpatents

    Joris, G.G.

    1958-09-01

    It has been fuund that the presence of chlorine as an impurity adversely affects the performance of finely divided platinum catalysts such as are used in the isotopic exchange process for the production of beavy water. This chlorine impurity may be removed from these catalysts by treating the catalyst at an elevated temperature with dry hydrogen and then with wet hydrogen, having a hydrogen-water vapor volume of about 8: 1. This alternate treatment by dry hydrogen and wet hydrogen is continued until the chlorine is largely removed from the catalyst.

  18. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  19. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  20. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  1. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  2. Changing Children's Conceptions of Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Stockton, Jamie D.; Monaghan, Diane L.; MaKinster, James G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's understanding of burning focusing on questions such as: "What are children's views of burning prior to and after instruction?," and "Do children's views become more scientific?" A significant difference was found in children's understanding before and after instruction. (Author/MM)

  3. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  4. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  5. Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

  6. New perspectives on quantitative characterization of biomass burning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) occurs seasonally in different vegetated landscapes across the world, consuming large amounts of biomass, generating intense heat energy, and emitting corresponding amounts of smoke plumes that comprise aerosols and trace gases, which include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons, and numerous other trace compounds, many of which have adverse effects on human health, air quality, and environmental processes. Accurate estimates of these emissions are required as model inputs to evaluate and forecast smoke plume transport and impacts on air quality, human health, clouds, weather, radiation, and climate. The goal of this presentation is to highlight results of research activities that are aimed at advancing the quantitative characterization of various aspects of biomass burning (energetics, intensity, burn areas, burn severity, emissions, and fire weather) from aircraft and satellite measurements that can help advance our understanding of biomass burning and its overall effects. We will show recent results of analysis of fire radiative power (FRP), burned areas, fuel consumption, smoke emission rates, and plume heights from satellite measurements, as well as related aircraft calibration/validation activities. We will also briefly examine potential future plans and strategies for effective monitoring of biomass burning characteristics and emissions from aircraft and satellite.

  7. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  8. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePlus

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  9. Minor burn management: potions and lotions

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first aid for burns is to run cold water over the burn for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface area using the rule of nines. Consult a burn unit if more than 5% of the total body surface area is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep burns and burns to special areas, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical burns should also be assessed by a burn unit. For minor burns, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As burns are tetanus prone, check the patient’s immunisation status. Burns that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a burn unit. The burn unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640

  10. The year in burns 2013.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  11. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 4 wt% ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt% ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases.

  12. Plasma-assisted heterogeneous catalysis for NOx reduction in lean-burn engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wan, C.Z.; Rice, G.W.; Voss, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the combination of a plasma with a catalyst to improve the reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions. The authors have been investigating the effects of a plasma on the NO{sub x} reduction activity and temperature operating window of various catalytic materials. One of the goals is to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the gas-phase plasma chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry on the catalyst surface. The authors have observed that plasma assisted heterogeneous catalysis can facilitate NO{sub x} reduction under conditions that normally make it difficult for either the plasma or the catalyst to function by itself. By systematically varying the plasma electrode and catalyst configuration, they have been able to elucidate the process by which the plasma chemistry affects the chemical reduction of NO{sub x} on the catalyst surface. They have discovered that the main effect of the plasma is to induce the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO{sub 21}. The reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} is then accomplished by heterogeneous reaction of O with activated hydrocarbons on the catalyst surface. The use of a plasma opens the opportunity for a new class of catalysts that are potentially more durable, more active, more selective and more sulfur-tolerant compared to conventional lean-NO{sub x} catalysts.

  13. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, W.

    1983-09-06

    A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

  14. Basic Burns Management E-Learning: A New Teaching Tool.

    PubMed

    Egro, Francesco M

    2016-11-11

    Burns teaching is organized only in a few medical schools in the United Kingdom. An e-learning tutorial was developed with the objective of incorporating burns teaching within the medical school curriculum. A 33-webpage e-learning was created, covering topics such as local and general response to burns, assessment of burns, first aid, primary and secondary survey, and referral guidelines. Medical student satisfaction was then evaluated using a 12-question feedback survey rated based on a Likert scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good). The 12-question survey was completed by a total of 18 medical students ranging from second to fourth years (second = 17%, third = 22%, fourth = 61%). While only a couple of students had received prior burns teaching, 50% of the cohort had an interest to pursue surgery as a career. The majority of students (72%) would be interested to have an e-learning module on basic burns management in their medical curriculum. The means of all domains specific to the e-learning were rated as "good" or "very good." Students' rating for ease of use was 87%, usefulness was 88%, relevance to the medical curriculum was 90%, clarity and quality of content were 78% and 83%, respectively, design was 79%, and the overall satisfaction with this e-learning was 87%. The "Basic Burns Management" e-learning tutorial can provide an efficient and effective means of information delivery to medical students and junior doctors, allowing easy and fast incorporation of burns teaching within the medical curriculum and in other medical teaching settings.

  15. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Morisada, S; Nosaka, N; Tsukahara, K; Ugawa, T; Sato, K; Ujike, Y

    2015-09-30

    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive burns (SEB) treated before and after implementation of these new guidelines at this institution. The patients included in this study had a burn index (BI) ≥30 or a prognostic burn index (PBI = BI + patient's age) ≥100. The survival rate of the patients with BI ≥30 was 65.2% with the traditional treatment and 100% with the new guidelines. Likewise, the survival rate of the patients with PBI ≥100 was 61.1% with the traditional treatment compared to 100% with the new guidelines. Together, these data demonstrate that the new treatment guidelines dramatically improved the treatment outcome and survival of SEB patients.

  16. Assessment and management of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Martyn; Swales, Beverley

    Burns are a common injury in the UK. Most burns are limited in size and depth and are therefore suitable for management in the community. Primary care and non-specialist clinicians need to understand initial assessment of the burn and when referral to a specialist burns unit is indicated. Successful treatment of minor burns and ongoing care of severe burns in the community requires careful selection of dressings to support wound healing and achieve optimal outcomes for patients.

  17. Smartphones and burn size estimation: "Rapid Burn Assessor".

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Höller, J; Giretzlehner, M

    2014-06-30

    Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  18. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

    2009-03-01

    -risk groups. Depending on the population of the country, burns prevention could be a national programme. This can ensure sufficient funds are available and lead to proper coordination of district, regional, and tertiary care centres. It could also provide for compulsory reporting of all burn admissions to a central registry, and these data could be used to evaluate strategies and prevention programmes that should be directed at behavioural and environmental changes which can be easily adopted into lifestyle. Particularly in LMICs, the emphasis in burn prevention should be by advocating change from harmful cultural practices. This needs to be done with care and sensitivity. The present review is a summary of what has already been accomplished in terms of burn prevention highlighting some of the successes but above all the numerous pitfalls and failures. Recognizing these failures is the first step towards development of more effective burn prevention strategies particularly in LMICs in which burn injury remains endemic and associated with a high mortality rate. Burn prevention is not easy, but easy or not, we have no options; burns must be prevented.

  19. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of amisulpride in BMS treatment. Methods The subjects were treated with amisulpride (50 mg/day) for 24 weeks. Efficacy assessment included a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HASM-A), and the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Efficacy Index (CGI-EI). Results The treatment regimens resulted in a significant improvement in burning mouth symptoms from baseline at week 24, as indicated by the quantitative mean illness duration VAS score, HAM-D, and HAM-A. Amisulpride appears to be effective and patients show a rapid response to treatment. No serious adverse effects were encountered in these patients. Conclusions Amisulpride is effective and well tolerated as a short-term treatment. It is particularly efficacious at the start of treatment and has shorter response latency. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed for further assessment of the efficacy of amisulpride in BMS treatment. PMID:22719802

  20. A model for assessing ignition, flame spread, and burn hazard potential of a multilayered jacket.

    PubMed

    Ezekoye, Ofodike A; Diller, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    An analysis is presented of ignition, flame spread, and skin burn associated with the ignition and burning of a multilayered jacket. The important physical processes can all be detailed based on simple thermophysical modeling. The ignition process associated with proximity to a radiant heat source is analyzed to see how a change in external (outer) fabric could have diminished the likelihood of ignition. Once the composite jacket has been ignited, the flame spread process is responsible for the heat transfer to the skin that causes the burn. We analyze the effects of the jacket innermost material on flame spread and on possible burn damage. We show how available thermophysical property data can be used to estimate the effect of inner layer material on burn event duration. Finally, given best-available data on the heat transfer rates between a burning inner layer and skin, we examine the kinetics of skin burn damage to determine the most likely injury that would result.

  1. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    PubMed

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  2. Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James H. (Inventor); Taylor, Jesse W. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Catalyst compositions and methods for F-T synthesis which exhibit high CO conversion with minor levels (preferably less than 35% and more preferably less than 5%) or no measurable carbon dioxide generation. F-T active catalysts are prepared by reduction of certain oxygen deficient mixed metal oxides.

  3. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  4. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  5. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  6. Study or Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project : Prediction of Sepsis in the Burn ICU Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-15

    suspected infection ? Study Aims: a) Develop a multivariable predictive model for detection of bacteremia in the burned ICU patient using 12...clinical measures associated with presence of infection (temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, platelet count, insulin resistance, feeding intolerance...independent group of burn ICU patients during periods of documented sepsis and absence of infection ; Hypothesis: A multivariate prediction model will

  7. Organometallic polymerization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Waymouth, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Well-defined transition metal catalysts have resulted in exciting new opportunities in polymer synthesis. The stereochemistry of vinyl polymers can be rationally controlled with choice of the appropriate catalysts. Studies with optically active catalyst precursors have revealed considerable information on the absolute stereochemistry of olefin polymerization and have led to the synthesis of novel chiral polyolefins. The development of homogeneous olefin metathesis catalysts has also led to a variety of well-defined new polymer structures with controlled molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms and stereochemistry of homogeneous transition metal catalyzed polymerization will be discussed. The ability to control polymer structure through catalyst design presents exciting opportunities in the synthesis of {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} macromolecules.

  8. Epidemiology of burn injuries II: psychiatric and behavioural perspectives.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Jodi B A; Ekselius, Lisa; Girasek, Deborah C; Gould, Neda F; Holzer, Charles; Rosenberg, Marta; Dissanaike, Sharmila; Gielen, Andrea C

    2009-12-01

    Modern technological advances have decreased the incidence and severity of burn injuries, and medical care improvements of burn injuries have significantly increased survival rates, particularly in developed countries. Still, fire-related burn injuries are responsible for 300,000 deaths and 10 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually worldwide. The extent to which psychiatric and behavioural factors contribute to the incidence and outcomes of these tragedies has not been systematically documented, and the available data is often insufficient to reach definitive conclusions. Accordingly, this article reviews the evidence of psychiatric and behavioural risk factors and prevention opportunities for burn injuries worldwide. Psychiatric prevalence rates and risk factors for burn injuries, prevalence and risks associated with 'intentional' burn injuries (self-immolation, assault, and child maltreatment), and prevention activities targeting the general population and those with known psychiatric and behavioural risk factors are discussed. These issues are substantially interwoven with many co-occurring risk factors. While success in teasing apart the roles and contributions of these factors rests upon improving the methodology employed in future research, the nature of this entanglement increases the likelihood that successful interventions in one problem area will reap benefits in others.

  9. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

  10. Outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  11. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  12. Movements and survival of Bachman's Sparrows in response to prescribed summer burns in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaman, B.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Prescribed winter burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) to manage for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). The effect of these burns on non-target animals is not well studied. Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis) were captured in predominantly longleaf pine stands to be burned and not to be burned at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge (CSNWR) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. Sparrows were marked with radio-transmitters and monitored daily. Before burning, daily movements did not differ among sites within or among study areas. Additionally, daily movements did not differ by sex or time within the breeding season. After prescribed burning, daily movements were longer for sparrows in burned stands than in unburned stands. All marked sparrows dispersed 1-3 days after a stand was burned and never returned. We found no evidence that dispersing sparrows successfully breed elsewhere. Bachman's sparrow survival rates and reproductive output after burning were lowered. The juxtaposition of seemingly suitable Bachman's sparrow habitat in relation to burned stands influenced both the duration and length of dispersal movements. Managers need to consider the proximity of available habitats when developing burning plans when managing for Bachman's sparrows.

  13. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.

  14. A microalgae residue based carbon solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobo; Li, Dianhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yuanming; Huang, Weiya; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae is recognized as one of the best solutions to deal with the energy crisis issues. However, after the oil extraction from the microalgae, the microalgae residue was generally discarded or burned. Here a novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from microalgae residue by in situ hydrothermal partially carbonization were synthesized. The obtained catalyst was characterized and subjected to both the esterification of oleic acid and transesterification of triglyceride to produce biodiesel. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity and can be regenerated while its activity can be well maintained after five cycles.

  15. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  16. Colonization of burn wounds in Ain Shams University Burn Unit.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Salah; Mabrouk, Amr; Maher, Ashraf

    2003-05-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 70 burned patients admitted to the Burn Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, with the aim to verify the pattern of microbial colonization of burn wounds. Throughout the study period starting from 1 June 1999 till 31 May 2001, 281 sampling procedures (surface swabs) were performed from the burn wounds. A total of 301 microbial isolates were grown in cultures. Eight different species of bacteria, and only one species of Candida (C. albicans) were detected. There was no incidence of recovery of anaerobic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the most frequent isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.2%), then Escherichia coli (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (11.6%), Streptococcus pyogenes (8.3%), Enterobacter species (6.6%), and lastly Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans (5.9 and 3.6%, respectively). Studying the time-related changes in burn wound microbial colonization showed an initial predominance of gram-positive cocci upon admission (70.7%) over gram-negative bacilli (27.6%). During the first 5 days, gram-negative bacilli started to predominate (55.7%) over gram-positive cocci (40.3%). Burn wound sampling performed starting from the sixth day onwards, revealed further prevalence of gram-negative bacilli (72.7%) over gram-positive cocci (22.7%). As for Candida albicans, there was a gradual increase in the frequency of its recovery as time elapsed from admission. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P. N., Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H2S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a raphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700 C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e., higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the electrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss.

  18. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  19. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  1. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  2. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  3. Alumina-supported Pd-Ag catalysts for low-temperature CO and methanol oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccabe, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Pd-Ag bimetallic catalysts, supported on gamma-Al2O3, have been evaluated as exhaust catalysts for methanol-fueled vehicles. Laboratory studies have shown that a 0.01% Pd-5% Ag catalyst has greater CO and CH3OH oxidation activity than either 0.01% Pd or 5% Ag catalysts alone. Moreover, Pd and Ag interact synergistically in the bimetallic catalyst to produce greater CO and CH3OH oxidation rates and lower yields of methanol partial oxidation products than expected from a mixture of the single-component catalysts. The Pd-Ag synergism results from Pd promoting the rate of O2 adsorption and reaction with CO and CH3OH on Ag. Rate enhancement by the bimetallic catalyst is greatest at short reactor residence times where the oxygen adsorption rate limits the overall reaction rate.

  4. Success of artificial bird nests in burned Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrey, S.W.; Wilson, B.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Wildlife managers in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain of Louisiana and Texas frequently burn marshes during winter to improve habitat for wintering waterfowl and furbearers. Such fires dramatically alter vegetation structure and cover, although such changes are generally temporary. However, if vegetation cover does not recover sufficiently by the start of the subsequent breeding season, nests of marsh birds could be exposed to increased predation rates. We examined effects of burning on 2 measures of vegetation structure and on 2 types of artificial bird nests during breeding seasons (May and June) before and after experimental winter burns (December and January). We found that vegetation structure did not differ between burned and non-burned marshes at 5 months post-burn. Similarly, depredation rates of artificial sparrow and duck nests did not differ between burned and non-burned marshes during the post-burn breeding season. We recommend that managers complete burning programs by the end of January so that sufficient nesting cover develops before the start of the breeding season.

  5. Transforming the Fight Against Tuberculosis: Targeting Catalysts of Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, David W.; Azman, Andrew S.; Kendall, Emily A.; Mathema, Barun

    2014-01-01

    The global tuberculosis control community has committed itself to ambitious 10-year targets. To meet these targets, biomedical advances alone will be insufficient; a more targeted public health tuberculosis strategy is also needed. We highlight the role of “tuberculosis transmission catalysts,” defined as variabilities in human behavior, bacillary properties, and host physiology that fuel the propagation of active tuberculosis at the local level. These catalysts can be categorized as factors that increase contact rates, infectiousness, or host susceptibility. Different catalysts predominate in different epidemiological and sociopolitical settings, and public health approaches are likely to succeed only if they are tailored to target the major catalysts driving transmission in the corresponding community. We argue that global tuberculosis policy should move from a country-level focus to a strategy that prioritizes collection of data on key transmission catalysts at the local level followed by deployment of “catalyst-targeted” interventions, supported by strengthened health systems. PMID:24982034

  6. Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ahn, Hongsang

    2001-01-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

  7. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  8. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  9. Wood burning furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, A.D.

    1986-03-25

    An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.

  10. Effects of nonequilibrium particle distributions in deuterium-tritium burning

    SciTech Connect

    Michta, David; Graziani, Frank; Luu, Thomas; Pruet, Jason

    2010-01-15

    The effects of nonequilibrium particle distributions resulting from rapid deuterium-tritium burning in plasmas are investigated using a Fokker-Planck code that incorporates small-angle Coulomb scattering, bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and light-ion fusion. For inertial confinement fusion environments, it is found that deviations away from Maxwellian distributions for either deuterium or tritium ions are small and result in 1% changes in the energy production rates. The deuterium and tritium effective temperatures are not equal, but differ by only about 2.5% near the time of peak burn rate. Simulations with high Z (Xe) dopants show that the dopant temperature closely tracks that of the fuel. On the other hand, fusion product ion distributions are highly non-Maxwellian, and careful treatments of energy-exchange between these ions and other particles is important for determining burn rates.

  11. Fundamental studies of supported bimetallic catalysts by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Savargaonkar, Nilesh

    1996-10-17

    Various hydrogenation reactions on transition metals are important commercially whereas certain hydrogenolysis reactions are useful from fundamental point of view. Understanding the hydrogen mobility and kinetics of adsorption-desorption of hydrogen is important in understanding the mechanisms of such reactions involving hydrogen. The kinetics of hydrogen chemisorption was studied by means of selective excitation NMR on silica supported Pt, Rh and Pt-Rh catalysts. The activation energy of hydrogen desorption was found to be lower on silica supported Pt catalysts as compared to Rh and Pt-Rh catalysts. It was found that the rates of hydrogen adsorption and desorption on Pt-Rh catalyst were similar to those on Rh catalyst and much higher as compared to Pt catalyst. The Ru-Ag bimetallic system is much simpler to study than the Pt-Rh system and serves as a model system to characterize more complicated systems such as the K/Ru system. Ag was found to decrease the amounts of adsorbed hydrogen and the hydrogen-to-ruthenium stoichiometry. Ag reduced the populations of states with low and intermediate binding energies of hydrogen on silica supported Ru catalyst. The rates of hydrogen adsorption and desorption were also lower on silica supported Ru-Ag catalyst as compared to Ru catalyst. This report contains introductory information, the literature review, general conclusions, and four appendices. An additional four chapters and one appendix have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. A study of methyl bromide emissions from automobiles burning leaded gasoline using standardized vehicle testing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Frank J.; Kolowich, J. Bruce

    2000-05-01

    This study measured CH3Br emissions directly from vehicular exhaust while operating under standardized dynamometer conditions, and generated response curves to see if the bromine content of the fuel could be correlated to and used as a predictor for tailpipe emissions. Four lead and bromine fuel concentrations were run in two non-catalyst automobiles using the standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle and exhaust samples were analyzed for CH3Br using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD). Total FTP exhaust emissions of CH3Br produced a range of average values from below detection to 26 mg (kg fuel burned)-1. Total FTP Emission Rates were plotted and response curves demonstrated that fuel bromine content was indeed predictive of CH3Br emission rates. Overall average CH3Br mass emission factor was 2.4% (2.1 - 2.7%) which was lower than previous work. Emission results of this study were found to be about 10-fold lower than indirect methods.

  13. Cardiac output after burn injury.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, J. M.; Shakespeare, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac output after burn injury has been measured by the non-invasive method of impedance plethysmography. An initial study of 143 normal subjects was undertaken in order to investigate variations in cardiac output with age. Fifteen patients were monitored during resuscitation after extensive burns. Fourteen patients showed a depression of stroke volume below the lower limits of the normal range, derived from the initial study on normal people. PMID:6691694

  14. Infectious Complications After Burn Injury,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    and burn wound Epidemiology of infection sepsis’ through the use of effective topical antimicrobial agents and timely excision and grafting have...and early closure of the burn woundthe epidemiology of infection have occurred, resulting in have become standard practice; at the same time, the a...airway and gastrointestinal tract. vasive wound infection , endocarditis , or suppurative Perioperative antibiotic use. thrombophlebitis are common causes

  15. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Insensate skin and chronic medical illness such as diabetes mellitus were common risk factors. The scald potential from hydrotherapy in patients with... diabetic or other neuropathy is well document- cd.46.47 A second group at risk arc patients requiring cutaneous, fusciocuraneous, or myocutancous flap...excrcmity burns related to scnsorv loss in diabetes mellitus. 1 fam Pract 1987;24 (2):149-51. 47. Balakrishnan C, Rak TP, Meininger MS. Burns of the

  16. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    finally allow us to follow the ACS program in bariatric surgery and link quality-based purchasing with verification. For this col- laborative...University of Washington Medicine Department of Surgery , Seattle, Washington. See under consensus statements for author affiliations. The 2012 ABA burn...correspondence to Nicole S. Gibran MD, FACS, UW Medicine Regional Burn Center, UW Medicine Department of Surgery , Seattle, Washington 98104. Copyright

  17. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  18. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  1. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  2. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  3. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  5. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  7. Reconstruction of the pediatric burned hand.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert L

    2009-11-01

    Though the hand constitutes only 3% of the total body surface area, a burned hand is a major injury. Reconstruction of the burned hand is key to the overall rehabilitation of the burned patient. Whether an isolated injury, or part of burns to a large overall body surface area, loss of the hand represents a major functional impairment. The American Burn Association recognizes the importance of the burned hand by designating it a major injury. In addition, loss of the hand constitutes a 57% loss of function for the whole person. Thus, successful management of the burned hand is important.

  8. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  9. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  10. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  11. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  12. Impact of deforestation on biomass burning in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, W.M.; Liu, M.H.; Ward, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass burned due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass burned. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were burned in 1980 and 984 Tg were burned in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass burned in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The burning of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH{sub 4} emitted annually to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990.

  13. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  14. Men, fire, and burns: Stories of fighting, healing, and emotions.

    PubMed

    Thakrar, Sulaye; Hunter, Tevya A; Medved, Maria I; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Brockmeier, Jens; Sareen, Jitender; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2015-12-01

    Burn recovery is a difficult process full of physical and psychological challenges. With increasing survival rates, there has been renewed interest in the psychological aspects of burn recovery. As men represent over 70% of all burn patients, it is particularly important to study how men experience and interpret this process. We interviewed a purposeful sample of ten adult male burn survivors from different age and cultural groups in the first 16 weeks of their recovery and asked them to discuss the problems they faced. Narrative analysis was used to interpret the interviews. In their narratives, the men tended to emphasize gains in their physical recovery; that is, they often used metaphors of "fighting" to demonstrate how committed they were to their healing. Further, they put less emphasis on the emotional aspects of their recovery. In our discussion, we compare these complex storylines to coping strategies identified in the literature and discuss why men may choose these strategies. Based on our findings we argue that it is important for health care providers to be aware of societal pressures which may influence burn survivors to minimize affective elements of burn recovery. Additionally, we encourage exploring and capitalizing on men's "fighting" stories during rehabilitation in order to foster an active role which men can take in their recovery.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of the burning front propagation in PETN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilkin, A. V.; Sergeev, O. V.

    2014-05-01

    One of the models of detonation development in condensed explosives under shock loading is the concept of "hot spots." According to this model, the reaction initially starts at various defects and inhomogeneities, where energy is localized during shock wave propagation. In such a region the reaction may start and the heat flux sufficient for the ignition of the adjacent layers of matter may be formed. If the reaction propagates fast enough, the merging of the burning fronts from several hot spots may lead to detonation. So there is an interest in determining the burning propagation rate from the hot spot in various conditions. In this work we investigate the propagation of plane burning front from initially heated layer in PETN single crystal using molecular dynamics method with the reactive force field (ReaxFF). The burning rate depends on the direction in crystal. The kinetics of chemical transformations is considered. The dependence of the burning front propagation rate along [100] direction on the external pressure in the pressure range from normal to 30 GPa is calculated, it is shown that it grows linearly in the considered range from 50 m/s to 320 m/s. The results are compared with the data from experiments and quantum chemical calculations.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of the burning front propagation in PETN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilkin, Alexey; Sergeev, Oleg; Computational materials science Team

    2013-06-01

    One of the models of detonation development in condensed explosives under shock loading is the concept of ``hot spots.'' According to this model, the reaction initially starts at various defects and inhomogeneities, where energy is localized during shock wave propagation. In such a region the exothermic reaction may start with heat yield sufficient for the ignition of the adjacent layers of matter. If the reaction propagates fast enough, the merging of the burning fronts from several hot spots may lead to detonation. So there is an interest in determining the burning propagation rate from the hot spot in various conditions. In this work we investigate the propagation of plane burning front from initially heated layer in PETN single crystal using molecular dynamics method with reaction force field (ReaxFF). It is shown that the burning rate depends on the direction in crystal. The kinetics of chemical transformations is considered, main reaction paths are determined. The dependence of the burning front propagation rate on the external pressure in the pressure range of normal to 30 GPa is calculated, it is shown that it grows linearly in the considered range from 50 m/s to 320 m/s. The results are compared with the data from experiments and quantum chemical calculations.

  17. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A.; Franceschini, F.; Krepel, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  18. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Sopchak, David A [Livermore, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Satcher, Joseph H [Patterson, CA; Gash, Alex E [Brentwood, CA

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  19. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  20. Reclaim spent catalysts properly

    SciTech Connect

    Lassner, J.A.; Lasher, L.B.; Koppel, R.L.; Hamilton, J.N.

    1994-08-01

    Treatment of spent catalysts and metallic by products has become increasingly more complex over the last couple of years, due to tightening environmental concerns. Three options are available: (1) Reclaiming the metals and either reusing them to make new catalyst or recycling them for other uses. This is now the preferred option. A reclaiming firm is generally employed to handle the task. (2) Regeneration and reuse. While this generally is the preferred option, few commercial catalysts can be regenerated effectively and economically. (3) Landfilling. This has been the traditional route. However, stricter environmental regulations have made landfilling unattractive. To maximize the reclamation both economically and environmentally, five factors should be addressed: (1) proper planning and physical handling; (2) transportation of materials; (3) environmental concerns; (4) end uses of the catalyst; and (5) choosing the proper reclamation partner. These factors are discussed.

  1. Catalysts and method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  2. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOEpatents

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  3. Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst: Final Report, 24 February 2004 -- 23 February 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.

    2005-09-01

    This report discusses the development of a E7G 12-liter, lean-burn natural gas engine--using stoichiometric combustion, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and three-way catalyst technologies--for refuse haulers.

  4. How to manage burns in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8268745

  5. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  6. Plasmatron-catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai

    2007-10-09

    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  7. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  8. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

  9. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  10. Exhaust system-related burns affecting children: a UK perspective and literature review.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, P V; Deall, C E; McArdle, C; Burge, T

    2016-06-30

    Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient demographics, burn injury information, management and outcomes. Thirty-nine patients sustained 43 burns from contact with exhaust mechanisms, and the majority were less than 5 years of age. 77% of the patients were male. Burns affected critical areas such as the hands and feet in 26% of cases. Most burns involved a total body surface area of ≤1% and were partial thickness in depth. Thirty-three percent of patients required operative intervention. Time to heal was less than 3 weeks in 69% of cases and 3 patients healed with hypertrophic scarring. The majority of burns were small in size and partial thickness in depth. Most were treated conservatively and healed with low complication rates. More than 1 in 5 injuries involved critical burn areas, highlighting the potential for considerable morbidity. The age profile in our study contrasted with other results worldwide. Our study highlights the need for vigilant supervision of children around motorcycles. We recommend the wearing of protective long trousers when riding motorcycles and the fitting of external shields to motorcycle exhaust pipes.

  11. Progress in a Moscow children's burn unit: a joint Russian-American collaboration.

    PubMed

    Remensnyder, J P; Astrozjnikova, S; Bell, L; Budkevich, L; Buletova, A A; DiCarlo, J; Featherston, D; Johnson, L; Kolotukin, A; Krassovsky, V

    1995-08-01

    A joint Russian-American paediatric burn programme involving Childrens Hospital No. 9 in Moscow and Project HOPE in Millwood, Virginia emerged from the efforts of burn professionals from both countries in caring for a group of children seriously burned as a result of the train-pipeline catastrophe that occurred in June 1989 in the Ural Mountains. This paper describes the burn unit and its activities during the years 1985-93 and includes: (1) a general description of the physical and administrative structure of the unit; (2) the demography of burn admissions; (3) clinical activities; (4) a comparison of the clinical results of the years before the institution of the combined programme (1985-89) with those achieved during the first 4 years of the combined collaboration (1990-93). Among the important changes that have occurred since the onset of the combined programme are: (1) overall reduction in the crude burn mortality rate; (2) decrease in burn deaths in all burn size groups; (3) dramatic reduction in the length of stay of children with the deepest burns; (4) marked improvement in the take of skin grafts applied to burn wounds and an almost total elimination of complete skin graft failures.

  12. Exhaust system-related burns affecting children: a UK perspective and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vermaak, P.V.; Deall, C.E.; McArdle, C.; Burge, T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient demographics, burn injury information, management and outcomes. Thirty-nine patients sustained 43 burns from contact with exhaust mechanisms, and the majority were less than 5 years of age. 77% of the patients were male. Burns affected critical areas such as the hands and feet in 26% of cases. Most burns involved a total body surface area of ≤1% and were partial thickness in depth. Thirty-three percent of patients required operative intervention. Time to heal was less than 3 weeks in 69% of cases and 3 patients healed with hypertrophic scarring. The majority of burns were small in size and partial thickness in depth. Most were treated conservatively and healed with low complication rates. More than 1 in 5 injuries involved critical burn areas, highlighting the potential for considerable morbidity. The age profile in our study contrasted with other results worldwide. Our study highlights the need for vigilant supervision of children around motorcycles. We recommend the wearing of protective long trousers when riding motorcycles and the fitting of external shields to motorcycle exhaust pipes. PMID:28149228

  13. A Systematic Review on the Epidemiology of Pediatric Burn in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Sayed Saeed; Sharhani, Asaad; Lotfi, Bahare; Ahmadi-Juibari, Toraj; Shaahmadi, Zahra; Aghaei, Abbas

    2017-03-15

    Burn is the most common pediatric injuries all over the world. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of burn in under 15-year-old Iranian children by applying a systematic review. The related articles published before 2016 have been gathered from international databases by using the keywords in term of pediatric burns such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Iranmedex, Google Scholar, Embase, Magiran, and SID. The checklists of STROBE have been applied to evaluate the quality of the reviewed data. A total of 35 relevant studies were extracted and evaluated. In most studies, the incidence of pediatric burns in male patients was more than female patients by 9.5 to 50 cases in 100,000 per children. Mortality rate of pediatric burn was between 1.7 and 18.5%. The most common cause of pediatric burn was hot water or other hot liquids. Pediatric burn in urban areas was higher and the highest number of pediatric burns occurred at home. Burn is considered as one of the major incidents related to children's health that required planning to reduce its incidence, especially in the lower age groups as well as male patients who are more active and susceptible to burn.

  14. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  15. Emission factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Jones, A.D.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    Emission factors for 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured during wind tunnel simulations of open burning for agricultural and forest biomass fuels including cereal grasses, agricultural tree prunings, and fir and pine wood (slash). Yields of total PAH varied from 5 to 683 mg kg{sup -1} depending principally on burning conditions and to a lesser extent on fuel type. Barley straw and wheat straw loaded at 400-500 g m{sup -2} emitted much higher levels of PAH, including benzo[a]pyrene, than other cereal and wood fuel types burning under more robust conditions. As anticipated, total PAH emission rates increased with increasing particulate matter emission rates and with declining combustion efficiency. 20 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. In –Situ Spectroscopic Investigation of Immobilized Organometallic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert, J.

    2007-11-14

    Immobilized organometallic catalysts, in principle, can give high rates and selectivities like homogeneous catalysts with the ease of separation enjoyed by heterogeneous catalysts. However, the science of immobilized organometallics has not been developed because the field lies at the interface between the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis communities. By assembling an interdisciplinary research team that can probe all aspects of immobilized organometallic catalyst design, the entire reacting system can be considered, where the transition metal complex, the complex-support interface and the properties of the support can all be considered simultaneously from both experimental and theoretical points of view. Researchers at Georgia Tech and the University of Virginia are studying the fundamental principles that can be used to understand and design future classes of immobilized organometallic catalysts. In the framework of the overall collaborative project with Georgia Tech, our work focused on (a) the X-ray absorption spectroscopy of an immobilized Pd-SCS-O complex (b) the mode of metal leaching from supported Pd catalysts during Heck catalysis and (c) the mode of deactivation of Jacobsen’s Co-salen catalysts during the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides. Catalysts containing supported Pd pincer complexes, functionalized supports containing mercapto and amine groups, and oligomeric Co-salen catalysts were synthesized at Georgia Tech and sent to the University of Virginia. Incorporation of Pd onto several different kinds of supports (silica, mercapto-functionalized silica, zeolite Y) was performed at the University of Virginia.

  17. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Huajian; Hou, Xiaoxue

    2014-02-01

    Tar produced by biomass gasification as a route of renewable energy must be removed before the gas can be used. This study was undertaken using toluene as a model tar compound for evaluating its steam reforming conversion with three Ni-based catalysts, Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. Effects of Ce and Mg promoters on the reaction activity and coke deposition were studied. Overall the performance of Ce and Mg promoted Ni/olivine catalysts is better than that of only Ce promoter and Ni/olivine alone. The experimental results indicate that Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine catalysts could improve the resistance to carbon deposition, enhance energy gases yield and resist 10ppm H2S poison at 100mLmin(-1) for up to 400min. Furthermore, the activity of catalysts was related to the steam/carbon (S/C) ratios; at S/C ratio=5, T=790°C, space velocity=782h(-1) and t=2h, the Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine system yielded 89% toluene conversion, 5.6Lh(-1) product gas rate, 62.6mol% H2 content and 10% (mol useful gas mol(-1) toluene) energy yield. Moreover, at low S/C ratio, it had higher reaction activity and better ability to prevent coking. There is a small amount of carbon deposition in the form of amorphous carbon after 7h. Various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and thermogravimetric were performed to investigate the coke deposition of Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. It is suggested that 3% Ni-1% Ce-1% Mg/olivine was the most promising catalyst due to its minimum coke amount and the lower activation energy of coke burning.

  18. A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.

  19. Burn-wound healing effect of gelatin/polyurethane nanofiber scaffold containing silver-sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Jung Ho; Moon, Seong Hwan; Chun, Heoung Jae; Kim, Chun Ho; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that advances of burn treatment have led to reduction in the morbidity caused by burns, burn infection is still a serious problem. In this study, we designed blended synthetic and natural polymers nanofiber scaffolds using polyurethane (PU) and gelatin, which were prepared by an electrospinning method. Silver-sulfadiazine (SSD) was co-mixed to the blended polymer solution for being incorporated into the nanofibers after the electrospinning, followed by examination of burn-wound healing effect. The nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD should not only serve as a substrate for skin regeneration, but may also deliver suitable drugs, within a controlled manner during healing. The SSD release was able to prevent the growth of a wide array of bacteria and accelerate the wound healing by preventing infection. Therefore it could accelerate the burn-wound closure rate. We confirmed that PU/gelatin nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD lead to enhanced regeneration of burn-wounds.

  20. Magnetic and dendritic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Deraedt, Christophe; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2015-07-21

    The recovery and reuse of catalysts is a major challenge in the development of sustainable chemical processes. Two methods at the frontier between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis have recently emerged for addressing this problem: loading the catalyst onto a dendrimer or onto a magnetic nanoparticle. In this Account, we describe representative examples of these two methods, primarily from our research group, and compare them. We then describe new chemistry that combines the benefits of these two methods of catalysis. Classic dendritic catalysis has involved either attaching the catalyst covalently at the branch termini or within the dendrimer core. We have used chelating pyridyltriazole ligands to insolubilize catalysts at the termini of dendrimers, providing an efficient, recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. With the addition of dendritic unimolecular micelles olefin metathesis reactions catalyzed by commercial Grubbs-type ruthenium-benzylidene complexes in water required unusually low amounts of catalyst. When such dendritic micelles include intradendritic ligands, both the micellar effect and ligand acceleration promote faster catalysis in water. With these types of catalysts, we could carry out azide alkyne cycloaddition ("click") chemistry with only ppm amounts of CuSO4·5H2O and sodium ascorbate under ambient conditions. Alternatively we can attach catalysts to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), essentially magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), offering the opportunity to recover the catalysts using magnets. Taking advantage of the merits of both of these strategies, we and others have developed a new generation of recyclable catalysts: dendritic magnetically recoverable catalysts. In particular, some of our catalysts with a γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 core and 1,2,3-triazole tethers and loaded with Pd nanoparticles generate strong positive dendritic effects with respect to ligand loading, catalyst loading, catalytic activity and

  1. Overweight and obesity: overrepresentation in the pediatric reconstructive burn population.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Theresa; Gottschlich, Michele M; Allgeier, Chris; Khoury, Jane; Kagan, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric burn patients are predisposed to excessive weight gain in the reconstructive period, but the cause is unclear. An overweight (OW) or obese (OB) condition is associated with numerous health risks, decreased physical function, and increased morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of OW status in reconstructive, pediatric burn patients with the prevalence in the US population. The authors reviewed the records of 1533 pediatric patients, >1 year from acute burn, admitted for an elective reconstructive procedure. Body mass index between 85th and 95th percentile, according to the National Center for Health Statistics for 2000 growth charts, was classified as OW, and body mass index >95th percentile was classified as OB. Frequency of OW and OB and racial disparity was calculated as a percentage of total patients and compared with pediatric data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999 to 2006, a nationally representative sample. The rate of OW and OB was 16.3 and 24.1%, respectively, in the authors' pediatric burn population. White patients had OW and OB rates of 15.9 and 23.6%, respectively, compared with 18.2 and 30.2%, respectively, in black patients. All OW and OB rates were outside the 95% confidence interval of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population. The rates of OW and OB in pediatric reconstructive burn patients exceed the US population standard across age and race stratifications. The prevention and treatment of excessive weight gain should be a component of rehabilitation in pediatric burns.

  2. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as “an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions.” BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  3. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  4. Exercise behaviors after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  6. Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.J.

    1990-09-21

    Results covering burn intensities in the nW to {mu}W/cm{sup 2} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in glycerol glasses and polyvinyl alcohol polymer films and their deuterated analogues. A theoretical model which employs a distribution function for the hole burning rate constant based upon a Gaussian distribution for the tunnel parameter is shown to accurately describe the kinetic data. This model incorporates the linear electron-phonon coupling. A method for calculating the nonphotochemical quantum yield is presented which utilizes the Gaussian distribution of tunnel parameters. The quantum yield calculation can be extended to determine a quantum yield as a function of hole depth. The effect of spontaneous hole filling is shown to be insignificant over the burn intensity range studied. Average relaxation rates for hole burning are {approximately}8 orders of magnitude greater than for hole filling. The dispersive kinetics of hole burning are observed to be independent over the temperature range of these experiments, 1.6 to 7.0 K. 6 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  7. In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh.

    PubMed

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  8. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  9. Erosion risk assessment of controlled burning of grasses established on steep slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

    2006-02-01

    It is a standard practice to establish grasses on steep slopes (batters) of embankments and cuttings to minimise erosion problems. However, the increase in grass density (high biomass) on the steep slopes poses a greater risk of fire. Controlled burning is a common fuel hazard reduction program employed to minimise the fire risks. The increased risk of erosion on the steep slopes after controlled burning has received little attention if any. This paper assesses the erosion risks associated with controlled burning of grasses established on steep slopes. Grasses, with and without the aid of waste ballast rock mulch, were established on 10 m wide railway embankment batter experiment plots. Two-and-a-half years after the grass establishment, selected plots were controlled burned. Runoff and soil loss from the experimental plots were monitored throughout the 3½-year period of the experiment. After one year the grass cover on the burned plots has hardly exceeded 60%, far below the average pre-burn levels of about 80%. All treatments achieved an incredible soil loss reduction of over 95% (compared with the bare scenario) without controlled burning at the end of the 3½-year period. This percentage value was decreased numerically by 14 where controlled burning was implemented. Compared with the 100% grass cover treatment, runoff rates tripled while erosion rates increased by nine-fold for the waste ballast treatment, and 17-fold for the non-waste ballast treatment, during the first year following controlled burning.

  10. Quantitative assessments of burn degree by high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering and statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Huang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2011-02-01

    An accurate and quantitative modality to assess the burn degree is crucial for determining further treatments to be properly applied to burn injury patients. Ultrasounds with frequencies higher than 20 MHz have been applied to dermatological diagnosis due to its high resolution and noninvasive capability. Yet, it is still lacking a substantial means to sensitively correlate the burn degree and ultrasonic measurements quantitatively. Thus, a 50 MHz ultrasound system was developed and implemented to measure ultrasonic signals backscattered from the burned skin tissues. Various burn degrees were achieved by placing a 100 °C brass plate onto the dorsal skins of anesthetized rats for various durations ranged from 5 to 20 s. The burn degrees were correlated with ultrasonic parameters, including integrated backscatter (IB) and Nakagami parameter (m) calculated from ultrasonic signals acquired from the burned tissues of a 5 × 1.4 mm (width × depth) area. Results demonstrated that both IB and m decreased exponentially with the increase of burn degree. Specifically, an IB of -79.0 ± 2.4 (mean ± standard deviation) dB for normal skin tissues tended to decrease to -94.0 ± 1.3 dB for those burned for 20 s, while the corresponding Nakagami parameters tended to decrease from 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.45 ± 0.04. The variation of both IB and m was partially associated with the change of properties of collagen fibers from the burned tissues verified by samples of tissue histological sections. Particularly, the m parameter may be more sensitive to differentiate burned skin due to the fact that it has a greater rate of change with respect to different burn durations. These ultrasonic parameters in conjunction with high-frequency B-mode and Nakagami images could have the potential to assess the burn degree quantitatively.

  11. Influence of Injury Characteristics and Payer Status on Burn Treatment Location in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew B.; Mack, Christopher D.; Kramer, C. Bradley; Heimbach, David M.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2011-01-01

    The provision of optimal burn care is a resource-intensive endeavor. The American Burn Association has developed criteria to help guide the decision to refer a patient to a burn center for definitive injury care. The purpose of this study was to compare the patient and injury characteristics of patients admitted to the single verified burn center in Washington State with those treated at other facilities in the state. We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a hospital with a burn injury in Washington State from 1987 to 2005 using the state’s discharge database (Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System). Patient and injury factors of patients admitted to the state’s single verified burn center or at other hospitals were compared. Multivariate poisson regression was used to calculate the relative risk of injury and patient factors that were significantly associated with admission to the verified burn center. From 1987 to 2005, a total of 16,531 patients were admitted to a Washington State hospital after burn injury. Of these patients, 8624 (52.2%) were treated definitively at the University of Washington Burn Center. Patients treated at this verified center had larger overall burn size (7.4% vs 4.5% TBSA, P < .001), higher percent full-thickness burn (4.3% vs 1.2%, P < .001), and higher rates of inhalation injury (2.3% vs 1.5%, P = .005). Uninsured status (relative risk = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.4–1.5) was also significantly associated with treatment at the verified burn center. Injury severity and payer status were both found to be independent predictors of treatment at the single verified burn center in Washington. PMID:18388579

  12. Comparison of unburned and burned sugarcane harvesting in Florida - an energy viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel consumption and performance characteristics of four sugarcane harvesting systems were measured in unburned and burned sugarcane. Unburned sugarcane harvesting operations had significantly higher field losses, required twice as much fuel, and had lower production rates than in burned cane harvesting.

  13. Transient burning of a convective fuel droplet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Guang; Sirignano, William A.

    2010-05-15

    The transient burning of an n-octane fuel droplet in a hot gas stream at 20 atmosphere pressure is numerically studied, with considerations of droplet regression, deceleration due to the drag of the droplet, internal circulation inside the droplet, variable properties, non-uniform surface temperature, and the effect of surface tension. An initial envelope flame is found to remain envelope in time, and an initial wake flame is always transitioned into an envelope flame at a later time, with the normalized transition delay controlled by the initial Reynolds number and the initial Damkohler number. The initial flame shape is primarily determined by the initial Damkohler number, which has a critical value of Da{sub 0}=1.02. The burning rates are modified by the transition, and are influenced by the intensity of forced convection which is determined by initial Reynolds number. The influence of surface tension is also studied as the surface temperature is non-uniform. Surface tension affects the liquid motion at the droplet surface significantly and affects the change of surface temperature and burning rate modestly. The influence of surface tension generally increases with increasing initial Reynolds number within the range without droplet breakup. We also studied cases with constant relative velocity between the air stream and the droplet. The results show that in these cases the initial envelope flame still remains envelope, but the evolution from an initial wake flame to an envelope flame is inhibited. Validation of our analysis is made by comparing with a published porous-sphere experiment Raghavan et al. (2005) which used methanol fuel. (author)

  14. Decoupling HZSM-5 catalyst activity from deactivation during upgrading of pyrolysis oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shaolong; Waters, Christopher; Stevens, Adam; Gumidyala, Abhishek; Jentoft, Rolf; Lobban, Lance; Resasco, Daniel; Mallinson, Richard; Crossley, Steven

    2015-02-01

    The independent evaluation of catalyst activity and stability during the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass is challenging because of the nature of the reaction system and rapid catalyst deactivation that force the use of excess catalyst. In this contribution we use a modified pyroprobe system in which pulses of pyrolysis vapors are converted over a series of HZSM-5 catalysts in a separate fixed-bed reactor controlled independently. Both the reactor-bed temperature and the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite are varied to evaluate catalyst activity and deactivation rates independently both on a constant surface area and constant acid site basis. Results show that there is an optimum catalyst-bed temperature for the production of aromatics, above which the production of light gases increases and that of aromatics decrease. Zeolites with lower Si/Al ratios give comparable initial rates for aromatics production, but far more rapid catalyst deactivation rates than those with higher Si/Al ratios.

  15. Regeneration of sulfur-fouled bimetallic Pd-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Brian P; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

    2007-08-01

    Pd-based catalysts provide efficient and selective reduction of several drinking water contaminants, but their long-term application requires effective treatments for catalyst regeneration following fouling by constituents in natural waters. This studytested alumina-supported Pd-Cu and Pd-In bimetallic catalysts for nitrate reduction with H2 after sulfide fouling and oxidative regeneration procedures. Both catalysts were severely deactivated after treatment with microM levels of sulfide. Regeneration was attempted with dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and heated air. Only sodium hypochlorite and heated air were effective regenerants, specifically restoring nitrate reduction rates for a Pd-In/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst from 20% to between 39 and 60% of original levels. Results from ICP-MS revealed that sodium hypochlorite caused dissolution of Cu from the Pd-Cu catalyst but that the Pd-In catalyst was chemically stable over a range of sulfide fouling and oxidative regenerative conditions. Analysis byXPS indicated that PdS and In2S3 complexes form during sulfide fouling, where sulfur is present as S2-, and that regeneration with sodium hypochlorite converts a portion of the S2- to S6+, with a corresponding increase in reduction rates. These results indicate that Pd-In catalysts show exceptional promise for being robust under fouling and regeneration conditions that may occur when treating natural waters.

  16. Toward molecular catalysts by computer.

    PubMed

    Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L; Rousseau, Roger; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R Morris; Dupuis, Michel

    2015-02-17

    -energy intermediates. The criterion of a flat energy profile can be mathematically resolved in a functional in the reduced parameter space that can be efficaciously calculated by means of the correlation expressions. Optimization of the functional permits the prediction by computer of design points for optimum catalysts. Specifically, the optimization yields the values of the thermodynamic properties for efficient (high rate and low overpotential) catalysts. We are on the verge of design of molecular electrocatalysts by computer. Future efforts must focus on identifying actual ligands that possess these properties. We believe that this can also be achieved through computation, using Taft-like relationships linking molecular composition and structure with electron-donating ability and steric effects. We note also that the approach adopted here of using free energy maps to decipher catalytic pathways and mechanisms does not account for kinetic barriers associated with elementary steps along the catalytic pathway, which may make thermodynamically accessible intermediates kinetically inaccessible. Such an extension of the approach will require further computations that, however, can take advantage of Polanyi-like linear free energy relationships linking activation barriers and reaction free energies.

  17. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  18. Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

  19. Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins

    DOEpatents

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-06-02

    Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

  20. The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P < .0001) and are younger on average (35 years old vs 42, P < .0001). The most common mechanisms of injury among patients who test cannabis+ or cannabis- are similar. Flame injury makes up >60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients

  1. Leukoencephalopathy associated with extensive burns.

    PubMed Central

    Gregorios, J B

    1982-01-01

    Unusual neuropathological changes were observed in two cases following extensive burns. These consisted of perivascular areas of demyelination distributed symmetrically in the brain and affecting the white matter predominantly. One case in addition had widespread petecchial and ring haemorrhages characteristic of brain purpura. Both patients sustained second and third degree burns in greater than 50% of the body surface area, developed metabolic acidosis, sepsis, disturbance in consciousness and multiple episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest prior to death. A toxic metabolic state related to a burn toxin released from the damaged tissue or from bacterial action to the tissue in addition to low platelet level is proposed as the major pathogenetic factor in the development of the neurological symptoms and the patients' demise. Images PMID:6754873

  2. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  3. Characterisation of gold catalysts.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alberto; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Chan-Thaw, Carine E; Hammond, Ceri; Veith, Gabriel M; Wang, Di; Manzoli, Maela; Prati, Laura; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-09-21

    Au-based catalysts have established a new important field of catalysis, revealing specific properties in terms of both high activity and selectivity for many reactions. However, the correlation between the morphology and the activity of the catalyst is not always clear although much effort has been addressed to this task. To some extent the problem relates to the complexity of the characterisation techniques that can be applied to Au catalyst and the broad range of ways in which they can be prepared. Indeed, in many reports only a few characterization techniques have been used to investigate the potential nature of the active sites. The aim of this review is to provide a critical description of the techniques that are most commonly used as well as the more advanced characterization techniques available for this task. The techniques that we discuss are (i) transmission electron microscopy methods, (ii) X-ray spectroscopy techniques, (iii) vibrational spectroscopy techniques and (iv) chemisorption methods. The description is coupled with developing an understanding of a number of preparation methods. In the final section the example of the supported AuPd alloy catalyst is discussed to show how the techniques can gain an understanding of an active oxidation catalyst.

  4. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years’ effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400°C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts

  5. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchioni, Alceo

    2014-10-01

    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  6. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  7. Silicon Burning and the Formation of the Iron Peak Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hix, William Raphael

    1995-01-01

    At its heart, this thesis is a study of silicon burning, the ultimate stage of nuclear energy generation in massive stars (those with masses greater than 8 times the mass of the sun) and a major contributor to the thermonuclear energy liberated by exploding supernovae. As such it is the source of the iron peak elements found in nature. With the conversion of silicon to iron taking place via a series of photodisintegrations and proton, neutron, and alpha-particle captures, silicon burning is inherently the most complicated of the nuclear burning stages. It is therefore an extremely computationally intensive process. We show that this process is further complicated because Coulomb screening of nuclear reactions plays an important role in the process of silicon burning, most importantly in the equilibrium abundances which result. Screening is also a consideration in the calculation of quasi-equilibrium abundances. Quasi-equilibrium (QSE), due to the near balance of opposing pairs of reactions during silicon burning, is an important tool to understanding the process of silicon burning. We find that the physics of silicon burning is dominated by the formation of 2 quasi-equilibrium groups, one centered on silicon and the other containing the iron peak elements. We further find that the degree of neutronization has a profound effect on quasi-equilibrium. For larger degrees of neutronization the QSE groups remain separate to much greater degrees of silicon exhaustion. Furthermore, the degree of neutronization is important in determining the membership of the quasi-equilibrium groups, the reaction fluxes which link these groups, and the rate of silicon exhaustion. We utilize the concept of quasi-equilibrium, to develop a new approximation for calculating the nuclear abundance distribution during silicon burning. The speed and accuracy of this quasi-equilibrium approximation allows us to discuss a method for studying the temporal evolution of silicon burning without

  8. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  9. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  10. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  11. Catalyst reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A. III

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming a gasoline boiling range naphtha, with hydrogen, in a semi-regenerative or semi-cyclic reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more downstream reactors, the last of which is the tail reactor, each of which contains a halogenated reforming catalyst comprised of a halide, a Group VIII noble metal, and an inorganic oxide support, the improvement which comprises continuously injecting into each downstream reactor a mixture of water and halide at a water to halide ratio from about 20:1 to about 60:1 wherein the specific ratio of water to halide for each individual downstream reactor is chosen so as to maintain the level of halide on catalyst in each downstream reactor from about 0.5 to 1.5 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst.

  12. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  13. Oxide Nanocrystal Model Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weixin

    2016-03-15

    Model catalysts with uniform and well-defined surface structures have been extensively employed to explore structure-property relationships of powder catalysts. Traditional oxide model catalysts are based on oxide single crystals and single crystal thin films, and the surface chemistry and catalysis are studied under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. However, the acquired fundamental understandings often suffer from the "materials gap" and "pressure gap" when they are extended to the real world of powder catalysts working at atmospheric or higher pressures. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis have realized controlled synthesis of catalytic oxide nanocrystals with uniform and well-defined morphologies. These oxide nanocrystals consist of a novel type of oxide model catalyst whose surface chemistry and catalysis can be studied under the same conditions as working oxide catalysts. In this Account, the emerging concept of oxide nanocrystal model catalysts is demonstrated using our investigations of surface chemistry and catalysis of uniform and well-defined cuprous oxide nanocrystals and ceria nanocrystals. Cu2O cubes enclosed with the {100} crystal planes, Cu2O octahedra enclosed with the {111} crystal planes, and Cu2O rhombic dodecahedra enclosed with the {110} crystal planes exhibit distinct morphology-dependent surface reactivities and catalytic properties that can be well correlated with the surface compositions and structures of exposed crystal planes. Among these types of Cu2O nanocrystals, the octahedra are most reactive and catalytically active due to the presence of coordination-unsaturated (1-fold-coordinated) Cu on the exposed {111} crystal planes. The crystal-plane-controlled surface restructuring and catalytic activity of Cu2O nanocrystals were observed in CO oxidation with excess oxygen. In the propylene oxidation reaction with O2, 1-fold-coordinated Cu on Cu2O(111), 3-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(110), and 2-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(100) were identified

  14. [Transfer of injected sulbactam/cefoperazone into burn blister fluid].

    PubMed

    Aoyama, H; Sugiyama, H; Tada, M; Okuda, J; Izawa, Y

    1988-09-01

    Transfer of sulbactam/cefoperazone (SBT/CPZ) into the burn blister fluid was studied in 10 burn patients after one shot intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg SBT/CPZ (CPZ 25 mg/kg, SBT 25 mg/kg). CPZ and SBT concentrations in serum and burn blister fluid were determined using bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of CPZ in serum reached 109.5 +/- 9.2 micrograms/ml (mean +/- S.E.) at 0.25 hour after injection, and decreased to 6.8 +/- 2.3 micrograms/ml after 8 hours. The concentration of CPZ in burn blister fluid peaked at 4 hours and reached 28.2 +/- 8.0 micrograms/ml. The concentration of SBT in serum reached 75.7 +/- 8.3 micrograms/ml at 0.25 hour after injection, and decreased to 2.3 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml after 8 hours. The peak concentration of SBT in burn blister fluid was 13.5 +/- 1.8 micrograms/ml at 3 hours. The data obtained were analysed pharmacokinetically. Cmax of CPZ and SBT levels in burn blister fluid were calculated to be 30.4 micrograms/ml and 13.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. The AUC0-8 hrs. (area under the burn blister fluid concentration of drug-time curve between 0 and 8 hours after injection), absorption rate constant (ka) and therapeutic AUC (AUC where drug concentrations were above minimum effective concentration) of CPZ were calculated to be 194.0 micrograms.hr/ml, 1.52 hr-1 and 97.1 micrograms.hr/ml (0.3-11.1 hours), respectively. The AUC0-8 hrs. and ka of SBT were also calculated as 68.3 micrograms.hr/ml and 0.62 hr-1, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Acoustic emission applied to detect workpiece burn during grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, P.R. de; Willett, P.; Webster, J.

    1999-07-01

    Overly-aggressive or otherwise inappropriate grinding of metals can produce an undesirable change in metallurgical properties of the material being processed; usually this is referred to as workpiece burn. In this experimental paper the acoustic signature of grinding is collected, and compared to the processed workpiece condition, for thirteen data sets including both relatively hard (Inconel) and soft (52100 bearing steel) metals. This work is distinguished by its use of a high sampling rate (2.56 MHz) in data acquisition and in its processing of the raw, rather than RMS/filtered, data samples. Signs of burn are seen in the frequency domain, and in the correlation between wheel rotations.

  16. [Resuscitation of the burned child in critical condition].

    PubMed

    Sanabria Carretero, P; Vogel, C; Reinoso-Barbero, F; López Gutíerrez, J C

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in surgical techniques, control of infection and nutritional support have dramatically increased the survival rates of burned children. The characteristics of severely burned pediatric patients dictate that management be different from that required for adults in the intensive care unit. The formulas for fluid replacement should be based on body surface rather than weight in children and adjusted for degree of stress and age, with appropriate monitoring and treatment of hypothermia, pain and associated psychological disorders. Early assessment and treatment of airway obstruction and gas and smoke inhalation syndromes with high FiO2 is necessary; prophylactic endotracheal intubation may be required.

  17. Secret Lives of Catalysts Revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division discuss the first-ever glimpse of nanoscale catalysts in action. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/10/21/catalysts/

  18. Aerogel derived catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  19. Aspiration pneumonia-induced sepsis increases cardiac dysfunction after burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, P W; Maass, D L; White, D J; Turbeville, T D; Giroir, B P; Horton, J W

    1998-05-01

    Pneumonia occurs in approximately 50% of incubated patients in burn intensive care units and carries a mortality as high as 40%. A model was developed to study altered cardiopulmonary function in burn complicated by pneumococcal pneumonia. Sprague-Dawley rats were given a 43% total body surface area scald burn or sham burn; 24 h later they were transtracheally inoculated with either 10(7) Streptococcus pneumoniae in 0.5 ml phosphate buffer solution (PBS) or 0.5 ml PBS alone. The four groups were: Sham (N = 7), Burn alone (N = 10), Pneumonia alone (N = 11), and Burn and Pneumonia ( N = 12). A fifth group of burned rats (N = 10), given an identical fluid resuscitation regimen, was sacrificed 24 h postburn to examine the early cardiac responses to burn injury alone. Shams and burned animals had normal lung histology, negative bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures, and negative blood cultures. Pneumonia and burn plus pneumonia animals had abnormal lung histology, positive BAL cultures, and positive blood cultures. Cardiac function was assessed 24 h after S.pneumoniae challenge (48 h after burn) (Langendorff preparation). Compared to the Sham group, Pneumonia group, and Burn group, the Burn plus Pneumonia group had the lowest left ventricular pressure (LVP: 94 +/- 4, 71 +/- 3, and 87 +/- 3 mm Hg vs 63 +/- 4 mm Hg, P < 0.05), the lowest maximal rate of LVP rise (+dP/dt[max]:1932 +/- 115, 1419 +/- 71, and 1772 +/- 96 mm Hg vs 1309 +/- 59 mm Hg/s, P < 0.05), and the lowest maximal rate of LVP fall (-dP/dt[max]:1704 +/- 120, 1263 +/- 73, and 1591 +/- 83 mm Hg vs 1025 +/- 98 mm Hg/s, P < 0.05). Cardiac contraction and relaxation deficits were confirmed in animals 24 h postburn (group 5), as indicated by a significantly lower LVP and +/-dP/dt(max) (62 +/- 3 mm Hg 1210 +/- 60, and 909 +/- 50 mm Hg/s, respectively, P < 0.05 compared to Sham group). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations in serum, but not bronchoalveolar lavage, were greater in burned animals

  20. Process of making supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Subramanian, Somasundaram

    1992-01-01

    Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

  1. The elderly patient with burns: treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Staley, M; Richard, R

    1993-01-01

    When therapists treat elderly patients with burns, they should ask themselves several questions: Am I treating elderly patients with burns "just like other patients with burns?" Am I assessing the patient's joint mobility and strength as critically as I should? Am I ensuring that further tissue trauma is avoided by instructing the nursing staff in turning/transfer techniques? Am I routinely monitoring heart rate and blood pressure? Am I requiring repetition and practice of exercises before the patient's discharge? Is my patient safe to function in the environment to which he or she is being discharged? Most physical changes in the elderly population are attributed to the aging process but often are due to diminished movement disorders arising from poor physical fitness and disuse. The "slowdown" in the older adult may result from a lack of appropriate movement practice and failure to receive reinforcement for activity. Regardless of age, physiological challenges result in enhanced functional status. Training for a specific skill increases performance in that skill just as strength training increases strength. Practice or repetition of a task improves movement and response time for that task. Appropriate physical training programs for the elderly can (1) counterbalance age-associated declines in work capacity and physical performance; (2) maintain and improve range of motion, strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance; and (3) reduce the disability of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems that may result in decreased risk of falls and accidents. Practice of a task and maintenance of physical fitness helps ensure a high level of motor performance and speed as a person grows older. One is never too old to exercise!

  2. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Search The CDC Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries are Preventable Note: Javascript is disabled ... ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns ...

  3. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  4. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    PubMed

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work.

  5. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect solution...of the degradation-resistant crosslinked amniotic membranes for treating cornea of burn patients that were produced in Years 1 and 2. Major findings...Identified membrane stiffness as a critical parameter for a successful cornea -protective membrane and quantitatively assessed this parameter

  6. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect... cornea as is done in amniotic membrane transplantation . However we proposed and, have now tested, an alternative method for securing the... cornea of burn patients that were produced in Year 1. Major findings: Established that 2 and 3 layer crosslinked amniotic membrane composites are more

  7. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  8. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  9. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients.

  10. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  11. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  12. Initial dosage regimens of gentamicin in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Zaske, D E; Chin, T; Kohls, P R; Solem, L D; Strate, R G

    1991-01-01

    For 95 patients with burns the gentamicin dosage regimen necessary to achieve optimal serum concentrations was determined. Individual elimination rates and distribution volumes for gentamicin were determined and correlated with renal function parameters and age. In patients with burns who had normal serum creatinine levels (less than 1.5 mg/dl), gentamicin clearance and thus dosage regimens can be stratified by age. Gentamicin's clearance decreased inversely with age. Initial dosage guidelines were calculated for different age groups of patients with normal levels of serum creatinine. The guidelines were developed to assist the clinician in attaining therapeutic concentrations with initial doses of gentamicin. Therapeutic serum concentrations were reached in most patients with burns dosed by these guidelines. Serum gentamicin concentrations should always be monitored during therapy, and dosages should be adjusted to ensure optimal concentrations during the course of therapy.

  13. Spatiotemporal progression of cell death in the zone of ischemia surrounding burns

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; McClain, Steve A.; Lin, Fubao; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Burns are dynamic injuries, characterized by progressive death of surrounding tissue over time. Though central to an understanding of burn injury progression, the spatiotemporal degrees and rates of cellular necrosis and apoptosis in the zone of ischemia surrounding burns are not well characterized. Using a validated porcine hot comb model, we probed periburn tissue at 1, 4, and 24 hours after injury for high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a marker of necrosis and activated cleaved caspase 3 (CC3a) as a marker of apoptosis, followed by spatiotemporal morphometric analysis. We found that necrosis was the most prominent mechanism of cell death in burn injury progression, with significant progression between 1 and 4 hours post-burn. Apoptosis appeared not to play a role in early burn injury progression, but was observed in cells at the interface of necrotic and viable tissue at 24 hours post-burn. Our findings imply that intervention within the first 4 hours following injury is likely necessary to limit burn injury progression. Additionally, based on HMGB1 staining patterns, we define distinct early, intermediate and late pathological signs of cell necrosis that may facilitate delineation of causal mechanistic relationships of burn injury progression in vivo. PMID:22092800

  14. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Managing for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) on federal lands requires burning large tracts of mature pine forests every 3-5 yr. Many cavity trees that serve as potential nest sites for primary and secondary hole-nesting birds are destroyed by fire. We assessed the efficacy of a nest box program for the Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, an area intensively managed for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. During 1996-1998, we installed and monitored 330 (30 in each of 11 sites) nest boxes in mature (>60 yr) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts that were burned either in April-June (warm season) or December-March (cool season). Prescribed-burned sites were nearly devoid of snags; we estimated only 0.8/ ha in cool-season burns and 1.7/ha in warm-season burns. Great Crested Flycatchers built nests in 20% of the boxes available to them. Clutch sizes were larger in warm-season burns than in cool-season burns, but fledging success (fledglings/nest hatching -1 egg) was lower. Twenty-two of 59 Great Crested Flycatcher nests were depredated and the proportions in each burn class were similar. We recommend the installation of nest boxes for Great Crested Flycatchers in prescribed-burned pine forests, but additional research is needed in these habitats on nest depredation rates and causes.

  15. "Put on your face to face the world": women's narratives of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tevya A; Medved, Maria I; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Brockmeier, Jens; Sareen, Jitender; Thakrar, Sulaye; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2013-12-01

    The survival rate of individuals with burn injury has significantly increased due to medical advances in burn care. This has led to a need to focus on psychological aspects of burn injury recovery, particularly on how people come to terms with their changed bodies. The literature suggests that burn size and severity are not directly associated with the degree of distress but that subjective perceptions and interpretations - of, for instance, body image - are pertinent. Body image appears to be particularly important for women and thus, in this study, we investigated women's experiences of their bodies following mild to moderate burns. We conducted in-depth interviews with 10 female burn survivors in the first year after injury, using methods of narrative analysis for the investigations of the transcripts. Thirteen consecutive women who met inclusion criterion were approached at regional burn care follow-up clinic. In their narratives, the women predominantly emphasized how well they were doing; however, counter-narratives emerged indicating dissatisfaction and distress. The tension between these two different kinds of narratives suggests an ambivalent relationship with the burn injury. We concluded that it is imperative for health care professionals to be cognizant of these conflicting experiences in order to adequately address burn survivors' needs in rehabilitation.

  16. Temperature responses in severely burned children during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    The authors have previously described thermoregulatory responses of severely burned children during submaximal exercise in a thermoneutral environment. However, the thermoregulatory response of burned children to exercise in the heat is not well understood and could have important safety implications for rehabilitation. Children (n = 10) with >40% TBSA burns and nonburned children (n = 10) performed a 30-minute bout of treadmill exercise at 75% of their peak aerobic power in a heated environment. Intestinal temperature, burned and unburned skin temperature, and heart rate were recorded pre-exercise, every 2 minutes during exercise, and during recovery. Three of the 10 burned children completed the exercise bout in the heat; however, all the nonburned children completed the 30-minute bout. One burned child reached a core body temperature >39 degrees C at minute 23. Burned children had significantly higher core body temperature through the first 12 minutes of exercise compared with nonburned children. However, nine of 10 (90%) burned children did not become hyperthermic during exercise in the heat. Specific to this study, hyperthermia did not typically occur in burned children, relative to nonburned children. Whether this is due to an intolerance to exercise in the heat or to an inability to generate sufficient heat during exercise needs to be explored further.

  17. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  18. Microskin autografting in the treatment of burns over 70% of total body surface area: 14 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Liang, Xun; Sun, Li; Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting have significantly improved burn outcomes, the management of severely burned patients whose burn size exceeds 70% total body surface area (TBSA) still represents a big challenge for burn surgeons all over the world. During the period of 1997-2010 at our centre, aggressive excision and microskin autografting were performed in 63 severely burned patients. Their burn sizes ranged from 70% to 98% TBSA with a mean of 84.9%. The average full-thickness burn was 66.3% (range, 29-94%). Thirty patients had concomitant inhalation injury. Two to 7 days after burn, these patients underwent aggressive excisions ranging from 25% to 60% TBSA and transplantation of microskin autograft overlaid with allograft. The ratios of donor-site to recipient-site surface area were between 1:6 and 1:18. Signs of epithelialization were shown within 35-55 days. The wound healing rate was 74.9% (176/235), with 51.1% of cases (120/235) healing completely and 23.8% (56/235) improving. Microskin autografting yielded an overall survival rate of 63.5%; only 23 patients died. Our clinical experience in using the microskin autografting for burn coverage suggests that the technique is very effective in covering extensive burns, and that it is particularly useful when graft donor sites are very limited due to its high utilization rate of donor site. The factors affecting the outcome of microskin autografting are discussed herein.

  19. [Progress in individual identification of burned bones].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-dong; Ren, Fu; Xing, Rui-xian; Pei, Lin-guo

    2009-02-01

    The burned bone DNA test have became more and more important in identifying the individuals and paternity involved in the fire, explosion disasters as well as burn corpse crimes. As an important genetic marker system, STR has been widely used in forensic individual identification, paternity test and other fields. In this article, the influence of burned temperature and time to STR typing was reviewed, the choice of STR locus and DNA extraction methods were discussed about burned bones.

  20. Modeling of PEM fuel cell Pt/C catalyst degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wu; Fuller, Thomas F.

    Pt/C catalyst degradation remains as one of the primary limitations for practical applications of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Pt catalyst degradation mechanisms with the typically observed Pt nanoparticle growth behaviors have not been completely understood and predicted. In this work, a physics-based Pt/C catalyst degradation model is proposed with a simplified bi-modal particle size distribution. The following catalyst degradation processes were considered: (1) dissolution of Pt and subsequent electrochemical deposition on Pt nanoparticles in cathode; (2) diffusion of Pt ions in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA); and (3) Pt ion chemical reduction in membrane by hydrogen permeating through the membrane from the negative electrode. Catalyst coarsening with Pt nanoparticle growth was clearly demonstrated by Pt mass exchange between small and large particles through Pt dissolution and Pt ion deposition. However, the model is not adequate to predict well the catalyst degradation rates including Pt nanoparticle growth, catalyst surface area loss and cathode Pt mass loss. Additional catalyst degradation processes such as new Pt cluster formation on carbon support and neighboring Pt clusters coarsening was proposed for further simulative investigation.