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Sample records for bursal disease vaccination

  1. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...

  2. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...

  3. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...

  4. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...

  5. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...

  6. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  7. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  8. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  9. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.212 Section 113.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only...

  10. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.212 Section 113.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only...

  11. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-α, IFN-β, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3

  12. Safety of infectious bursal disease vaccines: assessment of an acceptability threshold.

    PubMed

    Guittet, M; Le Coq, H; Picault, J P; Eterradossi, N; Bennejean, G

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to check the safety of commercially available infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines in terms of bursal damage, and their immunodepressive effects as evaluated by testing the birds after vaccination for their response to Newcastle disease vaccination. Further requirements are proposed to establish a suitable safety standard.

  13. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, A; Mamache, B; Tombari, W; Ghram, A

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity. Various highly sensitive molecular techniques have clarified the viral determinants of antigenicity and pathogenicity of the infectious bursal disease virus. However, these markers are not universally recognised and tend to be considered as evolutionary markers. Antigenic variants of the infectious bursal disease virus possess modified neutralising epitopes that allow them to evade the action of maternally-derived or vaccine-induced antibodies. Autogenous or multivalent vaccines are required to control antigenic variants in areas where classical and variant virus strains coexist. Pathotypic variants (very virulent viruses) remain antigenically related to classical viruses. The difficulty in controlling pathotypic variants is linked to the difficulty of eliciting an early immune response, because of the risk of the vaccine virus being neutralised by maternal antibodies. Mathematical calculation of the optimal vaccination time and the use of vaccines resistant to maternally-derived antibodies have improved the control of very virulent viruses.

  15. Appraisal of experimental and commercial Marek's disease vaccines to induce bursal and thymic atrophy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, several experimental Marek’s disease (MD) vaccines were developed that appear to protect equally or better than the best commercial vaccines. However, some of the experimental vaccines were reported to induce transient bursal and thymic atrophies. We will report on two promising experiment...

  16. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  17. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Naoyuki; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Hikichi, Nanase; Ochiai, Mariko; Hosoda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Shimazaki, Yoko; Oishi, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV.

  18. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus

    PubMed Central

    AIHARA, Naoyuki; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIKICHI, Nanase; OCHIAI, Mariko; HOSODA, Yuko; ISHIKAWA, Yoko; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; OISHI, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  19. Infectious bursal disease DNA vaccination conferring protection by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of invading viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Tung, Chun-Yu; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of viral load and immune response in protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by DNA vaccination. Chickens were DNA-vaccinated and challenged with IBDV one week after the third vaccination. Tissues were collected at 12 hours postinfection (HPI), 1 day postinfection (DPI), 3, 5, 7 and 10 DPI. The vaccinated chickens had less viral RNA, with delayed appearance and shorter duration in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and cecal tonsil than the challenged control chickens. Their ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers were decreased at 12 HPI and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those in the challenged control chickens at later time points. Their spleen IFNγ expression was up-regulated compared to that in the DNA-vaccinated chickens without IBDV challenge. These results indicate that DNA vaccination confers protection against IBDV challenge by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of the invading viruses.

  20. Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast

  1. Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease in non-vaccinated indigenous and exotic chickens on selected farms around Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Ndebele, R T

    1999-06-01

    Sera from nine out of 30 (30.0%) apparently healthy unvaccinated indigenous (Tswana) chickens had precipitating antibodies to infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus using the agar gel precipitation test. Similarly, sera from 11 out of 49 (22.4%) chickens of exotic breeds with no history of vaccination against IBD were positive for antibodies against the virus.

  2. Combination of Two Marek's Disease Virus Vectors Shows Effective Vaccination Against Marek's Disease, Infectious Bursal Disease, and Newcastle Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) is a widely used vector for poultry vaccines. However, different HVTs expressing different foreign antigens cannot always be used simultaneously because of the risk of recombination and interference. In this study, we inoculated a mixture of an HVT-expressing the antigen of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; HVT/ND) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1 Rispens virus expressing the antigen of infectious bursal disease virus (IBD; Ripens/IBD) into chickens. This mixture showed 94%, 100%, or 94% protection against MDV, IBDV, or NDV challenge, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of Rispens/IBD and HVT/ND is effective for vaccination against MDV, IBDV, and NDV without significant interference.

  3. A reassortment vaccine candidate as the improved formulation to induce protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Yuming; Ren, Xiangang; Zhang, Lizhou; Gao, Li; Wang, Nian; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-03-14

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting all major poultry producing areas of the world. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is genetically prone to mutation so that vaccines have to be changed accordingly. However, the traditional method of vaccine development with blind passage could not fit the style of the emergency prevention of IBDV. In this study, for the first time, a segment-reassortment attenuated IBDV rXATB, consisting of modified segment A of a prevalent strain and segment B of an attenuated strain, was designed and rescued; rXATB was stable and could induce good humoral and cellular immune responses which resulted in excellent protection against the lethal challenge of vvIBDV without obvious immunosuppression in chicken. This study revolutionarily provides a new formulation based on reverse genetics to develop new vaccine against prevalent IBDV.

  4. Structure-dependent efficacy of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Saubi, Narciís; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Castón, José R; Espuña, Enric; Casal, J Ignacio

    2003-07-04

    The immunogenicity and protective capability of several baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-derived assemblies as VP2 capsids, VPX tubules and polyprotein (PP)-derived mixed structures, were tested. Four-week-old chickens were immunised subcutaneously with one dose of each particulate antigen. VP2 icosahedral capsids induced the highest neutralising response, followed by PP-derived structures and then VPX tubules. All vaccinated animals were protected when challenged with a very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolate, however the degree of protection is directly correlated with the levels of neutralising antibodies. VP2 capsids elicited stronger protective immunity than tubular structures and 3 micrograms of them were sufficient to confer a total protection comparable to that induced by an inactivated vaccine. Therefore, VP2 capsids represent a suitable candidate recombinant vaccine instead of virus-like particles (VLPs) for IBDV infections. Our results also provide clear evidence that the recombinant IBDV-derived antigens are structure-dependent in order to be efficient as vaccine components.

  5. Structure-dependent efficacy of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Saubi, Narcis; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Castón, José R; Espuña, Enric; Casal, J Ignacio

    2003-05-16

    The immunogenicity and protective capability of several baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-derived assemblies as VP2 capsids, VPX tubules and polyprotein (PP)-derived mixed structures, were tested. Four-week-old chickens were immunised subcutaneously with one dose of each particulate antigen. VP2 icosahedral capsids induced the highest neutralising response, followed by PP-derived structures and then VPX tubules. All vaccinated animals were protected when challenged with a very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolate, however the degree of protection is directly correlated with the levels of neutralising antibodies. VP2 capsids elicited stronger protective immunity than tubular structures and 3& mgr;g of them were sufficient to confer a total protection comparable to that induced by an inactivated vaccine. Therefore, VP2 capsids represent a suitable candidate recombinant vaccine instead of virus-like particles (VLPs) for IBDV infections. Our results also provide clear evidence that the recombinant IBDV-derived antigens are structure-dependent in order to be efficient as vaccine components.

  6. Novel in-ovo chimeric recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine protects against both Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qiulin; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Bu, Zhigao

    2014-03-14

    Development of a safe and efficient in-ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease (NDV) and very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) is of great importance. In this study, a chimeric NDV LaSota virus with the L gene of Clone-30 (rLaC30L) was used to generate a recombinant chimeric virus expressing the VP2 protein of vvIBDV (rLaC30L-VP2). The safety and efficacy of rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination was then evaluated in 18-day-old special pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos and commercial broiler embryos for prevention of NDV and vvIBDV. Hatchability and global survival rate of the hatched birds was not affected by in-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination. However, rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination induced significant anti-IBDV and anti-NDV antibodies in SPF birds and commercial broilers, and 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal NDV challenge. In-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination also provided resistance against vvIBDV challenge in a significant amount of animals. These results suggest that rLaC30L-VP2 is a safe and efficient bivalent live in-ovo vaccine against NDV and vvIBDV.

  7. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.

  8. Gingyo-San Enhances Immunity and Potentiates Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Che-Ming; Yeh, Chia-Chou; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Kao, Shung-Te; Yen, Chih-Ching; Yeh, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Maw-Sun; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Gingyo-san (GGS), a traditional Chinese medical formula, on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers in chickens vaccinated against the infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus. Treatment groups were fed one of three doses of GGS in their diet (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, w/w), and the IBD vaccine was administered at 1 and 3 weeks of age. At Weeks 8, 12 and 16, changes in serum IBD antibody titers were measured via the micro-method and T cell proliferation. In gene expression experiments, GGS-treated peripheral T lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA) for 24 h. The mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) was determined using a semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. The results showed that a low dose of GGS could significantly raise the antibody titers. Medium and high doses of GGS enhanced IL-2 and IFN-γ production. GGS altered the expression of IL-4 and IL-12 in T lymphocytes. CD4+ T lymphocyte development was also skewed towards the Th1 phenotype. GGS enhanced cell-mediated immunity and augmented the effects of IBD vaccination in strengthening subsequent anti-viral responses. PMID:19307173

  9. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight.

    PubMed

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer

    2007-12-01

    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  10. DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

    2014-06-25

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the parallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion. PMID:15971678

  12. Development of a multi-mimotope peptide as a vaccine immunogen for infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-shan; Fan, Hong-jie; Li, Yin; Shi, Zheng-liang; Pan, Ying; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2007-05-30

    To explore the mimotope vaccine approach against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), five IBDV-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared and their binding peptides were screened against a phage-displayed 12-mer peptide library. After three rounds of biopanning, 12 phages were selected for each mAbs and their specificity to IBDV was verified by sandwich and competitive inhibition ELISAs. Seven phages per mAb were sequenced and their amino acid sequences were deduced. The five representative sequences of mimotopes corresponding mAbs were determined. An artificial gene, designated 5epis (5 epitopes) and consisting of the five mimotopes arranged in tandem (F1-F7-B34-2B1-2G8) with four GGGS spacers, was chemically synthesized and cloned into a prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28b. The protein, designated r5EPIS, was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and showed a size of 10kDa in SDS-PAGE. The r5EPIS protein reacted with anti-IBDV mAbs and polyclonal antibodies in Western blot immunoassays. Immunization of SPF chickens with r5EPIS protein (with Freund adjuvant, 50mug per injection on day 0 and 14) evoked high levels of antibody (12,800 by ELISA/1600 by virus neutralizing assay at day 21) and protected 100% of the chickens against a challenge of 200 ELD(50) of IBDV GX8/99 strain, which sharply contrasted with the, respectively, 13.3% and 6.6% survival rate in the adjuvant group and the untreated group. The multi-mimotope protein r5EPIS promises to be a novel subunit vaccine candidate for IBDV.

  13. Enhanced immune responses of chickens to oral vaccination against infectious bursal disease by ginseng stem-leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Zhai, L; Wang, Y; Yu, J; Hu, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is an immunosuppressive infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on humoral and gut mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with live IBDV vaccine, and furthermore, to test its protective efficacy against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination. In experiment 1, chickens were orally administered with GSLS at 5 mg/kg of BW for 7 d, and then immunized with live IBDV vaccine via the oral route. Serum was sampled on 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk postvaccination for detecting antibody titers by ELISA, and intestinal tissues were collected on 0, 1, 3, and 5 wk postvaccination for measurement of IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes by immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining, respectively. Result showed that antibody titers, IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were significantly higher in chickens drinking GSLS than the control, suggesting an enhanced effect of GSLS on humoral and gut mucosal immune responses. In experiment 2, chickens were delivered with GSLS and then vaccinated in the same way as in experiment 1. The birds were challenged with virulent IBDV at wk 3 postvaccination. Then the birds were weighed, bled, and necropsied at d 3 postchallenge and the bursae were sampled for gross and histopathological examination. Results demonstrated that GSLS provided a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination than the control. In conclusion, oral administration of GSLS enhances both humoral and gut mucosal immune responses to IBDV and offers a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge. Considering its immunomodulatory properties to IBDV vaccine, GSLS might be a promising oral adjuvant for vaccination against infectious diseases in poultry.

  14. Protective Vaccination against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus with Whole Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis Yeast Expressing the Viral VP2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Marina; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Schulze, Katja; Breunig, Karin D.; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD) of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis). Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine. PMID:23024743

  15. Protection against infectious bursal disease virulent challenge conferred by a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Perozo, F; Villegas, P; Estevez, C; Alvarado, I R; Purvis, L B; Williams, S

    2008-06-01

    The development and use of recombinant vaccine vectors for the expression of poultry pathogens proteins is an active research field. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a replication-defective virus member of the family Parvoviridae that has been successfully used for gene delivery in humans and other species. In this experiment, an avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) expressing the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 protein (rAAAV-VP2) was evaluated for protection against IBDV-virulent challenge. Specific pathogen free (SPF) birds were inoculated with rAAAV-VP2 or with a commercial intermediate IBDV vaccine and then challenged with the Edgar strain. IBDV-specific antibody levels were observed in all vaccinated groups; titers were higher for the commercial vaccine group. The live, commercial vaccine induced adequate protection against morbidity and mortality; nevertheless, initial lymphoid depletion and follicular atrophy related to active viral replication was observed as early as day 14 and persisted up to day 28, when birds were challenged. No bursal tissue damage due to rAAAV-VP2 vaccination was observed. Eight-out-of-ten rAAAV-VP2-vaccinated birds survived the challenge and showed no clinical signs. The bursa:body weight ratio and bursa lesion scores in the rAAAV-VP2 group indicated protection against challenge. Therefore, transgenic expression of the VP2 protein after rAAAV-VP2 vaccination induced protective immunity against IBDV challenge in 80% of the birds, without compromising the bursa of Fabricius. The use of rAAAV virions for gene delivery represents a novel approach to poultry vaccination.

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Novel Marek's Disease Virus Rispens Vector Vaccines Against Infectious Bursal Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Sato, Takanori; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a major disease affecting the poultry industry and is caused by infection with IBD virus (IBDV). To develop a novel vaccine to prevent IBD in chickens, recombinant Marek's disease virus Rispens viruses carrying the VP2 gene of IBDV driven by five different promoters (Rispens/IBD) were constructed using homologous recombination and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Rispens/IBD driven by the chicken beta-actin (Bac) promoter (Rispens/Bac-IBD), Rous sarcoma virus promoter, or simian virus 40 promoter were administered to 1-day-old SPF chicks, and the protective efficacy against IBDV was evaluated by challenging chicks with virulent IBDV. As a result, Rispens/Bac-IBD showed the best protection (87%). Next, we constructed the virus driven by the Bac-derived Coa5 promoter (Rispens/Coa5-IBD) for a secondary in vivo trial using commercial layer chickens since Rispens/Bac-IBD was thought to be genetically unstable. Rispens/Coa5-IBD showed stability in vitro and exhibited better antibody production and protection during challenge against virulent IBDV at both 5 (95%) and 7 wk of age (91%) compared with that of Rispens/Bac-IBD (90% at 5 wk of age and 84% at 7 wk of age). Thus, Rispens/Coa5-IBD may be a novel promising vaccine against IBD and virulent Marek's disease.

  17. Characterization of field and vaccine infectious bursal disease viruses from Nigeria revealing possible virulence and regional markers in the VP2 minor hydrophilic peaks.

    PubMed

    Adamu, J; Owoade, A A; Abdu, P A; Kazeem, H M; Fatihu, M Y

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious bursal disease in vaccinated chicken flocks are frequent in Nigeria. For the control of infectious bursal disease, live vaccines based on foreign infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains are used. The present study investigated the phylogenetic relationship between field and vaccine IBDV strains from northwestern Nigeria. Thirty field IBDV strains and three commercial vaccines strains were characterized through sequencing the VP2 hypervariable region. In addition, the complete genome segment A coding region for two vaccines and two field strains was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences (position 212 to 331) of IBDV strains from Nigeria and other regions of the world were aligned and possible regional and virulence markers were identified associated with VP2 minor hydrophilic peaks. Reversion to virulence of a vaccine strain with a Q to L mutation at position 253 was observed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a unique cluster of northwest Nigerian field IBDV strains alone or related to imported characterized classical and very virulent IBDV vaccines. The results suggest that when IBDV strains spread from their region of origin to a different region they mutate alongside indigenous field strains but may retain their identity on the VP2 region.

  18. Comparison of infectious bursal disease live vaccines and a HVT-IBD vector vaccine and their effects on the immune system of commercial layer pullets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Francesco; Simon, Birgid; Jung, Arne; Pöppel, Manfred; Lemiere, Stéphane; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an economically important disease affecting poultry production worldwide. Previous experimental studies indicated that IBD live vaccination may induce transient immunosuppression, leading to suboptimal vaccine responses and therefore insufficient protection against other pathogens. Layer pullets are commonly not only vaccinated against IBD within their rearing period, but also against a variety of other pathogens. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effects of different IBD vaccination regimes on conventionally applied vaccines against other pathogens, and possible protection against widely spread very virulent IBD-virus (vvIBDV). A commercially available Herpesvirus of turkey vector vaccine (vHVT-IBD) expressing viral protein 2 of IBDV, and two IBD live vaccines were compared in commercial pullets for their effects on circulating B cell numbers, the ability of vaccinated birds to mount a humoral immune response against different antigens as well as their ability to induce protection against vvIBDV challenge. The results of this study demonstrate a clear immunosuppressive effect of the intermediate plus IBD live vaccine on the humoral branch of the immune system. On the other hand, no detectable effects of vHVT-IBD vaccination on these parameters were observed. All tested IBD vaccines protected against clinical IBD, although none induced sterile immunity in commercial layer pullets. vHVT-IBD-vaccinated birds showed significantly less lesions after vvIBDV challenge than IBD live-vaccinated or non-vaccinated birds (P < 0.05). Therefore, vHVT-IBD may be a suitable alternative to conventional IBD live vaccines, and may be applied even in the presence of maternally derived IBD antibodies without induction of detectable humoral immunosuppression.

  19. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the field, poultry are exposed to a variety of infectious agents, many of which are immunosuppressive. Co-infections between these agents are common, and these co-infections have effects on disease, immune response, and vaccine efficacy. The effect of co-infections in poultry between immunosupp...

  20. Characterization of Chicken Splenic-Derived Dendritic Cells Following Vaccine and Very Virulent Strains of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, A R; Yeap, S K; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R

    2016-12-01

    Studies have shown that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infects lymphoid cells, mainly B cells and macrophages. This study was aimed to examine the involvement of chicken splenic-derived dendritic cells (ch-sDCs) in specific-pathogen-free chickens following inoculation with IBDV vaccine strain (D78) and a very virulent (vv) strain (UPM0081). Following IBDV infection, enriched activated ch-sDCs were collected by using the negative selection method and were examined based on morphology and immunophenotyping to confirm the isolation method for dendritic cells (DCs). The presence of IBDV on enriched activated ch-sDCs was analyzed based on the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) while the mRNAs of several cytokines were detected using RT-qPCR. The isolated ch-sDCs resembled typical DC morphologies found in mammals by having a veiled shape and they grew in clusters. Meanwhile, the expression of DC maturation markers, namely CD86 and MHCII, were increased at day 2 and day 3 following vvIBDV and vaccine strain inoculation, respectively, ranging from 10% to 40% compared to the control at 2.55% (P < 0.05). At day 3 postinfection, IBDV VP3 proteins colocalized with CD86 were readily detected via IFAT and flow cytometry in both vaccine and vvIBDV strains. In addition, enriched activated ch-sDCs were also detected as positive based on the VP4 gene by RT-qPCR; however, a higher viral load was detected on vvIBDV compared to the vaccine group. Infection with vaccine and vvIBDV strains induced the enriched activated ch-sDCs to produce proinflammatory cytokines and Th1-like cytokines from day 3 onward; however, the expressions were higher in the vvIBDV group (P < 0.05). These data collectively suggest that enriched activated ch-sDCs were permissive to IBDV infection and produced a strong inflammatory and Th1-like cytokine response following vvIBDV infection as compared to the vaccine strain.

  1. Mucosal application of cationic poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles as carriers of DNA vaccine and adjuvants to protect chickens against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Negash, Tamiru; Liman, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-08-12

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens. The virus protein (VP) 2 induces neutralizing antibodies, which protect chickens against the disease. The aim of this study was to develop a cationic poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle (MP) based IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccine (MP-IBDV-DNA) for chickens to be delivered orally and by eye drop route. The tested IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccines were immunogenic for specific-pathogen-free chickens and induced an antibody response after intramuscular application. Co-inoculation with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) or CpG-ODN did not significantly improve protection against IBDV challenge. However, the application of a MP-IBDV-DNA vaccine alone or in combination with a delayed oral and eye drop application of cationic MP loaded with CpG-ODN or chIL-2 improved protection against challenge. The MP-IBDV-DNA-vaccinated chickens showed less pathological and histopathological bursal lesions, a reduced IBDV antigen load as well as T-cell influx into the bursa of Fabricius (BF) compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of chIL-2 loaded MP improved challenge virus clearance from the BF as demonstrated by lower neutralizing antibody titers and reduced IL-4 and IFN-α mRNA expression in the bursa at 7 days postchallenge compared to the other challenged groups. Overall, the efficacy of the IBDV-DNA vaccine was improved by adsorption of the DNA vaccine onto cationic PLGA-MP, which also allowed mucosal application of the DNA vaccine.

  2. Field trial in commercial broilers with a multivalent in ovo vaccine comprising a mixture of live viral vaccines against Marek's disease, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y

    2002-01-01

    A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry.

  3. The effect of infection with mixed Eimeria species on hematology and immune responses following Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease booster vaccination in broilers.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan; Ehtisham-ul-Haque, Syed; Nasir, Amar; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Ashraf, Kamran

    2015-03-01

    Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease of chickens, causing high mortality and morbidity. This morbidity is believed to be correlated with altered population dynamics of blood cells and immunocompromisation. This study investigated the effects of mixed Eimeria species (viz., tenella, maxima, acervulina and necatrix) infection on hematology and immune responses following Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) booster vaccination in broilers. One-day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard; n = 200) were divided into two equal groups A and B. On day 16, group A was infected orally with Eimeria species (7 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts), whereas group B served as control. Both groups were analyzed for hematological parameters on post-infection days 6-8. Sera from both groups were analyzed for antibody titers against ND and IBD vaccines. On day 8 post-infection, lymphoid organs were also examined. Significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of plasma proteins, globular volume, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were found in infected chickens compared with non-infected control chickens. In addition, the infected group exhibited significantly increased (P < 0.05) numbers of different leukocytes. Infected chickens also showed significantly lower antibody titers against ND and IBD with decreased relative organ weights of all lymphoid organs except spleen. Mixed species of Eimeria adversely affected the hematology and immune efficiency of broilers. Thus, inexpensive immune potentiators and hemotonics along with appropriate anti-coccidial medications are suggested to avoid the complications and subsequent economic losses.

  4. Modified activity of a VP2-located neutralizing epitope on various vaccine, pathogenic and hypervirulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Rivallan, G; Guittet, M

    1997-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to a vaccine strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of intermediate virulence were characterized in Western-blot, radioimmunoprecipitation, ELISA additivity, and neutralization assays. At least two distinct serotype 1-specific conformation-dependent overlapping neutralizing antigenic domains were shown to be present on IBDV-VP2, and were respectively probed by Mabs 3 and 4, and by Mabs 6 and 7. Ten serotype 1 vaccine or pathogenic IBDV strains were tested for neutralization. Most mild or intermediate vaccine strains were efficiently neutralized by all Mabs, whereas US variant A, European pathogenic strain Faragher 52/70 and French hypervirulent isolate 89163 were not neutralized by Mabs 3 and 4. In addition, these two Mabs were shown to bind to the Faragher 52/70 strain, but not to the 89163 isolate, in an antigen-capture ELISA. These results suggest that a neutralizing epitope is possibly modified in European pathogenic IBDV strains, and that Mabs 3 and 4 may prove useful for antigenic differentiation between European classical and hypervirulent isolates.

  5. Mixture of polysaccharide and nucleic acid extracted from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) enhances immune response of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, X B; Liu, Z J; Lv, Y J; Long, Y; Bao, E D

    2016-05-12

    In this study, the immune response induced by a mixture of polysaccharide and nucleic acid extracted from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was evaluated in chickens inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine. After the mixture was injected intramuscularly at a dose of 0.075, 0.15 or 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 days, the 14-day-old chickens were inoculated with the attenuated IBDV vaccine via intranasal and ocular routes. The relative weight of bursa of Fabricius (BF) and thymus, the serum IBD antibody titer, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 in peripheral blood were investigated on days 5, 15 and 25. The IBD antibody titer in BCG-treated groups was higher than in the negative control and only IBD-vaccinated chickens, indicating that the mixture of BCG can significantly enhance chicken humoral response. CD4+/CD8+ and the secretions of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were also clearly increased compared with that in the negative control and IBD-vaccinated chickens, indicating that the mixture can also enhance the cell-mediated immune response. The results also showed that the relative weights of BF and thymus increased after chickens were inoculated with BCG, indicating that the BCG mixture can clearly enhance the immunity of IBD-vaccine and can be expected to be viewed as a candidate for a new type of immune adjuvant.

  6. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ali, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Umer Naveed; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Since the first report of infectious bursal disease in Pakistan in 1987, outbreaks have been common even in vaccinated flocks. Despite appropriate administration of vaccines, concerns arise if the circulating strains are different from the ones used in the vaccine. Here, we sequenced the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 gene of circulating strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) originating from outbreaks (n = 4) in broiler flocks in Pakistan. Nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogeny and deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed the circulating strains to be very virulent (vv) and identified characteristic residues at position 222 (A), 242 (I), 256 (I), 294 (I) and 299 (S). In addition, a substitution at positions 221 (Q→H) was found to be exclusive to Pakistani strains in our analysis, although a larger dataset is required to confirm this finding. Compared to vaccine strains that are commonly used in Pakistan, substitution mutations were found at key amino acid positions in VP2 that may be responsible for potential changes in neutralization epitopes and vaccine failure.

  7. Protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine construct encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease and a truncated HSP70 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan; Khulape, Sagar A; Pathak, Dinesh C; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2015-02-18

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, infectious, immunosuppressive disease affecting young chicken worldwide. The etiological agent IBD virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus with outer capsid protein VP2 of IBDV is the major antigenic determinant capable of inducing neutralizing antibody. DNA vaccines encoding VP2 has been extensively studied achieving only partial protection. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV can be augmented by choosing a potential molecular adjuvant. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the C-terminal domain of the heat shock protein 70 (cHSP70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene genetically fused with the full length VP2 gene of IBDV (pCIVP2-cHSP70) in comparison to a 'DNA prime-protein boost' approach and a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene (pCIVP2) alone. The results indicate that both pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' elicited humoral as well as cellular immune responses. Chickens in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' groups developed significantly higher levels of ELISA titer to IBDV antigen compared to the group immunized with pCIVP2 alone (p<0.01). However, significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferative response, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were found in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 group compared to 'DNA prime-protein boost' group. Additionally, chickens immunized with pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' vaccines were completely protected against the vvIBDV whereas pCIVP2 DNA vaccine alone was able to protect only 70%. These findings suggest that the truncated C-terminal HSP70 mediated DNA vaccine genetically fused with the VP2 gene construct stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and conferred complete protection against IBDV. This novel strategy is perhaps a seminal concept in utilizing HSP70 as an adjuvant molecule to elicit an immune response against IBD affecting chickens.

  8. Nutrition and immunity: the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Emadi, M; Jahanshiri, F; Kaveh, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Ideris, A; Alimon, A R

    2011-02-01

    To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn-soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0 to 49 days of age were subjected to a diet supplemented with the combination of Trp and Arg. Growth performance parameters and serum parameters were measured at 27 and 49 days of age. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the combination of Trp and Arg on the challenged chickens, we measured the serum levels of interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G at 27, 35, 42, and 49 days of age. The results showed that the three evaluated immune system parameters including interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G were significantly enhanced after treatment. This enhancement resulted in the recovery of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens compared with controls as confirmed by histopathological examinations. Moreover, serum parameters such as albumin and total protein increased, whereas the treatment decreased (P<0.05) the feed:gain ratio, aspartate amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride and cholesterol. These findings suggest that the combination of Arg and Trp has a regulatory effect on growth performance. Moreover, it modulates the systemic immune response against infectious bursal disease.

  9. Naturally occurring reassortant infectious bursal disease virus in northern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Wang, Nian; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-05-04

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of the family of Birnavirideae. The co-evolution of genome segments is a major evolutionary feature for IBDV. However, in recent years, some strains exhibited markedly different genetic relationships for segments A and B. In this study, we firstly isolated a new type of reassortment IBDV strain named IBD13HeB01 from northern China. The full-length genomes of segments A and B were cloned and identified. Sequence analysis revealed that IBD13HeB01 was a segment-reassortment strain, whose segment A was derived from very virulent strain and segment B from attenuated IBDV. In addition, the virulence of IBD13HeB01 strain was evaluated using SPF chickens. This study is not only beneficial for further understanding of the viral evolution but also suggests the potential risk of application of the live vaccines of IBDV.

  10. Evaluation of infectious bursal disease virus stability at different conditions of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Rani, Surabhi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of poultry. The disease poses a serious threat to the economy of many developing countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae. The IBDV is well characterized to cause immunosuppression in poultry. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the chickens from IBDV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of IBDV outbreaks in field condition. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of IBDV genome and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions. Our results indicate that the IBDV is non-infective above 42 °C and unstable above 72 °C. However, the change in pH does not significantly contribute to the IBDV stability. The study will be useful in estimating an optimum storage condition for IBDV vaccines without causing any deterioration in its viability and effectiveness.

  11. Development of probes for differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus strains of various virulence by dot-blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Katari, R S; Tiwari, A K; Butchaiah, G; Kataria, J M

    2000-10-01

    Two different radio-labeled nucleic acid probes, prepared from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplified variable region of VP2 and VP1 gene sequences of a highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), were tested for their ability to detect field isolates of IBDV directly in clinical bursal tissue specimens and vaccine strains of IBDV in tissue cultures. The VP2 gene probe was able to detect both field isolates and vaccine strains of IBDV under high as well as low stringency while the VP1 gene probe could differentiate under high stringency field isolates from vaccine strains, hybridizing only with RNA of field isolates. The sensitivity of both the probes was found to be 4 ng of purified viral RNA.

  12. Pathogenicity and preliminary antigenic characterization of six infectious bursal disease virus strains isolated in France from acute outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Eterradossi, N; Picault, J P; Drouin, P; Guittet, M; L'Hospitalier, R; Bennejean, G

    1992-11-01

    Six isolates originating from acute outbreaks of infectious bursal disease recently reported in broiler and pullet flocks in France were studied with respect to their pathogenicity and their antigenic relatedness to the Faragher 52/70 reference strain. Although the mortality experimentally induced in susceptible chickens by the field strains was sometimes four times higher than that which followed the inoculation of the reference strain (16 to 48% versus 12%), neither mortality nor morbidity were observed in chickens previously vaccinated with a commercial live vaccine and then challenged under the same conditions. Agar gel precipitation tests demonstrated the existence of common antigens in the different strains, and high cross-neutralization indices measured in embryonated specific pathogen free eggs showed them all to belong to serotype I. These data are discussed with reference to previous European and North-American studies on the antigenic status of infectious bursal disease virus.

  13. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Host Interactions: Multifunctional Viral Proteins that Perform Multiple and Differing Jobs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yao; Zheng, Shijun J

    2017-01-14

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The consequent immunosuppression increases susceptibility to other infectious diseases and the risk of subsequent vaccination failure as well. Since the genome of IBDV is relatively small, it has a limited number of proteins inhibiting the cellular antiviral responses and acting as destroyers to the host defense system. Thus, these virulence factors must be multifunctional in order to complete the viral replication cycle in a host cell. Insights into the roles of these viral proteins along with their multiple cellular targets in different pathways will give rise to a rational design for safer and effective vaccines. Here we summarize the recent findings that focus on the virus-cell interactions during IBDV infection at the protein level.

  14. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Host Interactions: Multifunctional Viral Proteins that Perform Multiple and Differing Jobs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yao; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The consequent immunosuppression increases susceptibility to other infectious diseases and the risk of subsequent vaccination failure as well. Since the genome of IBDV is relatively small, it has a limited number of proteins inhibiting the cellular antiviral responses and acting as destroyers to the host defense system. Thus, these virulence factors must be multifunctional in order to complete the viral replication cycle in a host cell. Insights into the roles of these viral proteins along with their multiple cellular targets in different pathways will give rise to a rational design for safer and effective vaccines. Here we summarize the recent findings that focus on the virus–cell interactions during IBDV infection at the protein level. PMID:28098808

  15. Characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated in 2007 from Delmarva commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gelb, J; Jackwood, D J; Mundt, E; Pope, C R; Hein, R; Slacum, G; Harris, J M; Ladman, B S; Lynch, P; Bautista, D A; Ruano, J M; Troeber, M M

    2012-03-01

    A study was performed in 2007 to isolate and characterize infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) in commercial broilers grown in the Delmarva (DMV) Peninsula region of the United States. Bursae of Fabricius were collected weekly from 1 to 4 wk of age from broilers on 10 farms with a history of poor performance. Microscopic pathology was used to determine the infectious bursal disease (IBD) status of the broilers. Bursae from 1- and 2-wk-old broilers did not show IBD microscopic lesions. Moreover, broilers on 1 of the 10 farms were IBD lesion free at 3 and 4 wk of age. However, 3 of 9 and 9 of 9 farms yielded broilers with IBD-affected bursae from 3- and 4-wk-old commercial broilers, respectively. Ten IBDV isolates were recovered from 3 of 3 lesion-positive bursal pools at 3 wk of age and 7 of 9 lesion-positive bursal pools at 4 wk of age. Analysis of the viral protein (VP) 2 genes identified all isolates as serotype 1 Delaware (Del) variant viruses. Five field isolates, each representing different molecular clades of the Delaware variant viruses, were selected for further study. Experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens with isolates DMV/4813/07, DMV/4947/07, DMV/4955/07, DMV/5038/07, and DMV/5041/07 produced gross and microscopic pathology of the bursa consistent with Delaware variant infection. Monoclonal antibody testing showed DMV/4813/07, DMV/4947/07, DMV/ 4955/07, and DMV/5041/07 to be similar to previous recognized variant viruses. However, DMV/5038/07 was found to be unreactive with the monoclonal antibodies that typically recognize reference strains STC, Del E, GLS, RS593, and AL2. In a challenge of immunity study, 10-day-old progeny from breeders immunized with a commercially available inactivated IBDV vaccine containing the Del E and classic strains were protected to a lesser degree against isolate DMV/5038/07 compared to Del E challenge based on microscopic lesion scores (P < 0.01) of the bursa. This result suggests the

  16. Persistence and tissue distribution of infectious bursal disease virus in experimentally infected SPF and commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Rauf; Murgia, Maria V; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M

    2013-12-01

    This study was initiated to determine the persistence, distribution, and quantification of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens. Two serotype 1 strains, STC classic and IN variant, were independently used in the experiments. Five separate experiments were conducted using 2- and 4-wk-old SPF chickens, 2- and 4-wk-old in ovo-vaccinated commercial broilers, and 2-wk-old commercial broilers having maternally derived anti-IBDV antibodies. Pooled data from five experiments revealed that SPF chickens had a significantly higher incidence of IBDV-positive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) results than commercial chickens (multivariable logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio = 15.28; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 9.53, 24.51, P < 0.0001). In many cases, the viral RNA (vRNA) persisted longer in in ovo-vaccinated commercial broilers bearing maternally derived antibodies compared with similar broilers not vaccinated in ovo. The STC strain was more frequently detected in tissues than the IN strain (chi-square P < 0.0001). In lymphoid tissues, STC and IN strains were detected for the longest duration in bursal tissues followed by spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. In nonlymphoid tissues, STC and IN strains were detected the longest in cecum followed by liver, kidney, pancreas, lungs, thigh, and breast muscles. Compared with bursal tissues, muscle and bone marrow tissues were significantly less likely to yield an IBDV-positive RT-PCR result (P < 0.0001). Although STC vRNA was detected up to 42 days postinoculation (DPI) in bursal homogenates of SPF chickens, virus isolation from bursal homogenates using embryonated chicken eggs was only possible up to 28 DPI. Similarly, STC vRNA was detected up to 42 DPI in bursal tissues of commercial broilers, but infectious virus could be isolated only up to 21 DPI. The IN strain was isolated up to 10 DPI from bursal homogenates of SPF chickens

  17. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  18. Prophylactic potential of resiquimod against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) challenge in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Kumar, B S Anand; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kumar, Vimal; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Varghese, Berin P; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluated the prophylactic potential of resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7 agonist, against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection in chicken. Specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks of three week age were treated with R-848 (50μg/bird, intramuscular) or PBS (n=26/group). Twenty four hour later, half of the birds from each group were challenged with 10(5) ELD50 of vvIBDV and observed for 10days. To understand the effect of R-848, immune response genes such as interferon (IFN)-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 were analyzed at 24 and 48h post-challenge in PBMCs ex vivo by real-time PCR (n=6/group). On day 4 post-challenge, representative birds (n=3/group) were sacrificed to study the bursal damage and IBDV antigen clearance. Immunosuppression was assessed by antibody response against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, which was administered on day 10 post-challenge. R-848 pre-treatment significantly upregulated the transcripts of each immune response gene studied (P<0.05). There was 50% mortality on vvIBDV challenge in control birds, while it was only 20% with R-848 group. R-848 pre-treatment reduced the bursal damage as indicated by lower bursal lesion score in histopathology, reduced IBDV antigen signal in immunohistochemistry and improved antigen clearance in agar gel immunodiffusion test. Further, it protected significantly against vvIBDV induced immunosuppression as indicated by HI antibody titre. It is concluded that pre-treatment of R-848 conferred partial protection from mortality and bursal damage while complete protection against immunosuppression in chicken when challenged with vvIBDV, which could be due to the upregulation of immune response genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunization of chickens with VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D; Scissum-Gunn, K; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2004-09-01

    Transgenic plants represent a safe, effective, and inexpensive way to produce vaccines. The immunogenicity of VP2 protein of an infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus variant E isolate expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was compared with a commercial vaccine in specific-pathogen-free broiler chickens. The VP2 coding sequence was isolated and integrated into A. thaliana genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Soluble VP2 expressed in transgenic plants was used to immunize chickens. Chickens receiving oral immunization with plant-derived VP2 at 1 and 3 wk of age had an antibody response using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 80% protection against challenge infection at 4 wk. Chickens primed with a commercial vaccine at 1 wk followed by an oral booster with VP2 expressed in plants at 3 wk of age showed 90% protection. Chickens immunized with a commercial vaccine at 1 and 3 wk showed 78% protection. Results supported the efficacy of plant-produced VP2 as a vaccine against IBD.

  20. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Selegean, Mircea; Putz, Mihai V.; Rugea, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD) starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc) principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity. PMID:20111675

  1. Effect of the polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Selegean, Mircea; Putz, Mihai V; Rugea, Tatiana

    2009-08-18

    The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD) starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers' survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc) principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  2. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolated in Argentina indicates a regional lineage.

    PubMed

    Vera, F; Craig, M I; Olivera, V; Rojas, F; König, G; Pereda, A; Vagnozzi, A

    2015-08-01

    In Argentina, classical vaccines are used to control infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); however, outbreaks of IBDV are frequently observed. This could be due to failures in the vaccination programs or to the emergence of new strains, which would be able to break through the protection given by vaccines. Hence, genetic characterization of the viruses responsible for the outbreaks that occurred in recent years is crucial for the evaluation of the control programs and the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBDV. In this study, we characterized 51 field samples collected in Argentina (previously identified as IBDV positive) through the analysis of previously identified apomorphic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of regVP2 showed that 42 samples formed a unique cluster (Argentinean lineage), seven samples were typical classical strains (one of them was a vaccine strain), and two belonged to the very virulent lineage (vvIBDV). Interestingly, when the analysis was performed on the regVP1 sequences, the field samples segregated similarly to regVP2; thus, we observed no evidence of a reassortment event in the Argentinean samples. Amino acid sequence analysis of regVP2 showed a particular pattern of residues in the Argentinean lineage, particularly the presence of T272, P289 and F296, which had not been reported before as signature sequences for any IBDV phenotype. Notably, the residue S254, characteristic of the antigenic variant, was not present in any of the Argentinean samples.

  3. Pathogenicity associated with coinfection with very virulent infectious bursal disease and Infectious bursal disease virus strains endemic in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Jackwood, Daral J; Sommer-Wagner, Susan E; Crossley, Beate M; Woolcock, Peter R; Charlton, Bruce R

    2013-05-01

    The pathogenicity induced by co-challenge with the rB strain of very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and IBDV pathotypes endemic in the United States was evaluated in specific pathogen-free chickens. Four- and 6-week-old birds were simultaneously challenged with a 10(5) 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of rB mixed with a 10(5) EID50 of one of the following viruses: standard classic (STC), subclinical variant (Del-E), subclinical variant (T1), or avirulent serotype 2 (OH). Each challenge group consisted of 5 chickens. The severity of disease was assessed by comparing the 5-day mortality rates, bursal lesions (mean bursal lesion scores), and mean bursal-to-body weight ratios in each of the challenged groups. A mortality of 100% (10/10 and 5/5) was observed in birds inoculated with only the vvIBDV (rB) strain at 4 weeks and 6 weeks of age, respectively. Although the sample sizes were low, a significant reduction in mortality and severity of disease, based on mean bursal lesion scores, was observed in groups co-challenged with rB and the less virulent pathotypes Del-E, T1, or OH at 4 weeks of age. Co-challenge with rB and the antigenically similar STC strain did not result in a significant decrease in mortality compared to challenge with the pathogenic rB strain at 4 weeks of age, but a significant reduction in the mean bursa lesion score was observed. At 6 weeks of age, a significant decrease in mortality and mean bursa lesion score was observed in the rB groups co-challenged with STC, Del-E, or T1 but not OH.

  4. Recombinant Marek’s disease virus type 1 provides full protection against very virulent Marek’s and infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Liu, Yongzhen; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Li; Zhang, Yanping; Cui, Hongyu; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Zhong, Li; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a preferred vector in the construction of recombinant vaccines. However, bivalent vaccine based on MDV that confers full protection against both very virulent Marek’s and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infections in chickens has not been produced. Here we developed a system utilizing overlapping fosmid DNAs transfection that rescues an MDV type 1 (MDV1) vaccine strain. Using this system, we inserted the IBDV VP2 gene at MDV1 genome sites UL41, US10 and US2. The VP2 protein was stably expressed in the recombinant MDV-infected cells and self-assembled into IBDV subviral particles. Insertion of the VP2 gene did not affect the replication phenotype of MDV in cell cultures, nor did it increase the virulence of the MDV vaccine strain in chickens. After challenge with very virulent IBDV, r814US2VP2 conferred full protection, whereas r814UL41VP2 and r814US10VP2 provided partial or no protection. All the three recombinant vaccines provided full protection against very virulent MDV challenge in chickens. These results demonstrated that r814US2VP2 could be used as a promising bivalent vaccine against both Marek’s and infectious bursal diseases in chickens. PMID:27982090

  5. Pathogenicity of Genome Reassortant Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses in Chickens and Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J; Stoute, Simone T; Crossley, Beate M

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) contains two genome segments (segment A/segment B) that can reassort among the viruses. Reassortant IBDVs have been identified in several countries including the United States. These reassortant viruses usually include at least one genome segment from a very virulent (vv)IBDV strain. In vivo virulence of six reassortant IBDV from the United States was assessed relative to the virulence of three frequently described IBDV pathotypes: vvIBDV (rB strain), classic virulent (cv)IBDV (STC strain), and subclinical (sc)IBDV (Del-E strain). Morbidity and mortality in 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) leghorns indicated that reassortant IBDV with a vv genome segment A and non-vv segment B were less pathogenic than the vv/vv rB strain but more pathogenic than the cv/cv STC strain. The sc/vv IBDV strain D6337 (sc/vv) was comparable to the STC strain in pathogenicity. Viruses with a serotype 2 (ser2) genome segment A, regardless of the type of genome segment B, did not cause clinical disease in SPF chickens or turkeys. None of the reassorted viruses caused morbidity, mortality, or gross lesions in SPF turkeys. Histopathologic lesions in the bursa of turkeys were not observed in any group except those challenged with the serotype 2 OH strain, which had a mild lymphocytic depletion. No mortality was observed in maternally immune broilers inoculated with any of the IBDV pathotypes at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk of age. No bursal lesions were observed in any of the broiler chicken groups at 1 wk of age except for the D2712 (ser2/cv)-inoculated birds that had mild lymphocyte depletion. Based on evaluation of bursal lesion scores and IBDV reverse transcriptase-PCR on broilers challenged at 2 wk of age, the K669 (vv/ser2) virus broke through the maternal immunity while the STC, Del-E, rB, D2712 (ser2/cv), and 7741 (vv/cv) viruses did not. All viruses broke through maternal immunity in the broilers at 3 wk of age except the Del-E scIBDV and D2712 (ser2

  6. Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus strains using real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed A; O'Rourke, Denise; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a combination of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of IBDV strains/isolates. The hypervariable region of VP2 gene was amplified from several IBDV strains and subjected to HRM curve analysis. The method could readily differentiate between classical vaccines/isolates and variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from each strain revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The real-time RT-PCR HRM curve analysis was also able to differentiate IBDV strains/isolates directly in bursal tissues from field submissions and from vaccinated commercial flocks. The differences between melting peaks generated from IBDV strains were significantly different (P<0.0001) demonstrating the high discriminatory power of this technique. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time RT-PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping IBDV isolates/strains and can contribute to effective control of IBDV outbreaks.

  7. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek’s disease virus delta-Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek’s disease (MD), a T-cell lymphoma of chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970’s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessi...

  8. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens.

  9. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus transmission using bioceramic derived from chicken feces.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-06-02

    Bioceramic powder (BCX), at pH 13.0, derived from chicken feces, was evaluated for its efficacy to inactivate virus and inhibit virus horizontal transmission by fecal-oral route, using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain D78 as a challenge virus. Three 1-week-old SPF chicks were vaccinated per os and used as seeder birds. Six hours later, 3 sentinel 1-week-old SPF chicks were introduced into the same cage. Results revealed that BCX had excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV within 3 min. Treating IBDV contaminated litter in the cage with BCX could prevent transmission of IBDV to new sensitive chicks completely. Further, transmission of IBDV to the sentinel chicks was significantly inhibited by adding BCX to litter and chicken feed. These data suggest that BCX at pH 13, derived from chicken feces, has excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV, which can be applied in bedding materials for preventing viral transmission during production round. It is a good material that can effectively be used for enhancing biosecurity system in poultry farms.

  10. Adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 co-administered with infectious bursal disease virus recombinant VP2 antigen in chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, Bor Sheu; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Lin, Cheng Chung; Shien, Jui Hung; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-02-15

    A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/VP2) expressing infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV) VP2 gene has been constructed. After purification and identification of rFPV/VP2, the adjuvant activity of the recombinant chicken IL-12 (rchIL-12), synthesized by our previous construct of rFPV/chIL-12, in rFPV/VP2-expressed rVP2 antigen was assessed in one-week-old specific-pathogen free chickens. The results indicated that rchIL-12 alone or rchIL-12 plus mineral oil (MO) co-administered with rVP2 antigen significantly enhanced the production of serum neutralization (SN) antibody against IBDV, compared to those with MO alone. The SN titers in groups receiving rVP2 antigen with MO alone were more inconsistent after vaccination. On the other hand, rchIL-12 significantly stimulated IFN-γ production in serum and in splenocyte cultured supernatant, suggesting that rchIL-12 alone or plus MO significantly induced a cell-mediated immune response. Finally, bursal lesion protection from very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge in chickens receiving rVP2 antigen with rchIL-12 alone or plus MO was much more effective than that with MO alone at two weeks after boosting. Taken together, rchIL-12 alone augmented in vivo the induction of a primary and also a secondary SN antibody production and a cell-mediated immunity against IBDV rVP2 antigen, which conferred the enhancement of bursal lesion protective efficacy from vvIBDV challenge. These data indicated that a potential for chIL-12 as immunoadjuvant for chicken vaccine development such as IBDV rVP2 antigen.

  11. Effects of different promoters on the protective efficacy of recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 expressing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Liu, Yongzhen; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Li; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Yulong; Cui, Hongyu; Qi, Xiaole; Zhong, Li; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-11-11

    The vaccine efficacy of recombinant viruses can be influenced by many factors. Accordingly, the activity of promoters has been one of the major factors affecting the antigen expression and protection rate. In the present study, two recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) vaccines containing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) under control of different promoters were generated from overlapping fosmid DNAs. The rMDV-Pec-VP2 virus containing the VP2 gene under control of the Pec promoter (CMV enhancer and chicken β-actin chimera promoter) demonstrated higher VP2 expression and stronger antibody response against IBDV in chickens than the rMDV-CMV-VP2 virus using the CMV promoter. After IBDV lethal challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens, rMDV-Pec-VP2 provided complete protection against developing mortality, clinical signs, and the formation of bursal lesions, which was better than that provided by rMDV-CMV-VP2. Our findings indicate that the protective efficacy of the recombinant MDV1 vaccine against IBDV highly correlates with VP2 expression. This recombinant MDV1 vaccine expressing VP2 could have significant potential as a bivalent vaccine against both virulent IBDV and MDV infections in chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating strains of variant infectious bursal disease virus may pose a challenge for antibiotic-free chicken farming in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kurukulsuriya, Shanika; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Ojkic, Davor; Gunawardana, Thushari; Gupta, Ashish; Goonewardene, Kalhari; Karunaratne, Ruwani; Popowich, Shelly; Willson, Philip; Tikoo, Suresh K; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotic-free and safe animal products are most desirable among consumers. However, ensuring safe poultry products is a challenging task when the chicken immune system is compromised. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression and predisposes chickens to secondary infections. Breeder vaccination against IBDV is routinely practiced for producing chicks with maternally-derived antibody (MAb) to prevent infection in newly hatched chicks. The majority of IBDV circulating in Canadian farms are variant strains (vIBDV). Whether circulating vIBDV strains are immunosuppressive in chicks or are amenable to current vaccine regimens has not previously been tested through challenge studies. In this study, one-day-old broiler chicks (n=240) carrying MAb were obtained from broiler breeders vaccinated with commercial IBDV vaccines. In the first set of experiments (n=40/group), at six days post-hatch, one group was challenged with a Canadian field isolate, vIBDV (strain-SK09) (3×10(3) EID50). The second and the third groups (controls) were inoculated with non-immunosuppressive IBDV D-78 (10×10(3) TCID50) and saline, respectively. Histopathological examination on days 14 and 30 post-challenge revealed that despite the high level of MAb, vIBDV (SK09) caused severe bursal damage in chicks. Another set of experiments with treatment groups as above, demonstrated that pre-exposure of chicks with vIBDV (SK09) caused immunosuppression resulting in significantly higher mortality and disease severity in chicks challenged with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Our data provide evidence that IBDV strains circulating in Canada are immunosuppressive, not amenable to current anti-IBDV vaccination strategy, and a potential threat to antibiotic-free chicken farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and molecular analysis of infectious bursal disease in broiler farms in the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oumed Gerjis M; Jackwood, Daral J

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The identification was done using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial sequencing of the VP2 gene. Pooled bursal samples were collected from commercial broiler farms located in the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) of Iraq. The genetic material of the IBDV was detected in 10 out of 29 field samples. Sequences of the hypervariable VP2 region were determined for 10 of these viruses. Molecular analysis of the VP2 gene of five IBDVs showed amino acid sequences consistent with the very virulent (vv) IBDV. Two samples were identified as classic vaccine viruses, and three samples were classic vaccine viruses that appear to have mutated during replication in the field. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all five field IBDV strains of the present study were closely related to each other. On the basis of nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, it is very likely that IBD-causing viruses in this part of Iraq are of the very virulent type. These IBDVs appear to be evolving relative to their type strains.

  14. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens.

  15. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens. PMID:24948937

  16. The diagnosis of very virulent infectious bursal disease in California pullets.

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Jackwood, Daral J; Sommer-Wagner, Susan E; Cooper, George L; Anderson, Mark L; Woolcock, Peter R; Bickford, Arthur A; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Charlton, Bruce R

    2009-06-01

    This report documents the occurrence of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) in Northern California commercial brown pullets. Diagnosis was made from multiple accessions from two neighboring and epidemiologically related ranches submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) laboratory. Pullets, 11 and 14 wk of age from ranch A (rA) and ranch B (rB) respectively, were submitted from infectious bursal disease virus vaccinated flocks experiencing a drastic increase in mortality. The December 2008 outbreak resulted in 26% and 34% mortality on rA and rB respectively. Gross and histologic lesions characteristic of acute vvIBDV were observed. Gross lesions included edematous bursas, hemorrhages at the junction of the proventriculus and gizzard as well as hemorrhages on skeletal muscles. Microscopic lesions included severe lymphoid necrosis and inflammation in edematous bursas, lymphoid necrosis in thymus, spleen, Peyer's patches and cecal tonsils. Diagnosis of vvIBDV was confirmed by molecular characterization of the IBDV from bursas as well as viral pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free birds. RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the hypervariable region of the VP2 (vVP2) gene segment of the IBDV genome was performed on rA, rB and embryo passaged rA virions.The amino acids compatible with vvIBDV isolates: 222(Ala), 242(Ile), 256(Ile), 294(Ile) and 299(Ser) were reported from both ranches. In addition, nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the VP1 gene demonstrated the viruses have the segment B genotype associated with highly pathogenic vvIBDV. Inocula of 10(5.5) 50% egg infective dose of vvIBDV virus from rA and rB were introduced orally into two groups (g1 and g2 respectively) of 4 wk 2-day-old SPF leghorns. At 4 days postinoculation, there was 100% (22/22) morbidity in g1 and g2; 91% (20/22) mortality in g1; 100% (22/22) mortality for g2; 0% (0/20) morbidity and 0% (0/ 20) mortality was reported in the control group. This is

  17. Genotypic characterization of Indian isolates of infectious bursal disease virus strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Priyadharsini, C V; Senthilkumar, T M A; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-03-01

    The reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is used for the differentiation of classical virulent (cv), virulent (v) and very virulent (vv) strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates from chicken bursal tissues in southern states of India. In the present study, six different isolates (MB11, HY12, PY12, BGE14, VCN14 and NKL14) of IBDV strains were subjected for genotyping along with vaccine virus (Georgia, intermediate strain) using RT-PCR for amplification of a 743 bp sequence in the hypervariable region of VP2 gene followed by restriction enzyme digestion with 5 different restriction enzymes (BspMI, SacI, HhaI, StuI and SspI). The RT-PCR products obtained from vvIBDV strains were digested by SspI enzyme except PY12, BGE14 and MB11 isolates. The SacI digested the isolate MB11, PY12 and the vaccine strain, but it did not cleave the very virulent isolates of IBDV. HhaI cleaved all the isolates with different restriction profile patterns. StuI digested all the vvIBDV isolates and BspMI was not able to differentiate field isolates from vaccine strain. Though RT-PCR combined with RFLP is a genotypic method, further confirmation of serotypes to distinguish the vvIBDV from cvIBDV has to be carried out using pathogenicity studies.

  18. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, L.; Jamilu, A.; Andamin, A. D.; Akpavie, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  19. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, H B; Sa'idu, L; Jamilu, A; Andamin, A D; Akpavie, S O

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Banga, H. S.; Brar, R. S.; Singh, N. D.; Sodhi, S.; Leishangthem, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD) using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s), in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV) antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623) was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring. Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and IHC staining is a precise, specific, rapid, and

  1. Tracking the molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M F; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Myrrha, Luciana W; Fietto, Juliana L R; Silva, Abelardo; Almeida, Márcia R

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Genome segment A encodes the capsid protein (VP2), while segment B encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In the present study, we trace the molecular epidemiology of IBDV in Brazil by analyzing 29 isolates collected in the major regions of poultry production. To genetically characterize the isolates, phylogenetic and population dynamic analyses were conducted using 68 VP1 (2634 nt) and 102 VP2 (1356 nt) coding sequences from IBDV isolates from different regions of the world. Furthermore, the evolution of IBDV was analyzed by characterizing the selective forces that operated during the diversification of viral isolates. We show that IBDV isolates were introduced into Brazil mainly from the Netherlands and the USA. These introductions were associated with all Brazilian poultry production regions analyzed in this work. In addition, we show that the evolution of IBDV has been shaped by a combination of very low recombination rates and relatively high rates of nucleotide substitution (2.988×10(-4) for VP1 and 3.2937×10(-4) for VP2), which themselves are a function of purifying selection operating on VP1 and VP2. Furthermore, our extended Bayesian skyline plot suggests that the increase in the effective population size of isolates of IBDV is consistent with its epidemiological history, with a large increase during the emergence of acute outbreaks of IBD in the 1980s.

  2. Inactivation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Through Composting of Litter from Poultry Houses.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I

    2016-06-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV.

  3. Overexpression of recombinant infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsid protein VP2 in the middle silk gland of transgenic silkworm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Song, Chunnuan; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease affecting young chickens and causes serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Development of subunit vaccine using its major caspid protein, VP2, is one of the promising strategies to protect against IBDV. This study aim to test the feasibility of using silkworm to produce recombinant VP2 protein (rVP2) derived from a very virulent strain of IBDV (vvIBDV). A total of 16 transgenic silkworm lines harboring a codon-optimized VP2 gene driven by the sericin1 promoter were generated and analyzed. The results showed that the rVP2 was synthesized in the middle silk gland of all lines and secreted into their cocoons. The content of rVP2 in the cocoon of each line was ranged from 0.07 to 16.10 % of the total soluble proteins. The rVP2 was purified from 30 g cocoon powders with a yield of 3.33 mg and a purity >90 %. Further analysis indicated that the rVP2 was able to tolerate high temperatures up to 80 °C, and exhibited specific immunogenic activity in mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of overexpressing rVP2 in the middle silk gland of transgenic silkworm, which demonstrates the capability of silkworm as an efficient tool to produce recombinant immunogens for use in new vaccines against animal diseases.

  4. Rapid detection of Infectious bursal disease virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chunyi; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qingfeng; Xu, Cong; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Yongchang

    2009-11-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The RT-LAMP assay used a set of 4 primers to amplify the viral protein 2 gene of IBDV for the detection of IBDV, showing not only high efficiency but also analytic specificity. The data demonstrated that the RT-LAMP assay detected 30 different IBDV isolates, had no cross-reaction with 3 other avian viruses (Infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Avian influenza virus), and obtained a 95.45% sensitivity in 22 positive clinical samples in reference to virus isolation. Therefore, this rapid, specific, sensitive, and convenient RT-LAMP assay could be applicable to the identification of IBDV in less-equipped laboratories as well as in the field.

  5. Molecular characterization of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus strains circulating in Egypt from 2003 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Sultan, Hesham; Halami, Mohammed Y; Talaat, Shaimaa; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2017-09-18

    In the present study, four very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolates from flocks of chickens with vaccination failure in Egypt in 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 were characterized. The four viruses, designated USC2003, USC2007, USC2010 and USC2014, were detected by reverse transcription PCR, subjected to sequencing of both genomic segments (A and B) and compared with geographically and phylogenetically diverse IBDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of segment A (complete) and B (partial) revealed a close relationship between Egyptian and vvIBDV reference strains of European and Asian origin. The sequences of segments of A and B the current Egyptian isolates were 96.1-98.2% and 96.5-98.7% identical, respectively, to those of other known vvIBDV isolates. The deduced amino acid sequences of VP1, polyprotein (pVP2-VP4-VP3) and VP5 revealed the presence of putative virulence determinants of Egyptian isolates compared with vvIBDV and less virulent (classical and variant) strains. The Egyptian isolates also possess unique amino acids substitutions within the hypervariable region of VP2 that differ from those of other reference IBDV strains. Further studies may be necessary to determine the pathogenic significance of these amino acid substitutions to fully understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of IBDV.

  6. Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J. Christian; Docherty, Douglas E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Petersen, Margaret R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

  7. A simple and efficient method to rescue very virulent infectious bursal disease virus using SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2012-05-01

    Reverse genetic systems for efficient generation of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) are currently limited. In this study, we have developed a simple and efficient way to rescue vvIBDV using SPF chickens. The genome of a vvIBDV strain, HLJ0504, flanked by hammerhead and hepatitis delta ribozyme sequences, was cloned downstream of the cytomegalovirus enhancer and the chicken beta-actin promoter of the vector pCAGGS. After transfection of DF-1 cells, cell suspensions were injected into the bursa organ of three-week-old SPF chickens. Using this system, vvIBDV was recovered at high titers after one passage, and the rescued vvIBDV remained highly lethal to SPF chickens. This simple and efficient method to rescue vvIBDV will be a valuable tool for better understanding the molecular virulence determinants of vvIBDV.

  8. Oral administration of hyperimmune IgY: an immunoecological approach to curbing acute infectious bursal disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Ausama A; Mohammad, Walaa A; Khodeir, Mohammad H; Zeid, Abo Zeid A Abo; el-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Saber, Mohammad S; Reda, Ismail M

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry. Hygienic management and proper vaccination are currently the only economic approach for control of this disease. Attempts have been made to control the disease after the onset of an outbreak using parenteral administration of hyperimmune IgY preparations. Such attempts are usually cumbersome and time consuming with an overall reduced economic return. We investigated the use of oral administration of hyperimmune chicken IgY to control IBDV outbreaks early after their discovery in poultry farms. Our approach attempted to change the environmental viral load around susceptible birds and, to modify the host's initial immune-contact with the virulent virus and the subsequent balance of the immune response to that virus. An experimental exposure/protection model that simulates a natural infection in susceptible populations was developed. IBDV hyperimmune yolk was orally administered to a group of IBDV-exposed susceptible layer chicks via drinking water. Disease patterns and mortality rates were monitored up to 10 days post exposure and compared to that in the exposed-untreated group of the same breed and age. Mortality rates dropped by 66.6% in the exposed-treated group compared to the control exposed-untreated group. Similarly, the morbidity shifted towards a milder syndrome in the exposed-treated group as compared to the control exposed-untreated group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful control of an experimental IBDV infection in susceptible poultry populations using oral administration of hyperimmune yolk preparations.

  9. scFv antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus isolated from a combinatorial antibody library by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Tian-He; Zhou, Bing; Guo, Mo; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Jing-Zhuang; Cao, Hong-Wei; Li, De-Shan

    2014-05-01

    Infectious bursal disease is an economically important disease that affects chickens worldwide. Here, a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library derived from chickens immunized with VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was constructed. The library was subjected to three rounds of screening by flow cytometry against VP2 protein through a bacteria display technology, resulting in the enrichment of scFv. Three scFv clones with different fluorescence intensity were obtained by random colony pick up. The isolated scFv antibodies were expressed and purified. Relative affinity assay showed the three clones had different sensitivity to VP2, in accordance with fluorescence activity cell sorting analysis. The potential use of the selected IBDV-specific scFv antibodies was demonstrated by the successful application of the isolated antibodies in western blotting assay and ELISA.

  10. Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plant-made chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles expressing very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ten-Hong; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liao, Jia-Teh; Lee, Chin-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Maw-Yeong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Ying; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-06-01

    Very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chickens and leads to significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Effective new vaccines are urgently needed. Autonomously replicating plant virus-based vector provides attractive means for producing chimeric virus particles (CVPs) in plants that can be developed into vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for vaccine development of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) epitope-presentation system, where the antigen from vvIBDV VP2 was fused to the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein. Accordingly, an infections plasmid, pBIBD2, was constructed. Inoculation of the recombinant BaMV clone pBIBD2 enabled the generation of chimeric virus, BIBD2, and stable expression of IBDV VP2 antigen on its coat protein. After intramuscular immunization with BIBD2 CVPs, chickens produced antibodies against IBDV and were protected from vvIBDV (V263/TW strain) challenges. These results corroborate the feasibility of BaMV-based CVP platform in plants for the development and production of vaccines against IBDV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic sequence of an infectious bursal disease virus isolate from Zambia: classical attenuated segment B reassortment in nature with existing very virulent segment A.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, C J; Yamaguchi, T; Munang'andu, H M; Ohya, K; Fukushi, H

    2013-03-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) isolate (designated KZC-104) from a confirmed IBD outbreak in Lusaka in 2004. The genome consisted of 3,074 and 2,651 nucleotides in the coding regions of segments A and B, respectively. Alignment of both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome segment A of KZC-104 was derived from a very virulent (VV) strain, whereas its segment B was derived from a classical attenuated strain. On BLAST search, the full-length segment A and B sequences showed 98 % nucleotide sequence identity to the VV strain D6948 and 99.8 % nucleotide sequence identity to the classical attenuated strain D78. This is a unique IBDV reassortant strain that has emerged in nature, involving segment B of a cell-culture-adapted attenuated vaccine.

  12. Cell culture attenuation eliminates rMd5deltaMeq-induced bursal and thymic atrophy and renders the mutant virus as an effective and safe vaccine against Marek's disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine zipper oncoprotein, meq, which structurally resembles jun/fos family of transcriptional activators. It has been clearly demonstrated that deletion of meq results in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of MDV. The rMd5'meq virus provided s...

  13. A molecular epidemiology study based on VP2 gene sequences reveals that a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus is dominantly prevalent in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lupini, Caterina; Giovanardi, Davide; Pesente, Patrizia; Bonci, Michela; Felice, Viviana; Rossi, Giulia; Morandini, Emilio; Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A distinctive infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genotype (ITA) was detected in IBD-live vaccinated broilers in Italy without clinical signs of IBD. It was isolated in specific-pathogen-free eggs and molecularly characterized in the hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ITA strains clustered separately from other homologous reference sequences of IBDVs, either classical or very virulent, retrieved from GenBank or previously reported in Italy, and from vaccine strains. The new genotype shows peculiar molecular characteristics in key positions of the VP2 hypervariable region, which affect charged or potentially glycosylated amino acids virtually associated with important changes in virus properties. Characterization of 41 IBDV strains detected in Italy between 2013 and 2014 showed that ITA is emergent in densely populated poultry areas of Italy, being 68% of the IBDV detections made during routine diagnostic activity over a two-year period, in spite of the immunity induced by large-scale vaccination. Four very virulent strains (DV86) and one classical strain (HPR2), together with eight vaccine strains, were also detected. The currently available epidemiological and clinical data do not allow the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA genotype to be defined. Only in vivo experimental pathogenicity studies conducted in secure isolation conditions, through the evaluation of clinical signs and macro/microscopic lesions, will clarify conclusively the virulence of the new Italian genotype.

  14. Isolation of novel variants of infectious bursal disease virus from different outbreaks in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of gel diffusion, fluorescent antibody and virus isolation methods in experimental and natural cases of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P R

    1975-01-01

    In studies with chicks inoculated with the Sk-1 strain of infectious bursal agent the bursa of Fabricius was found to be the tissue of choice for virus isolation as well as for use in the fluorescent antibody test and the agar gel diffusion test. In separate experiments positive results were obtained until postinoculation days 3 or 4 by the agar gel diffusion test, 5 or 6 by the fluorescent antibody test and 14 by the virus isolation method, respectively. Bursas from chickens involved in seven natural outbreaks of infectious bursal disease were then examined by these three methods. Virus was isolated from six outbreaks and infectious bursal agent antigen was demonstrated in three by the agar gel diffusion test method and seven (three by direct examination and four after one passage in chicks) by the fluorescent antibody test method. Passage in chicks was required when nonspecific fluorescence complicated the interpretation of fluorescent antibody test results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:164991

  16. Induction of apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius by vaccination against Gumboro disease.

    PubMed

    Killian, Marcelo Pablo; Boviez, Juan David; Gambarotta, Mariana; Lombardo, Daniel Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a severe acute viral disease of young chickens, affecting mainly the B-lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, leading to severe immunosuppression as a result of the death of lymphoid cells. In the bursa infected with infectious bursal disease virus, viral replication is associated with apoptosis of lymphoid cells, inflammatory change and atrophy. Vaccination has appeared to be a crucial factor for control, with live attenuated vaccines being the most used. However, the apoptotic effect of these vaccines on the bursa has not been tested. We determined the apoptotic effect caused by the most used vaccines in local production on the bursa of Fabricius cells and the correlation with histological changes. In this study, it was demonstrated that apoptosis levels in the vaccinated groups were higher than those observed in the non-vaccinated birds leading to the conclusion that the action of the live virus vaccine strains modifies the boundary of the bursa and shapes processes of cell death by apoptosis. In contrast to other studies, the vaccine strains used did not show the phenomenon of bursal atrophy during the experimental period.

  17. Histamine levels in embryonic chicken livers infected with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinju; He, Lei; Cheng, Xiangchao; Li, Jing; Jia, Yanyan; Yang, Danfang

    2015-11-15

    Histamine is an endogenous nitrogenous compound with extensive effects on immunologic cells and involved in many physiological functions. The current aim was to determine histamine levels in embryonic liver and its association with the pathogenicity of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolate serially passaged in chicken embryos. A vvIBDV isolate and the passaged viruses were inoculated into SPF embryonated chicken eggs (0.2 ml per egg) via the chorioallantoic membrane. Embryonic livers were collected at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-inoculation and histamine contents were quantified by fluorescence spectrophotometry analyses. Results showed that the histamine content in embryonic livers infected with the original vvIBDV isolate and the early passaged viruses significantly increased 48 h post-inoculation, as compared with the adapted IBDV isolate (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.01), with the concentration peaking from 72 h to 96 h. Most of the infected chicken embryos died from 48 h to 96 h post-inoculation. Moreover, the histamine content in dead embryos was markedly increased compared with live embryos (p<0.05), peaking at 72 h post-inoculation (p<0.01). There was an association between histamine content in embryonic livers and an elevation in histidine decarboxylase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that an excess of histamine correlates with inflammatory responses during vvIBDV infection. This study provides an incremental step in the understanding of the pathogenesis of vvIBDV.

  18. Cyclophilin A Interacts with Viral VP4 and Inhibits the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nian; Zhang, Lizhou; Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein VP4, a serine protease of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to form the viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP3, is essential to the replication of IBDV. However, the interacting partners of VP4 in host cells and the effects of the interaction on the IBDV lifecycle remain incompletely elucidated. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, the putative VP4-interacting partner cyclophilin A (CypA) was obtained from a chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) expression library. CypA was further confirmed to interact with VP4 of IBDV using co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP), GST pull-down, and confocal microscopy assays. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of CypA suppressed IBDV replication, whereas the knock-down of CypA by small interfering RNAs promoted the replication of IBDV. Taken together, our findings indicate that the host cell protein CypA interacts with viral VP4 and inhibits the replication of IBDV. PMID:26090438

  19. Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus produces more-severe disease and lesions in specific pathogen free (SPF) Leghorn than in SPF broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performanc...

  20. Virus-like particles of hepatitis B virus core protein containing five mimotopes of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) protect chickens against IBDV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-shan; Ouyang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-juan; He, Kong-wang; Yu, Sheng-qing; Zhang, Hai-bin; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2012-03-09

    Current infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines suffer from maternal antibody interference and mimotope vaccines might be an alternative. Previously we demonstrated an IBDV VP2 five-mimotope polypeptide, 5EPIS, elicited protective immunity in chickens. In the current study, the 5epis gene was inserted into a plasmid carrying human hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) gene at its major immunodominant region site. The recombinant gene was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli to produce chimeric protein HBc-5EPIS which self-assembles to virus-like particles (VLP). Two-week old specific-pathogen-free chickens were immunized intramuscularly with HBc-5EPIS VLP or 5EPIS polypeptide without adjuvant (50 μg/injection) on day 0, 7, 14 and 21. Anti-5EPIS antibody was first detected on day 7 and day 21 in HBc-5EPIS and 5EPIS groups, respectively; on day 28, anti-5EPIS titers reached 12,800 or 1600 by ELISA, and 3200 or 800 by virus neutralization assay in HBc-5EPIS and 5EPIS groups, respectively. No anti-5EPIS antibody was detected in the buffer control group throughout the experiment. Challenge on day 28 with a virulent IBDV strain (GX8/99) resulted in 100%, 40.0% and 26.7% survival for chickens immunized with HBc-5EPIS, 5EPIS and buffer, respectively. These data suggest epitope presentation on chimeric VLP is a promising approach for improving mimotope vaccines for IBDV.

  1. Non-Lytic Egression of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) Particles from Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Fernando; Romero, Nicolás; Cubas, Liliana L; Delgui, Laura R; Rodríguez, Dolores; Rodríguez, José F

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is responsible for a devastating immunosuppressive disease affecting juvenile domestic chickens. IBDV particles are naked icosahedrons enclosing a bipartite double-stranded RNA genome harboring three open reading frames (ORF). One of these ORFs codes for VP5, a non-structural polypeptide dispensable for virus replication in tissue culture but essential for IBDV pathogenesis. Using two previously described recombinant viruses, whose genomes differ in a single nucleotide, expressing or not the VP5 polypeptide, we have analyzed the role of this polypeptide during the IBDV replication process. Here, we show that VP5 is not involved in house-keeping steps of the virus replication cycle; i.e. genome transcription/replication, protein translation and virus assembly. Although infection with the VP5 expressing and non-expressing viruses rendered similar intracellular infective progeny yields, striking differences were detected on the ability of their progenies to exiting infected cells. Experimental data shows that the bulk of the VP5-expressing virus progeny efficiently egresses infected cells during the early phase of the infection, when viral metabolism is peaking and virus-induced cell death rates are as yet minimal, as determined by qPCR, radioactive protein labeling and quantitative real-time cell death analyses. In contrast, the release of the VP5-deficient virus progeny is significantly abridged and associated to cell death. Taken together, data presented in this report show that IBDV uses a previously undescribed VP5-dependent non-lytic egress mechanism significantly enhancing the virus dissemination speed. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that newly assembled IBDV virions associate to a vesicular network apparently facilitating their trafficking from virus assembly factories to the extracellular milieu, and that this association requires the expression of the VP5 polypeptide.

  2. Both Genome Segments Contribute to the Pathogenicity of Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Escaffre, Olivier; Le Nouën, Cyril; Amelot, Michel; Ambroggio, Xavier; Ogden, Kristen M.; Guionie, Olivier; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann; Islam, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of chickens worldwide. Very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains have emerged and induce as much as 60% mortality. The molecular basis for vvIBDV pathogenicity is not understood, and the relative contributions of the two genome segments, A and B, to this phenomenon are not known. Isolate 94432 has been shown previously to be genetically related to vvIBDVs but exhibits atypical antigenicity and does not cause mortality. Here the full-length genome of 94432 was determined, and a reverse genetics system was established. The molecular clone was rescued and exhibited the same antigenicity and reduced pathogenicity as isolate 94432. Genetically modified viruses derived from 94432, whose vvIBDV consensus nucleotide sequence was restored in segment A and/or B, were produced, and their pathogenicity was assessed in specific-pathogen-free chickens. We found that a valine (position 321) that modifies the most exposed part of the capsid protein VP2 critically modified the antigenicity and partially reduced the pathogenicity of 94432. However, a threonine (position 276) located in the finger domain of the virus polymerase (VP1) contributed even more significantly to attenuation. This threonine is partially exposed in a hydrophobic groove on the VP1 surface, suggesting possible interactions between VP1 and another, as yet unidentified molecule at this amino acid position. The restored vvIBDV-like pathogenicity was associated with increased replication and lesions in the thymus and spleen. These results demonstrate that both genome segments influence vvIBDV pathogenicity and may provide new targets for the attenuation of vvIBDVs. PMID:23269788

  3. Non-Lytic Egression of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) Particles from Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Fernando; Romero, Nicolás; Cubas, Liliana L.; Delgui, Laura R.; Rodríguez, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is responsible for a devastating immunosuppressive disease affecting juvenile domestic chickens. IBDV particles are naked icosahedrons enclosing a bipartite double-stranded RNA genome harboring three open reading frames (ORF). One of these ORFs codes for VP5, a non-structural polypeptide dispensable for virus replication in tissue culture but essential for IBDV pathogenesis. Using two previously described recombinant viruses, whose genomes differ in a single nucleotide, expressing or not the VP5 polypeptide, we have analyzed the role of this polypeptide during the IBDV replication process. Here, we show that VP5 is not involved in house-keeping steps of the virus replication cycle; i.e. genome transcription/replication, protein translation and virus assembly. Although infection with the VP5 expressing and non-expressing viruses rendered similar intracellular infective progeny yields, striking differences were detected on the ability of their progenies to exiting infected cells. Experimental data shows that the bulk of the VP5-expressing virus progeny efficiently egresses infected cells during the early phase of the infection, when viral metabolism is peaking and virus-induced cell death rates are as yet minimal, as determined by qPCR, radioactive protein labeling and quantitative real-time cell death analyses. In contrast, the release of the VP5-deficient virus progeny is significantly abridged and associated to cell death. Taken together, data presented in this report show that IBDV uses a previously undescribed VP5-dependent non-lytic egress mechanism significantly enhancing the virus dissemination speed. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that newly assembled IBDV virions associate to a vesicular network apparently facilitating their trafficking from virus assembly factories to the extracellular milieu, and that this association requires the expression of the VP5 polypeptide. PMID

  4. Different architectures in the assembly of infectious bursal disease virus capsid proteins expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Castón, J R; Castro, M; Carrascosa, J L; Rodriguez, J F; Casal, J I

    2000-12-20

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsid is formed by the processing of a large polyprotein and subsequent assembly of VPX/VP2 and VP3. To learn more about the processing of the polyprotein and factors affecting the correct assembly of the viral capsid in vitro, different constructs were made using two baculovirus transfer vectors, pFastBac and pAcYM1. Surprisingly, the expression of the capsid proteins gave rise to different types of particles in each system, as observed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. FastBac expression led to the production of only rigid tubular structures, similar to those described as type I in viral infection. Western blot analysis revealed that these rigid tubules are formed exclusively by VPX. These tubules revealed a hexagonal arrangement of units that are trimer clustered, similar to those observed in IBDV virions. In contrast, pAcYM1 expression led to the assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs), flexible tubules, and intermediate assembly products formed by icosahedral caps elongated in tubes, suggesting an aberrant morphogenesis. Processing of VPX to VP2 seems to be a crucial requirement for the proper morphogenesis and assembly of IBDV particles. After immunoelectron microscopy, VPX/VP2 was detected on the surface of tubules and VLPs. We also demonstrated that VP3 is found only on the inner surfaces of VLPs and caps of the tubular structures. In summary, assembly of VLPs requires the internal scaffolding of VP3, which seems to induce the closing of the tubular architecture into VLPs and, thereafter, the subsequent processing of VPX to VP2. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwagbo, Ijeoma O.; Shittu, Ismaila; Nwosuh, Chika I.; Ezeifeka, George O.; Odibo, Frederick J. C.; Michel, Linda O.; Jackwood, Daral J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from outbreaks in nine states in Nigeria through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis of portions of the VP2 and VP1 genes and to determine the presence or absence of reassortant viruses. Materials and Methods: A total of 377 bursa samples were collected from 201 suspected IBD outbreaks during 2009 to 2014 from nine states in Nigeria. Samples were subjected to RT-PCR using VP2 and VP1 gene specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were sequenced. Results: A total of 143 samples were positive for IBDV by RT-PCR. These assays amplified a 743 bp fragment from nt 701 to 1444 in the IBDV VP2 hypervariable region (hvVP2) of segment A and a 722 bp fragment from nt 168 to 889 in the VP1 gene of segment B. RT-PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared with reference IBDV sequences obtained from GenBank. All but one hvVP2 sequence showed similarity to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) reference strains, yet only 3 of the VP1 67 VP1 sequences showed similarity to the VP1 gene of vvIBDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new lineage of Nigerian reassortant IBDV strains. Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of genome segment A and B of IBDV in Nigeria confirmed the existence of vvIBDV in Nigeria. In addition, we noted the existence of reassortant IBDV strains with novel triplet amino acid motifs at positions 145, 146 and 147 in the reassorted Nigerian IBDV. PMID:28096615

  6. Mast cell mediated inflammatory response in chickens after infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Decheng; Xiong, Jinmao; She, Ruiping; Liu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yanmei; Luo, Dongmei; Li, Wengui; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Quan

    2008-07-15

    The potential role of the mast cells in the invasion of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) is unknown. We evaluated mast cell activity and tryptase production after vvIBDV infection in special pathogen-free (SPF) chickens using cytochemistry and immunohistochemistry analyses. The results were as follows: (1) severe histologic lesions were observed in the thymus, spleen, cloacal bursa, liver, kidney and other tissues. vvIBDV viral antigens were detected and presented extensively in the parenchymatous organs, in particular, the cloacal bursa, liver, kidney, thymus, spleen and pancreas. (2) In the vvIBDV-infected group, the mast cell population increased markedly in the liver, kidney, thymus, glandular stomach, spleen and cloacal bursa on days 1, 2 and 3 after vvIBDV infection (p<0.05). However, very few mast cells were observed in those same tissues in the controls, especially in the bursa of Fabricius. (3) Tryptase, a marker for activated mast cells, has a positive correlation with mast cell distribution. The mast cells identified in the tissues were likely to be activated since they were associated with cell degranulation and the presence of tryptase. Furthermore, the co-localization of mast cells, and presence of vvIBDV antigens suggests that the mast cells were activated by vvIBDV infection. Our results also suggest that tryptase may contribute to the inflammation of acute IBD induced by vvIBDV infection. Our research contributes to the further understanding of inflammatory response mechanisms and the contribution of mast cell activity to this process.

  7. Infectious bursal disease virus capsid assembly and maturation by structural rearrangements of a transient molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Luque, Daniel; Saugar, Irene; Rodríguez, José F; Verdaguer, Nuria; Garriga, Damiá; Martín, Carmen San; Velázquez-Muriel, Javier A; Trus, Benes L; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R

    2007-07-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family, is an economically important avian pathogen. The IBDV capsid is based on a single-shelled T=13 lattice, and the only structural subunits are VP2 trimers. During capsid assembly, VP2 is synthesized as a protein precursor, called pVP2, whose 71-residue C-terminal end is proteolytically processed. The conformational flexibility of pVP2 is due to an amphipathic alpha-helix located at its C-terminal end. VP3, the other IBDV major structural protein that accomplishes numerous roles during the viral cycle, acts as a scaffolding protein required for assembly control. Here we address the molecular mechanism that defines the multimeric state of the capsid protein as hexamers or pentamers. We used a combination of three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy maps at or close to subnanometer resolution with atomic models. Our studies suggest that the key polypeptide element, the C-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix, which acts as a transient conformational switch, is bound to the flexible VP2 C-terminal end. In addition, capsid protein oligomerization is also controlled by the progressive trimming of its C-terminal domain. The coordination of these molecular events correlates viral capsid assembly with different conformations of the amphipathic alpha-helix in the precursor capsid, as a five-alpha-helix bundle at the pentamers or an open star-like conformation at the hexamers. These results, reminiscent of the assembly pathway of positive single-stranded RNA viruses, such as nodavirus and tetravirus, add new insights into the evolutionary relationships of dsRNA viruses.

  8. Different Domains of the RNA Polymerase of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Contribute to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Le Nouën, Cyril; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann; Raue, Rüdiger; Kean, Katherine M.; Langlois, Patrick; Cherbonnel, Martine; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a pathogen of worldwide significance to the poultry industry. IBDV has a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Segments A and B encode the capsid, ribonucleoprotein and non-structural proteins, or the virus polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Since the late eighties, very virulent (vv) IBDV strains have emerged in Europe inducing up to 60% mortality. Although some progress has been made in understanding the molecular biology of IBDV, the molecular basis for the pathogenicity of vvIBDV is still not fully understood. Methodology, Principal Findings Strain 88180 belongs to a lineage of pathogenic IBDV phylogenetically related to vvIBDV. By reverse genetics, we rescued a molecular clone (mc88180), as pathogenic as its parent strain. To study the molecular basis for 88180 pathogenicity, we constructed and characterized in vivo reassortant or mosaic recombinant viruses derived from the 88180 and the attenuated Cu-1 IBDV strains. The reassortant virus rescued from segments A of 88180 (A88) and B of Cu-1 (BCU1) was milder than mc88180 showing that segment B is involved in 88180 pathogenicity. Next, the exchange of different regions of BCU1 with their counterparts in B88 in association with A88 did not fully restore a virulence equivalent to mc88180. This demonstrated that several regions if not the whole B88 are essential for the in vivo pathogenicity of 88180. Conclusion, Significance The present results show that different domains of the RdRp, are essential for the in vivo pathogenicity of IBDV, independently of the replication efficiency of the mosaic viruses. PMID:22253687

  9. Oral immunization with transgenic rice seeds expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianxiang; Yu, Lian; Li, Long; Hu, Jinqiang; Zhou, Jiyong; Zhou, Xueping

    2007-09-01

    The expression of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) host-protective immunogen VP2 protein in rice seeds, its immunogenicity and protective capability in chickens were investigated. The VP2 cDNA of IBDV strain ZJ2000 was cloned downstream of the Gt1 promoter of the rice glutelin GluA-2 gene in the binary expression vector, pCambia1301-Gt1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the recombinant vector was used to transform rice embryogenic calli, and 121 transgenic lines were obtained and grown to maturity in a greenhouse. The expression level of VP2 protein in transgenic rice seeds varied from 0.678% to 4.521% microg/mg of the total soluble seed protein. Specific pathogen-free chickens orally vaccinated with transgenic rice seeds expressing VP2 protein produced neutralizing antibodies against IBDV and were protected when challenged with a highly virulent IBDV strain, BC6/85. These results demonstrate that transgenic rice seeds expressing IBDV VP2 can be used as an effective, safe and inexpensive vaccine against IBDV.

  10. Susceptibility of chicken Kupffer cells to Chinese virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiyan; Zhao, Sufen; Ma, Yunfei; Guo, Xin; Han, Deping; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Teng, Kedao

    2013-06-28

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Although the effects of IBDV on bursa of Fabricius in chickens have been well reported, the impacts of IBDV on liver after IBDV infection are still unclear. In the present study, specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were experimentally inoculated with IBDV Chinese virulent strain BC6/85, and the cells in liver and bursa were examined by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The congestion of liver tissue and fatty degeneration of hepatocytes were characteristics of microscopical changes in chicken liver at 3 days post infection (d.p.i.), whereas there were follicular lymphoid necrosis, apoptosis, depletion, as well as edema and congestion in bursa. In addition, the number of IBDV-positive cells peaked at 4 d.p.i. in bursa and at 3 d.p.i. in liver, respectively. With respect to ultrastructural pathological changes of hepatocytes, mitochondria swelled and nucleus deformed into an irregular shape or its chromatin peripherally condensed which indicated that the hepatocyte was at the early stage of apoptosis, and the electron-lucent lipid droplets in a variety of sizes were observed within cytoplasm. Kupffer cells became "swollen-like" and the electron-density of their cytoplasm was lower than that of cells in uninfected group. Liver glycogen deposits significantly declined from 2 to 5 d.p.i. and recovered strongly at 6 d.p.i. More importantly, KLU01 (macrophage marker) positive (KUL01(+)) cells were infiltrated in bursa and liver in IBDV-exposed chickens by immunoperoxidase staining. To demonstrate the correlation between IBDV and macrophages in bursa and liver, we further investigated the colocalization of viral antigens and macrophages by double immunofluorescence labeling. At 4 d.p.i., the percentage of double positive cells (IBDV positive and KUL01(+) cells) accounted for 26.5 percent of the total IBDV positive

  11. Molecular epidemiologic evidence of homologous recombination in infectious bursal disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2012-09-01

    Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) surface protein VP2 have been used to identify strains of the virus and place them into phylogenetic groups. The amino acids across the hypervariable sequence region of VP2 (hvVP2) vary, but typically variant viruses have amino acids 222T, 249K, 286I, and 318D and classic viruses have 222P, 249Q, 286T, and 318G. A molecular epidemiologic study was conducted from 2001 to 2011 in commercial chickens (Gallus gallus) from Mexico, Colombia, and Venezuela. Although many IBDVs were identified, most had the typical variant or classic amino acid sequences across the hvVP2 region. Four viruses identified in 2004, one in 2006, and 10 in 2011 from Mexico had the amino acids 222T, 249Q, 286T, and 318D. Six samples from Venezuela in 2001, one sample from Colombia in 2001, two samples from Venezuela in 2004, and one sample from Venezuela in 2005 had the amino acids 222P, 249K, 286I, and 318G. These combinations of classic and variant amino acid sequence markers had not been identified previously in any IBDV strains. The VP2 amino acid sequences in the P(BC) and P(HI) loop structures of the Venezuela and Colombia viruses were similar to most classic viruses, whereas their minor P(DE) and P(FG) loop sequences were typical of Delaware variant strains. The Mexico viruses had VP2 P(BC) loop sequences that were typical of variant IBDV strains, but their minor PDE and PFG loop structures contained amino acids that were similar but not identical to classic strains. The P(HI) loop sequences of the Mexico viruses had 318D that is typical of a Delaware variant virus, but the other amino acids in this loop structure distinguished them from all other IBDV strains. The data suggest that one or more recombination events may have occurred to create this type of sequence diversity. Because of importation regulations, immunologic studies could not be conducted in the United States to determine the

  12. Infection with some infectious bursal disease virus pathotypes produces virus in chicken muscle tissue and the role of humoral immunity as a mitigation strategy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes important economic losses to the chicken industries worldwide and impacts chicken meat trade in countries with self-declared freedom. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and titers of IBDV in primary lymphoid tissues and meat of infecte...

  13. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus.

  14. Infection with Some Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Pathotypes Produces Virus in Chicken Muscle Tissue and the Role of Humoral Immunity as a Mitigation Strategy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariana Sá E; Bertran, Kateri; Moresco, Kira; Jackwood, Daral J; Swayne, David E

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes important economic losses and negatively affects global trade in poultry and poultry products. This study determined the presence of IBDV in primary lymphoid tissues and muscle tissue of infected broilers and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In the first study, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler chickens were challenged with STC (classical [cIBDV]), Indiana (variant [varIBDV]), rA (very virulent [vvIBDV]), or Ohio (serotype 2, avirulent) IBDV. Infection was confirmed in all groups, but only the cIBDV group experienced morbidity or mortality. Virus was only isolated in low titers from a few breast and/or thigh muscle tissue samples from cIBDV and vvIBDV-infected chickens. For the second study, SPF broilers from three different treatment groups were challenged with IBDV viruses that currently circulate in the United States, varIBDV or vvIBDV: 1) maternal antibody-positive (MAb+), vaccinated with recombinant HVT-IBDV vaccine (Vaxxitek(®), Merial; MAb+/Vax); 2) MAb+, not-vaccinated (MAb+/Unvax); and 3) maternal antibody-negative, not-vaccinated chickens (MAb-/Unvax). MAb+/Vax and MAb+/Unvax chickens had significantly lower virus titers in primary lymphoid tissues compared to MAb-/Unvax chickens. No virus was detected in muscle tissues from any of the groups challenged with varIBDV, confirming the results of the first experiment. Only 1 of 36 (MAb+/Vax) and 2 of 36 (MAb+/Unvax) muscle samples were positive at minimal amounts (10(1.97) EID50/ml) in vvIBDV challenge, compared to the 9 of 36 muscle samples that were positive in the MAb-/Unvax group. This study indicates that only cIBDV and vvIBDV strains can be found in muscle at low titers of SPF meat chickens and that the breeder vaccination with MAb transfer to progeny with or without accompanying progeny vaccination, as practiced in the United States, was an effective mitigation strategy for vvIBDV-challenged birds.

  15. Development of an RT-qPCR assay for the specific detection of a distinct genetic lineage of the infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofia; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world's poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and validation of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the specific detection of dIBDVs in the global poultry industry. The assay employs a TaqMan-MGB probe that hybridizes with a unique molecular signature of dIBDV. The assay successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to the dIBDV genetic lineage, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with non-dIBDVs, IBDV-negative samples and other common avian viruses. Using serial dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable PCR efficiencies and determination coefficients, and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 10(3) and 10(8) RNA copies/reaction. This rapid, specific and quantitative assay is expected to improve IBDV surveillance and control worldwide and to increase our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this economically detrimental poultry pathogen.

  16. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liew, P K; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Israf, D A

    2003-12-01

    The effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, antibody production, resistance to infectious bursal disease (IBD), and growth of heat-stressed male broiler chickens were investigated. Chicks were divided into 4 groups: 60% feed restriction on d 4,5, and 6 (FR); exposure to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 1 h from d 1 to 21 (HT); combination of FR and HT (FRHT); and control. From d 35 to 50, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38 +/- 1 degrees C and 80% RH for 2 h/d. On d 36, each bird was administered 10 times the normal dose of live IBD vaccine. After heat exposure, the FRHT birds had higher HSP 70 density (d 41) and weight gain (from d 35 to 49) and lower bursal histological score (BHS) (d 51) than their HT and control counterparts. The HSP 70 expression and BHS of FR birds were not significantly different from those of the other 3 groups during the heat exposure period. Heat shock protein 70 and BHS data were negatively correlated (r = -0.33, P = 0.0008). We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response.

  17. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region

    PubMed Central

    Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L.; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T.; Majó, Natàlia; Ganges, Llilianne; Pérez, Lester J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2) gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST), Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS) and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD) software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium) in 1987, Africa (Egypt) around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan) in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba) by 1995 and South America (Brazil) around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide. PMID:23805195

  18. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  19. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  20. Inactivation of infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease viruses at temperatures below 0 C using chemical disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; Chan, M; Brooks, B W; Rohonczy, L

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of bleach, Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at temperatures below 0 C. To simulate the influence of organic load on the effectiveness of disinfectants, as would be encountered in disinfecting farm vehicles and equipment, the viruses were suspended in preparations containing light or heavy levels of organic matter. A small volume of the viral suspension was applied to the upper surface of stainless steel carrier disks and these were then air dried. The dried virus inoculum was covered with disinfectant to which propylene glycol had been added to prevent freezing. The disks were incubated at various temperatures for periods up to 24 hr. With NDV, at -10 C all three disinfectants in both organic preparations achieved a 5 log 10 reduction within 5 min. Results with SDF were similar at -25 and -10 C. To achieve comparable reduction with Virkon and bleach at -25 C, contact periods up to 2 or 24 hr, respectively, were required. With IBDV, to achieve a 5 log 10 to reduction by treatment with Virkon or SDF at -20 C, contact periods of 2 or 24 hr, respectively, were required in both organic preparations. It was concluded that at temperatures as low as -20 to -25 C, SDF was the most effective disinfectant for killing NDV and Virkon was most effective for killing IBDV. The finding that a contact period of up to 2 hr was required to kill IBDV, whereas NDV was killed within 5 min, attests to the greater stability of the former virus.

  1. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents.

  2. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  3. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Influence of the structural development of bursa on the susceptibility of chickens to infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sufen; Jia, Yuanyuan; Han, Deping; Ma, Haiyan; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Ma, Yunfei; Teng, Kedao

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by IBD virus (IBDV), is an acute, highly contagious immunosuppressive avian disease. Although age-dependent changes in susceptibility of chickens to IBDV have been established, the relationship between age-dependent structural changes in bursa of Fabricius and susceptibility of chickens to IBDV is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the bursa anatomical structure and pathological changes in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens 0 to 8 weeks post hatch (w.p.h.) and IBDV BC6/85-infected SPF chickens 2 to 6 w.p.h. respectively, by histology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Almost all IBDV-exposed chickens (2 to 6 w.p.h.) were infected, with the severest bursal inflammation and complication in chickens at 3 w.p.h. Furthermore, the bursae of healthy chickens at 3 to 6 w.p.h. had decreased laminin immunoreactivities, lots of splits, and irregular shapes in basement membrane (BM) of cortico-medullary epithelium (CME), irregularly arranged CME, and large numbers of immunoglobulin M-bearing (IgM+) B lymphocytes in the medulla. The decreased barrier function of corticomedullary border and large amount of IgM+ B lymphocytes provide a chance for IBDV to easily contact and infect target cells at 3 to 6 w.p.h. By contrast, regular BM, neatly arranged CME, and few IgM+ B lymphocytes in healthy chickens younger than 2 w.p.h., as well as reduced IgM+ B lymphocytes and high immunoglobulin A (IgA) content in healthy chickens older than 8 w.p.h., were observed, suggesting that the integrity of corticomedullary border barrier, a small amount of target cells and high IgA content of the bursa could be the reasons for these chickens being less susceptible to IBDV. Although studies have shown how IBDV affects bursa, we focus first on the age-dependent changes of CME, BM of CME and IgA content, and our findings are the first to elucidate the structural development of bursa

  5. Neglected tropical disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Brown, Ami Shah

    2009-06-01

    The neglected tropical diseases or 'NTDs' represent the most common infections of the world's one billion poorest people. Unlike the better known acute or emerging infections, the NTDs are generally chronic and disabling (and often disfiguring) conditions. The long-term disability they cause has been revealed as a major reason why poor people in developing countries cannot escape the poverty trap. Because NTDs are associated with poverty, vaccines against these conditions are sometimes referred to as antipoverty vaccines. However, despite their global public health and economic importance, such vaccines have largely been ignored by industry and today are predominantly being produced through the activities of non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs). The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute is one such PDP developing two antipoverty vaccines for hookworm and schistosomiasis, respectively. It has been proposed to combine these vaccines in order to target polyparasitic co-infections leading to severe anemia. Ultimately, to ensure global access of a multivalent anthelminthic vaccine, it may be linked to deworming programs through vaccine-linked chemotherapy. This would be an important step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals for sustainable poverty reduction by 2015.

  6. Antigenic Properties and Diagnostic Potential of Baculovirus-Expressed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Proteins VPX and VP3

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Lázaro, Beatriz; Rodriguez, José F.; Casal, J. Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both proteins was similar to that of the native virus. VPX was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies but VP3 was not. Purified VPX and VP3 were tested in an indirect ELISA with more than 300 chicken sera. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the ELISA using VPX and those of the two commercial kits. VP3 did not perform as well as VPX, and the linear correlation was significantly lower. A comparison with the standard reference technique, seroneutralization, showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive. Therefore, VPX-based ELISA is a good alternative to conventional ELISAs that use whole virions. PMID:10882666

  7. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus proteins VPX and VP3.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Lázaro, B; Rodriguez, J F; Casal, J I

    2000-07-01

    The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both proteins was similar to that of the native virus. VPX was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies but VP3 was not. Purified VPX and VP3 were tested in an indirect ELISA with more than 300 chicken sera. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the ELISA using VPX and those of the two commercial kits. VP3 did not perform as well as VPX, and the linear correlation was significantly lower. A comparison with the standard reference technique, seroneutralization, showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive. Therefore, VPX-based ELISA is a good alternative to conventional ELISAs that use whole virions.

  8. One-step reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Lai, Guan-Hua; Lai, Su-Yaun; Chen, Hsi-Jien; Wang, Min-Ying

    2011-04-01

    A fast, sensitive, and specific reverse-transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed that involved a single tube and a 1-step reaction for detecting infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Four specific primers were used for amplification of the VP2 gene of IBDV. The amplified LAMP products were detected by DNA electrophoresis and by direct observation with the naked eye in the presence of SYBR Green I. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was determined to be 0.01 fg of IBDV viral RNA. This assay for IBDV is more sensitive than the conventional RT-polymerase chain reaction assay, which has a detection limit of 1 ng. The LAMP assay was also assessed for specificity and was found to precisely discriminate between positive and negative test samples. This newly established LAMP assay, combined with RT, is a practical diagnostic tool because IBDV-infected and uninfected clinical samples collected from an experimental farm could be discriminated. Full verification of a sample's IBDV status was obtained within 40 min of extraction of the viral RNA, which could then be directly added to the RT-LAMP reaction mixture.

  9. Ribosomal protein L4 interacts with viral protein VP3 and regulates the replication of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Gao, Li; Wang, Nian; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Kai; Gao, Yulong; Cui, Hongyu; Gao, Honglei; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-04

    VP3 protein is a structural protein which plays important roles in the virus assembly and the inhibition of antiviral innate immunity of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). To explore the potential roles of VP3 in the interplay of IBDV with the host cell, an immunoprecipitation (IP)-coupled mass spectra (MS) screening was performed and the host cellular ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) was identified as a putative interacting partner of VP3 protein. The interaction of RPL4 with VP3 was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and their colocalization in DF1 cells were observed by confocal microscopy. In addition, knockdown of RPL4 in DF1 cells resulted in reductions of the viral protein pVP2 expression and the virus titers, which reveals a significant role of RPL4 in IBDV replication. Taken together, we indicated for the first time that ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) was an interacting partner of VP3 and involved in the modulation of IBDV replication. The present study contributes to further understanding the pathogenic mechanism of IBDV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  11. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Influences the Transcription of Chicken γc and γc Family Cytokines during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lu; Sun, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Yongping; Zhou, Jiyong

    2014-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection causes immunodeficiency in chickens. To understand cell-mediated immunity during IBDV infection, this study perform a detailed analysis of chicken γc chain (chCD132) and γc family cytokines, including interleukins 2, 4, 7, 9, and 15. The mouse anti-chCD132 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was first generated by the E.coli-expressed γc protein. Immunofluorescence assay further showed that γc was a protein located with the anti-chCD132 mAb on the surface of chicken's splenic mononuclear cells. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the chCD132 mRNA transcript was persistently downregulated in embryo fibroblasts, spleen and thymus of chickens infected with IBDV. Correspondingly during IBDV infection, the transcription of five γc family cytokines was downregulated in the thymus and presented an imbalance in the spleen. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses also indicated that the percentage of CD132+CD8+ T cells linearly decreased in the bursa of IBDV-infected chickens. These results confirmed that IBDV infection disturbed the in vivo balance of CD132 and γc family cytokine expression and that IBDV-induced immunodeficiency involved cellular networks related to the γc family. PMID:24416239

  12. Direct detection of infectious bursal disease virus from clinical samples by in situ reverse transcriptase-linked polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Tereza C; Rosa, Ana C G; Astolphi, Rafael D; Vincente, Rafael M; Novais, Juliana B; Hirata, Karina Y; Luvizotto, Maria Cecilia R

    2008-08-01

    The presence of the very virulent (vv) Brazilian strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus and liver of 2-week-old broilers from a flock with a higher than expected mortality. For this purpose, a direct in situ reverse transcriptase (RT)-linked polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed using specific primers for vvIBDV. Unlabelled forward and reverse biotinylated oligonucleotides were used for RT-PCR in a one-step method and the respective products were revealed by a direct enzymatic reaction. The results were compared with those obtained by standard RT-PCR using general primers for IBDV and virus isolation. The virus isolation, RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR revealed positive results on the bursa of Fabricius in 86%, 80% and 100%, respectively. The in situ RT-PCR detected vvIBDV in all tested thymus and liver samples, whereas the standard RT-PCR detected virus in 80% and 90% of the samples, respectively. After three consecutive passages on chicken embryonated eggs, IBDV was isolated from 64% of the thymus samples and 30% of the liver samples. In the present study, no classical or antigenic variants of IBDV were detected. The developed in situ RT-PCR assay was able to detect the very virulent strain of IBDV with a higher sensitivity than the conventional RT-PCR and virus isolation.

  13. The Endosomal Pathway and the Golgi Complex Are Involved in the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Delgui, Laura R.; Rodríguez, José F.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family, causes immunosuppression in chickens. In this study, we defined the localization of IBDV replication complexes based on colocalization analysis of VP3, the major protein component of IBDV ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Our results indicate that VP3 localizes to vesicular structures bearing features of early and late endocytic compartments located in the juxtanuclear region. Interfering with the endocytic pathway with a dominant negative version of Rab5 after the internalization step leads to a reduction in virus titer. Triple-immunostaining studies between VP3, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1, and viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) showed a well-defined colocalization, indicating that the three critical components of the RNPs colocalize in the same structure, likely representing replication complexes. Interestingly, recombinant expressed VP3 also localizes to endosomes. Employing Golgi markers, we found that VP3-containing vesicles were closely associated with this organelle. Depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole caused a profound change in VP3 localization, showing a punctate distribution scattered throughout the cytoplasm. However, these VP3-positive structures remained associated with Golgi ministacks. Similarly, brefeldin A (BFA) treatment led to a punctate distribution of VP3, scattered throughout the cytoplasm of infected cells. In addition, analysis of intra- and extracellular viral infective particles after BFA treatment of avian cells suggested a role for the Golgi complex in viral assembly. These results constitute the first study elucidating the localization of IBDV replication complexes (i.e., in endocytic compartments) and establishing a role for the Golgi apparatus in the assembly step of a birnavirus. PMID:23741000

  14. Mapping of cross-reacting and serotype-specific epitopes on the VP3 structural protein of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

    PubMed

    Mahardika, G N; Becht, H

    1995-01-01

    The binding sites of a panel of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with the structural protein VP3 of the two serotypes of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) could be mapped to four segments of the VP3 gene. Two of these antigenic domains also carry epitopes which are specific for one serotype only. Formation of the common or type-specific epitopes is in agreement with homologous or mismatching amino acid sequences yielding hydrophilic segments on the VP3 polypeptide. These antigenic patterns obtained by immunoblotting could be verified by a competitive ELISA.

  15. Chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus interfere with transcription of chicken IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ragland, William L; Novak, Renata; El-Attrache, John; Savić, Vladimir; Ester, Katja

    2002-04-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) are the two most important viruses that cause immunosuppression in commercial chickens. Because inapparent, subclinical infections by these viruses cause immunosuppression, there is need for assessment of the immune status of chickens. Interference with induction of transcription for chicken interferon-alpha (ChIFN-alpha) and ChIFN-gamma was noted after subclinical infections with either CAV or IBDV. Because the immunosuppressive viruses of chickens may interfere with transcription for ChIFN-alpha and ChIFN-gamma, we propose using this interference to assess the immune status of chickens.

  16. Improving newcastle disease vaccination with homologous vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) belong to a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display important amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with virulent outbreak strains (vNDV). Previous studies have shown decreased viral shedding after challenge when vaccines were...

  17. Flock prevalence of exposure to avian adeno-associated virus, chicken anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, and infectious bursal disease virus among Ontario broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Eregae, Michael E; Dewey, Cate E; McEwen, Scott A; Ouckama, Rachel; Ojkić, Davor; Guerin, Michele T

    2014-03-01

    Samples from 231 randomly selected commercial broiler chicken flocks in Ontario were tested at slaughter for exposure to chicken anemia virus (CAV), fowl adenovirus (FAdV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Fifteen blood samples per flock were collected and analyzed for the presence of antibodies against CAV, FAdV, and IBDV by ELISA or agar gel immunodiffusion test. Fifteen cecal tonsils and cloacal swabs per flock were analyzed for the presence of CAV, FAdV, and IBDV by PCR. The prevalence of exposure to avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) was estimated by a PCR test on a subset of FAdV-PCR-positive samples from 178 flocks. Genotypes of FAdV and IBDV were identified on a subset of isolates (n = 353 and 45, respectively). The flock-level period prevalence of exposure to AAAV, CAV, FAdV, and IBDV during grow-out were 88.76% (95% CI: 84.08-93.45%), 77.06% (95% CI: 71.59-82.52%), 96.54% (95% CI: 94.16-98.91%), and 48.92% (95% CI: 42.42-55.41%), respectively. Results of a multivariable logistic regression model showed a significant association of exposure to FAdV with exposure to AAAV (OR = 18.57, 95% CI: 3.67-93.86, P = 0.004) but not with exposure to CAV (P = 0.7752) or exposure to IBDV (P = 0.2274). Pathogenic FAdV genotypes (FAdV-02, FAdV-08, and FAdV-11) constituted 39.38% of the isolates. The most-common IBDV genotypes identified were IBDV NC171 (60%) and IBDV 05SA8 (28.89%). This is the first large-scale study to estimate the baseline flock prevalence of exposure to AAAV, CAV, FAdV, and IBDV in commercial broiler flocks in Canada. Potentially pathogenic genotypes of FAdV and IBDV that can guide vaccine development and disease control efforts in Ontario were identified.

  18. DNA vaccines: roles against diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kishwar Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the most successful application of immunological principles to human health. Vaccine efficacy needs to be reviewed from time to time and its safety is an overriding consideration. DNA vaccines offer simple yet effective means of inducing broad-based immunity. These vaccines work by allowing the expression of the microbial antigen inside host cells that take up the plasmid. These vaccines function by generating the desired antigen inside the cells, with the advantage that this may facilitate presentation through the major histocompatibility complex. This review article is based on a literature survey and it describes the working and designing strategies of DNA vaccines. Advantages and disadvantages for this type of vaccines have also been explained, together with applications of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines against cancer, tuberculosis, Edwardsiella tarda, HIV, anthrax, influenza, malaria, dengue, typhoid and other diseases were explored. PMID:24432284

  19. Biological and Phylogenetic Characterization of a Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of Field Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Perozo, Francisco; Marcano, Rosmar

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the biological and molecular characterization of a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) circulating in Venezuela and the assessment of the vaccination efficacy under field conditions compared to controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping showed a mean embryo dead time of 50 h and an intracerebral pathogenicity index of 1.86. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus belongs to genotype VII in class II (a genotype often found in Asia and Africa), representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in the continent of South America. A vaccine-challenge trial in commercial broilers reared in fields or in a experimental setting included dual (live/killed) priming of 1-day-old chicks plus two live NDV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field vaccinations at days 7 and 17, followed by a very stringent genotype VII NDV challenge at day 28. Serology for NDV and IBDV, bursal integrity, and protection against NDV lethal challenge were assessed. At 28 days, field vaccinates showed significantly lower NDV (1,356 versus 2,384) and higher IBD (7,295 versus 1,489) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers than the experimentally reared birds. A lower bursal size and bursa-body weight ratio (P < 0.05) and higher bursa lesion score were also detected in the field set. Only 57.1% of field vaccinates survived the lethal challenge, differing (P < 0.05) from 90.5% survival in the experimental farm. Overall, results confirmed the presence of the genotype VII viruses in South America and suggest that field-associated factors such as immunosuppression compromise the efficacy of the vaccination protocols implemented. PMID:22238433

  20. Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Produces More-Severe Disease and Lesions in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF) Leghorns Than in SPF Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Sá e Silva, Mariana; Rissi, Daniel R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performance. Previous vvIBDV studies using conventional broilers reported resistance to lethal effects and decreased performance as compared to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layers, but the potential contribution of the conventional vs. SPF status to resistance has not been examined. In this study we compared differences in the acute pathologic effects of infection by the California rA strain of vvIBDV for SPF white leghorn egg-laying chickens and SPF white Plymouth Rock broiler chickens over a 7-day experimental period. Based on the clinical signs and mortality observed, as well as on the more-severe pathologic changes in lymphoid tissues and kidneys, white leghorns were shown to be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of vvIBDV infection than were white Plymouth Rocks. This study provides important information on the impact of chicken breed on susceptibility to vvIBDV and the absence of impact from conventional vs. SPF status on the outcome.

  1. The Oligomerization Domain of VP3, the Scaffolding Protein of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus, Plays a Critical Role in Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Maraver, Antonio; Oña, Ana; Abaitua, Fernando; González, Dolores; Clemente, Roberto; Ruiz-Díaz, Jose A.; Castón, Jose R.; Pazos, Florencio; Rodriguez, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsids are formed by a single protein layer containing three polypeptides, pVP2, VP2, and VP3. Here, we show that the VP3 protein synthesized in insect cells, either after expression of the complete polyprotein or from a VP3 gene construct, is proteolytically degraded, leading to the accumulation of product lacking the 13 C-terminal residues. This finding led to identification of the VP3 oligomerization domain within a 24-amino-acid stretch near the C-terminal end of the polypeptide, partially overlapping the VP1 binding domain. Inactivation of the VP3 oligomerization domain, by either proteolysis or deletion of the polyprotein gene, abolishes viruslike particle formation. Formation of VP3-VP1 complexes in cells infected with a dual recombinant baculovirus simultaneously expressing the polyprotein and VP1 prevented VP3 proteolysis and led to efficient virus-like particle formation in insect cells. PMID:12743301

  2. Formation of virus-like particles when the polyprotein gene (segment A) of infectious bursal disease virus is expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kibenge, F S; Qian, B; Nagy, E; Cleghorn, J R; Wadowska, D

    1999-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system was used to examine the expression of the full-length infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) segment A cDNA, which encodes the structural proteins in a polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically cleaved to VPX, VP3, and VP4. No VP2 was observed in lysates of recombinant baculovirus infected cells indicating the lack of processing of VPX to VP2 in this system. Virus-like particles (VLP) were purified from the infected insect cells, and on negative staining electron microscopy, looked very similar to authentic IBDV particles in shape and size, suggesting that processing of VPX to VP2 is not necessary for capsid assembly. Images Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:9918334

  3. Historical, spatial, temporal, and time-space epidemiology of very virulent infectious bursal disease in California: a retrospective study 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Pitesky, Maurice; Cataline, Kristina; Crossley, Beate; Poulos, Michael; Ramos, Greg; Willoughby, Dave; Woolcock, Peter; Cutler, Gregg; Bland, Mark; Tran, Johnny; Jackwood, Daral; Allen, Larry; Breitmeyer, Rich; Jones, Annette; Forsythe, Kenneth; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Charlton, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    In December of 2008 very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was identified in a commercial flock in northern California. Since then several other backyard and commercial facilities in California have had flocks affected by the same strain and other unique (previously unseen) strains of IBDV. Previous to this incident, very virulent infectious bursal disease (vvIBD) had never been identified in North America. Following the initial outbreak in 2008, California became the first state to undertake a voluntary surveillance effort to try to determine the geographical prevalence of vvIBD based on sequencing of a portion of the segment A region of the vvIBDV genome. To date we have complete geographical information on approximately 500 separate accessions representing approximately 1500 birds from over 200 commercial (-85% of the facilities) and backyard facilities (-15% of the facilities) throughout the state. Sequencing of targeted regions of both the segment A and segment B regions of the genome has revealed three distinct types of IBDV in California chickens. One type is genetically and in pathogenically consistent with vvIBDV. The second and third types only have a segment A region consistent with vvIBDV. Geographic information system mapping coupled with spatial-temporal cluster analysis identified significant spatial and time-space clustering; however, no temporal clustering was noted. The lack of temporal clustering coupled with negative vvIBDV results in tested avian wildlife implies that avian wildlife in California do not currently appear to play a significant role in vvIBDV transmission. In the voluntary surveillance that was done in the Central Valley of California, which has a high density of commercial poultry, no positive farms were found when 142 of 504 farms were sampled. Given this level of sampling, the confidence (probability) of detecting an affected commercial flock was calculated to be between 28% and 81% depending on whether one or

  4. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  5. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  6. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m(2) in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m(2) in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains.

  7. Combination vaccines against diarrheal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Malabi M; Van de Verg, Lillian L

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Several recent epidemiological studies highlight the rate of diarrheal diseases in different parts of the world and draw attention to the impact on childhood growth and survival. Despite the well-documented global burden of diarrheal diseases, currently there are no combination diarrheal vaccines, only licensed vaccines for rotavirus and cholera, and Salmonella typhi-based vaccines for typhoid fever. The recognition of the impact of diarrheal episodes on infant growth, as seen in resource-poor countries, has spurred action from governmental and non-governmental agencies to accelerate research toward affordable and effective vaccines against diarrheal diseases. Both travelers and children in endemic countries will benefit from a combination diarrheal vaccine, but it can be argued that the greater proportion of any positive impact will be on the public health status of the latter. The history of combination pediatric vaccines indicate that monovalent or single disease vaccines are typically licensed first prior to formulation in a combination vaccine, and that the combinations themselves undergo periodic revision in response to need for improvement in safety or potential for wider coverage of important pediatric pathogens. Nevertheless combination pediatric vaccines have proven to be an effective tool in limiting or eradicating communicable childhood diseases worldwide. The landscape of diarrheal vaccine candidates indicates that there now several in active development that offer options for potential testing of combinations to combat those bacterial and viral pathogens responsible for the heaviest disease burden—rotavirus, ETEC, Shigella, Campylobacter, V. cholera and Salmonella. PMID:25891647

  8. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  9. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  10. Efficacy of HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to attenuated live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against a Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Roh, J-H; Kang, M; Wei, B; Yoon, R-H; Seo, H-S; Bahng, J-Y; Kwon, J-T; Cha, S-Y; Jang, H-K

    2016-05-01

    The production performance, efficacy, and safety of two types of vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were compared with in-ovo vaccination of Cobb 500 broiler chickens for gross and microscopic examination of the bursa of Fabricius, bursa/body weight (b/B) ratio, flow cytometry, and serologic response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination. One vaccine was a recombinant HVT-IBD vector vaccine (HVT as for herpesvirus of turkeys) and the other was an intermediate plus live IBDV vaccine. A significant difference was detected at 21 d. Eight of 10 chickens that received the IBDV live vaccine had severe bursal lesions and a relatively low b/B ratio of 0.95, and an inhibited NDV vaccine response. On the other hand, the HVT-IBD vector vaccine resulted in mild bursal lesions and a b/B ratio of 1.89. Therefore, the live vaccine had lower safety than that of the HVT-IBD vector vaccine. To determine the protective efficacy, chickens were intraocularly challenged at 24 d. Eight of 10 chickens in the IBDV live vaccination group showed gross and histological lesions characterized by hemorrhage, cyst formation, lymphocytic depletion, and a decreased b/B ratio. In contrast, the HVT-IBD vector vaccinated chickens showed mild gross and histological lesions in three of 10 chickens with a b/B ratio of 1.36, which was similar to that of the unchallenged controls. Vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in IBDV antibody titers, regardless of the type of vaccine used. In addition, significantly better broiler flock performance was observed with the HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to that of the live vaccine. Our results revealed that the HVT-IBD vector vaccine could be used as an alternative vaccine to increase efficacy, and to have an improved safety profile compared with the IBDV live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against the Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.

  11. Fusion protein strategy to increase expression and solubility of hypervariable region of VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sedighzadeh, Sahar Sadat; Shamsara, Mehdi; Shahpiri, Azar

    2012-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important viral diseases in the young chickens. VP2 protein is the major host protective immunogen of the virus. A hypervariable region is present in VP2 protein (hvVP2) that contains immunodominant epitops. The high hydrophobicity of hvVP2 region causes protein aggregation in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The objective of the present study was to improve the expression and the solubility of the hvVP2 protein in E. coli. The effects of fusion partners on the solubility of hvVP2 protein were studied. The protein was expressed in forms of unfused and N-terminally fused to GST and NusA. The results showed that the unfused hvVP2 protein was expressed in very low level. But, N-terminally fused hvVP2 protein to GST (glutathione-S-transferase) and NusA (N utilization substance A) showed significantly enhanced protein expression. The fusion of GST and hvVP2 was produced in aggregated form while in the presence of NusA, the hvVP2 protein was expressed in a soluble form. The NusA-hvVP2 protein was detected by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 1A6, in antigen-capture ELISA. In conclusion, the NusA protein is a suitable fusion partner to improve expression and solubility of the hvVP2 protein in E. coli.

  12. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Teck Chwen, Loh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN-γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN-γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. PMID:24198724

  13. Effect of dietary combination of methionine and fish oil on cellular immunity and plasma fatty acids in infectious bursal disease challenged chickens.

    PubMed

    Maroufyan, Elham; Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Teck Chwen, Loh; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN- γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN- γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens.

  14. A single mutation in the PBC loop of VP2 is involved in the in vitro replication of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Li; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-07-01

    To test whether amino acid mutations in the PBC and PHI loops of VP2 are involved in the replication and virulence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a pair of viruses, namely the moderately virulent IBDV (rGx-F9VP2) and the attenuated strain (rGt), were used. Residue mutations A222P (PBC) and S330R (PHI), selected by sequence comparison, were introduced individually into rGx-F9VP2 by using a reverse genetics system. In addition, the reverse mutation of either P222A or R330S was introduced into rGt. The four modified viruses were then rescued and evaluated in vitro (CEF cells) and in vivo (SPF chickens). Results showed that A222P elevated the replication efficiency of rGx-F9VP2 while P222A reduced that of rGt in CEF cells. A mutation at residue 330 did not alter IBDV replication. In addition, animal experiments showed that a single mutation at either residue 222 or 330 did not significantly influence the virulence of IBDV. In conclusion, residue 222 in PBC of VP2 is involved in the replication efficiency of IBDV in vitro but does not affect its virulence in vivo, further facilitating our understanding of the gene-function of IBDV.

  15. Early pathogenesis during infectious bursal disease in susceptible chickens is associated with changes in B cell genomic methylation and loss of genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Nick A; Smith, Lorraine P; Mwangi, William; Boyd, Amy; Broadbent, Andrew J; Smith, Adrian L; Nair, Venugopal

    2017-03-17

    We propose a model by which an increase in the genomic modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), contributes to B cell death within the chicken bursa of Fabricus (BF) infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Our findings indicate that, following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF than the more resistant 15l line of birds. Elevated genomic 5hmC levels within the RIR BF are associated with markers of immune responses: infiltrating T cells and increased expression of CD40L, FasL and iNOS. Such changes correlate with genomic fragmentation and the presence of IBDV capsid protein, VP2. To explore the effects of CD40L, the immature B-cell line, DT40, was exposed to recombinant chicken CD40L that resulted in changes in nuclear 5hmC distribution. Collectively, our observations suggest that T cell infiltration exacerbates early immunopathology within the BF during an IBDV infection contributing to B cell genomic instability and death to facilitate viral egress and immunosuppression.

  16. Nucleotide sequence analysis of variable region of VP2 gene of two infectious bursal disease virus isolates from commercial poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Viswas, K N; Muniyappa, L; Suryanarayana, V V S; Byregowda, S M

    2002-01-01

    Two infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates were obtained from commercial poultry farms with a history of severe outbreaks. A 474-bp product encompassing hypervariable region of IBDV VP2 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequences of two isolates, VMB1 and VMB2, were determined and compared with those of twenty IBDV strains, including seven very virulent, four classical virulent, four classical attenuated, three antigenic variants and two avirulent serotype 2 strains. The two isolates showed a similarity of 96.5-98.4% with very virulent strains, 84.6-94.6% with classical virulent strains, 90.0-91.4% with classical attenuated strains, 83.0-91.9% with antigenic variants and 65.8-68.7% with avirulent strains. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two isolates showed amino acid substitutions of V256I, N279D, L294I and N299S, specific for very virulent strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two isolates, along with a reported very virulent Indian strain, were closely related to European, Japanese and Chinese very virulent strains indicating their evolutionary origin.

  17. A single amino acid in VP2 is critical for the attachment of infectious bursal disease subviral particles to immobilized metal ions and DF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Su-Yuan; Chang, Gary Ro-lin; Yang, Han-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Long-Huw; Vakharia, Vikram N; Wang, Min-Ying

    2014-07-01

    VP2 protein is the primary host-protective immunogen of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). His249 and His253 are two surface histidine residues in IBDV subviral particles (SVP), which is formed by twenty VP2 trimers when the VP2 protein of a local isolate is expressed. Here, a systemic study was performed to investigate His249 or/and His253 on self-assembly, cell attachment and immunogenicity of SVP. Point-mutagenesis of either or both histidine residues to alanine did not affect self-assembly of the SVP, but the SVP lost its Ni-NTA binding affinity when the His253 was mutated. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and inhibitory experiments also showed that His253 is essential for SVP to attach onto the DF-1 cells and to inhibit IBDV infection of DF-1 cells. Finally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and chicken protection assays demonstrated that SVP with a mutation of His253 to alanine induced comparable neutralizing antibody titers in chickens as the wild-type SVP did. It was concluded that VP2's His253, a site not significant for the overall immunogenicity induced by SVP, is crucial for the binding affinity of SVP to Ni-NTA and the attachment of an IBDV host cell line. This is the first paper to decipher the role of His253 played in receptor interaction and immunogenicity.

  18. An influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) epitope inserted in and expressed from several loci of the infectious bursal disease virus genome induces HA-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2014-08-01

    The N-terminus of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP5 has been shown to be capable of tolerating the insertion of small epitopes. The objective of the present study was to determine if IBDV genomic sites, including the 5' end of vp5, could carry an influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. HA-expressing IBDVs were generated when the HA epitope was fused to the N-terminus of VP5 (HA5-IBDV) or VP4 (HA4-IBDV) or the C-terminus of VP1 (1HA-IBDV). Viral titers obtained after co-transfection with cDNA from the ha-containing segment and the complementary genomic segment were 1.3 × 10(4), 3.7 × 10(3) and 3.8 × 10(4) pfu/ml for HA5-IBDV, HA4-IBDV and 1HA-IBDV, respectively. The HA tag expression remained stable after 10 passages when the tag gene was inserted into the vp4 and vp1 genes. HA-IBDVs did not cause pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. However, only HA4-IBDV and 1HA-IBDV induced HA-specific antibodies, which were measured by ELISA with a maximum optical density (OD) value of 0.701 and 0.769, respectively, at 24 days after infection. Thus, IBDV can potentially be employed as a bivalent viral vector when the epitope is fused with VP4 or VP1.

  19. Changes of CD4+CD25+ Cells Ratio in Immune Organs from Chickens Challenged with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strains with Varying Virulences

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoxue; Rui, Lei; Shao, Qiang; Liu, Haiwen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigate changes in CD4+CD25+ cells in chickens during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. The percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in lymph organs, e.g., the thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and peripheral blood, during the first 1–5 days post infection (dpi) was assessed by flow cytometry. The data revealed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in the thymus from 1 to 5 dpi and in the spleen during early infection. An increase of the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells among peripheral blood lymphocytes was observed during the first two days of IBDV infection. Additionally, CD4+CD25+ cells infiltrated the bursa along with CD4+ cells after IBDV infection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA levels of immune-related cytokines in IBDV-infected thymus and bursa of Fabricius tissues. The data revealed that IBDV caused a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA levels, with the Harbin-1 strain (vvIBDV) inducing higher IL-10 expression than the Ts strain. Taken together, our data suggest that chicken CD4+CD25+ cells may participate in IBDV pathogenicity by migrating from their sites of origin and storage, the thymus and spleen, to the virally targeted bursa of Fabricius during IBDV infection. PMID:25803101

  20. Directed vaccination against pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Knight, Paul R.; Hakansson, Anders P.; Pfeifer, Blaine A.; Jones, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a “smart” vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071

  1. Genetic, antigenic and pathogenic characterization of four infectious bursal disease virus isolates from China suggests continued evolution of very virulent viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Amelot, Michel; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of young chickens worldwide. The emergence of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains has brought more challenges for effective prevention and control of this disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize four IBDV isolates from various regions of China between late 1990s and recent years and to compare them with previously isolated European IBDV strains. In this study, one Chinese vvIBDV strain isolated in 1999 and three strains isolated between 2005 and 2011 were analyzed at the genetic, antigenic and pathogenic levels. Strain SH99 was closely related and clustered in the same genetic lineage as the typical vvIBDV based on the genomic sequences of segments A and B. However, the three more recent Chinese vvIBDV (HLJ0504, HeB10 and HuN11) showed several genetic changes in both segments and clustered in a distinct lineage from the typical vvIBDV and the previously known Chinese vvIBDV. Based on the binding to a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, all Chinese vvIBDVs exhibited similar antigenicity with the European typical vvIBDV strains. Nonetheless, the pathogenicity caused by the recent Chinese vvIBDV was higher than that induced by the European typical vvIBDV. This study calls for a sustained surveillance of IBD situation in China in order to support a better prevention and control of the disease.

  2. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  3. [Pertussis vaccine. Reemergence of the disease and new vaccination strategies].

    PubMed

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Campins-Martí, Magda

    2015-03-01

    Pertussis continues to be a public health problem despite the significant decrease in its incidence due to routine vaccination. Resurgence of the disease in countries that have maintained high vaccination coverage has been observed in recent years. Although vaccination is the most effective preventive control measure, both natural and artificial immunity wane over time, and thus the protection offered by current vaccines is not long-lasting. Furthermore, acellular vaccines are less effective. The implementation of new vaccine strategies is required. Vaccination of pregnant women is the most effective strategy for preventing pertussis in young infants, who are the most vulnerable, and should be recommended together with cocooning, ie vaccination of future household and extra-domiciliary contacts who are the main transmitters of the disease.

  4. Vaccine Preventable Disease on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    While morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases have declined, some college students remain susceptible to measles, rubella, diptheria, tetanus, or polio. Colleges and universities have the opportunity to ensure protection of students, faculty, and employees by establishing and enforcing immunization requirements. (Author/DF)

  5. Vaccine Preventable Disease on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    While morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases have declined, some college students remain susceptible to measles, rubella, diptheria, tetanus, or polio. Colleges and universities have the opportunity to ensure protection of students, faculty, and employees by establishing and enforcing immunization requirements. (Author/DF)

  6. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota.

  7. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  8. C Terminus of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Major Capsid Protein VP2 Is Involved in Definition of the T Number for Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Castón, José R.; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Maraver, Antonio; Lombardo, Eleuterio; Rodríguez, José F.; Casal, J. Ignacio; Carrascosa, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA virus. The IBDV capsid is formed by two major structural proteins, VP2 and VP3, which assemble to form a T=13 markedly nonspherical capsid. During viral infection, VP2 is initially synthesized as a precursor, called VPX, whose C end is proteolytically processed to the mature form during capsid assembly. We have computed three-dimensional maps of IBDV capsid and virus-like particles built up by VP2 alone by using electron cryomicroscopy and image-processing techniques. The IBDV single-shelled capsid is characterized by the presence of 260 protruding trimers on the outer surface. Five classes of trimers can be distinguished according to their different local environments. When VP2 is expressed alone in insect cells, dodecahedral particles form spontaneously; these may be assembled into larger, fragile icosahedral capsids built up by 12 dodecahedral capsids. Each dodecahedral capsid is an empty T=1 shell composed of 20 trimeric clusters of VP2. Structural comparison between IBDV capsids and capsids consisting of VP2 alone allowed the determination of the major capsid protein locations and the interactions between them. Whereas VP2 forms the outer protruding trimers, VP3 is found as trimers on the inner surface and may be responsible for stabilizing functions. Since elimination of the C-terminal region of VPX is correlated with the assembly of T=1 capsids, this domain might be involved (either alone or in cooperation with VP3) in the induction of different conformations of VP2 during capsid morphogenesis. PMID:11602723

  9. Vaccination against bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Phillip, J I

    1975-01-01

    Vaccination is but one element in a control programme for bovine respiratory disease. Its laboratory study can be divorced from the others but its field application cannot. The problems associated with the development of effective vaccines fall into two broad groups: multiplicity and ubiquity of pathogens and secondly the identification of the crucial elements in an immune response. Agricultural systems which experience annual outbreaks of respiratory disease attributable to the same pathogen in cattle of specific age have the choice of using passive or active immunity of minimal valency. In the majority of systems the cause and timing of an outbreak cannot be predicted and therefore multivalent vaccines are required. Both inactivated and modified live products are available for use against the well-known pathogens. Their relative advantages hinge on the significance attributed to the ability to stimulate the production of particular immunoglobulins at specific body sites and the persistence of the responses. The widely held view that success requires the stimulation of secretory antibodies by intranasal administration of living vaccines is not universally accepted. An assessment of their protective value is not easily made because of the difficulty of reproducing an adequate field challenge in the laboratory. The measurement of serological responses and virus shedding times following challenge are of limited value as alternatives.

  10. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  11. Plant-based vaccines against diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Tacket, Carol O

    2007-01-01

    Every year 1.6 million deaths occur due to diarrhea related to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation-the vast majority in children under 5 years old. Safe and effective vaccines against enteric infections could contribute to control of these diseases. However, purification of protective antigens for inclusion in vaccines using traditional expression systems is expensive and unattractive to vaccine manufacturers who see the vaccine market as economically uninviting. Cost is one of the persistent barriers to deployment of new vaccines to populations that need them most urgently. Transgenic plant-derived vaccines offer a new strategy for development of safe, inexpensive vaccines against diarrheal diseases. In phase 1 clinical studies, these vaccines have been safe and immunogenic without the need for a buffer or vehicle other than the plant cell. This paper describes early clinical studies evaluating oral transgenic plant vaccines against enteric infections such as enterotoxigenic E. coli infection and norovirus.

  12. Eradicating infectious disease using weakly transmissible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nuismer, Scott L; Althouse, Benjamin M; May, Ryan; Bull, James J; Stromberg, Sean P; Antia, Rustom

    2016-10-26

    Viral vaccines have had remarkable positive impacts on human health as well as the health of domestic animal populations. Despite impressive vaccine successes, however, many infectious diseases cannot yet be efficiently controlled or eradicated through vaccination, often because it is impossible to vaccinate a sufficient proportion of the population. Recent advances in molecular biology suggest that the centuries-old method of individual-based vaccine delivery may be on the cusp of a major revolution. Specifically, genetic engineering brings to life the possibility of a live, transmissible vaccine. Unfortunately, releasing a highly transmissible vaccine poses substantial evolutionary risks, including reversion to high virulence as has been documented for the oral polio vaccine. An alternative, and far safer approach, is to rely on genetically engineered and weakly transmissible vaccines that have reduced scope for evolutionary reversion. Here, we use mathematical models to evaluate the potential efficacy of such weakly transmissible vaccines. Our results demonstrate that vaccines with even a modest ability to transmit can significantly lower the incidence of infectious disease and facilitate eradication efforts. Consequently, weakly transmissible vaccines could provide an important tool for controlling infectious disease in wild and domestic animal populations and for reducing the risks of emerging infectious disease in humans. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Vaccines and Vaccination for Veterinary Viral Diseases: A General Overview.

    PubMed

    Brun, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A high number of infectious diseases affecting livestock and companion animals are caused by pathogens of viral etiology. Ensuring the maximum standards of quality and welfare in animal production requires developing effective tools to halt and prevent the spread of those infectious diseases affecting animal husbandry. To date, one of the best strategies is to implement vaccination policies whenever possible. However many of the currently manufactured vaccines relies in classical vaccine technologies (killed or attenuated vaccines) which, under some circumstances, may not be optimal in terms of safety or adequate for widespread application in disease-free countries at risk of disease introduction. One step ahead is needed to improve and adapt vaccine manufacturing to the use of new generation vaccine technologies already tested in experimental settings. Here we present in the context of animal viral diseases of veterinary interest, an overview of some current vaccine technologies that can be approached for virus pathogens with a brief insight in the type of immunity elicited.

  14. [Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus replication in chicken embryos by miRNAs delivered by recombinant avian adeno-associated viral vector].

    PubMed

    Shen, Pengpeng; Wang, Yongjuan; Sun, Huaichang; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli

    2011-02-01

    We studied the inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication in chicken embryos by recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV)-delivered VP1- and VP2-specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We co-transfected AAV-293 cells with the VP1- or VP2 gene-specific miRNA expression vector pAITR-RFPmiVP1 or AITR-RFPmiVP2E, AAAV packaging vector pcDNA-ARC and adenovirus helper vector pHelper, resulting in recombinant virus rAAAV-RFPmiVP1 or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E. We also generated the recombinant viruses rAAAV-RFP (without miRNA expression cassette) and rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con (expressing control miRNA) using the same method as the control purpose. Electron microscopy showed that the recombinant viruses had a typical morphology of AAV. We confirmed the presence of miRNA expression cassette in the recombinant viral genomes by using PCR. Our poly (A)-tailed RT-PCR showed correct expression of the miRNAs in the rAAAV-transduced DF-1 cells. We inoculated the recombinant viruses individually into 8-day-old SPF chicken embryos and then challenged them using Lukert strain IBDV on day 2 after inoculation. Our IBDV titration assay showed that the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) of rAAAV-RFP- or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con-inoculated group was 8.0 log10, whereas the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP1-inoculated group decreased to 1.0 and 0.8 log10 on day 3 and 6 after challenge, respectively. Similarly, the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E-inoculated group decreased to 1.5 and 2.0 log10, respectively. These data suggest that rAAAV can transduce efficiently chicken embryos and the expressed VP1- and VP2-specific miRNAs can inhibit the replication of IBDV efficiently.

  15. Vaccine preventable disease incidence as a complement to vaccine efficacy for setting vaccine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Bradford D.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been evaluated in clinical trials that establish vaccine efficacy (VE) against etiology-confirmed disease outcomes, a measure important for licensure. Yet, VE does not reflect a vaccine’s public health impact because it does not account for relative disease incidence. An additional measure that more directly establishes a vaccine’s public health value is the vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI), which is the incidence of disease preventable by vaccine in a given context. We describe how VE and VPDI can vary, sometimes in inverse directions, across disease outcomes and vaccinated populations. We provide examples of how VPDI can be used to reveal the relative public health impact of vaccines in developing countries, which can be masked by focus on VE alone. We recommend that VPDI be incorporated along with VE into the analytic plans of vaccine trials, as well as decisions by funders, ministries of health, and regulatory authorities. PMID:24731817

  16. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  17. Vaccination against pox diseases under immunosuppressive conditions.

    PubMed

    Mayr, A; Danner, K

    1978-01-01

    Pox diseases, caused either by smallpox virus or zoonotic pox viruses or animals, continue to be of potential danger to a non-vaccinated population. Mass vaccinations will become necessary and will then also be administered to persons with immunological aberrations. The vaccines which are presently used against smallpox cause severe complications in such hosts. In contrast, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain MVA is safe even under the conditions of immunosuppression and is recommended for the production of smallpox vaccines. Because of the special epizootic situations and the numerous immunosuppressive factors present in developing countries, the use of such a safe pox vaccine there is of crucial importance.

  18. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues. Overall, data are scarce. The following main points were retrieved from the literature: Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to the generally recommended basic vaccinations, specific vaccinations, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are indicated in these patient groups. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, specific exceptions apply. Furthermore, certain time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after pausing or ceasing an immunosuppressive therapy should be respected.

  19. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Research Program (MIDRP) Insect Vector ControlDiagnostics Prevention Treatment Infectious diseases adversely impact military operations. Vaccines...appropriate treatment and aids commanders in the field. Most militarily relevant infectious diseases are transmitted by biting insects and other...based Insect Repellent (1946) Vaccines Protectants Antiparasitic Drugs Research Effort Advanced Development Fielded Products Malaria Rapid

  20. Vaccination recommendations for patients with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bruno, Claudio; Berardinelli, Angela; Filosto, Massimiliano; Mongini, Tiziana; Morandi, Lucia; Musumeci, Olimpia; Pegoraro, Elena; Siciliano, Gabriele; Tonin, Paola; Marrosu, Gianni; Minetti, Carlo; Servida, Maura; Fiorillo, Chiara; Conforti, Giorgio; Scapolan, Silvia; Ansaldi, Filippo; Vianello, Andrea; Castaldi, Silvana; Principi, Nicola; Toscano, Antonio; Moggio, Maurizio

    2014-10-14

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) encompass a broad spectrum of conditions. Because infections may be relevant to the final prognosis of most NMDs, vaccination appears to be the simplest and most effective solution for protecting NMD patients from vaccine-preventable infections. However, very few studies have evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of different vaccines in NMD patients; therefore, detailed vaccination recommendations for NMD patients are not available. Here, we present vaccination recommendations from a group of Italian Scientific Societies for optimal disease prevention in NMD patients that maintain high safety levels. We found that NMD patients can be classified into two groups according to immune function: patients with normal immunity and patients who are immunocompromised, including those who intermittently or continuously take immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with normal immunity and do not take immunosuppressive therapy can be vaccinated as healthy subjects. In contrast, immunocompromised patients, including those who take immunosuppressive therapy, should receive all inactivated vaccines as well as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines; these patients should not be administered live attenuated vaccines. In all cases, the efficacy and long-term persistence of immunity from vaccination in NMD patients can be lower than in normal subjects. Household contacts of immunocompromised NMD patients should also be vaccinated appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  2. [Autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vaccination].

    PubMed

    Więsik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Jahnz-Różyk, Karina

    2015-12-31

    The idea that infectious agents can induce autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible subjects has been a matter of discussion for years. Moreover, increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and introduction of prophylactic vaccinations from early childhood suggest that these two trends are linked. In the medical literature and even non-professional media, case reports or events temporally related to vaccination are reported. It raises the issue of vaccination safety. In everyday practice medical professionals, physicians, rheumatologists and other specialists will be asked their opinion of vaccination safety. The decision should be made according to evidence-based medicine and the current state of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a potential mechanism which links infections, vaccinations and autoimmunity. We present an overview of published case reports, especially of systemic connective tissue diseases temporally related to vaccination and results from case-nested studies. As yet, no conclusive evidence supports a causal relationship between vaccination and autoimmune diseases. It has to be determined whether the performed studies are sufficiently sensitive to detect the link. The debate is ongoing, and new data may be required to explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We would like to underscore the need for prophylactic vaccination in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and to break down the myth that the vaccines are contraindicated in this target group.

  3. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  4. Active Vaccines for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C

    2016-09-01

    Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prioritizing vaccines for developing world diseases.

    PubMed

    Saul, Allan; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2017-01-20

    A major disparity in the burden of health will need to be addressed to achieve the "Grand Convergence" by 2035. In particular people living in low and middle income countries have a much higher burden of infectious diseases. Although vaccines have been very effective in reducing the global burden of infectious disease, there are no registered vaccines to address 60% of the current burden of infectious disease, especially in developing countries. Thus there is a pressing need for new vaccines and for prioritizing vaccine development given that resources for developing new vaccines are strictly limited. As part of the GLOBAL HEALTH 2035: Mission Grand Convergence meeting one working group assessed the SMART vaccine algorithm as a mechanism for prioritizing vaccine development for diseases of priority in the developing world. In particular, the working group considered which criteria in the standard SMART set were considered "key" criteria and whether other criteria should be considered, when prioritizing vaccines for this important set of countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Oral Vaccine for Immunization against Enteric Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The oral vaccine can provide protection against both typhoid fever and at least one other enteric disease. A bivalent oral vaccine is described...against typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery caused by S. sonnei. The mutated galactose epimeraseless S. typhi strain such as S. typhi Ty21a strain can be utilized as a carrier strain for other protective antigens. (Patents).

  7. Edible transgenic plant vaccines for different diseases.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aakanchha; Saini, Vinay; Kohli, Dharm Veer

    2013-01-01

    Edible plant vaccines are immunogenic preparations containing antigenic proteins rather than pathogens, therefore, they sanctify situation where there is a possibility of resurgence of disease when the antigenic preparation contains the organism in any form whatsoever. Expression of antigens as vaccines and of antibodies against antigens of pathogens in transgenic plants is a convenient and inexpensive source for various bacterial, viral, helminths, protozoan and autoimmune diseases with lower capital costs. This review describes various diseases along with the production of edible transgenic plant vaccines/proteins for the same. Thus, substituting and improvising conventional immunization methods.

  8. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus..., negative for Marek's disease virus antibodies, and from the same source, shall be isolated into...

  9. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329... Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from...) Newcastle Disease susceptible chickens, all of the same age and from the same source, shall be used....

  10. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329... Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from...) Newcastle Disease susceptible chickens, all of the same age and from the same source, shall be used....

  11. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329... Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from...) Newcastle Disease susceptible chickens, all of the same age and from the same source, shall be used....

  12. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus..., negative for Marek's disease virus antibodies, and from the same source, shall be isolated into...

  13. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329... Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from...) Newcastle Disease susceptible chickens, all of the same age and from the same source, shall be used....

  14. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus..., negative for Marek's disease virus antibodies, and from the same source, shall be isolated into...

  15. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus..., negative for Marek's disease virus antibodies, and from the same source, shall be isolated into...

  16. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus..., negative for Marek's disease virus antibodies, and from the same source, shall be isolated into...

  17. Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Isaac H; Milner, Danny A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. We review here the histopathological features and ancillary testing required for diagnosis of all illnesses preventable by vaccines that are currently approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, organized into three sections: viral infections preventable by routine vaccination (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and human papillomavirus), bacterial infections preventable by routine vaccination (diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus), and infections with specific vaccine indications (anthrax, typhoid, tuberculosis, rabies, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus). Histopathology for the less common diseases is illustrated in this review. Awareness of a patient's immune and/or vaccine status is a crucial component of the infectious disease work-up, especially for rare diseases that may not otherwise be seen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    medical countermeasures. Viruses , 4(10), 2312-2316 (2012). 101. Bradfute SB. Duration of immune responses after Ebola virus vaccination. Lancet Infect Dis...Geisbert JB et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus -based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with Ebola and Marburg viruses ...Ebola virus vaccines 1 Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials Keywords: candidate vaccine; clinical trial

  19. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  20. New and Improved Vaccines Against Meningococcal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    associated with group B meningococcal disease and their use for rapid vaccine development. Antonie Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol 1987; 53:395. 37. Gotschlich EC...Brandt B, Moran EE, Ray J. Safety and antigenicity studies of a polyvalent meningococcal protein-polysaccharide vaccine. Antonie Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol...2b and 15 antigens in complex with mixed A,CY, and W135 polysaccharides. Antonie Leeuwenhoek I Microbiol 1985; 52:239. 91. Frasch CE, Zahradnik JM

  1. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  3. In vitro rapid clearance of infectious bursal disease virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chicken lines divergent for antibody response might be related to the enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Jain, Preeti; Singh, Rani; Saxena, V K; Singh, K B; Ahmed, K A; Tiwari, A K; Saxena, M; Sundaresan, N R

    2013-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). An effective way to control IBDV would be to breed chickens with a reduced susceptibility to IBDV infection. In the present work, we used chickens selected for high and low specific responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) (H and L, respectively) to assess the susceptibility of differential immune competent animals to IBDV infection. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of high SRBC line (HL) and low SRBC line (LL) were infected with IBDV and viral RNA loads were determined at different time post-IBDV infection. Chicken orthologues of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2); a Th2 cytokine, IL-10; a pro inflammatory cytokine, IL-6; the CCL chemokines, chCCLi2, chCCLi4 and chCCLi7; colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF; and a anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor β-2 (TGFβ-2) were quantified. The expression of chCCLi2, chCCLi4 and chCCLi7 was significantly higher in L line as compared to H line. However, in H line the viral RNA loads were significantly lower than in L line. Therefore, the upregulated chemokines might be associated with the susceptibility to IBDV. The expression of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 was significantly higher in H line as compared to L line. We assume that the higher proinflammatory cytokines expression in H line might be related to the rapid clearance of virus from PBMCs. Significantly higher levels of IL-10 and TGFβ-2 mRNAs in L line might be related to the pathogenesis of IBDV. In conclusion, selection for antibody responses appears to influence the expression profiles of chemokines and cytokines against IBDV. Further, the selection for high SRBC response might improve the immuno-competence of chickens against IBDV.

  4. A single amino acid V4I substitution in VP1 attenuates virulence of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens and increases replication in CEF cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Ren, Xiangang; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Song, Jiasheng; Gao, Yulong; Qin, Liting; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-06-05

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that causes immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The emergence of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) has brought new challenges for this disease. The molecular determinants for the high pathogenicity of vvIBDV are not fully understood. Previous studies focused mostly on the VP2 protein on segment A, but recent evidence suggests that segment B also plays an important role. Previously we identified eight amino acid changes in the VP1 protein of vvIBDV. In this study, we investigated effect of amino acids substitutions in VP1 on viral replication and pathogenicity. We identified a Valine to Isoleucine substitution at amino acid position 4 (V4I) of VP1 that attenuates viral pathogenicity and reduces viral replication in SPF chickens but increases viral replication in CEF cells. This study confirms that VP1 of segment B play an important role in viral replication and pathogenicity of vvIBDV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Watts, A M; Kennedy, R C

    1999-08-01

    DNA immunisation represents a novel approach to vaccine and immunotherapeutic development. Injection of plasmid DNA encoding a foreign gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of the foreign gene products and the induction of an immune response within a host. This is relevant to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies when the foreign gene represents a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent demonstration by a number of laboratories that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against some infectious diseases and cancers provides support for the use of this approach. In this article, we attempt to present an informative and unbiased representation of the field of DNA immunisation. The focus is on studies that impart information on the development of vaccination strategies against a number of human and animal pathogens. Investigations that describe the mechanism(s) of protective immunity induced by DNA immunisation highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to developing vaccines within a given system. A variety of systems in which DNA vaccination has resulted in the induction of protective immunity, as well as the correlates associated with these protective immune responses, will be described. Particular attention will focus on systems involving parasitic diseases. Finally, the potential of DNA immunisation is discussed as it relates to veterinary medicine and its role as a possible vaccine strategy against animal coccidioses.

  6. Dual infections with low virulent chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) and intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) in young chicks increase lvCIAV in thymus and bursa while decreasing lymphocyte disorders induced by iIBDV.

    PubMed

    Vaziry, Asaad; Silim, Amer; Bleau, Christian; Frenette, Diane; Lamontagne, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    The use of attenuated vaccines or the occurrence of low virulent T-lymphotropic or B-lymphotropic viruses in flocks may alter the immune responses of young chicks in spite of the absence of clinical signs. Infections with a low virulent T-lymphotropic chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) followed by infection with an intermediate B-lymphotropic infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) were conducted in specific pathogen free chicks. Thirty-six 1-day-old chicks were infected with the lvCIAV strain (CAV-VAC®) and a similar number of chicks were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. At 14 days after lvCIAV infection, one group of 18 lvCIAV-infected chicks and one group of 18 uninfected chicks were infected with an iIBDV strain. At 4, 7 and 14 days post infection with iIBDV, six chicks from each group were euthanized and lymphoid organs were collected. Detection of lvCIAV and iIBDV genomes was conducted by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Double-labelled lymphoid subsets from the thymus, spleen and bursa were studied by cytofluorometric analysis. The results reveal that previous infection with lvCIAV increases the occurrence of the lvCIAV and iIBDV genome in thymus and/or bursa without the occurrence of clinical signs in dually lvCIAV/iIBDV-infected chicks. However, the decreases of B cells in spleen and bursa and increases of T-cell subsets in bursa observed in chicks infected with iIBDV did not occur in chicks previously infected with lvCIAV. Taken together, these results suggest that previous infection of young chicks with lvCIAV decreases lymphoid disorders induced by iIBDV while subsequent iIBDV infection increases the lvCIAV genome in lymphoid organs.

  7. Infectious bursal disease virus activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway by interaction of VP5 protein with the p85{alpha} subunit of PI3K

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Hou Lei; Zhu Shanshan; Wang Jing; Zhou Jiao; Liu Jue

    2011-08-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling is commonly activated upon virus infection and has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular functions such as proliferation and apoptosis. The present study demonstrated for the first time that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in chickens, can induce Akt phosphorylation in cultured cells, by a mechanism that is dependent on PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K activation greatly enhanced virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase and activation of caspase-3. Investigations into the mechanism of PI3K/Akt activation revealed that IBDV activates PI3K/Akt signaling through binding of the non-structural protein VP5 to regulatory subunit p85{alpha} of PI3K resulting in the suppression of premature apoptosis and improved virus growth after infection. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of IBDV infection.

  8. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The failure to control and to eradicate Newcastle Disease (ND) with vaccination alone in countries where the etiological agent of the disease, virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (vNDV) is endemic underscores the need to improve the efficacy of currently available NDV vaccines and vaccination approache...

  9. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: from disease to vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Simone; Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Maes, Dominiek; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2013-08-30

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Despite efforts to control M. hyopneumoniae infection, significant economic losses in pig production continue to occur. The results of genome-based research have the potential to help understand the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines and diagnostic tests. In this review, the characteristics of M. hyopneumoniae related to pathogenesis and control measures will be discussed. Special emphasis will be placed on vaccination strategies that have been proposed with the use of reverse vaccinology approaches.

  10. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaccinating Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jason; Wasan, Sharmeel

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not vaccinated at the same rate as general medical patients. IBD places patients at increased risk for developing vaccine-preventable illnesses, and this risk is further exacerbated by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, gastroenterologists should familiarize themselves with health maintenance measures pertaining to patients with IBD. This article highlights the vaccinations required for patients with IBD, especially those who are immunosuppressed: influenza; pneumococcal pneumonia; hepatitis A and B viruses; human papilloma virus; meningococcal disease; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; measles, mumps, and rubella; varicella zoster; and herpes zoster. This article also discusses issues regarding patients with IBD who travel outside of the United States, as well as highlights and provides suggestions for areas of quality improvement that are needed in the field. PMID:27917091

  12. Inflammation and therapeutic vaccination in CNS diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Howard L.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2002-12-01

    The spectrum of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system has been steadily expanding from classical autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis to far more diverse diseases. Evidence now suggests that syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke have important inflammatory and immune components and may be amenable to treatment by anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic approaches. The notion of 'vaccinating' individuals against a neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease is a marked departure from classical thinking about mechanism and treatment, and yet therapeutic vaccines for both Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis have been validated in animal models and are in the clinic. Such approaches, however, have the potential to induce unwanted inflammatory responses as well as to provide benefit.

  13. Studies on naturally occurring infectious bursal disease viruses suggest that a single amino acid substitution at position 253 in VP2 increases pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, D J; Sreedevi, B; LeFever, L J; Sommer-Wagner, S E

    2008-07-20

    Three classic IBDV strains were previously isolated from commercial layer chicken flocks and shown to be phylogenetically related to vaccine strains but pathogenic in susceptible chickens. In this study, their viral genomes were sequenced and compared to sequences of vaccines being used in those flocks. The vaccine strains examined were sequenced directly from the manufacturer and had identical genome segment B sequences. Compared to these vaccines, the GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 isolates each had one silent mutation in the gene that encodes VP1. Compared to the two vaccines used at the time CS-2-35 was isolated, the segment A sequence of CS-2-35 contained numerous nucleotide and amino acid mutations suggesting the CS-2-35 virus was not closely related to these vaccines. This virus however did have amino acid mutations in VP2 that are reported to be necessary for replication in cell culture and lacked two of the three amino acid mutations previously shown to be necessary for virulence. These data suggest that CS-2-35 was a descendant from an attenuated strain of IBDV. When the segment A genomic sequences of the GA-1 and H-30 viruses were compared to the vaccines being used in those flocks they were most closely related to the attenuated D78 vaccine strain. In genome segment A, three nucleotide mutations in GA-1 and four in H-30 were observed compared to the D78 classic vaccine. These nucleotide mutations caused one amino acid (H253N) change in the GA-1 virus and two amino acids (H253Q and G259D) were different in the H-30 virus. In addition, both the GA-1 and H-30 viruses had the amino acid G76 in VP2 that appears to be unique to the vaccine D78. The data suggest that GA-1 and H-30 are genetically related and have a common ancestor even though they were isolated from geographically distant flocks. The evidence also suggests that GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 could be reversions from attenuated vaccine viruses or by coincidence genetically resemble classic IBDV vaccines. It

  14. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining around ...

  15. Speeding up disease extinction with a limited amount of vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasin, M.; Dykman, M. I.; Meerson, B.

    2010-05-01

    We consider optimal vaccination protocol where the vaccine is in short supply. In this case, the endemic state remains dynamically stable; disease extinction happens at random and requires a large fluctuation, which can come from the intrinsic randomness of the population dynamics. We show that vaccination can exponentially increase the disease extinction rate. For a time-periodic vaccination with fixed average rate, the optimal vaccination protocol is model independent and presents a sequence of short pulses. The effect can be resonantly enhanced if the vaccination pulse period coincides with the characteristic period of the disease dynamics or its multiples. This resonant effect is illustrated using a simple epidemic model. The analysis is based on the theory of fluctuation-induced population extinction in periodically modulated systems that we develop. If the system is strongly modulated (for example, by seasonal variations) and vaccination has the same period, the vaccination pulses must be properly synchronized; a wrong vaccination phase can impede disease extinction.

  16. Vaccines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Una S; Rittershaus, Charles W

    2006-11-01

    Atherosclerosis, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), remains a most significant global public health problem. Highly effective LDL-lowering therapies have gained widespread adoption in the United States and throughout the developed world, but therapeutic options for raising low HDL, a key independent risk factor for CHD, remain limited. We are developing a vaccine approach to raising HDL, by inducing an immune response to endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and have demonstrated proof of principle in preclinical and clinical models. This vaccine approach may offer the opportunity to address low HDL with a cost-effective semi-annual injection.

  17. Oral Vaccine for Immunization against Enteric Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    typhoid fever and/or at least one other enterically acquired disease. A bivalent oral vaccine is described wherein the non-typhoid protective antigen is the plasmid-encoded form I antigen of Shigella sonnei. A protective antigen from Shitella sonnei was transferred to a streptomycin resistant mutant of S. typhi strain Ty21a. The transconjugant S. typhi strain expressed both S. typhi and S. sonnei antigens and protected experimental animals against lethal infections with either S. typhi and S. sonnei. This strain is considered to be useful as a vaccine against typhoid

  18. Reactive vaccination in the presence of disease hotspots.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-07

    Reactive vaccination has recently been adopted as an outbreak response tool for cholera and other infectious diseases. Owing to the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, health officials must quickly decide who and where to distribute limited vaccine. Targeted vaccination in transmission hotspots (i.e. areas with high transmission efficiency) may be a potential approach to efficiently allocate vaccine, however its effectiveness will likely be context-dependent. We compared strategies for allocating vaccine across multiple areas with heterogeneous transmission efficiency. We constructed metapopulation models of a cholera-like disease and compared simulated epidemics where: vaccine is targeted at areas of high or low transmission efficiency, where vaccine is distributed across the population, and where no vaccine is used. We find that connectivity between populations, transmission efficiency, vaccination timing and the amount of vaccine available all shape the performance of different allocation strategies. In highly connected settings (e.g. cities) when vaccinating early in the epidemic, targeting limited vaccine at transmission hotspots is often optimal. Once vaccination is delayed, targeting the hotspot is rarely optimal, and strategies that either spread vaccine between areas or those targeted at non-hotspots will avert more cases. Although hotspots may be an intuitive outbreak control target, we show that, in many situations, the hotspot-epidemic proceeds so fast that hotspot-targeted reactive vaccination will prevent relatively few cases, and vaccination shared across areas where transmission can be sustained is often best.

  19. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD.

  20. [Dengue fever: from disease to vaccination].

    PubMed

    Teyssou, R

    2009-08-01

    Dengue is a tropical disease affecting 110 countries throughout the world and placing over 3 billion people at risk of infection. According the World Health Organization 70 to 500 million persons are infected every year including 2 million who develop hemorrhagic form and 20,000 who die. Children are at highest risk for death. Due to the absence of specialized laboratories in most endemic regions and to the lack of specifici clinical presentation, the incidence of dengue and its economic costs are certainly underestimated. Dengue iscaused by an arbovirus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. There are four dengue virus serotypes and no cross protection between them. The disease is transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes belonging to the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti. However A. albopictus has played an important role in the spread of the disease and other species may be involved in specific locations (e.g., A. polynesiensis in the South Pacific). There is no specific treatment for dengue. Management of severe forms depends on symptomatic treatment of hemorrhagic complications and hypovolemic shock. Prevention requires control of vector mosquitoes that is difficult to implement and maintain. Dengue is a major emerging infectious disease with a heavy impact on public health. The high human and economic costs as well as the absence of specific preventive measures underscore the need to develop a vaccine. However finding and distributing such a vaccine to populations at risk is hampered by numerous obstacles. The most notable challenges standing in the way of development of a candidate vaccine are as follows: absence of an animal model, which has important implications for the preclinical development strategy; need to develop a live attenuated vaccine; existence of 4 antigenically distinct serotypes with the resulting risk of competition between vaccine strains; immunologic risks related to antibody-dependent enhancement that has been

  1. Use of vaccines as probes to define disease burden.

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Scott, J Anthony G; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-05-17

    Vaccine probe studies have emerged in the past 15 years as a useful way to characterise disease. By contrast, traditional studies of vaccines focus on defining the vaccine effectiveness or efficacy. The underlying basis for the vaccine probe approach is that the difference in disease burden between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals can be ascribed to the vaccine-specific pathogen. Vaccine probe studies can increase understanding of a vaccine's public health value. For instance, even when a vaccine has a seemingly low efficacy, a high baseline disease incidence can lead to a large vaccine-preventable disease burden and thus that population-based vaccine introduction would be justified. So far, vaccines have been used as probes to characterise disease syndromes caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcus, rotavirus, and early infant influenza. However, vaccine probe studies have enormous potential and could be used more widely in epidemiology, for example, to define the vaccine-preventable burden of malaria, typhoid, paediatric influenza, and dengue, and to identify causal interactions between different pathogens.

  2. Recent Progress in Vaccines against Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cassone, Antonio; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Diseases caused by fungi are increasingly impacting the health of the human population and now account for a large fraction of infectious disease complications in individuals with impaired immunity or breached tissue defenses. Antifungal therapy is often of limited effectiveness in these patients, resulting into treatment failures, chronic infections and unacceptable rates of mortality, morbidity and their associated costs. Consequently there is a real medical need for new treatments and preventive measures to combat fungal diseases and, toward this goal, safe and efficacious vaccines would constitute major progress. After decades of complacency and neglect of this critically important field of research, remarkable progress has been made in recent years. A number of highly immunogenic and protective vaccine formulations in preclinical setting have been developed, and at least two have undergone Phase 1 clinical trials as preventive and/or therapeutic tools against candidiasis. PMID:22564747

  3. Newcastle disease: current vaccine research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect poultry due to its devastating economic impact and world-wide distribution and contribution towards malnutrition in countries that rely on production of village chickens as a source of animal protein. Besides biosec...

  4. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Requiring Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Gregory; Ahmed, Bilaal; Kumar, Parvathi S; Ostrov, Barbara E; Ericson, Jessica E

    2017-09-01

    Plain children often have lower immunization rates than non-Plain children. Penn State Health Children's Hospital is a tertiary medical center with large nearby Plain (Amish and Mennonite) communities. We sought to describe the characteristics of children hospitalized with vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We hypothesized that Amish children would have a higher risk of VPDs than non-Amish children. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify patients <18 years diagnosed with a VPD from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015, at Penn State Children's Hospital. Demographic information, immunization status, and outcomes were obtained from medical records. By using the number of children in our primary service area, we calculated the risk of VPD requiring hospitalization for Amish and non-Amish children. We assessed the relationship between Plain affiliation and vaccination status by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There were 215 children with 221 VPDs. Most occurred in non-Plain children: 179 of 221 (81%). Except for pneumococcal infections, VPD occurred mostly in unvaccinated or immunocompromised children, regardless of Plain affiliation. There were 15 Haemophilus influenzae type b and 5 tetanus infections that occurred in children with an unvaccinated or unknown vaccination status. The risk of a VPD requiring hospitalization was greater for Amish than for non-Plain children (risk ratio: 2.67 [95% confidence interval: 1.87-3.82]). There was a strong correlation between Plain affiliation and lack of vaccination (r = -0.63, P < .01). Amish children had an increased risk of a VPD requiring hospitalization than non-Plain children. With the exception of those with pneumococcal disease, most vaccinated children hospitalized with a VPD were immunocompromised. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Vaccination strategies for Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Ramos, Marina; von Euler Chelpin, Marianne; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, but there is currently no available cure for it. Current treatments only alleviate some of the symptoms for a few years, but they become ineffective in the long run and do not stop the disease. Therefore it is of outmost importance to develop therapeutic strategies that can prevent, stop, or cure Parkinson disease. A very promising target for these therapies is the peripheral immune system due to its probable involvement in the disease and its potential as a tool to modulate neuroinflammation. But for such strategies to be successful, we need to understand the particular state of the peripheral immune system during Parkinson disease in order to avoid its weaknesses. In this review we examine the available data regarding how dopamine regulates the peripheral immune system and how this regulation is affected in Parkinson disease; the specific cytokine profiles observed during disease progression and the alterations documented to date in patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also review the different strategies used in Parkinson disease animal models to modulate the adaptive immune response to salvage dopaminergic neurons from cell death. After analyzing the evidence, we hypothesize the need to prime the immune system to restore natural tolerance against α-synuclein in Parkinson disease, including at the same time B and T cells, so that T cells can reprogram microglia activation to a beneficial pattern and B cell/IgG can help neurons cope with the pathological forms of α-synuclein. PMID:24670306

  6. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Aka Aktürk, Ülkü; Görek Dilektaşlı, Aslı; Şengül, Aysun; Musaffa Salepçi, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; Düger, Mustafa; Arık Taşyıkan, Hale; Durmuş Koçak, Nagihan

    2017-05-05

    Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was 'no recommendation by doctors': 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p<0.001; pneumococcal vaccination p=0.06). There was no significant correlation with age, gender, smoking and severity of disease (p>0.05). Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001). Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of

  7. Vaccination with cytokines in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Delavallée, Laure; Assier, Eric; Denys, Anne; Falgarone, Géraldine; Zagury, Jean-François; Muller, Sylvianne; Bessis, Natacha; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Most autoimmune diseases have an unknown etiology, but all involve cytokines cascade in their development. At the present time, several cytokines have been identified as major targets in various autoimmune diseases, involving the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against those cytokines. Even if MAbs are indeed efficient, the passive immunotherapies also present some disadvantages and are expensive. To counter this, several strategies have been developed, including active immunotherapy, based on the vaccination principle. The aim of such a strategy is to induce a B cell response and to obtain autoantibodies able to neutralize the interaction of the self-cytokine with its receptor. To that purpose, cytokines (entire or peptide) are either coupled with a protein-carrier or virus-like particle, or modified with foreign Th cell epitopes. DNA vaccination can also be used with cytokine sequences. This review focuses on the different vaccination strategies with cytokines (including Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)alpha, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-17) in different autoimmune diseases in preclinical studies; the benefit/risk ratio of such a strategy and the present development of clinical trials in some autoimmune diseases are also discussed.

  8. Vaccines and recommendations for their use in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tembleque, María Dolores; Corella, Carmen; Pérez-Calle, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    The patient with inflammatory bowel disease will be predisposed to numerous infections due their immune status. It is therefore important to understand the immune and serologic status at diagnosis and to put the patient into an adapted vaccination program. This program would be applied differently according to two patient groups: the immunocompromised and the non-immunocom-promised. In general, the first group would avoid the use of live-virus vaccines, and in all cases, inflammatory bowel disease treatment would take precedence over vaccine risk. It is important to individualize vaccination schedules according to the type of patient, the treatment used and the disease pattern.In addition, patient with inflammatory bowel disease should be considered for the following vaccines: varicella vaccine, human papilloma virus, influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:23538680

  9. Influenza Vaccination Rate and Reasons for Non-Vaccination in Children with Cardiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Livni, Gilat; Wainstein, Alina; Birk, Einat; Chodick, Gabriel; Levy, Itzhak

    2017-02-13

    Influenza is major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide. It poses a risk of complications in children with cardiac disease. Influenza vaccine is considered the most effective and safe means of preventing the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of influenza vaccination in children with cardiac disease and to identify the reasons for failure to vaccinate in this patient population. The study group included 186 children and their parents who attended the cardiology institute of a tertiary pediatric medical center between September and October 2012. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire covering demographics, clinical features, influenza vaccination, receipt of advice from medical professionals regarding vaccination, and personal knowledge about and attitudes toward the influenza vaccine RESULTS:: Median age of the children was 7.6 years. Thirty-six percent had been vaccinated in the previous influenza season. Vaccination was unrelated to the child's age or sex or the parents' education. Factors significantly affecting the decision of the parents to have their child vaccinated were their knowledge, beliefs, and conceptions about the vaccine and their receipt of a recommendation to do so from the pediatrician or cardiologist (P<0.001). The rate of vaccination against influenza is low in children with heart disease. Major factors encouraging vaccination are proper parental knowledge and the recommendation of the primary physician or cardiologist. Medical professionals caring for this patient population should be alerted to the need to routinely counsel parents on the importance of influenza vaccination.

  10. Use of vaccines as probes to define disease burden

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R; Scott, J Anthony G; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine probe studies have emerged in the past 15 years as a useful way to characterise disease. By contrast, traditional studies of vaccines focus on defining the vaccine effectiveness or efficacy. The underlying basis for the vaccine probe approach is that the difference in disease burden between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals can be ascribed to the vaccine-specific pathogen. Vaccine probe studies can increase understanding of a vaccine’s public health value. For instance, even when a vaccine has a seemingly low efficacy, a high baseline disease incidence can lead to a large vaccine-preventable disease burden and thus that population-based vaccine introduction would be justified. So far, vaccines have been used as probes to characterise disease syndromes caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcus, rotavirus, and early infant influenza. However, vaccine probe studies have enormous potential and could be used more widely in epidemiology, for example, to define the vaccine-preventable burden of malaria, typhoid, paediatric influenza, and dengue, and to identify causal interactions between different pathogens. PMID:24553294

  11. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Orlando; Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L.; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T.; Ganges, Llilianne; Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Majó, Natàlia; Núñez, José I.; Pérez, Lester J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV) strains worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain

  12. Isolation, antiproliferation on tumor cell and immunomodulatory activity of BSP-I, a novel bursal peptide from chicken humoral immune system.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuli; Liu, Taoqing; Wang, Fangquan; Cao, Ruibing; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Xiang; Chen, Puyan; Zhang, Hui

    2011-06-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is acknowledged as central humoral immune organ unique to birds. Our purpose was to identify the potential function of a novel bursal-derived bioactive peptide. A bursal septpeptide (BSP-I), EPASGMM, first isolated from BF, reduced MCF and Hela tumor cells proliferation, and enhanced antitumor factor p53 luciferase activity and protein expression. Further, we found the significantly immune inducing function of BSP-I on antigen-specific immune response in BALB/c mice intraperitoneally immunized with inactivated avian influence virus (AIV, H(9)N(2) subtype) vaccine, including of enhancing the antibody (IgG, the isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a) production, and stimulating cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ level, and inducing T cell immunophenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation. These results suggested that as the bioactive peptide from avian humoral immune system, various biological function of BSP-I may have far-reaching implication on immune system significance, which might provide novel insight on linking between humoral immune system and development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human cancers diseases.

  13. Vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rahier, Jean-François; Moutschen, Michel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Ranst, Marc; Louis, Edouard; Segaert, Siegfried; Masson, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given. Although the reduced quality of the immune response in patients under immunotherapy may have a negative impact on vaccination efficacy in this population, adequate humoral response to vaccination in IMID patients has been demonstrated for hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination status is best checked and updated before the start of immunomodulatory therapy: live vaccines are not contraindicated at that time and inactivated vaccines elicit an optimal immune response in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:20591834

  14. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  15. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  16. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  17. Developing therapeutic vaccines against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Drummond, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. It is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. In AD these normal proteins accumulate, leading to aggregation and a conformational change forming oligomeric and fibrillary species with a high β-sheet content. Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches result in dramatic reduction of Aβ pathology in AD animal models. However, there is much more limited evidence in human studies of significant clinical benefits from these strategies and it is becoming apparent that they may only be effective very early in AD. Vaccination targeting only tau pathology has shown benefits in some mouse studies but human studies are limited. Greater therapeutic efficacy for the next generation of vaccine approaches will likely benefit from specifically targeting the most toxic species of Aβ and tau, ideally simultaneously.

  18. Developing Therapeutic Vaccines Against Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Drummond, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. It is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. In AD these normal proteins accumulate, leading to aggregation and a conformational change forming oligomeric and fibrillary species with a high β-sheet content. Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches result in dramatic reduction of Aβ pathology in AD animal models. However, there is much more limited evidence in human studies of significant clinical benefits from these strategies and it is becoming apparent that they may only be effective very early in AD. Vaccination targeting only tau pathology has shown benefits in some mouse studies but human studies are limited. Greater therapeutic efficacy for the next generation of vaccine approaches will likely benefit from specifically targeting the most toxic species of Aβ and tau, ideally simultaneously. PMID:26577574

  19. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Vaccine Protection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many factors have the potential to influence the efficacy of Marek's disease (MD) vaccination. Some of these factors include maternal antibody, vaccine dose, age of birds at vaccination or challenge, challenge virus strain and genetic background of chickens. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  20. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  1. Prevention of pneumococcal disease through vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Angela; Bazán, Virginia

    2011-09-14

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 with an aim to accomplish them by 2015, provide concrete benchmarks for tackling extreme poverty in its many dimensions. One aim is to reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children <5 years of age. The deaths of nearly 3 million children under 5 each year worldwide can be attributed to diarrhea and pneumonia. Pneumonia, one form of pneumococcal disease, causes almost 1 in 5 deaths of children under 5 worldwide-more than 1.6 million children each year. Pneumococcal disease is preventable by vaccination; because antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide, there is a great need to promote effective pneumococcal vaccines. Vaccines differ from other types of drugs, because they are administered to healthy individuals. Therefore, a good safety profile is required, there is a large governmental regulatory role, and low efficacy is unacceptable. Other important considerations are as follows: vaccines are often used in infants, are typically given in multiple doses, the manufacturing is a larger part of cost, requires high regulatory and quality control burden and minimization of costs. From a biological standpoint, the induction of vaccine-mediated protection is a complex procedure. Long-term protection typically requires the persistence of anti-microbial antibodies and/or the generation of immune memory cells capable of rapid and effective reactivation after microbial re-exposure. Appreciation of the predominant role of B cells in the efficacy of current vaccines should not minimize the importance of generating a T cell response, as this is essential for the induction of high affinity antibodies and immune memory. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides typically elicit B cell responses in a T-independent manner. Because of this, capsular polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic in children below 2 years of age and will generate an IgM isotype-based primary response with only

  2. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine efficacy against disease related to vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types in males.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Jessen, Heiko; Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Moreira, Edson D; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron G; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth

    2013-08-20

    A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term.

  3. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 335 women who received the older MPSV type vaccines during pregnancy found no related harmful effects. Most of these women were vaccinated after the first trimester. Voluntary reports to a vaccine database also found no unusual pattern of outcomes ...

  4. Transmission-Blocking Vaccines: Focus on Anti-Vector Vaccines against Tick-Borne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Neelakanta, Girish; Sultana, Hameeda

    2015-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. Vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. With the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. In this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking vaccines) against wide range of hard and soft ticks that include Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Ornithodoros species.

  5. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

  6. Meningococcal Disease in Travelers: Vaccination Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Koch; Steffen

    1994-03-01

    The object of the study was to determine the incidence rate of meningococcal disease in travelers originating in industrialized countries and visiting developing countries. Subjects were intercontinental travelers with meningococcal diseases acquired from 1986 to 1989. Health authorities in 108 countries were contacted; data obtained by postal survey were analyzed. The 56 replying health authorities reported 13 cases of meningococcal disease in tourist or business persons as well as 40 primary and 26 secondary cases in pilgrims in Mecca. The majority of cases were due to serogroup A. The case fatality rate in both groups of patients slightly exceeded 20%. Among the tourists and business persons, several patients had stayed in hotels; in several the onset of symptoms occurred during the flight home. The incidence rate per month of stay was estimated to be 0.4 per million travelers in this group, but 2000 per million in pilgrims to Mecca. Vaccination of pilgrims to Mecca is highly recommended, presently even compulsory. For the usual traveler to endemic countries, the risk of infection abroad seems not to exceed the one at home, thus vaccination may be limited to high-risk groups, such as trekkers.

  7. Childhood vaccines and Kawasaki disease, Vaccine Safety Datalink, 1996-2006.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Weintraub, Eric S; Baggs, James M; McCarthy, Natalie L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Lee, Grace M; Klein, Nicola P; Belongia, Edward A; Jackson, Michael L; Naleway, Allison L; Nordin, James D; Hambidge, Simon J; Belay, Ermias D

    2015-01-03

    Kawasaki disease is a childhood vascular disorder of unknown etiology. Concerns have been raised about vaccinations being a potential risk factor for Kawasaki disease. Data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink were collected on children aged 0-6 years at seven managed care organizations across the United States. Defining exposure as one of several time periods up to 42 days after vaccination, we conducted Poisson regressions controlling for age, sex, season, and managed care organization to determine if rates of physician-diagnosed and verified Kawasaki disease were elevated following vaccination compared to rates during all unexposed periods. We also performed case-crossover analyses to control for unmeasured confounding. A total of 1,721,186 children aged 0-6 years from seven managed care organizations were followed for a combined 4,417,766 person-years. The rate of verified Kawasaki disease was significantly lower during the 1-42 days after vaccination (rate ratio=0.50, 95% CL=0.27-0.92) and 8-42 days after vaccination (rate ratio=0.45, 95% CL=0.22-0.90) compared to rates during unexposed periods. Breaking down the analysis by vaccination category did not identify a subset of vaccines which was solely responsible for this association. The case-crossover analyses revealed that children with Kawasaki disease had lower rates of vaccination in the 42 days prior to symptom onset for both physician-diagnosed Kawasaki disease (rate ratio=0.79, 95% CL=0.64-0.97) and verified Kawasaki disease (rate ratio=0.38, 95% CL=0.20-0.75). Childhood vaccinations' studied did not increase the risk of Kawasaki disease; conversely, vaccination was associated with a transient decrease in Kawasaki disease incidence. Verifying and understanding this potential protective effect could yield clues to the underlying etiology of Kawasaki disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Deconstructing the measure of vaccine efficacy against disease irrespective of HPV in HPV vaccine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Oliver M; Luxembourg, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were licensed by demonstrating prevention of anogenital disease caused by specific HPV types in clinical studies. Measuring the impact of HPV vaccination on the overall burden of anogenital disease (irrespective of HPV) is an important public health question which is ideally addressed in post-licensure epidemiological studies. Attempts were made to use clinical trial data for that purpose. However, the interpretation of vaccine efficacy on the endpoint of disease irrespective of HPV is not widely understood. We used the 9-valent HPV vaccine clinical program as a case study to determine the value of measuring vaccine efficacy in such endpoint. This assessment was rigorously performed by heuristic reasoning and through probability calculations. The measure of vaccine efficacy in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is driven simultaneously in opposite directions by the high estimate of prophylactic efficacy and a numerically negative estimate of risk reduction that is also a reflection of high prophylactic efficacy and no cross-protection. The vaccine efficacy estimate in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is ambiguous and difficult to interpret. Comparing this estimate across different HPV vaccine studies requires an understanding of the contributions of vaccine HPV type efficacy and the incidence of disease not related to vaccine HPV types for each study. Without such understanding, comparing studies and drawing conclusions from such comparison are highly misleading. Approaches are proposed to divide this endpoint in components that are easier to interpret. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Vaccines for prevention of group B meningococcal disease: Not your father's vaccines.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lee H

    2015-11-27

    For decades, there was no licensed vaccine for prevention of endemic capsular group B meningococcal disease, despite the availability of vaccines for prevention of the other most common meningococcal capsular groups. Recently, however, two new vaccines have been licensed for prevention of group B disease. Although immunogenic and considered to have an acceptable safety profile, there are many scientific unknowns about these vaccines, including effectiveness against antigenically diverse endemic meningococcal strains; duration of protection; whether they provide any herd protection; and whether there will be meningococcal antigenic changes that will diminish effectiveness over time. In addition, these vaccines present societal dilemmas that could influence how they are used in the U.S., including high vaccine cost in the face of a historically low incidence of meningococcal disease. These issues are discussed in this review.

  10. Vaccines for Prevention of Group B Meningococcal Disease: Not Your Father's Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lee H

    2015-12-01

    For decades, there was no licensed vaccine for prevention of endemic capsular group B meningococcal disease, despite the availability of vaccines for prevention of the other most common meningococcal capsular groups. Recently, however, two new vaccines have been licensed for prevention of group B disease. Although immunogenic and considered to have an acceptable safety profile, there are many scientific unknowns about these vaccines, including effectiveness against antigenically diverse endemic meningococcal strains; duration of protection; whether they provide any herd protection; and whether there will be meningococcal antigenic changes that will diminish effectiveness over time. In addition, these vaccines present societal dilemmas that could influence how they are used in the U.S., including high vaccine cost in the face of a historically low incidence of meningococcal disease. These issues are discussed in this review.

  11. Accelerating Next Generation Vaccine Development for Global Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Koff, Wayne C; Burton, Dennis R.; R.Johnson, Philip; Walker, Bruce D.; King, Charles R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Ahmed, Rafi; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan; Plotkin, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vaccines are among the greatest successes in the history of public health. However, past strategies for vaccine development are unlikely to succeed in the future against major global diseases such as AIDS, TB, and malaria. For such diseases, the correlates of protection are poorly defined and the pathogens evade immune detection and/or exhibit extensive genetic variability. Recent advances have heralded in a new era of vaccine discovery. However, translation of these advances into vaccines remains impeded by lack of understanding of key vaccinology principles in humans. We review these advances towards vaccine discovery and suggest that for accelerating successful vaccine development, new human immunology-based clinical research initiatives be implemented with the goal of elucidating and more effectively inducing vaccine-induced protective immune responses. PMID:23723240

  12. Influenza vaccination perception and coverage among patients with malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Lagler, Heimo; Raderer, Markus; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Zielinski, Christoph; Herkner, Harald; Burgmann, Heinz

    2015-03-30

    Patients with malignancies are at increased risk of serious influenza related complications with higher rates of hospitalization and mortality than healthy cohorts. Although annual vaccination against influenza infection is recommended, vaccination rates among cancer patients are apparently low. The reasons for the low compliance to influenza vaccine and the influenza vaccination rate among Austrian cancer patients have not been studied in detail yet. From July 1, 2013 to October 31, 2013, 444 patients treated in the outpatient departments of the Clinical Division of Oncology and the Clinical Division of Haematology and Haemostaseology of the General Hospital Vienna participated in a survey on different aspects of influenza vaccination. In total, only 80 out of 444 patients (18%) had received influenza vaccination in the previous year. The influenza vaccination rate was higher amongst patients with haematological malignancies (22%) compared to patients with solid tumours (13%). Higher age was significantly associated with a higher probability for being vaccinated. Collecting information about influenza vaccination primarily from media or the internet was not significantly associated with influenza vaccination status. Information through a medical consultation or a recommendation by the attending physician resulted in significant higher influenza vaccination coverage rates. Only 199 out of the 444 patients (44.8%) were informed by a physician about influenza vaccination and only 18 out of 337 patients (5.3%) with a diagnosis of a malignant disease were informed by their treating oncologist. The main reasons for influenza vaccination denial were concerns about interaction with the malignant disease and potential side-effects. Information about influenza vaccination during a medical consultation and a clear recommendation by the attending physician are highly predictive for acceptance of influenza vaccination. Increased awareness among physicians, especially

  13. Immune responses to pertussis vaccines and disease.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2014-04-01

    In this article we discuss the following: (1) acellular vaccines are immunogenic, but responses vary by vaccine; (2) pertussis antibody levels rapidly wane but promptly increase after vaccination; (3) whole-cell vaccines vary in immunogenicity and efficacy; (4) whole-cell vaccines and naturally occurring pertussis generate predominantly T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, whereas acellular vaccines generate mixed Th1/Th2 responses; (5) active transplacental transport of pertussis antibody is documented; (6) neonatal immunization with diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine has been associated with some suppression of pertussis antibody, but suppression has been seen less often with acellular vaccines; (7) memory B cells persist in both acellular vaccine- and whole cell vaccine-primed children; and (8) in acellular vaccine-primed children, T-cell responses remain elevated and do not increase with vaccine boosters, whereas in whole-cell vaccine-primed children, these responses can be increased by vaccine boosting and natural exposure. Despite these findings, challenges remain in understanding the immune response to pertussis vaccines.

  14. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    PubMed

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  15. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  16. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation.

  17. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation. PMID:24755623

  18. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  19. The use of vaccination in emergency animal disease responses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses the potential of vaccination to assist in the management and eradication of emergency animal diseases (EADs), as a complementary measure to either minimise the scale of, or to avoid, stamping out. Vaccination is only one of many tools available for disease control, especially for EADs. The decision on whether to use a vaccine in the face of an outbreak can be controversial, as policy-makers in the United Kingdom found during the foot and mouth disease outbreak in 2001. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations of using vaccination are discussed, as are strategies for EAD vaccination and the importance of contingency planning. The author identifies the potential for vaccines to lead to various problems, including encouraging genetic drift in field strains of pathogens, the risk of reassortment with naturally occurring pathogens, or the creation of a carrier state in an infected animal.

  20. Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Hepatitis B vaccine in celiac disease: yesterday, today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Cimino, Carla; Di Dio, Giovanna; Lionetti, Elena; La Rosa, Mario; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2013-02-14

    Some studies showed that in celiac patients the immunological response to vaccination is similar to that one found in general population except for vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV). The non-responsiveness to HBV vaccine has also been described in healthy people, nevertheless the number of non-responders has been demonstrated to be higher in celiac disease (CD) patients than in healthy controls. Several hypothesis explaining this higher rate of unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine in CD patients have been described, such as the genetic hypothesis, according with CD patients carrying the disease-specific haplotype HLA-B8, DR3, and DQ2, show a lower response to HBV vaccine both in clinical expressed CD patients and in healthy people carrying the same haplotype. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the gluten intake during the vaccination seems to influence the response to the same vaccine. Moreover, it has been demonstrated a possible genetic predisposition to hepatitis B vaccine non-responsiveness likely due to the presence of specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes and specific single nucleotide polymorphism in genes of cytokine/cytokine receptors and toll like receptors, but the pathogenic mechanism responsible for this low responsiveness still remains unclear. The aim of this review is to focus on the possible pathogenic causes of unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine in CD patients and to propose an alternative vaccination schedule in order to improve the responsiveness to HBV vaccine in this at-risk patients.

  2. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andre, F E; Booy, R; Bock, H L; Clemens, J; Datta, S K; John, T J; Lee, B W; Lolekha, S; Peltola, H; Ruff, T A; Santosham, M; Schmitt, H J

    2008-02-01

    In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health.

  3. Current and future vaccines and vaccination strategies against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) respiratory disease of poultry.

    PubMed

    García, Maricarmen

    2016-12-24

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease. However, the CEO vaccines can regain virulence and become the source of outbreaks. Recombinant viral vector vaccines, the second generation of GaHV-1 vaccines, were first introduced in the early 2000's. These are Fowl Pox virus (FPV) and Herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vectors expressing one or multiple GaHV-1 immunogenic proteins. Recombinant viral vector vaccines are considered a much safer alternative because they do not regain virulence. In the face of challenge, they improve bird performance and ameliorate clinical signs of the disease but fail to reduce shedding of the challenge virus increasing the likelihood of outbreaks. At the moment, several new strategies are being evaluated to improve both live attenuated and viral vector vaccines. Potential new live vaccines attenuated by deletion of genes associated with virulence or by selection of CEO viral subpopulations that do not exhibit increased virulence upon passages in birds are being evaluated. Also new vector alternatives to express GaHV-1 glycoproteins in Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) or in modified very virulent (vv) serotype I Marek's disease virus (MDV) were developed and evaluated.

  4. The consequences of vaccination with the Johne's disease vaccine, Gudair, on diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Coad, M; Clifford, D J; Vordermeier, H M; Whelan, A O

    2013-03-09

    The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin skin-test (SICCT) remains the primary surveillance tool to diagnose bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the UK. Therefore, understanding the potential confounding influences on this test is important. This study investigated the effects of vaccination against Johne's disease (JD) on the immunodiagnosis of BTB using a Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination model as a surrogate of M bovis infection. Calves were vaccinated with either BCG (an attenuated live vaccine) or the JD vaccine, Gudair (a heat-inactivated suspension of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis), or a combination of both, and SICCT responses were measured approximately six and 12 weeks postvaccination. Animals vaccinated with Gudair only were negative to the SICCT test, thus supporting the specificity of the SICCT test following Gudair vaccination. However, while animals vaccinated with BCG-only demonstrated a bovine tuberculin-biased response as expected, covaccination with Gudair resulted in a bias towards avian tuberculin in the SICCT test. Therefore, our model demonstrates the potential of the Gudair vaccine to reduce the sensitivity of the SICCT. In addition, while we also demonstrate that Gudair vaccination can compromise the specificity of serological tests to detect JD, the specificity of defined M bovis antigens in serological or interferon gamma-based blood assays was not compromised by the vaccine.

  5. Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for Development of Human and Veterinary Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral vaccine vectors have shown to be effective in inducing a robust immune response against the vaccine antigen. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector against human and veterinary pathogens. Avirulent NDV strains LaSota and B1 have long track records of safety and efficacy. Therefore, use of these strains as vaccine vectors is highly safe in avian and non-avian species. NDV replicates efficiently in the respiratory track of the host and induces strong local and systemic immune responses against the foreign antigen. As a vaccine vector, NDV can accommodate foreign sequences with a good degree of stability and as a RNA virus, there is limited possibility for recombination with host cell DNA. Using NDV as a vaccine vector in humans offers several advantages over other viral vaccine vectors. NDV is safe in humans due to host range restriction and there is no pre-existing antibody to NDV in the human population. NDV is antigenically distinct from common human pathogens. NDV replicates to high titer in a cell line acceptable for human vaccine development. Therefore, NDV is an attractive vaccine vector for human pathogens for which vaccines are currently not available. NDV is also an attractive vaccine vector for animal pathogens. PMID:27384578

  6. Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for Development of Human and Veterinary Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2016-07-04

    Viral vaccine vectors have shown to be effective in inducing a robust immune response against the vaccine antigen. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector against human and veterinary pathogens. Avirulent NDV strains LaSota and B1 have long track records of safety and efficacy. Therefore, use of these strains as vaccine vectors is highly safe in avian and non-avian species. NDV replicates efficiently in the respiratory track of the host and induces strong local and systemic immune responses against the foreign antigen. As a vaccine vector, NDV can accommodate foreign sequences with a good degree of stability and as a RNA virus, there is limited possibility for recombination with host cell DNA. Using NDV as a vaccine vector in humans offers several advantages over other viral vaccine vectors. NDV is safe in humans due to host range restriction and there is no pre-existing antibody to NDV in the human population. NDV is antigenically distinct from common human pathogens. NDV replicates to high titer in a cell line acceptable for human vaccine development. Therefore, NDV is an attractive vaccine vector for human pathogens for which vaccines are currently not available. NDV is also an attractive vaccine vector for animal pathogens.

  7. Model for product development of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: a vaccine against human hookworm.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brown, Ami Shah

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the advances in product development and technology transfer of the vaccine against human hookworm, with particular emphasis on the lessons learned and the challenges of developing a vaccine in the nonprofit sector. The comprehensive approach to vaccine development established by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI) identifies key operational and technical aspects that are essential for a successful partnership with a developing country vaccine manufacturer. This article also highlights the importance of a global access roadmap to guide the vaccine development program. The advancement of new products for the control of neglected tropical diseases portends great challenges for global access, including aspects related to vaccine design, product development and manufacture, vaccine introduction and distribution, financing, knowledge dissemination and intellectual property management. With only three vaccines for neglected tropical diseases in clinical trials - hookworm, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis - we are at the nascent stages of developing vaccines for neglected populations. Product development public-private partnerships, such as the HHVI, continue to show great promise on this front and will eventually provide significant control tools for achieving millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, as well as child and maternal health.

  8. Serological response in broiler chicks to different commercial Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, D A; Shaw, D; Sivanandan, V; Barbour, E K; Maheshkumar, S; Newman, J A; Newman, L

    1991-01-01

    Broiler chicks were administered vaccines against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis (both Arkansas and Massachusetts strains) at 2 weeks of age as either primary or secondary vaccinations. The vaccine was administered as a spray at 2 weeks of age to chicks that had received Newcastle disease vaccine alone, bronchitis vaccine alone, both vaccines in combination, or no vaccine at day 1 in the hatchery. The Newcastle disease hemagglutination-inhibition response was significantly lower in chicks receiving Newcastle disease vaccine as a secondary vaccine at 2 weeks than in those receiving the vaccine as a primary vaccination at that age. In contrast, the bronchitis hemagglutination-inhibition response was significantly higher in chicks receiving bronchitis vaccine as a secondary vaccination at 2 weeks than in those receiving the vaccine as a primary vaccination at that age.

  9. Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Salmon, Daniel A.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Parents hesitant to vaccinate their children may delay routine immunizations or seek exemptions from state vaccine mandates. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have drawn attention to this phenomenon. Improved understanding of the association between vaccine refusal and the epidemiology of these diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE To review the published literature to evaluate the association between vaccine delay, refusal, or exemption and the epidemiology of measles and pertussis, 2 vaccine-preventable diseases with recent US outbreaks. EVIDENCE REVIEW Search of PubMed through November 30, 2015, for reports of US measles outbreaks that have occurred since measles was declared eliminated in the United States (after January 1, 2000), endemic and epidemic pertussis since the lowest point in US pertussis incidence (after January 1, 1977), and for studies that assessed disease risk in the context of vaccine delay or exemption. FINDINGS We identified 18 published measles studies (9 annual summaries and 9 outbreak reports), which described 1416 measles cases (individual age range, 2 weeks-84 years; 178 cases younger than 12 months) and more than half (56.8%) had no history of measles vaccination. Of the 970 measles cases with detailed vaccination data, 574 cases were unvaccinated despite being vaccine eligible and 405 (70.6%) of these had nonmedical exemptions (eg, exemptions for religious or philosophical reasons, as opposed to medical contraindications; 41.8%of total). Among 32 reports of pertussis outbreaks, which included 10 609 individuals for whom vaccination status was reported (age range, 10 days-87 years), the 5 largest statewide epidemics had substantial proportions (range, 24%–45%) of unvaccinated or undervaccinated individuals. However, several pertussis outbreaks also occurred in highly vaccinated populations, indicating waning immunity. Nine reports (describing 12 outbreaks) provided detailed vaccination data on

  10. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals*

    PubMed Central

    Lennette, Edwin H.

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations. PMID:6976841

  11. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    PubMed

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  12. Vaccine administration in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza; Prada, Elisabetta; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2014-11-20

    Pediatric patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) on conservative treatment, on dialysis, and those with renal transplantation are at a higher risk for infectious diseases as the result of impaired immune responses against infectious agents. Infections in these patients can have drastic consequences for disease morbidity and mortality. Immunization is a crucial preventive strategy for disease management in this pediatric population. However, vaccination coverage among children with CKD remains low due to safety concerns and doubts about vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. In this study, we reviewed why children with CKD are at higher risk of infections, the importance of vaccinations among these children, barriers to vaccinations, and recommend the best vaccination schedules. Overall, vaccines have acceptable immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety profiles in children with CKD. However, in some cases, the protective antibody levels induced by vaccines and the benefits and risks of booster vaccine doses must be individually managed. Furthermore, close contacts and household members of these children should complete age-appropriate vaccination schedules to increase the child's indirect protection.

  13. Rotavirus: disease and vaccine update, 2007.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Samuel

    2007-02-01

    Rotavirus infection is a ubiquitous illness, infecting the vast majority of children worldwide in the first 5 years of life. Rotavirus is one of the major causes of severe diarrhea in infants and young children throughout the developing and developed world. An estimated 500,000 deaths per year occur, with the burden of morbidity and mortality highest in the poorest nations. Two new oral, live, attenuated vaccines have recently shown efficacy and safety in clinical trials, and one of these, RotaTeq, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on February 3, 2006. RotaTeq is recommended for general use by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Family Practice, and American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Improving vaccine trials in infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lipsitch, Marc; Eyal, Nir

    2017-07-14

    Unprecedented global effort is under way to facilitate the testing of countermeasures in infectious disease emergencies. Better understanding of the various options for trial design is needed in advance of outbreaks, as is preliminary global agreement on the most suitable designs for the various scenarios. What would enhance the speed, validity, and ethics of clinical studies of such countermeasures? Focusing on studies of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in emergencies, we highlight three needs: for formal randomized trials-even in most emergencies; for individually randomized trials-even in many emergencies; and for six areas of innovation in trial methodology. These needs should inform current updates of protocols and roadmaps. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Protection of broiler breeders by an inactivated combined water-in-oil-in-water viral vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bidin, Z; Cajavec, S; Sladić, D; Ergotić, N; Cizelj, A; Pokrić, B

    1998-01-01

    A four-component vaccine, prepared by combining the single vaccines, contains subunits of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses, as well as whole inactivated infectious bursal disease and egg drop syndrome viruses. The vaccine is prepared in the form of a low-viscosity water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with low mineral oil content. Heavy breeders were vaccinated at the age of 20 weeks by intramuscular administration of 0.5 ml vaccine/bird in an experiment carried out under field conditions, involving 5000 female and 450 male parents. The birds had previously been vaccinated with live vaccines according to an obligatory field vaccination programme. Vaccination with the WOWE vaccine near the point of lay elicited serological responses protecting both the parents and their progeny. Each of the antigens administered in the four-component vaccine was as effective as the respective single component vaccine. The mortality, recorded during the 31-week experimental period, was 6.2%. Mortality and morbidity were not triggered by viruses against which vaccination was carried out. Egg production was not affected by the vaccination and was 170.2 eggs per hen during the 28-week production period.

  16. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  17. Influenza vaccination in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are considered at higher risk of influenza-related complications and are listed worldwide among the subjects for whom yearly influenza vaccination is strongly recommended. However, influenza vaccination coverage of patients with ESRD is significantly lower than desired. This paper explores why compliance with official recommendations for influenza vaccination is poor in patients with ESRD and analyzes the true risk of infection as well as the immunogenicity, the effectiveness and the safety of influenza vaccination in these patients. Epidemiological and clinical data support the importance of influenza in conditioning clinical deterioration of patients with ESRD, particularly in relation to their level of immunosuppression. However, the variable levels of immunodeficiency detected in patients with ESRD may reduce the immune response to influenza vaccination, which appears to be lower than that usually found in healthy subjects. However, few studies are available, and they are difficult to compare for several reasons. Additionally, limited data have been collected on influenza vaccine effectiveness, although the available studies support positive results of vaccination on outcomes of severe disease. Despite such limitations, it is important to highlight that all the available studies have confirmed the good safety and tolerability of inactivated influenza vaccines. These findings, together with the risks associated with influenza in these patients, support annual influenza vaccination in patients with ESRD as well as vaccination of their close contacts and should be presented in educational programs organized for nephrologists and patient associations.

  18. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.

    PubMed

    Sá E Silva, Mariana; Susta, Leonardo; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens.

  19. Vaccination recommendations for adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Eperon, Gilles; Ribi, Camillo; Kyburz, Diego; van Gompel, Fons; Visser, Leo G; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Hatz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRDs) treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and, in particular, biological therapies is also rising. The immunosuppressants, as well as the AIIRD itself, increase the risk of infection in this population. Thus, preventing infections by means of vaccination is of utmost importance. New Swiss vaccination recommendations for AIIRD patients were initiated by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and prepared by a working group of the Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues as well as by consultation of international experts. A literature search was performed in electronic databases (Cochrane, Medline, PubMed, Embase). In addition, unpublished literature was identified through a targeted website search of relevant organisations and international conferences dealing with vaccination, infectious diseases and rheumatology. Although data are scarce, the following main points were retrieved from the literature. Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced in AIIRD patients, especially if they are under immunosuppressive therapy. Rituximab and abatacept appear to reduce significantly immune responses after vaccination. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy owing to safety concerns. Specific exceptions, as well as time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after interruption of an immunosuppressive therapy, have been formulated in this article. More evidence regarding the immunogenicity and safety of vaccinations in AIIRD patients under various therapies is needed. Vaccination recommendations should be updated on a regular basis, as more scientific data will become available.

  20. [Pneumococcal disease and its prevention. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine].

    PubMed

    de Arístegui Fernández, J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Martín, F; Hernández-Sampelayo, T; Moraga Llop, F A; Rodrigo Gonzalo De Liria, C; Ruiz Contreras, J

    2002-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality. Two age groups show a greater incidence and severity of the disease: children under the age of 5 years (mainly during the first 2 years of life) and adults aged more than 65 years. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which was commercialized in Spain in June 2001, is efficacious in children aged less than 2 years and, unlike the non-conjugate 23-valent vaccine, it induces immunological memory. In Spain the heptavalent vaccine covers 80 % of serotypes causing pneumococcal invasive disease and acute otitis media in children aged 2-59 months. The heptavalent vaccine has been shown to be immunogenic, efficacious and safe. It has proven efficacy in the prevention of invasive disease caused by the seven vaccine serotypes. In addition, it significantly decreases pneumonia and also prevent acute otitis media. The vaccine is preferably indicated in children aged less than 2 years; children aged 2-5 years may also benefit from the vaccine but those in risk groups should be prioritized. Greater knowledge of the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and the efficiency of this vaccine in Spain will determine whether it should be included in the immunization schedule.

  1. [Current data on vaccines for respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Perronne, C

    2008-08-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a major reason of antibiotic prescription. Some of these infections can be prevented by vaccination. In France, the main new data concerns the following vaccines: Haemophilus influenzae: besides the vaccine effectiveness H. influenzae b, that is a virulent capsulated strain, a polyvalent vaccine effective against non-capsulated strains, responsible for otitis media, is under development. Pneumococci: the conjugated heptavalent vaccine recommended for all infants in the USA since the year 2000 allowed a dramatic drop in the incidence of invasive infections and of otitis media due to pneumococci, with an indirect impact reducing the frequency of pneumonia in adults. Influenza: the vaccinal coverage remains insufficient in people targeted by recommendations, particularly in health care workers. New recommendations concern some travel agents, people living in close contact with infants at risk and women immediately after delivery of a newborn at risk. Pertussis: the vaccinal coverage of preadolescents is insufficient. Vaccination of adults is mainly recommended for people who are expected to be in close contact with newborns (health care workers, parents). Tuberculosis: BCG vaccination is no longer mandatory, but is now strongly recommended for all infants in the greater Paris area, French Guyana, and for all infants at risk, especially immigrants depending on their native country. Varicella: universal vaccination is not recommended. To prevent respiratory complications in adults, the vaccine is now recommended for all varicella naive teenagers.

  2. Prospects for preventative vaccines against prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2009-01-01

    Emergence of variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans due to infection from bovine spongiform encephalopathy contaminated beef and recent reports of human-to-human transmission of vCJD via blood transfusion have raised great concern about an epidemic of vCJD. The disease is currently difficult to diagnose during pre-clinical stages and requires a very long incubation period for neurological symptoms to be evident. This therefore suggests that the disease is already latently spreading and that opportunity for infection is thus growing among human populations. Interestingly, passive immunization with antibodies against prion protein (PrP), a major component of the prion infectious agents, was shown to protect mice from infection, indicating the possibility of prion vaccines. However, PrP is a host protein therefore immune tolerance to PrP has hampered development of them. Here, the so far reported attempts to overcome the tolerance to elicit protective immunity to prions are briefly reviewed.

  3. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... be spread from animals to people. For example, rabies is a serious, often fatal, disease that can ... animals to people. By vaccinating your pets for rabies, you are protecting your family as well as ...

  4. Vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia T; Luz, Paula M; Coelho, Flavio; Galvani, Alison P; Struchiner, Claudio

    2007-12-22

    Concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. In the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). The model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are shown in the context of the emergence of urban yellow fever in Brazil. The model decomposes the individual's choice about vaccinating or not into uncertain components. The choice is modelled as a function of (i) the risk of a vaccine adverse event, (ii) the risk of an outbreak and (iii) the probability of receiving the vaccine or escaping serious disease given an outbreak. Additionally, we explore how this decision varies as a function of mass vaccination strategies of varying efficiency. If disease is considered possible but unlikely (risk of outbreak less than 0.1), delay vaccination is a good strategy if a reasonably efficient campaign is expected. The advantage of waiting increases as the rate of transmission is reduced (low R0) suggesting that vector control programmes and emergency vaccination preparedness work together to favour this strategy. The opposing strategy, vaccinating pre-emptively, is favoured if the probability of yellow fever urbanization is high or if expected R0 is high and emergency action is expected to be slow. In summary, our model highlights the nonlinear dependence of an individual's best strategy on the preparedness of a response to a yellow fever outbreak or other emergent infectious disease.

  5. Experimental risk assessment of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) used as live vaccines were assessed for: 1) the potential for recombinant NDV-vectored vaccines (rNDV) containing the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) H5 gene to recombine with low pathogenicity H5, H6 and H9 AIV strains, and originate a virus with increased vi...

  6. DNA vaccination as a treatment for chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan Min; Alexander, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is one of the major health problems worldwide. DNA vaccination delivers plasmid DNA encoding the target gene to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, we describe the methods of CD40 DNA vaccine enhanced by dendritic cell (DC) targeting on the development of Heymann nephritis (HN), a rat model of human membranous nephropathy.

  7. Controlling Johne's disease: Vaccination is the way forward

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this article, we summarize current research on the state of vaccination against Johne’s disease. We promote the use of live attenuated vaccine candidates over subunit approaches, but don’t wholly discount other strategies. We conclude by suggesting new research directions that may make the highes...

  8. Classification of transmission risk of vaccine-preventable diseases based on vaccination indicators in Brazilian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Braz, Rui Moreira; Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; Teixeira, Antônia Maria da Silva; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    to describe the transmission risk classification of vaccine-preventable diseases in Brazilian municipalities. this was a descriptive epidemiologic study using 2014 data of the Brazilian National Immunization Program Information System; the vaccine coverage indicators were used to classify the transmission risk of vaccine-preventable diseases in the municipalities. of the 5,570 Brazilian municipalities, 12.0% were classified as very low risk, 29.6% as low risk, 2.2% as medium risk, 54.3% as high risk and 1.8% as very high risk. the vaccination coverage surveillance allowed to identify most of the municipalities in high risk situation and the minority of children living in municipalities with appropriate coverage; the vaccination coverage surveillance using indicators of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) is a new tool for identifying priority areas where the actions can be more successful for health managers and improve the quality and the success of the immunizations program.

  9. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  10. DNA vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: what if?

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel and powerful method for vaccine research, colloquially known as DNA vaccines, involves the deliberate introduction into tissues of a DNA plasmid carrying an antigen-coding gene that transfects cells in vivo and results in an immune response. DNA vaccines have several distinct advantages, which include ease of manipulation, use of a generic technology, simplicity of manufacture, and chemical and biological stability. In addition, DNA vaccines are a great leveler among re-searchers around the world because they provide unprecedented ease of experi-mentation. To facilitate diffusion of information, an Internet site has been established called THE DNA VACCINE WEB (URL:http://www.genweb.com/dnavax/dnavax.html). In this review, a brief survey is undertaken of the experimental models and preclinical work on DNA vaccines to contribute to a greater awareness of the possibilities for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:8903226

  11. [Aerosol vaccination against dangerous infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, A V; Marinin, L I; Vorob'ev, A A

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of development of the aerosol method, one of the mass ways of human vaccination. Analysis of materials suggests that Russia has designed highly effective live plague, tularemia, and anthrax vaccines that can be used to immunize in different ways: by epicutaneous and subcutaneous, and inhalation routes. The advantages and disadvantages of aerosol vaccination are shown. The correct use of this method provides a substantial effect when the epidemic situation is complicated and when there is a need for vaccination of large cohorts at the earliest possible time.

  12. Meningococcal disease: risk for international travellers and vaccine strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2008-07-01

    International travel and migration facilitate the rapid intercontinental spread of meningococcal disease. Serogroup A and, less so serogroup C, have been responsible for epidemics in the past (mainly in Africa). In recent years, W135 has emerged (first in Saudi Arabia, then in West Africa) as a serogroup that requires attention. Serogroups X and Y are infrequent, but associated with slowly rising trends. There are significant variations in the incidence of meningococcal disease and the distribution of serogroups responsible for meningococcal disease, both geographically and with time. Vaccine strategies need to address this variation, and broad coverage against all serogroups for which vaccines are currently available should be offered to travellers. Tetravalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines are limited by their poor immunogenicity in small infants and by the lack of long-term protection. In contrast, the novel tetravalent conjugate vaccine that is currently only available in North America is immunogenic in young infants, induces long-term protection and reduces nasopharyngeal carriage. The tetravalent conjugate meningococcal vaccine will be a leap forward in the control of meningococcal epidemics in affected countries. It will also boost the uptake of meningococcal vaccines in travellers because the duration of protection is longer and it eliminates the problem of immune hyporesponsiveness of serogroup C with repeated dosing. Current vaccine recommendations are to vaccinate all Hajj pilgrims, all travellers to areas with current outbreaks, travellers to the SubSaharan meningitis belt, and individuals with certain medical conditions.

  13. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field.

  14. Pneumococcal vaccination rates in VHA patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Case, David J; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Herrera, Henry R; Pfanner, Timothy P

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD.A cross-sectional observational study was employed utilizing administrative data extracts from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify patients diagnosed with IBD per International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification codes. Their pneumococcal vaccine histories were determined from Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data were aggregated to the patient level and subjected to multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with receipt of the vaccination and 1-year mortality; survival analyses extended follow-up to as much as 4 years following IBD diagnosis.From October 2004 to September 2009, 49,350 patients were diagnosed with IBD in the VHA. Incidence was approximately 6000 cases/y. Patients averaged 62 years (±15, range 19-98) with 45% aged 65 or older. Approximately 6% were women, 21% were highly disabled from a military service-connected condition, 46% had hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia, and 18% diabetes. Only 20% of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination including 5% vaccinated prior to IBD diagnosis, 2% on the date of diagnosis, and 13% subsequently. Being married, living outside the Northeast, and having more comorbidities were associated with vaccination before IBD diagnosis; models of vaccination at or after diagnosis demonstrated poor fit: little better than chance. Vaccinations before, after, and at diagnosis were protective against 1-year mortality adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. Living in the South was an independent risk factor for death among IBD

  15. Interaction between chicken anaemia virus and live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    De Boer, G F; Van Roozelaar, D J; Moormann, R J; Jeurissen, S H; Wijngaard, J C; Hilbink, F; Koch, G

    1994-06-01

    Three groups of 150 SPF chickens were spray-vaccinated with live Newcastle disease La Sota-type vaccine (clone 30) at one day of age, and another three groups were NDV spray-vaccinated at 10 days of age. In each of the two series of NDV-vaccinated groups, one group also received at day-old 10(5) TCID50 of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) also and another group 10(5) TCID50 of CAV plus a low dose of virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). After one week, chickens of the groups which had been NDV-vaccinated and CAV-infected at day-old, with or without MDV, showed severe respiratory distress, conjunctivitis, drooping wings and ruffled feathers. After two weeks, wet and inflamed eyes were observed. After three weeks the respiratory problems were overcome, but the entire group showed retarded growth as compared with the group which had received NDV vaccine only. The 'respiratory sounds' were milder in the chickens NDV-vaccinated at 10 days of age, about 10% of the chickens showing retarded growth. Mortality in CAV-infected chickens which had received NDV vaccine at day-old was above 30% at 4 weeks of age, and between 15 and 20% when NDV had been administered at the age of 10 days, and was 5% in the two NDC vaccine control groups. Decreased haematocrit levels were measured in all four CAV-infected groups at 14 days of age. In serum samples collected for 6 weeks at weekly intervals from chickens of the six groups, no differences were observed between HI antibody titres against NDV virus. Thus, dual infection with CAV and live NDV vaccine did not impair the humoral immune response against attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine.

  16. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    PubMed

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  17. DNA vaccines: a rational design against parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana A; Rodgers, Jean; Atouguia, Jorge; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2010-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are one of the most devastating causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although immunization against these infections would be an ideal solution, the development of effective vaccines has been hampered by specific challenges posed by parasitic pathogens. Plasmid-based DNA vaccines may prove to be promising immunization tools in this area because vectors can be designed to integrate several antigens from different stages of the parasite life cycle or different subspecies; vaccines, formulations and immunization protocols can be tuned to match the immune response that offers protective immunity; and DNA vaccination is an affordable platform for developing countries. Partial and full protective immunity have been reported following DNA vaccination against the most significant parasitic diseases in the world.

  18. [Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Graubner, U B; Liese, J; Belohradsky, B H

    2001-09-01

    Vaccination has been an important part of antiinfectious prophylaxis in pediatric oncology comprising immunizations with special indication like varicella vaccine and follow-up of routine immunizations after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Studies from the last decade demonstrate a loss of long term immunity to immunization preventable disease in most patients with chemotherapy and BMT who had received appropriate immunization before. So far routine vaccination programs following intensive chemotherapy have not been studied prospectively. Immunization programs following BMT have shown that immunizations with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and influenza vaccine - given at least 12 months after transplantation - are safe and effective. Vaccination with live attenuated trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella in patients without chronic "graft versus host disease" (GVHD) and without ongoing immunosuppressive therapy, performed 24 months after transplantation, proved to be safe too. Recommendations have been published by 5 different official groups: (1.) "Ständige Impfkommission" (STIKO) and (2.) "Deutsche Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Infektiologie" (DGPI) recommend varicella vaccine für children with leukemia in remission for at least 12 months, for children with solid tumors and for patients getting an organ transplantation. Both societies do not comment on the schedule of booster vaccinations (with live attenuated vaccines) after the end of chemotherapy and after BMT. (3.) "Qualitätssicherungsgruppe" der "Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie" (QS-GPOH) recommends immunization with nonliving vaccines when the patient is off therapy for at least 3 months and immunization with live attenuated vaccines when he is off therapy for at least 6 months. This group does not comment on varicella vaccine which has been controversial among pediatric oncologists. (4.) The " Infectious

  19. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    PubMed

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-03-03

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully.

  20. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    PubMed Central

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully. PMID:26337648

  1. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  2. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  3. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Conclusion Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity. PMID:27784992

  4. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People's Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity.

  5. [Pneumococcal disease in adults: Risk levels and vaccine recommendations].

    PubMed

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga

    2017-02-01

    There are currently two anti-pneumococcal vaccines available for use in adults: the classical 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) and the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The main advantage of the PCV13 is the potentially better immunogenicity, with its major disadvantages being the higher cost and the lower serotype-coverage than the PPV23. The currently available scientific evidence supports the following basic recommendations: (i)among adults with greatest risk (basically asplenia and immunocompromised), a dual vaccination (PCV13+PPV23) is recommended; (ii)among adults with increased risk (basically persons >65years-old and patients 15-64years with chronic pulmonary or heart disease, diabetes and/or alcoholism), a single vaccination with PPV23 is recommended (single dose in primo-vaccinated >65years; re-vaccination at 5-10years in those primo-vaccinated <65years-old); and (iii) in the rest of adults (risk normal/low) vaccination is not recommended.

  6. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  7. Efficacy of vaccination with La Sota strain vaccine to control Newcastle disease in village chickens in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sulochana; Dhawan, Mamta; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste

    2017-02-01

    The efficacy of vaccination with Newcastle disease (ND) La Sota and R2B (Mukteswar) modified live strain vaccines was determined by experimental challenge and with ND La Sota vaccine under field conditions in Nepal. Booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine after a primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine, induced a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 5.0 log2 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) units, compared to a GMT of 6.0 log2 HI units following booster vaccination with R2B vaccine 1 month after primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine. Both vaccines provided 100% protection against challenge with a local field ND strain. Furthermore, booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine induced protective levels of antibody after field use in villages in Jhapa, and no outbreaks of ND occurred during the study period. The ND La Sota modified live vaccine is immunogenic and efficacious and is a suitable vaccine for use in vaccination programmes in village chickens in the rural areas of Nepal.

  8. Vaccination coverage and susceptibility against vaccine-preventable diseases of healthcare students in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karageorgou, Katerina; Katerelos, Panos; Efstathiou, Andreas; Theodoridou, Maria; Maltezou, Helena C

    2014-09-03

    Vaccination of healthcare students is important to protect them from acquiring and transmitting vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) to high-risk patients and other healthcare workers (HCWs). The aim of the current study was to estimate the vaccination coverage, the susceptibility against VPDs, the knowledge and attitudes toward vaccinations of healthcare students studying at the Athens Technological Educational Institute. The study was conducted during the academic year 2012-2013 using a standardized questionnaire. The mean knowledge score (correct answers) of healthcare students about the vaccines that are recommended by the Greek Ministry of Health for HCWs was 41%. Completed vaccination rates range from 19.6% for varicella to 80.2% for tetanus-diphtheria. A history of measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or pertussis was reported by 8.2%, 4%, 5.4%, 70.4%, 1.5%, 0%, and 3% of students, respectively. Susceptibility rates were 20.5% against measles, 26.4% against mumps, 13.9% against rubella, 15.7% against varicella, 47.8% against hepatitis A, 17.3% against hepatitis B, and 19.8% against tetanus-diphtheria. Mandatory vaccination of HCWs was supported by 145 (96.7%) students. There are significant immunity gaps against all VPDs among healthcare students in Athens. A system to easily identify non-immune students should be established in association with efficient reminder systems. Education of healthcare students about VPDs and vaccines will improve their attitudes toward vaccinations and their vaccination coverage. Mandatory vaccinations should be considered for HCWs in order to promote safety within healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Teenagers' understandings of and attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hilton, S; Patterson, C; Smith, E; Bedford, H; Hunt, K

    2013-05-24

    To examine immunisation information needs of teenagers we explored understandings of vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases, attitudes towards immunisation and experiences of immunisation. Diseases discussed included nine for which vaccines are currently offered in the UK (human papillomavirus, meningitis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, whooping cough, measles, mumps and rubella), and two not currently included in the routine UK schedule (hepatitis B and chickenpox). Twelve focus groups conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with 59 teenagers (29 girls and 30 boys) living in various parts of Scotland. Teenagers exhibited limited knowledge and experience of the diseases, excluding chickenpox. Measles, mumps and rubella were perceived as severe forms of chickenpox-like illness, and rubella was not associated with foetal damage. Boys commonly believed that human papillomavirus only affects girls, and both genders exhibited confusion about its relationship with cancer. Participants considered two key factors when assessing the threat of diseases: their prevalence in the UK, and their potential to cause fatal or long-term harm. Meningitis was seen as a threat, but primarily to babies. Participants explained their limited knowledge as a result of mass immunisation making once-common diseases rare in the UK, and acknowledged immunisation's role in reducing disease prevalence. While it is welcome that fewer teenagers have experienced vaccine-preventable diseases, this presents public health advocates with the challenge of communicating benefits of immunisation when advantages are less visible. The findings are timely in view of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation's recommendation that a booster of meningitis C vaccine should be offered to teenagers; that teenagers did not perceive meningitis C as a significant threat should be a key concern of promotional information. While teenagers' experiences of immunisation in school were not always positive

  11. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Spokes, Paula; Gilmour, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We aim to describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW) for 2012. Data from the NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by: local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism, where available. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units for cases following notification under the NSW Public Health Act 2010. The largest outbreak of measles since 1998 was reported in 2012. Pacific Islander and Aboriginal people were at higher risk as were infants less than 12 months of age. Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children less than five years declined; however, the overall number of notifications for IPD increased. Mumps case notifications were also elevated. There were no Haemophilus influenzae type b case notifications in children less than five years of age for the first time since the vaccine was introduced. Invasive meningococcal disease case notifications were at their lowest rates since case notification began in 1991. Case notification rates for other selected vaccine-preventable diseases remained stable. Vaccine-preventable disease control is continually strengthening in NSW with notable successes in invasive bacterial infections. However, strengthening measles immunization in Pacific Islander and Aboriginal communities remains essential to maintain measles elimination. PMID:25077033

  12. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2012.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Spokes, Paula; Gilmour, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We aim to describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW) for 2012. Data from the NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by: local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism, where available. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units for cases following notification under the NSW Public Health Act 2010. The largest outbreak of measles since 1998 was reported in 2012. Pacific Islander and Aboriginal people were at higher risk as were infants less than 12 months of age. Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children less than five years declined; however, the overall number of notifications for IPD increased. Mumps case notifications were also elevated. There were no Haemophilus influenzae type b case notifications in children less than five years of age for the first time since the vaccine was introduced. Invasive meningococcal disease case notifications were at their lowest rates since case notification began in 1991. Case notification rates for other selected vaccine-preventable diseases remained stable. Vaccine-preventable disease control is continually strengthening in NSW with notable successes in invasive bacterial infections. However, strengthening measles immunization in Pacific Islander and Aboriginal communities remains essential to maintain measles elimination.

  13. Vaccination against Alzheimer disease: an update on future strategies.

    PubMed

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Zabel, Franziska; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating chronic disease without adequate therapy. More than 10 years ago, it was demonstrated in transgenic mouse models that vaccination may be a novel, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer. Subsequent clinical development has been a roller-coaster with some positive and many negative news. Here, we would like to summarize evidence that next generation vaccines optimized for old people and focusing on patients with mild disease stand a good chance to proof efficacious for the treatment of Alzheimer.

  14. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  15. Vaccination coverage of children with rare genetic diseases and attitudes of their parents toward vaccines.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Cerutti, Marta; Milani, Donatella; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2016-03-03

    Despite the fact that the achievement of appropriate immunization coverage for routine vaccines is a priority for health authorities worldwide, vaccination delays or missed opportunities for immunization are common in children with chronic diseases. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate immunization coverage and the timeliness of vaccination in children suffering from 3 different rare genetic diseases: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS), Sotos syndrome (SS), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). A total of 57 children with genetic diseases (15 with RSTS, 14 children with SS, and 28 with BWS) and 57 healthy controls with similar characteristics were enrolled. The coverage of all the recommended vaccines in children with genetic syndromes was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons). However, when vaccinated, all of the patients, independent of the genetic syndrome from which they suffer, were administered the primary series and the booster doses at a similar time to healthy controls. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with genetic diseases were found to more frequently have negative attitudes toward vaccination (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons), mainly for fear of the emergence of adverse events or deterioration of the underlying disease. This study shows that vaccination coverage is poor in pediatric patients with RSTS, BWS, and SS and significantly lower than that observed in healthy children. These results highlight the need for educational programs specifically aimed at both parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage in children with these rare genetic diseases.

  16. Vaccination: foot-and-mouth disease experience in South America.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, I E; Malirat, V; Neitzert, E; Correa Melo, E

    2004-01-01

    Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) constitutes an important component of the policy for its control and eradication in South America. Considering that immunization may not impair subclinical infection, it became advisable to ally to vaccination campaigns a surveillance instrument to monitor silent viral circulation. Novel approaches for the evaluation of antibodies to FMD non-capsid proteins (NCPs), developed and validated at PANAFTOSA proved valuable for assessing viral circulation in immunized populations. The extensive and coordinated application in South America of vaccination together with this serosurvey tool indicated the effectiveness of systematic vaccination to prevent FMD spread and to restrain silent viral circulation intra- and inter- herds, and gave input to an old controversy related to the real epidemiological significance, if any, of carrier animals under the vaccination conditions in South America. The fitness of NCP tests to assess viral circulation in a population supported the incorporation into the OIE code of the "free of FMD with vaccination" category as a step prior to the recognition of the "free of FMD without vaccination" category. Likewise it released the path to allow animals, vaccinated for protective purposes during emergencies, to live for the term of their productive lives.

  17. Telling stories of vaccine-preventable diseases: why it works.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rachel M; Boom, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of storytelling in health communication and, in particular, immunization education. During the mid-20th century polio epidemic, both personal stories and scientific information abounded in the media. However, as rates of vaccine-preventable diseases declined, narratives about the dangers of such diseases faded as did the public fear of them. Meanwhile, anti-vaccine advocates flooded the media and Internet with stories of injured children and tied those injuries, such as autism, to vaccines. Medical experts often counter anti-vaccine concerns with scientific information which can fail to persuade parents. Furthermore, evidence suggests that many people misunderstand quantitative information resulting in a misinterpretation of risk. Compared to scientific information, stories relate life lessons and values. They are effective because they are memorable and relatable. Evidence also suggests that storytelling can effectively improve health knowledge and behaviors. Inspired by In Harm's Way--True Stories of Uninsured Texas Children by the Children's Defense Fund and Faces of Influenza by the American Lung Association, we published Vaccine-Preventable Disease: The Forgotten Story, a collection of photographs and personal stories of families affected by vaccine-preventable diseases. We have found that the stories included in our booklet capture all the benefits of storytelling. Given the many benefits of storytelling, providers should strive to include stories along with medical facts in their daily practice.

  18. Bexsero: a multicomponent vaccine for prevention of meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Andrew R; Pajón, Rolando

    2012-02-01

    Serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) disease remains a serious public health problem for which a cross-protective vaccine effective against a wide range of MenB isolates has not been available. Novartis Vaccines has developed a vaccine for the prevention of MenB disease that contains four antigenic components: factor H binding protein (fHbp), neisserial adhesin A (NadA), Neisseria heparin binding antigen (NHBA) and outer membrane vesicles from a New Zealand epidemic strain (which provides PorA). This vaccine has been submitted for regulatory review in Europe so it is timely to review the design of the vaccine, results to date in clinical studies and the potential strain coverage provided by the vaccine. It is also critical to discuss the key issues for the long-term success of the vaccine which include strain coverage, potential persistence of protection, potential effects on carriage of MenB strains, potential for escape mutants and cost effectiveness.

  19. The immunological underpinnings of vaccinations to prevent cytomegalovirus disease

    PubMed Central

    Louise McCormick, A.; Mocarski, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    A universal cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccination promises to reduce the burden of the developmental damage that afflicts up to 0.5% of live births worldwide. An effective vaccination that prevents transplacental transmission would reduce CMV congenital disease and CMV-associated still births and leave populations less susceptible to opportunistic CMV disease. Thus, a vaccination against this virus has long been recognized for the potential of enormous health-care savings because congenital damage is life-long and existing anti-viral options are limited. Vaccine researchers, industry leaders, and regulatory representatives have discussed the challenges posed by clinical efficacy trials that would lead to a universal CMV vaccine, reviewing the links between infection and disease, and identifying settings where disrupting viral transmission might provide a surrogate endpoint for disease prevention. Reducing the complexity of such trials would facilitate vaccine development. Children and adolescents are the targets for universal vaccination, with the expectation of protecting the offspring of immunized women. Given that a majority of females worldwide experience CMV infection during childhood, a universal vaccine must boost natural immunity and reduce transmission due to reactivation and re-infection as well as primary infection during pregnancy. Although current vaccine strategies recognize the value of humoral and cellular immunity, the precise mechanisms that act at the placental interface remain elusive. Immunity resulting from natural infection appears to limit rather than prevent reactivation of latent viruses and susceptibility to re-infection, leaving a challenge for universal vaccination to improve upon natural immunity levels. Despite these hurdles, early phase clinical trials have achieved primary end points in CMV seronegative subjects. Efficacy studies must be expanded to mixed populations of CMV-naive and naturally infected subjects to understand the overall

  20. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults.

  1. Successful vaccines for naturally occurring protozoal diseases of animals should guide human vaccine research. A review of protozoal vaccines and their designs.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Milton M

    2014-04-01

    Effective vaccines are available for many protozoal diseases of animals, including vaccines for zoonotic pathogens and for several species of vector-transmitted apicomplexan haemoparasites. In comparison with human diseases, vaccine development for animals has practical advantages such as the ability to perform experiments in the natural host, the option to manufacture some vaccines in vivo, and lower safety requirements. Although it is proper for human vaccines to be held to higher standards, the enduring lack of vaccines for human protozoal diseases is difficult to reconcile with the comparatively immense amount of research funding. Common tactical problems of human protozoal vaccine research include reliance upon adapted rather than natural animal disease models, and an overwhelming emphasis on novel approaches that are usually attempted in replacement of rather than for improvement upon the types of designs used in effective veterinary vaccines. Currently, all effective protozoal vaccines for animals are predicated upon the ability to grow protozoal organisms. Because human protozoal vaccines need to be as effective as animal vaccines, researchers should benefit from a comparison of existing veterinary products and leading experimental vaccine designs. With this in mind, protozoal vaccines are here reviewed.

  2. Vaccination against Lyme disease: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Embers, Monica E.; Narasimhan, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of an Ixodes spp. tick (deer tick). Despite improvements in diagnostic tests and public awareness of Lyme disease, the reported cases have increased over the past decade to approximately 30,000 per year. Limitations and failed public acceptance of a human vaccine, comprised of the outer surface A (OspA) lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, led to its demise, yet current research has opened doors to new strategies for protection against Lyme disease. In this review we discuss the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi, and the unique opportunities it poses to block infection or transmission at different levels. We present the correlates of protection for this infectious disease, the pros and cons of past vaccination strategies, and new paradigms for future vaccine design that would include elements of both the vector and the pathogen. PMID:23407755

  3. Vaccination against Lyme disease: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Embers, Monica E; Narasimhan, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of an Ixodes spp. tick (deer tick). Despite improvements in diagnostic tests and public awareness of Lyme disease, the reported cases have increased over the past decade to approximately 30,000 per year. Limitations and failed public acceptance of a human vaccine, comprised of the outer surface A (OspA) lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, led to its demise, yet current research has opened doors to new strategies for protection against Lyme disease. In this review we discuss the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi, and the unique opportunities it poses to block infection or transmission at different levels. We present the correlates of protection for this infectious disease, the pros and cons of past vaccination strategies, and new paradigms for future vaccine design that would include elements of both the vector and the pathogen.

  4. Vaccines for Mycoplasma diseases in animals and man.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D; McAuliffe, L

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines for important mycoplasma diseases, including contagious bovine and caprine pleuropneumonia, have been used for centuries, consisting mainly of infected tissue or fluids which are inoculated into sites at which the risk of severe infection is slight, such as the tail and bridge of the nose. Surprisingly, little progress has been made in developing safe, defined and protective alternatives, the vaccines today still consisting of mildly attenuated strains serially passaged in eggs or in culture. Ill-defined temperature-sensitive mutants are widely used for mycoplasmoses in poultry despite uncertainty about their mode of protection. Inactivated vaccines for enzootic pneumonia appear to have improved pig health worldwide, but disease reduction has been generally modest. Ironically, attempts to develop subunit preparations have often led to exacerbation of disease, particularly in human atypical pneumonia. Promising results have been seen in DNA vaccine technology, which has been applied to the development of mycoplasma vaccines for porcine enzootic pneumonia, but field trials still seem a long way off. No commercial vaccines exist for Mycoplasma bovis, despite evidence that this is a major cause of calf pneumonia, mastitis and arthritis.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of Newcastle disease vaccination programs for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.

  6. Transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) between unvaccinated, sub-optimally vaccinated, and well-vaccinated SPF chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the transmissibility of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in vaccinated chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with live LaSota and challenged 21 days later with CA02. Two days after challenge, the vaccinated and infected chickens were moved into clean i...

  7. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: controversy laid to rest?

    PubMed

    Davis, R L; Bohlke, K

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of Crohn's disease has lead to speculation about changes in exposures to environmental or infectious agents. Considerable attention has focused on the role of measles infection and/or vaccination in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Current evidence regarding the association between measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises analytic epidemiological studies, a case-series report and ecological studies. The first of these, a 1995 cohort study, found an association between measles vaccination and Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, but was widely questioned on methodological grounds. This was followed by a 1997 case-control study showing no association between measles vaccination and IBD. In 1998, public concern was rekindled by a report of 12 children with nonspecific colitis, ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, and developmental disorders largely attributed to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, but the nature of the report limited its scientific conclusions. Two additional studies, one case-control and one cohort, then followed and neither found an association with measles vaccination. Of the several ecological studies of measles vaccine coverage or measles schedule changes, none found an association with rates of IBD. The role of measles infection in IBD has been examined more extensively with studies of in utero measles exposure, measles infection early in life, and laboratory based investigations. An initial report of high rates of Crohn's disease among pregnancies affected by measles infection was followed by negative studies. Numerous case-control and ecological studies of children with measles infections early in life have also had discordant findings. Of three recent cohort studies, two showed no relationship between infection with early measles exposure and risk for IBD, while one found an approximate 3-fold elevation in risk. Laboratory investigations into persistent measles

  8. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan.

  9. Effects of vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    von Gottberg, Anne; de Gouveia, Linda; Tempia, Stefano; Quan, Vanessa; Meiring, Susan; von Mollendorf, Claire; Madhi, Shabir A; Zell, Elizabeth R; Verani, Jennifer R; O'Brien, Katherine L; Whitney, Cynthia G; Klugman, Keith P; Cohen, Cheryl

    2014-11-13

    In South Africa, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2009 with a three-dose schedule for infants at 6, 14, and 36 weeks of age; a 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in 2011. In 2012, it was estimated that 81% of 12-month-old children had received three doses of vaccine. We assessed the effect of vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease. We conducted national, active, laboratory-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease. We calculated the change in the incidence of the disease from a prevaccine (baseline) period (2005 through 2008) to postvaccine years 2011 and 2012, with a focus on high-risk age groups. Surveillance identified 35,192 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease. The rates among children younger than 2 years of age declined from 54.8 to 17.0 cases per 100,000 person-years from the baseline period to 2012, including a decline from 32.1 to 3.4 cases per 100,000 person-years in disease caused by PCV7 serotypes (-89%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -92 to -86). Among children not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the estimated incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased by 85% (95% CI, -89 to -79), whereas disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes increased by 33% (95% CI, 15 to 48). Among adults 25 to 44 years of age, the rate of PCV7-serotype disease declined by 57% (95% CI, -63 to -50), from 3.7 to 1.6 cases per 100,000 person-years. Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease among children in South Africa fell substantially by 2012. Reductions in the rates of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes among both children and adults most likely reflect the direct and indirect effects of vaccination. (Funded by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service and others.).

  10. [Antibody reaction to inhalation vaccination of poultry against Newcastle disease].

    PubMed

    Cerník, K

    1977-07-01

    Aerosol preparated from the AVIPEST vaccine by means of three types of aerosol generators was used for vaccination of 294 chickens of different age against the Newcastle disease in laboratory tests and 30 000 chickens at the age of two and three weeks under field conditions. The general and local antibody reactions to vaccination were evaluated on the basis of the determination of the content of hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization antibodies in the blood serum and in respiratory-tract flushings. The level of secretory antibodies in the flushings from the respiratory tract, determined by the described original method, is an important parameter of the resistance level of the organism to infection. The highest average levels of antibody titres in serum and in flushings were obtained 14 to 21 days from vaccination (7-10 log2). The La Sota vaccination strain was eliminated from the organism after spray vaccination and immunized the non-vaccinated contact chicken. Revaccination increased and greatly prolonged immunity. All the chickens inoculated showed resistance to challenge infection whereas the control birds died within four to six days.

  11. Seroprevalence and vaccination coverage of vaccine-preventable diseases in perinatally HIV-1-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Sticchi, Laura; Bruzzone, Bianca; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Rappazzo, Emanuela; Lo Casto, Michele; De Hoffer, Laura; Gustinetti, Giulia; Viscoli, Claudio; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications from vaccine-preventable diseases than those uninfected. The current international guidelines strongly recommend that these patients should receive all the routine childhood vaccinations. Although these children represent an appropriate target for immunization, the available data indicate suboptimal coverage rates. Methods To evaluate seroprotection/seropositivity rates and vaccination coverage against the common vaccine-preventable diseases, all patients with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection who attended San Martino Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were collected for testing antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis A and B viruses by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay and polioviruses by microneutralization test. In order to assess immunization coverage, retrospectively was recorded the vaccination history collecting data from Regional Immunization Database. Results A total of 39 perinatally HIV-1 infected patients were included in the study. At the time of serum was obtained, the mean age was 18,1 years (range: 6–28). The median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 702 cells/mm3 (2–1476 cells/mm3). Twenty-nine (74.4%) patients were found with HIV RNA load < 50 copies/mL. The proportion of subjects with protective anti-tetanus and anti-HBs were 43.6% and 30.8%, respectively. Seroprotection rates about 20% against rubella and measles were found, less than 20% against all the other antigens investigated. In particular, all patients resulted susceptible to mumps. High immunization rates were observed for polio and HBV (100% and 92.3%, respectively) and suboptimal for diphtheria-tetanus (84.6%). For the other recommended vaccines the rates were generally low. None of the patients received varicella vaccine doses. Conclusions As in the HAART era the vertically acquired HIV infection has become a chronic treatable disease

  12. [Role of vaccination in chronic disease prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoqun; Huang, Shue; Zhao, Yanfang; Zhao, Wenhua; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2015-08-01

    Chronic non-communicable disease is a major public health problem affecting the health of residents in china. Evidence shows that, in addition to four major risk factors, i.e. unreasonable dietary, lack of physical activity, smoking and drinking, epidemic and severe outcome of chronic disease is associated with many infectious diseases. Increasingly cancers have been shown to have an infectious etiology. There is also a significantly increased risk of infectious disease such as influenza, pneumonia and other infectious disease in people with pre-existing chronic non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and lung diseases. And more than that, there is a high risk of susceptibility to death and severe outcomes among them. Epidemiological studies has confirmed, that through targeted vaccine inoculation, liver cancer, cervical cancer can be effectively prevented, while influenza or pneumonia vaccine are related to reduced risk of hospitalization or death and hospitalization expenses regarding with a variety of chronic diseases. World Health Organization and several other professional organizations have put forward recommendations on vaccine inoculation of chronic disease patients. Programs targeting infectious factors are also an important aspect of chronic diseases prevention and control, therefore, related researches need to be strengthened in the future.

  13. Proper quality control of formulated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines in countries with prophylactic vaccination is necessary.

    PubMed

    Jamal, S M; Shah, S I; Ali, Q; Mehmood, A; Afzal, M; Afzal, M; Dekker, A

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products.

  14. A fresh perspective from immunologists and vaccine researchers: Active vaccination strategies to prevent and reverse Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Agadjanyan, M.G.; Petrovsky, N.; Ghochikyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional vaccination against infectious diseases relies on generation of cellular and humoral immune responses that act to protect the host from overt disease even although they do not induce sterilizing immunity. More recently, attempts have been made with mixed success to generate therapeutic vaccines against a wide range of non-infectious diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Following the exciting first report of successful vaccine prevention of progression of an AD animal model in 1999, various epitope-based vaccines targeting beta-amyloid (Aβ) have proceeded to human clinical trials, with varied results. More recently, AD vaccines based on tau protein have advanced into clinical testing too. This review seeks to put perspective to the mixed results obtained so far in clinical trials of AD vaccines, and discuss the many pitfalls and misconceptions encountered on the path to a successful AD vaccine, including better standardization of immunological efficacy measures of antibodies, immunogenicity of platform/carrier and adjuvants. PMID:26192465

  15. [Vaccination against two vector-borne diseases: bluetongue and West Nile].

    PubMed

    Zientara, Stéphan; Vitour, Damien; Lecollinet, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    In 1999 and 2006, two viral diseases emerged massively and unexpectedly in the United States (West Nile disease) and northern Europe (bluetongue disease). Control of infectious diseases transmitted by insect vectors is based on a variety of approaches (including sanitary measures), but primarily on vaccination. Vaccination is more efficient and less expensive than monitoring of insect vectors. The dynamics and epidemiology of two arboviral diseases (West Nile and bluetongue) are described, together with the different vaccines and vaccination methods.

  16. Past exposure to vaccines and subsequent risk of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, René; Laurin, Danielle; Lindsay, Joan; Serres, Gaston De

    2001-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that changes to the immune system could be a factor in age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Our objective was to examine the association between past exposure to conventional vaccines and risk of Alzheimer's disease. Methods We analyzed data from a representative community sample of subjects 65 years of age or older participating in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a prospective cohort study of dementia. Screening and clinical evaluations were done at both baseline and follow-up. Past exposure to vaccines was assessed at baseline by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results Of the 4392 eligible subjects who were cognitively unimpaired and for whom vaccine information was available at baseline (in 1991–1992) and who completed follow-up 5 years later (in 1996–1997), 527 were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment or dementia other than Alzheimer's disease and were excluded from these analyses. Of the remaining subjects, 3682 were cognitively unimpaired at follow-up and 183 were newly diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease. After adjustment for age, sex and education, past exposure to vaccines against diphtheria or tetanus, poliomyelitis and influenza was associated with lower risk for Alzheimer's disease (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27–0.62; OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.99; and OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54–1.04 respectively) than no exposure to these vaccines. Interpretation Past exposure to vaccines against diphtheria or tetanus, poliomyelitis and influenza may protect against subsequent development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:11762573

  17. Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry.

    PubMed

    Huyge, Katrien; Van Reeth, Kristien; De Beer, Thomas; Landman, Wil J M; van Eck, Jo H H; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Dry powders containing a live-attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine (LZ58 strain) and intended for mass vaccination of poultry were prepared by spray drying using mannitol in combination with trehalose or inositol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as stabilizers. These powders were evaluated for vaccine stabilizing capacity during production and storage (at 6 °C and 25 °C), moisture content, hygroscopicity and dry powder dispersibility. A mixture design, varying the ratio of mannitol, inositol and BSA, was used to select the stabilizer combination which resulted in the desired powder properties (i.e. good vaccine stability during production and storage, low moisture content and hygroscopicity and good dry dispersibility). Inositol-containing powders had the same vaccine stabilizing capacity as trehalose powders, but were less hygroscopic. Incorporation of BSA enhanced the vaccine stability in the powders compared to PVP-containing formulations. However, increasing the BSA concentration increased the hygroscopicity and reduced the dry dispersibility of the powder. No valid mathematical model could be calculated for vaccine stability during production or storage, but the individual experiments indicated that a formulation combining mannitol, inositol and BSA in a ratio of 73.3:13.3:13.3 (wt/wt) resulted in the lowest vaccine titre loss during production (1.6-2.0 log(10) 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) and storage at 6 °C (max. 0.8 log(10) EID(50) after 6 months) in combination with a low moisture content (1.1-1.4%), low hygroscopicity (1.9-2.1% water uptake at 60% relative humidity) and good dry dispersibility properties.

  18. What to do about pertussis vaccines? Linking what we know about pertussis vaccine effectiveness, immunology and disease transmission to create a better vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Shelly; Harvill, Eric T; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is a respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite the implementation of immunization programs and high vaccine coverage in most jurisdictions, pertussis is still one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases, suggesting that the current vaccines and immunization schedules have not been sufficiently effective. Several factors are thought to contribute to this. The acellular pertussis vaccine that has been used in many jurisdictions since the 1990s is less effective than the previously used whole-cell vaccine, with immunity waning over time. Both whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines are effective at reducing disease severity but not transmission, resulting in outbreaks in vaccinated cohorts. In this review, we discuss various limitations of the current approaches to protection from pertussis and outline various options for reducing the burden of pertussis on a population level.

  19. Prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

    2015-02-24

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-like particles capable of inducing both a humoral and cellular specific immune response. This type of immunization has been successfully used in preclinical studies and there are diverse models for viral, bacterial and/or parasitic diseases, allergies, tumors and other diseases. Therefore, several research groups have been given the task of designing a DNA vaccine against experimental infection with T. cruzi. In this review we explain what DNA vaccines are and the most recent studies that have been done to develop them with prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against Chagas disease.

  20. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide for Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-γ mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator.

  2. The field effectiveness of routine and emergency vaccination with an inactivated vaccine against foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Li, Y; Zamir, L; Even-Tov, B; Hamblin, P; Gelman, B; Hammond, J; Klement, E

    2013-01-30

    High potency, inactivated foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccines may be used in non endemic countries for emergency vaccination during outbreaks in order to prevent virus spread. In endemic countries either standard or high potency vaccines are used for routine vaccination. Despite their wide use there is a shortage of data on the field effectiveness of inactivated FMD vaccines. Epidemics of FMD caused by viruses of serotype O occur frequently in Israel, where a high potency (≥6PD(50)) vaccine is used for both routine and emergency vaccination. We investigated an outbreak of FMD caused by a virus of serotype O, which took place during 2011 in a feedlot and an adjacent dairy herd. Post outbreak testing of antibodies against non-structural protein demonstrated that infection occurred in 96% of the calves that received two doses of vaccine at least three months prior to the outbreak and more than 50% showed clinical signs consistent with FMD. Replacement heifers that had been vaccinated 3-5 times with the last vaccination administered 7 months prior to the outbreak were all infected and 18% showed clinical signs. Testing of cattle sera of the same vaccination status as the affected cattle demonstrated low neutralizing antibody (NA) titers against the field virus strain and an r(1) value of 0.37 compared to the vaccine strain. In contrast, cattle vaccinated only once but up to two weeks before the outbreak, were almost all protected from clinical disease and to a lesser extent, protected from FMD virus infection, despite low NA titers. We conclude that emergency vaccination was highly effective due to a mechanism not associated with NA, whereas routine vaccination with the same vaccine formulation provided only limited protection due to poor longevity of the elicited immunity and low matching with the field strain (despite an r(1) higher than 0.3).

  3. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    PubMed

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EULAR recommendations for vaccination in paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Heijstek, M W; Ott de Bruin, L M; Bijl, M; Borrow, R; van der Klis, F; Koné-Paut, I; Fasth, A; Minden, K; Ravelli, A; Abinun, M; Pileggi, G S; Borte, M; Wulffraat, N M

    2011-10-01

    Evidence-based recommendations for vaccination of paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases (PaedRD) were developed by following the EULAR standardised procedures for guideline development. The EULAR task force consisted of (paediatric) rheumatologists/immunologists, one expert in vaccine evaluation, one expert in public health and infectious disease control, and one epidemiologist. A systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and abstracts of the EULAR and American College of Rheumatology meetings of 2008/9. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation were based on customary scoring systems. Delphi voting was applied to assess the level of agreement between task force members. 107 papers and eight abstracts were used. The majority of papers considered seasonal influenza (41) or pneumococcal (23) vaccination. 26 studies were performed specifically in paediatric patients, and the majority in adult rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Fifteen recommendations were developed with an overall agreement of 91.7%. More research is needed on the safety and immunogenicity of (live-attenuated) vaccination in PaedRD, particularly in those using biologicals, and the effect of vaccination on prevention of infections.

  5. Vaccination of patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases requires careful benefit-risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bijl, M; Agmon-Levin, N; Dayer, J-M; Israeli, E; Gatto, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2012-06-01

    Will vaccination raise the incidence of autoimmune diseases, what is the impact of increasingly crowded vaccination schedules, the vaccination in age groups and the risk of coincidental temporal association? All these issues are still under debate. However, for the time being, to avoid confusion in the medical community and the media, we have to adhere to guidelines established consensually by experts while ensuring a strict surveillance and reporting possible side effects. Recommendation for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) based on the currently available evidence and expert opinion were recently formulated by an EULAR task force. Major recommendations for AIIRD include: i) vaccination should ideally be administered during stable disease; ii) influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination should be strongly considered; iii) vaccination can be administered during the use of DMARDs and TNF-inhibitors, but before starting rituximab; iv) live attenuated vaccines should be avoided whenever possible in immunosuppressed patients; v) BCG vaccination is not recommended.

  6. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  7. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329 Section 113.329 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  8. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  9. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  10. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  11. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  12. Optimizing strategies for meningococcal C disease vaccination in Valencia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate vaccines have controlled invasive diseases associated with this serogroup in countries where they are included in National Immunization Programs and also in an extensive catch-up program involving subjects up to 20 years of age. Catch-up was important, not only because it prevented disease in adolescents and young adults at risk, but also because it decreased transmission of the bacteria, since it was in this age group where the organism was circulating. Our objective is to develop a new vaccination schedule to achieve maximum seroprotection in these groups. Methods A recent study has provided detailed age-structured information on the seroprotection levels against MenC in Valencia (Spain), where vaccination is routinely scheduled at 2 months and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18 months of age. A complementary catch-up campaign was also carried out in n for children from 12 months to 19 years of age. Statistical analyses of these data have provided an accurate picture on the evolution of seroprotection in the last few years. Results An agent-based model has been developed to study the future evolution of the seroprotection histogram. We have shown that the optimum strategy for achieving high protection levels in all infants, toddlers and adolescents is a change to a 2 months, 12 months and 12 years of age vaccination pattern. If the new schedule were implemented in January 2014, high-risk subjects between 15-19 years of age would have very low seroprotection for the next 6 years, thereby threatening the program. Conclusions High protection levels and a low incidence of meningococcal C disease can be achieved in the future by means of a cost-free change in vaccination program. However, we recommend a new catch-up program simultaneous to the change in regular vaccination program. PMID:24886054

  13. Prospects for safe and effective vaccines against prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Neil Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. An abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host cellular prion protein is considered to constitute the major, if not sole, component of the infectious prion. The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans most likely arose due to consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. The demonstration that some prion infections may have the capacity to transmit to other species, especially humans, has focused attention on the development of safe and effective vaccines against these invariably fatal and currently incurable diseases. Although much effort has been invested in the development of safe and effective anti-PrP vaccines, many important issues remain to be resolved.

  14. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A. P.; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable. PMID:26651380

  15. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A P; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable.

  16. [Importance of vaccination against influenza in individuals with cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Kynčl, J

    2014-09-01

    Influenza is one of the most common causes of human morbidity and mortality. Analysis of severe cases of influenza during the influenza season 2012/2013 found that 84 % of patients had at least one risk factor and the cohort of patients had lower influenza vaccine coverage in comparison with the general population. Influenza vaccine reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease and, therefore, should be recommended particularly to patients with chronic conditions who suffer more often from severe influenza. The education of physicians specialists is also desirable.

  17. The impact of epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease on vaccine uptake: lessons from the 2011-2012 US pertussis epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that if there is a vaccine that is effective in preventing a disease, vaccine uptake will increase when the disease risk is high. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this may not always be the case. In a study we conducted in Washington State, we found no population-level increase in pertussis vaccination of infants during a pertussis epidemic. In this paper, we aim to review what is known about the history of vaccine uptake during epidemics of vaccine-preventable disease, the challenges facing public health campaigns responding to these epidemics, and how the effect of a vaccine-preventable disease epidemic on vaccine uptake can be studied.

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  19. Booster vaccinations: can immunologic memory outpace disease pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-12-01

    Almost all current vaccines work by the induction of antibodies in serum or on the mucosa to block adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells or interfere with microbial invasion of the bloodstream. However, antibody levels usually decline after vaccination to undetectable amounts if further vaccination does not occur. Persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies usually goes well beyond the time when they should have decayed to undetectable levels because of ongoing "natural" boosting or other immunologic mechanisms. The production of memory B and T cells is of clear importance, but the likelihood that a memory response will be fast enough in the absence of a protective circulating antibody level likely depends on the pace of pathogenesis of a specific organism. This concept is discussed with regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis; hepatitis A and B; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis; polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella; rotavirus; and human papilloma virus. With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is less rapid, some individuals will contract infection before the memory response is fully activated and implemented. With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is slow, immune memory should be sufficient to prevent disease.

  20. Hepatitis A and B Superimposed on Chronic Liver Disease: Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, Emmet B

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the acquisition of hepatitis A or hepatitis B in patients with chronic liver disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Superimposition of acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been associated with a particularly high mortality rate, and chronic hepatitis B virus coinfection with hepatitis C virus is associated with an accelerated progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. With the availability of vaccines against hepatitis B and hepatitis A since 1981 and 1995, respectively, these are vaccine-preventable diseases. Studies have confirmed that hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are safe and immunogenic in patients with mild to moderate chronic liver disease. However, hepatitis A and B vaccination is less effective in patients with advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation. These observations have led to the recommendation that patients undergo hepatitis A and B vaccination early in the natural history of their chronic liver disease. Vaccination rates are low in clinical practice, and public health and educational programs are needed to overcome barriers to facilitate timely implementation of these recommendations. PMID:18528476

  1. Therapeutic vaccines for chronic diseases: successes and technical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Martin F.; Jennings, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic, non-communicable diseases are the major cause of death and disability worldwide and have replaced infectious diseases as the major burden of society in large parts of the world. Despite the complexity of chronic diseases, relatively few predisposing risk factors have been identified by the World Health Organization. Those include smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure as the cause of many of these chronic conditions. Here, we discuss several examples of vaccines that target these risk factors with the aim of preventing the associated diseases and some of the challenges they face. PMID:21893545

  2. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  3. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  4. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Hines, Murray E; Turnquist, Sue E; Ilha, Marcia R S; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P; Barletta, Raúl G; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 10(9) CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization.

  5. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Ilha, Marcia R. S.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 109 CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization. PMID

  6. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  7. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed.

  8. A survey of vaccines produced for OIE list A diseases in OIE member countries.

    PubMed

    Roth, J A; Spickler, A R

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the availability, country of origin, and manufacturer of vaccines for all Office International Des Epizooties (OIE) list A diseases. A large number of classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Newcastle disease vaccines were found. A limited number of vaccines was also located for African horse sickness, bluetongue, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, highly pathogenic avian influenza, lumpy skin disease, peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever, rinderpest, sheep and goat pox, and vesicular stomatitis. No African swine fever or swine vesicular disease vaccines were found. Experimental vaccines are not included in this survey.

  9. Yellow fever live attenuated vaccine: A very successful live attenuated vaccine but still we have problems controlling the disease.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Alan D T

    2017-10-20

    Yellow fever (YF) is regarded as the original hemorrhagic fever and has been a major public health problem for at least 250years. A very effective live attenuated vaccine, strain 17D, was developed in the 1930s and this has proved critical in the control of the disease. There is little doubt that without the vaccine, YF virus would be considered a biosafety level 4 pathogen. Significantly, YF is currently the only disease where an international vaccination certificate is required under the International Health Regulations. Despite having a very successful vaccine, there are occasional issues of supply and demand, such as that which occurred in Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo in 2016 when there was insufficient vaccine available. For the first time fractional dosing of the vaccine was approved on an emergency basis. Thus, continued vigilance and improvements in supply and demand are needed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pediatric vaccination and vaccine-preventable disease acquisition: associations with care by complementary and alternative medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Downey, Lois; Tyree, Patrick T; Huebner, Colleen E; Lafferty, William E

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated provider-based complementary/alternative medicine use and its association with receipt of recommended vaccinations by children aged 1-2 years and with acquisition of vaccine-preventable disease by children aged 1-17 years. Results were based on logistic regression analysis of insurance claims for pediatric enrollees covered by two insurance companies in Washington State during 2000-2003. Primary exposures were use of chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture, or massage practitioner services by pediatric enrollees or members of their immediate families. Outcomes included receipt by children aged 1-2 years of four vaccine combinations (or their component vaccines) covering seven diseases, and acquisition of vaccine-preventable diseases by enrollees aged 1-17 years. Children were significantly less likely to receive each of the four recommended vaccinations if they saw a naturopathic physician. Children who saw chiropractors were significantly less likely to receive each of three of the recommended vaccinations. Children aged 1-17 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a vaccine-preventable disease if they received naturopathic care. Use of provider-based complementary/alternative medicine by other family members was not independently associated with early childhood vaccination status or disease acquisition. Pediatric use of complementary/alternative medicine in Washington State was significantly associated with reduced adherence to recommended pediatric vaccination schedules and with acquisition of vaccine-preventable disease. Interventions enlisting the participation of complementary/alternative medicine providers in immunization awareness and promotional activities could improve adherence rates and assist in efforts to improve public health.

  11. Pediatric Vaccination and Vaccine-Preventable Disease Acquisition: Associations with Care by Complementary and Alternative Medicine Providers

    PubMed Central

    Tyree, Patrick T.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Lafferty, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated provider-based complementary/alternative medicine use and its association with receipt of recommended vaccinations by children aged 1–2 years and with acquisition of vaccine-preventable disease by children aged 1–17 years. Results were based on logistic regression analysis of insurance claims for pediatric enrollees covered by two insurance companies in Washington State during 2000–2003. Primary exposures were use of chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture, or massage practitioner services by pediatric enrollees or members of their immediate families. Outcomes included receipt by children aged 1–2 years of four vaccine combinations (or their component vaccines) covering seven diseases, and acquisition of vaccine-preventable diseases by enrollees aged 1–17 years. Children were significantly less likely to receive each of the four recommended vaccinations if they saw a naturopathic physician. Children who saw chiropractors were significantly less likely to receive each of three of the recommended vaccinations. Children aged 1–17 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a vaccine-preventable disease if they received naturopathic care. Use of provider-based complementary/alternative medicine by other family members was not independently associated with early childhood vaccination status or disease acquisition. Pediatric use of complementary/alternative medicine in Washington State was significantly associated with reduced adherence to recommended pediatric vaccination schedules and with acquisition of vaccine-preventable disease. Interventions enlisting the participation of complementary/alternative medicine providers in immunization awareness and promotional activities could improve adherence rates and assist in efforts to improve public health. PMID:19760163

  12. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease I: epidemiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Backer, J A; Hagenaars, T J; Nodelijk, G; van Roermund, H J W

    2012-11-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole, as occurred during the 2001 FMD epidemic in the Netherlands. Following the preemptive culling of 260,000 animals during this outbreak, the Dutch government adopted emergency vaccination as preferred control policy. However, a vaccination-to-live strategy has not been applied before, posing unprecedented challenges for effectively controlling the epidemic, regaining FMD-free status and minimizing economic losses. These three topics are covered in an interdisciplinary model analysis. In this first part we evaluate whether and how emergency vaccination can be effectively applied to control FMD epidemics in the Netherlands. For this purpose we develop a stochastic individual-based model that describes FMD virus transmission between animals and between herds, taking heterogeneity between host species (cattle, sheep and pigs) into account. Our results in a densely populated livestock area with >4 farms/km(2) show that emergency ring vaccination can halt the epidemic as rapidly as preemptive ring culling, while the total number of farms to be culled is reduced by a factor of four. To achieve this reduction a larger control radius around detected farms and a corresponding adequate vaccination capacity is needed. Although sufficient for the majority of simulated epidemics with a 2 km vaccination zone, the vaccination capacity available in the Netherlands can be exhausted by pig farms that are on average ten times larger than cattle herds. Excluding pig farms from vaccination slightly increases the epidemic, but more than halves the number of animals to be vaccinated. Hobby flocks - modelled as small-sized sheep flocks - do not play a significant role in propagating the epidemic, and need not be targeted during the control phase. In a more sparsely populated livestock area in the Netherlands with about 2 farms/km(2) the

  13. Experimental disease models for the assessment of meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, A R; Reddin, K M; Funnell, S G; Johansson, L; Rytkönen, A; Jonsson, A-B

    2005-03-18

    Animal infection models are valuable for the development and preclinical assessment of meningococcal vaccines in the absence of clear in vitro correlates of protection for protein-based serogroup B vaccines. It is only in animal models that interactions of the organism with the innate, humoral and cellular immune systems can be assessed. However, humans are the only natural host for Neisseria meningitidis and there is no ideal disease model using laboratory animals that mimics the course of human disease. The two most widely used models are intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection of adult mice or infant rats. The mouse i.p. infection model requires an exogenous iron source (e.g. human transferrin) to obtain a lethal bacteraemic infection and can be used to assess both active and passive immunisation. The virulence of wild-type and knockout mutants can also be compared. i.p. infection of infant rats has been used to assess passive protection provided by sera raised against vaccine candidates or human vaccine sera. However, the duration of bacteraemia is short, mortality is low and active protection cannot be assessed. Recent developments using transgenic mice expressing human CD46 give hope that improved models will be developed.

  14. Using Monte Carlo simulation to determine combination vaccine price distributions for childhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2002-04-01

    The Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule provides guidelines that allow pediatricians to administer childhood vaccines in an efficient and effective manner. Research by vaccine manufacturers has resulted in the development of new vaccines that protect against a growing number of diseases. This has created a dilemma for how to insert such new vaccines into an already crowded immunization schedule, and prompted vaccine manufacturers to develop vaccine products that combine several individual vaccines into a single injection. Such combination vaccines permit new vaccines to be inserted into the immunization schedule without requiring children to be exposed to an unacceptable number of injections during a single clinic visit. Given this advantage, combination vaccines merit an economic premium. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Monte Carlo simulation can be used to assess and quantify this premium by studying four combination vaccines that may become available for distribution within the United States. Each combination vaccine is added to twelve licensed vaccine products for six childhood diseases (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, haemophilus influenzae type B, hepatitis B, and polio). Monte Carlo simulation with an integer programming model is used to determine the (maximal) inclusion price distribution of four combination vaccines, by randomizing the cost of an injection. The results of this study suggest that combination vaccines warrant price premiums based on the cost assigned to administering an injection, and that further developments and innovations in this area by vaccine manufacturers may provide significant economic and societal benefits.

  15. An alternate delivery system improves vaccine performance against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).

    PubMed

    Pandya, Mital; Pacheco, Juan M; Bishop, Elizabeth; Kenney, Mary; Milward, Francis; Doel, Timothy; Golde, William T

    2012-04-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals with severe agricultural and economic implications. One of the most highly infectious and contagious livestock pathogens known, the disease spreads rapidly in naïve populations making it critical to have rapidly acting vaccines. Needle inoculation of killed virus vaccine is an efficient method of swiftly vaccinating large numbers of animals, either in eradication efforts or in outbreak situations in disease free countries, although, to be efficient, this requires utilizing the same needle with multiple animals. Here we present studies using a needle free system for vaccination with killed virus vaccine, FMDV strain O1 Manisa, as a rapid and consistent delivery platform. Cattle were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended dose as well as four and sixteen fold less antigen load per dose. Animals were challenged intradermalingually (IDL) with live, virulent virus, homologous strain O1 Manisa, at various times following vaccination. All non-vaccinated control cattle exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia and lesions, specifically vesicle formation. Cattle vaccinated with the 1/16× and 1/4× doses using the needle free device were protected when challenged at both 7 and 28 days after vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose when delivered using the needle free, intradermal delivery system, indicating the current vaccine stockpile that can be extended by many fold using this system.

  16. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  17. Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: A Review of Measles and Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Varun K; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-03-15

    Parents hesitant to vaccinate their children may delay routine immunizations or seek exemptions from state vaccine mandates. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have drawn attention to this phenomenon. Improved understanding of the association between vaccine refusal and the epidemiology of these diseases is needed. To review the published literature to evaluate the association between vaccine delay, refusal, or exemption and the epidemiology of measles and pertussis, 2 vaccine-preventable diseases with recent US outbreaks. Search of PubMed through November 30, 2015, for reports of US measles outbreaks that have occurred since measles was declared eliminated in the United States (after January 1, 2000), endemic and epidemic pertussis since the lowest point in US pertussis incidence (after January 1, 1977), and for studies that assessed disease risk in the context of vaccine delay or exemption. We identified 18 published measles studies (9 annual summaries and 9 outbreak reports), which described 1416 measles cases (individual age range, 2 weeks-84 years; 178 cases younger than 12 months) and more than half (56.8%) had no history of measles vaccination. Of the 970 measles cases with detailed vaccination data, 574 cases were unvaccinated despite being vaccine eligible and 405 (70.6%) of these had nonmedical exemptions (eg, exemptions for religious or philosophical reasons, as opposed to medical contraindications; 41.8% of total). Among 32 reports of pertussis outbreaks, which included 10,609 individuals for whom vaccination status was reported (age range, 10 days-87 years), the 5 largest statewide epidemics had substantial proportions (range, 24%-45%) of unvaccinated or undervaccinated individuals. However, several pertussis outbreaks also occurred in highly vaccinated populations, indicating waning immunity. Nine reports (describing 12 outbreaks) provided detailed vaccination data on unimmunized cases; among 8 of these outbreaks

  18. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals. PMID:24523276

  19. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-04-07

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals.

  20. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C.; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed. PMID:26090490

  1. Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Inci; Shea, Kimberly M; Pelton, Stephen I

    2015-12-01

    Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines over the last 15 years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease, all-cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media, and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries in which universal immunization has been implemented. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared with otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed.

  2. An ounce of prevention on a budget: a nonprofit approach to developing vaccines against neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Miles, Aaron P; Diemert, David; Hotez, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    This article provides a perspective on vaccine development for neglected tropical diseases in the nonprofit setting, with particular emphasis on recombinant protein vaccines. The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative is discussed as a model product development public-private partnership, and the major challenges are covered that accompany antigen selection, gene cloning, fermentation and purification process development, assay development, vaccine formulation and testing and clinical evaluation for those developing vaccines, especially against neglected tropical diseases, in the nonprofit sector. Throughout this perspective, special emphasis is placed on the growing promise that product development public-private partnerships hold for developing vaccines for the world's poorest people.

  3. Vaccine-preventable haemophilus influenza type B disease burden and cost-effectiveness of infant vaccination in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Bradford D; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Griffiths, Ulla K; Sutanto, Agustinus; Linehan, Mary; Mercer, Dave; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Walker, Damian G; Steinhoff, Mark; Nadjib, Mardiati

    2008-05-01

    Most of Asia, including Indonesia, does not use Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines. We estimated total vaccine-preventable disease burden and the cost-effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccine in Indonesia. Hib pneumonia and meningitis incidences for children with access to health care were derived from a randomized vaccine probe study on Lombok Island, Indonesia during 1998-2002. Incidences were adjusted for limited access to care. Health system and patient out-of-pocket treatment cost data were collected concurrent with the probe study. For Hib vaccine in monovalent and combined (with DTP-HepB) presentations, we used 2007 UNICEF vaccine prices of US$3.30 and $3.75 per dose. For the 2007 Indonesian birth cohort, Hib vaccine would prevent meningitis in 1 of every 179 children, pneumonia in 1 of every 18 children, and 4.9% of mortality among those younger than 5 years. The total incremental societal costs of introducing Hib vaccine in monovalent and pentavalent presentations were, respectively, US$11.74 and $8.93 per child vaccinated. Annual discounted treatment costs averted amounted to 20% of pentavalent vaccine costs. For the pentavalent vaccine, the incremental costs per discounted death and disability adjusted life-year averted amounted to US$3102 and $74, respectively, versus $4438 and $102 for monovalent vaccine. Routine infant Hib vaccination would prevent a large burden of pediatric illness and death in Indonesia. Even without external funding support, Hib vaccine will be a highly cost-effective intervention in either a monovalent or pentavalent presentation based on commonly used benchmarks.

  4. Vaccinations in sickle cell disease: An audit of vaccination uptake in sickle cell patients attending Newham University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gorham, M W; Smith, C R; Smith, S K; Wong, L; Kreze, O

    2015-09-11

    To assess the level of adherence of patients with sickle cell disease to the advised vaccination schedule with respect to the Sickle Cell Society guidelines on vaccination [1,2]. A retrospective audit of patients' vaccination records was carried out between July 2012 and June 2013 on a sample of 80 patients over the age of 16, who attended Newham University Hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department with a presenting complaint coded as "sickle cell". A re-audit was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 to close the audit loop. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the results. The initial audit and re-audit identified 80 and 86 patients, respectively. Only 2 (2012-2013) and 7 (2014) patients had a complete up-to-date vaccination profile. 24 (30%) patients had up-to-date influenza vaccination, increasing to 43 (50%, P=0.0062) when re-audited. 33 (41%) had current pneumococcal vaccinations, increasing to 38 (44%, P=0.7874). Uptake rates for vaccinations against Meningococcal group C (MenC), Haemophilus influenzae B (HiB) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) were under 31% in both audits. A significant improvement in vaccination rate was observed for all vaccinations except pneumococcal and HBV. Although significant improvements have been demonstrated, this audit shows a low level of adherence to the advised vaccination schedule. The study also highlighted a shortfall in appropriate record keeping, reducing the potential for detailed conclusions being drawn in relation to the childhood vaccinations against MenC, HiB and HBV. Implementation of a new database of vaccination history, raising GP awareness and patient education seminars has lead to a significant improvement in vaccination rates locally and the authors hope that this may be replicated in other centres. There may be potential to increase rates further by administering vaccinations to inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitudes toward mandatory occupational vaccinations and vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases of health care workers in primary health care centers.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Katerelos, Panos; Poufta, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maragos, Antonios; Theodoridou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes regarding mandatory occupational vaccinations and the vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases among health care workers (HCWs) working in primary health care centers in Greece. A standardized questionnaire was distributed to HCWs working in all primary health care centers in Greece (n = 185). A total of 2,055 of 5,639 HCWs (36.4% response rate) from 152 primary health care centers participated. The self-reported completed vaccination rates were 23.3% against measles, 23.3% against mumps, 29.8% against rubella, 3% against varicella, 5.8% against hepatitis A, 55.7% against hepatitis B, and 47.3% against tetanus-diphtheria; corresponding susceptibility rates were 17%, 25%, 18.6%, 16.7%, 87.5%, 35%, and 52.6%. Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 65.1% of 1,807 respondents, with wide differences by disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed higher rates of acceptance of mandatory vaccination in physicians compared with other HCW categories. Despite the fact that two-thirds of HCWs working in primary health care centers in Greece support mandatory vaccination for HCWs, completed vaccination rates against vaccine-preventable diseases are suboptimal. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intradermal hepatitis B vaccine in thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Q; Underhill, G; Wonke, B; Aldouri, M; Kelsey, M; Jefferies, D

    1989-01-01

    Thirty two patients with beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease who were having regular blood transfusions were selected to test the efficacy and immunogenicity of low dose (2 micrograms or 0.1 ml) intradermal hepatitis B vaccine compared with the standard (20 micrograms or 1 ml) intramuscular dose. There was no significant difference in the rates of seroconversion, seroconversion had occurred in all patients by seven months. There were no significant differences in antibody titres between the intramuscular and intradermal groups at 1, 2, and 6 months. Although the titres were significantly higher in the intramuscular group at seven months and at 12-18 months, the antibody titre in the intradermal group did not fall below 10 IU/l. The results of this study suggest that low dose intradermal hepatitis B vaccination is an effective and economical way of stimulating an immune response in patients with beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. PMID:2526622

  7. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...

  8. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  10. Introducing vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease: An economic and mathematical modelling study of potential impact

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Hannah; Hickman, Matthew; Edmunds, W. John; Trotter, Caroline L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The first broadly effective vaccine against group B disease (which causes considerable meningococcal disease in Europe, the Americas and Australasia) was licensed in the EU in January 2013; our objective was to estimate the potential impact of introducing such a vaccine in England. Methods We developed two models to estimate the impact of introducing a new ‘MenB’ vaccine. The cohort model assumes the vaccine protects against disease only; the transmission dynamic model also allows the vaccine to protect against carriage (accounting for herd effects). We used these, and economic models, to estimate the case reduction and cost-effectiveness of a number of different vaccine strategies. Results We estimate 27% of meningococcal disease cases could be prevented over the lifetime of an English birth cohort by vaccinating infants at 2,3,4 and 12 months of age with a vaccine that prevents disease only; this strategy could be cost-effective at £9 per vaccine dose. Substantial reductions in disease (71%) can be produced after 10 years by routinely vaccinating infants in combination with a large-scale catch-up campaign, using a vaccine which protects against carriage as well as disease; this could be cost-effective at £17 per vaccine dose. Conclusions New ‘MenB’ vaccines could substantially reduce disease in England and be cost-effective if competitively priced, particularly if the vaccines can prevent carriage as well as disease. These results are relevant to other countries, with a similar epidemiology to England, considering the introduction of a new ‘MenB’ vaccine. PMID:23566946

  11. Vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for Spanish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain.

  12. Evaluation of the response to vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine in pediatric patients diagnosed with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Egberg, Matthew; Nelson, Catherine; Eickoff, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: A gap exists in the literature on celiac disease populations and the response to hepatitis B vaccination. Objective: To identify pediatric patients with celiac disease who received the primary hepatitis B vaccination and investigate their response to vaccine. Design/Methods: Patients underwent blood draw for hepatitis B surface antibody titers. Patients with undetectable or non-protective HBsAb titers were contacted. Study outcome measures and patient characteristics variables were summarized by means, standard deviations, medians, and ranges. A two-sample t-test was used to compare normally distributed continuous variables between responders and non-responders. Results: In all, 58% of patients did not meet the threshold for “protective” antibody titers. The mean time between completion of hepatitis B vaccination and diagnosis of celiac disease was 8.1 years for responders versus 10.5 years for non-responders. In a multivariate analysis, time between completion of vaccine and diagnosis of celiac disease was statistically significant predictor of response with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.50–0.95; p = 0.021). Conclusion: Our celiac disease population shows a high hepatitis B vaccine failure. The time between completion of vaccine series and diagnosis of celiac disease is an independent predictor for response. PMID:26770758

  13. Burden of vaccine preventable diseases at large events.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Alfelali, Mohammad; Arbon, Paul; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2015-11-27

    Large events or mass gatherings (MGs) are known to amplify the risk of infectious diseases, many of which can be prevented by vaccination. In this review we have evaluated the burden of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) in MGs. Major databases like PubMed and Embase, Google Scholar and pertinent websites were searched by using MeSH terms and text words; this was supplemented by hand searching. Following data abstraction, the pooled estimate of the burden of VPDs was calculated when possible; otherwise a narrative synthesis was conducted. In the past, at religious MGs like Hajj and Kumbh Mela, cholera caused explosive outbreaks; but currently respiratory infections, notably influenza, are the commonest diseases not only at Hajj but also at World Youth Day and Winter Olympiad. The recent cumulative attack rate of influenza at Hajj is 8.7% (range 0.7-15.8%), and the cumulative prevalence is 3.6% (range: 0.3-38%). Small outbreaks of measles (13-42 cases per event) have been reported at sport, entertainment and religious events. A sizeable outbreak (>200 cases) was reported following a special Easter Festival in Austria. An outbreak of hepatitis A occurred following the 'Jam bands' music festival. Other VPDs including pneumococcal disease, pertussis and tuberculosis have been reported in relation to MG attendance. VPDs not only affect the participants of MGs but also their contacts; vaccine uptake is variable and vaccine implementation is likely to have beneficial effects. Research to address the knowledge gaps surrounding VPDs at MGs is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccine-Induced Enhancement of EIAV Replication and Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-14

    funding was to initiate the expansion of ongoing research in which the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)/Shetland pony animal lentivirus system is...enhancement of EIAV replication and disease. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES AIDS vaccines, equine infectious anemia virus, 16. PRICE CODE...Znstitutes of Health . RCM In the conduct of research utilizing recombinant DNA, the investigator(s) idhered to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving

  15. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Karen A.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  16. Parents' and adolescents' willingness to be vaccinated against serogroup B meningococcal disease during a mass vaccination in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (Quebec).

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Hamel, Denis; Belley, Sylvie; Gagné, Hélène; Boulianne, Nicole; Landry, Monique; Bettinger, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc) was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93%) and adolescents (75%). Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

  17. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    PubMed

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  19. Validating Immunotherapy in Alzheimer's Disease: The EB101 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ivan; Fernandez-Novoa, Lucia; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Vigo, Carmen; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination has become one of the most promising immunotherapeutic approaches in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neuropathological hallmarks. Numerous immunotherapeutic interventions have attempted to achieve adaptive immunity against Aβ with a range of different antigenic designs and immunomodulatory strategies, most of them with great success in AD mouse model studies. Most of these studies have shown that both active and passive immunization can drastically reduce amyloid deposition and prevent the decline in cognitive performance. New approved clinical trials are under investigation to test the effectiveness of those different vaccination approaches, although previous data showed modest clinical success with some adverse inflammatory events in immunized elderly patients. The search for new approaches to overcome these severe side effects has led to novel technical methods such as live vector or DNA vaccines, although the use of innovative adjuvants combined with selected amyloid peptides is among the most auspicious. In this review, we compare and discuss the past and contemporary vaccines and the future strategies that may lead to a viable improvement in AD prevention and treatment.

  20. Attitudes regarding occupational vaccines and vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare workers working in pediatric departments in Greece.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Lourida, Athanasia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Grivea, Ioanna N; Katerelos, Panos; Wicker, Sabine; Syrogiannopoulos, George A; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria

    2012-06-01

    We studied the attitudes with regard to occupational vaccines and vaccination coverage among healthcare workers in pediatric departments. Completed vaccination rates were 33%, 33%, 41.7%, 3%, 5.8%, 69.2% and 36.3% against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B and tetanus-diphtheria, respectively. Susceptibility rates were 14.2%, 15.7%, 14.6%, 7.6%, 87.4%, 22.6% and 61.8% for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B and tetanus-diphtheria, respectively. Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 70.6% of healthcare workers, with considerable differences by target disease.

  1. Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based vaccines and their applications in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Shih-Jie; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination, which provides effective, safe infectious disease protection, is among the most important recent public health and immunological achievements. However, infectious disease remains the leading cause of death in developing countries because several vaccines require repeated administrations and children are often incompletely immunized. Microsphere-based systems, providing controlled release delivery, can obviate the need for repeat immunizations. Here, we review the function of sustained and pulsatile release of biodegradable polymeric microspheres in parenteral and mucosal single-dose vaccine administration. We also review the active-targeting function of polymeric particles. With their shield and co-delivery functions, polymeric particles are applied to develop single-dose and mucosally administered vaccines as well as to improve subunit vaccines. Because polymeric particles are easily surface-modified, they have been recently used in vaccine development for cancers and many infectious diseases without effective vaccines (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus infection). These polymeric particle functions yield important vaccine carriers and multiple benefits.

  2. Sociobehavioural research methods for the introduction of vaccines in the Diseases of the Most Impoverished Programme.

    PubMed

    Kaljee, Linda M; Pack, Rob; Pach, Al; Nyamete, Andrew; Stanton, Bonita F

    2004-09-01

    Participation in vaccination campaigns worldwide, particularly the Expanded Programme on Immunization, has increased significantly in recent years. However, there remain multiple and integrated behavioural, sociocultural and political-economic barriers to vaccination. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished (DOMI) Programme has undertaken shigellosis disease-burden studies and oral cholera and typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine trials in seven Asian countries. As part of these projects, sociobehavioural studies have been undertaken to determine the potential demand for vaccines for these diseases and the obstacles and enabling factors that may affect acceptance, delivery, and use of vaccines. A theoretical model of acceptance of vaccination and a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods have been used for fully elucidating the range of issues relating to vaccination for shigellosis, cholera, and typhoid fever. In this paper, the theoretical and methodological basis of the DOMI projects has been reviewed in a context of current sociobehavioural research on the acceptability and desirability of vaccination.

  3. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-03

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  4. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... staff Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Polio Vaccine Polio Vaccine Share Print Polio Vaccine What is polio? Poliomyelitis (polio) is a serious ... each year. Fortunately, the use of the polio vaccine has made the disease very rare in most ...

  5. Routine pediatric immunization, special cases in pediatrics: prematurity, chronic disease, congenital heart disease: recent advancements/changes in pediatric vaccines.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination is a powerful and dynamic weapon in reducing the impact of infectious diseases in children. The field and schedules are constantly evolving, with significant changes resulting in new and exciting vaccines almost yearly. Special cases in pediatrics represent unique challenges and differences in vaccinations. Health care providers need to be knowledgable about the current vaccines and to remain up to date with the constant evolution, as well as be aware of the latest recommendations, warnings, and news about vaccines and their use. This article updates and discusses current but ever-changing routine pediatric vaccination programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of vaccinations on seizure risk and disease course in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Nienke E; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Sonsma, Anja C M; Ippel, Elly; Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; Hagebeuk, Eveline; Jansen, Floor E; Geesink, Huibert H; Braun, Kees P; de Louw, Anton; Augustijn, Paul B; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Schieving, Jolanda H; Stroink, Hans; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Nicolai, Joost; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Knoers, Nine V; Lindhout, Dick; Gunning, W Boudewijn; Brilstra, Eva H

    2015-08-18

    To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital medical files, child health clinics, and the vaccination register for children with DS and pathogenic SCN1A mutations. Seizures within 24 hours after infant whole-cell, acellular, or nonpertussis combination vaccination or within 5 to 12 days after MMR vaccination were defined as "vaccination-associated." Risks of vaccination-associated seizures for the different vaccines were analyzed in univariable and in multivariable logistic regression for pertussis combination vaccines and by a self-controlled case series analysis using parental seizure registries for MMR vaccines. Disease courses of children with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset were compared. Children who had DS (n = 77) with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset (21% and 79%, respectively) differed in age at first seizure (median 3.7 vs 6.1 months, p < 0.001) but not in age at first nonvaccination-associated seizure, age at first report of developmental delay, or cognitive outcome. The risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures was significantly lower for acellular pertussis (9%; odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.71) and nonpertussis (8%; odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.59) than whole-cell pertussis (37%; reference) vaccines. Self-controlled case series analysis showed an increased incidence rate ratio of seizures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) within the risk period of 5 to 12 days following MMR vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccination-associated earlier seizure onset does not alter disease course in DS, while the risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures is probably vaccine-specific. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  8. Pneumococcal Transmission and Disease In Silico: A Microsimulation Model of the Indirect Effects of Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nurhonen, Markku; Cheng, Allen C.; Auranen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity) are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. Methods and Findings We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland). A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods) was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5–10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90%) coverage of vaccination and moderate (50%) vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. Conclusions The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the availability of

  9. VACCINATION AS A THERAPEUTIC APPROACH FOR ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Boutajangout, Allal

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. AD is a member of a broad range of neurodegenerative diseases characterized pathologically by the conformational change of a normal protein into a pathological conformer with a high β-sheet content that renders it neurotoxic. In the case of AD the normal soluble amyloid β (sAβ) peptide is converted into oligomeric/fibrillar Aβ. The oligomeric forms of Aβ have been hypothesized to be the most toxic, while fibrillar Aβ becomes deposited as amyloid plaques and congophilic angiopathy, which both serve as neuropathological markers of the disease. In addition the accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau as soluble toxic oligomers and as neurofibrillary tangles is a critical part of the pathology. Numerous therapeutic interventions are under investigation to prevent and treat AD. Among the most exciting and advanced of these approaches is vaccination. Immunomodulation is being tried for a range of neurodegenerative disorders with great success being reported in most model animal trials; however, the much more limited human data has shown a more modest clinical success so far, with encephalitis occurring in a minority of patients treated with active immunization. The immunomodulatory approaches for neurodegenerative diseases are targeting a self-protein, albeit in an abnormal conformation; hence, effective enhanced clearance of the disease associated conformer has to be balanced with the potential risk to stimulate excessive toxic inflammation within the CNS. The design of future immunomodulatory approaches that are more focused is dependent on addressing a number of questions such as: When is the best time to start immunization? What are the most appropriate targets for vaccination? Is amyloid central to the pathogenesis of AD or is it critical to target tau related pathology also? In this review we discuss the past experience of vaccination for AD and the development of possible future

  10. Current concepts and future prospects for Alzheimer disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Frank L; Gandy, Sam; McLaurin, JoAnne

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide and is characterized by the progressive accumulation of the 42-residue amyloid beta protein (A beta) in brain regions serving memory and cognition. Only a few years ago, the proposition that AD may be amenable to any kind of therapy would have met with considerable skepticism. Yet, recent, exciting developments appear to suggest that immunizing against A beta may bear some potential for arresting or even curing AD. However, a clinical trial of vaccination with synthetic human A beta in AD patients was halted because of the development of meningoencephalitis in some patients. Further studies aimed at elucidating the mechanism of A beta clearance upon A beta immunization are needed. Such knowledge might facilitate the design of specific vaccination regimens, allowing exclusive targeting of A beta plaques without inducing detrimental side effects.

  11. Hypersensitivity in cattle after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination: response to hydroxpropylmethylcellulose.

    PubMed Central

    Black, L.; Menard, F. J.; Beadle, G. G.; Pay, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    Intravenous provocation (IVP) tests demonstrated that hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (MC) was able to elicit anaphylactic signs in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine produced at one centre but not with similar vaccine produced at another. The former vaccine also provoked serum reagins which were demonstrated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests in goats. Reaginic sera which reacted specifically with MC were used in PCA tests to screen samples taken serially from the vaccine production lines. The reactions observed suggested that a substance with MC or similar specificity was present in the antifoaming agent routinely added to vaccines. Images Plate 1 PMID:168252

  12. Heterologous prime-boost vaccinations for poverty-related diseases: advantages and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Radosević, Katarina; Rodriguez, Ariane; Lemckert, Angelique; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2009-05-01

    Classical vaccination approaches, based on a single vaccine administered in a homologous prime-boost schedule and optimized to induce primarily neutralizing antibodies, are unlikely to be sufficiently efficacious to prevent TB, malaria or HIV infections. Novel vaccines, capable of inducing a more powerful immune response, in particular T-cell immunity, are desperately needed. Combining different vaccine modalities that are able to complement each other and induce broad and sustainable immunity is a promising approach. This review provides an overview of heterologous prime-boost vaccination modalities currently in development for the 'big three' poverty-related diseases and emphasizes the need for innovative vaccination approaches.

  13. Level of virulent virus excreted by infected pigs previously vaccinated with different glycoprotein deleted Aujeszky's disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vannier, P; Hutet, E; Bourgueil, E; Cariolet, R

    1991-11-01

    Seven deleted Aujeszky's disease vaccines were compared for their ability to induce an immunity which suppresses virus excretion. For each vaccine, the levels of clinical protection and viral excretion were compared. Groups of eight pigs were vaccinated twice with attenuated deleted Aujeszky's disease vaccines (which do not express certain glycoproteins: gI, gX or gp63). Pigs were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period and challenge took place at the end of it when the pigs were 18-19 weeks old. Live virus vaccines were suspended in water or in an oil-in-water emulsion. The experiment was performed in three successive assays of two groups of eight pigs (except three groups for the first assay). At each assay, a control unvaccinated group of eight pigs was added to compare the effects of challenge between vaccinated and unvaccinated animals. In total, 80 pigs were involved in this experiment. All the vaccinated pigs excreted virus from 3 to 9 d after challenge. However the level of viral excretion and the duration of the period of excretion were reduced after vaccination and especially, when oil-in-water emulsion was used. There were obvious differences between vaccines. With some vaccines, when the level of viral excretion was low, the level of clinical protection was high. However, in other cases, the level of clinical protection could be good despite a higher level of viral excretion. The seroneutralizing titres were significantly and inversely related to a low level of viral excretion but not to the level of clinical protection.

  14. Immune mechanisms associated with enhanced influenza A virus disease versus cross-protection in vaccinated pigs.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) has been described in pigs vaccinated with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) following infection with heterologous influenza A virus (IAV). WIV vaccination elicits production of cross-reactive, non-neutralizing antibody to the challenge I...

  15. Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine1

    PubMed Central

    McCormic, Zachary D.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Jordan, Nikki N.

    2017-01-01

    The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD. PMID:27748651

  16. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-07-20

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases.

  17. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  18. Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Inci; Shea, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with PCVs over the past 15 years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in IPD, all cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries where universal immunization has been implemented. The introduction of the vaccine has also led to expanded understanding of pneumococcal disease; observations have confirmed that most pneumococci are transmitted from children to adults, not all pneumococcal serotypes are equal in terms of common clinical syndromes, likelihood of antibiotic resistance, or likelihood of progression to disease once colonization occurs. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared to otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed. PMID:26610421

  19. Experiences with new generation vaccines against equine viral arteritis, West Nile disease and African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, N James; Balasuriya, Udeni B; Davis, Nancy L; Collier, Martha; Johnston, Robert E; Ferraro, Gregory L; Guthrie, Alan J

    2007-07-26

    Viral diseases constitute an ever growing threat to the horse industry worldwide because of the rapid movement of large numbers of horses for competition and breeding. A number of different types of vaccines are available for protective immunization of horses against viral diseases. Traditional inactivated and live-attenuated (modified live virus, MLV) virus vaccines remain popular and efficacious but recombinant vaccines are increasingly being developed and used, in part because of the perceived deficiencies of some existing products. New generation vaccines include MLVs with deletions and/or mutations of critical genes, subunit vaccines that incorporate immunogenic proteins (or portions thereof) or expression vectors that produce these proteins as immunogens, and DNA vaccines. New generation vaccines have been developed for several viral diseases of horses. We recently have developed an alphavirus replicon-vectored equine arteritis virus (EAV) vaccine, and evaluated a commercial canary pox virus-vectored vaccine for West Nile disease. The success of these new-generation vaccines has catalyzed efforts to develop improved vaccines for the prevention of African horse sickness, a disease of emerging global significance.

  20. A literature review on the patients with autoimmune diseases following vaccination against infections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Meng, Fan-Ya; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Due to immune abnormalities and the use of steroids and immunosuppressant treatment, patients with rheumatic diseases are susceptible to infections. Vaccination is one of the most important prevention tools in modern medicine. A discussion on risk-benefit or cost-benefit analysis, and advisory on individual vaccines or vaccination programs falls outside the scope of this review. In particularly, this review summarizes the knowledge about the effectiveness and safety vaccinations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) treated with biologics. Finally, we aim to provide vaccination plans basis for clinical management of rheumatic patients depending upon prevaccination antibody titers, drug treatments and immunological potential. PMID:25875802

  1. DIVERGENCE, NOT DIVERSITY OF AN ATTENUATED EQUINE LENTIVIRUS VACCINE STRAIN CORRELATES WITH PROTECTION FROM DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Barnes, Shannon; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported an attenuated EIAV vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral envelope sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study [1] demonstrated for the first time the failure of an ancestral vaccine to protect and revealed a significant, inverse, linear relationship between envelope divergence and protection from disease. In the current study we examine in detail the evolution of the attenuated vaccine strain utilized in this previous study. We demonstrate here that the attenuated strain progressively evolved during the six-month pre-challenge period and that the observed protection from disease was significantly associated with divergence from the original vaccine strain. PMID:20955830

  2. Vaccination of the immune-compromised patients with focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Bijl, M; Kallenberg, C G M; van Assen, S

    2011-01-01

    Among immunocompromised patients morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable infections is high. Although vaccination seems indicated, controversy exists about which vaccines should be offered, at what moment, and to whom. Guidelines are needed as the number of immunocompromised individuals increases due to the wider use of immunosuppressive drugs and, in particular, because since the introduction of biological agents, the spectrum of immunosuppressive drugs is rapidly expanding. In this review we will highlight controversies about vaccination in immunocompromised patients and will discuss indications for the several vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases with the focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.

  3. Randomised field trial to evaluate serological response after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Bulut, A.N.; Gubbins, S.; Stärk, K.D.C.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Sumption, K.J.; Paton, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of biannual mass vaccination of cattle, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains uncontrolled in Anatolian Turkey. To evaluate protection after mass vaccination we measured post-vaccination antibodies in a cohort of cattle (serotypes O, A and Asia-1). To obtain results reflecting typical field protection, participants were randomly sampled from across Central and Western Turkey after routine vaccination. Giving two-doses one month apart is recommended when cattle are first vaccinated against FMD. However, due to cost and logistics, this is not routinely performed in Turkey, and elsewhere. Nested within the cohort, we conducted a randomised trial comparing post-vaccination antibodies after a single-dose versus a two-dose primary vaccination course. Four to five months after vaccination, only a third of single-vaccinated cattle had antibody levels above a threshold associated with protection. A third never reached this threshold, even at peak response one month after vaccination. It was not until animals had received three vaccine doses in their lifetime, vaccinating every six months, that most (64% to 86% depending on serotype) maintained antibody levels above this threshold. By this time cattle would be >20 months old with almost half the population below this age. Consequently, many vaccinated animals will be unprotected for much of the year. Compared to a single-dose, a primary vaccination course of two-doses greatly improved the level and duration of immunity. We concluded that the FMD vaccination programme in Anatolian Turkey did not produce the high levels of immunity required. Higher potency vaccines are now used throughout Turkey, with a two-dose primary course in certain areas. Monitoring post-vaccination serology is an important component of evaluation for FMD vaccination programmes. However, consideration must be given to which antigens are present in the test, the vaccine and the field virus. Differences between these antigens affect the

  4. Randomised field trial to evaluate serological response after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2015-02-04

    Despite years of biannual mass vaccination of cattle, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains uncontrolled in Anatolian Turkey. To evaluate protection after mass vaccination we measured post-vaccination antibodies in a cohort of cattle (serotypes O, A and Asia-1). To obtain results reflecting typical field protection, participants were randomly sampled from across Central and Western Turkey after routine vaccination. Giving two-doses one month apart is recommended when cattle are first vaccinated against FMD. However, due to cost and logistics, this is not routinely performed in Turkey, and elsewhere. Nested within the cohort, we conducted a randomised trial comparing post-vaccination antibodies after a single-dose versus a two-dose primary vaccination course. Four to five months after vaccination, only a third of single-vaccinated cattle had antibody levels above a threshold associated with protection. A third never reached this threshold, even at peak response one month after vaccination. It was not until animals had received three vaccine doses in their lifetime, vaccinating every six months, that most (64% to 86% depending on serotype) maintained antibody levels above this threshold. By this time cattle would be >20 months old with almost half the population below this age. Consequently, many vaccinated animals will be unprotected for much of the year. Compared to a single-dose, a primary vaccination course of two-doses greatly improved the level and duration of immunity. We concluded that the FMD vaccination programme in Anatolian Turkey did not produce the high levels of immunity required. Higher potency vaccines are now used throughout Turkey, with a two-dose primary course in certain areas. Monitoring post-vaccination serology is an important component of evaluation for FMD vaccination programmes. However, consideration must be given to which antigens are present in the test, the vaccine and the field virus. Differences between these antigens affect the

  5. Attitudes towards mandatory vaccination and vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases among health-care workers in tertiary-care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Nikolaidis, Pavlos; Katerelos, Panos; Tedoma, Natasa; Maltezos, Efstratios; Lazanas, Marios

    2012-03-01

    To assess the attitudes about mandatory vaccination and vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases among health-care workers (HCWs) working in tertiary-care hospitals in Greece. A questionnaire was distributed to HCWs working in four tertiary-care hospitals. In total, 505 HCWs participated in the survey. Self-reported completed vaccination rates were 18.8% against measles, 18.8% against mumps, 22.2% against rubella, 1.9% against varicella, 3.6% against hepatitis A, 56.5% against hepatitis B, and 35.7% against tetanus-diphtheria. Younger age groups had higher completed vaccination rates against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B compared with older HCWs (p-value < 0.001). Self-reported susceptibility rates were 12.7% for measles, 18.9% for mumps, 15.8% for rubella, 15.2% for varicella, 89.9% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, and 64.3% for tetanus-diphtheria. Sixty three percent of 451 HCWs who answered this question supported mandatory vaccinations for HCWs, with significant differences per target disease. Physicians more frequently supported a mandatory vaccination policy compared to nurses and other professions (72.1% versus 61.9% and 54.2%, respectively; p-value = 0.028). Approximately two thirds of HCWs working in tertiary-care hospitals in Greece support mandatory vaccinations for HCWs, however suboptimal vaccination rates against vaccine-preventable diseases were recorded. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathogenesis of Primary Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pacheco, Juan M; Rekant, Steven I; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. A rapid progression of infection with viremia and widespread dissemination of virus occurred in non-vaccinated animals whilst vaccinated cattle were protected from viremia and clinical FMD. Analysis of micro-anatomic distribution of virus during early infection by lasercapture microdissection localized FMDV RNA to follicle-associated epithelium of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both groups of animals, with concurrent detection of viral genome in nasopharyngeal MALT follicles in vaccinated cattle only. FMDV structural and non-structural proteins were detected in epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa by immunomicroscopy 24 hours after inoculation in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated steers. Co-localization of CD11c+/MHC II+ cells with viral protein occurred early at primary infection sites in vaccinated steers while similar host-virus interactions were observed at later time points in non-vaccinated steers. Additionally, numerous CD8+/CD3- host cells, representing presumptive natural killer cells, were observed in association with foci of primary FMDV infection in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of vaccinated steers but were absent in non-vaccinated steers. Immunomicroscopic evidence of an activated antiviral response at primary infection sites of vaccinated cattle was corroborated by a relative induction of interferon -α, -β, -γ and -λ mRNA in micro-dissected samples of nasopharyngeal mucosa. Although vaccination protected cattle from viremia and clinical FMD, there was subclinical infection of

  7. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. Methods: We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. Results: We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p < 0.001), South Asian race/ethnicity (p = 0.01) and coping appraisal variables of response efficacy (p < 0.001) and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with increased intentions. The belief that vaccines are typically not safe was significantly associated with decreased intentions (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Asian/Asian American and South Asian race/ethnicities have a strong interest in receiving a Lyme disease vaccine. Although pharmaceutical companies may benefit by advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine. PMID:27551427

  8. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p < 0.001), South Asian race/ethnicity (p = 0.01) and coping appraisal variables of response efficacy (p < 0.001) and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with increased intentions. The belief that vaccines are typically not safe was significantly associated with decreased intentions (p = 0.03). Asian/Asian American and South Asian race/ethnicities have a strong interest in receiving a Lyme disease vaccine. Although pharmaceutical companies may benefit by advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine.

  9. A New Wave of Vaccines for Non-Communicable Diseases: What Are the Regulatory Challenges?

    PubMed

    Darrow, Jonathan J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines. Like traditional vaccines, NCD vaccines work by modulating the human immune system, but target cells, proteins or other molecules that are associated with the NCD in question rather than pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Efforts are underway to develop NCD vaccines to address not only cancer and hypertension, but also addiction, obesity, asthma, arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease, among others. NCD vaccines present an interesting challenge for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is tasked with approving new treatments on the basis of efficacy and safety. Should NCD vaccines be evaluated under the same analytic frame as traditional vaccines, or that of biologic drugs? Despite the borrowed nomenclature, NCD vaccines differ in important ways from infectious disease vaccines. Because infectious disease vaccines are generally administered to healthy individuals, often children, tolerance for adverse events is low and willingness to pay is limited. It is important to have infectious disease vaccines even for rare or eradicated disease (e.g., smallpox), in the event of an outbreak. The efficacy of infectious disease vaccines is generally high, and the vaccines convey population level benefits associated with herd immunity and potential eradication. The combination of substantial population-level benefits, low willingness to pay, and low tolerance for adverse events explains the

  10. Antigen-Sparing and Enhanced Efficacy of Multivalent Vaccines Adjuvanted with Immunopotentiators in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peipei; Lu, Jihu; Feng, Lei; Wu, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Xuehua; Mei, Mei; Hou, Jibo; Liu, Xiufan; Tang, Yinghua

    2017-01-01

    We previously described that immunopotentiators, CVCVA5, increased the efficacy of H5 and H9 subtype avian influenza vaccines in chickens, ducks, and geese. In this study, we further investigated the effects of the CVCVA5 for improving the efficacy of other univalent or multivalent inactivated vaccines. The immune response administrated with half-dose of monovalent vaccine plus CVCVA5 were higher than those of one dose of monovalent vaccine without immunopotentiators as measured by levels of antibodies from serum, tears and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and cytokines of IFNγ and IL-4 from serum. Vaccines included the univalent vaccine of Newcastle Disease virus (ND), Egg Drop Syndrome virus (EDS), Infectious Bronchitis virus (IB), and Infectious Bursal Disease virus (IBD). The CVCVA5 also improved the immune response of both ND and IBD vaccines with less dosage. The sterile protective immunity was monitored with one- or a half-dose of adjuvanted ND vaccine or one dose of adjuvanted IBD vaccine, respectively. The improved immune efficacy was observed in a half-dose of adjuvanted bivalent vaccines compared to one dose of vaccines without CVCVA5 as measured by the antibody levels, including bivalent vaccine of ND-H9, ND-IB, and ND-IBD. The CVCVA5 also boosted the immune efficacy of the tetravalent vaccine (ND-IB-EDS-H9). A half-dose of adjuvanted commercial vaccine or 75% antigen-sparing adjuvanted vaccine elicited similar antibody levels to those of one dose non-adjuvanted commercial vaccines. The CVCVA5 improved the effect of a booster vaccination as measured by the antibody levels against H5 or H9 virus antigens, in which chickens primed with the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines given a booster with H5–H9 bivalent vaccines without CVCVA5 using 5-day intervals. The inflammatory response may contribute to these additional effects by increasing the levels of IFNγ and IL-4 after the injection of the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines. Results indicated that the CVCVA5 improved

  11. Archaeosomes display immunoadjuvant potential for a vaccine against Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Leticia H.; Corral, Ricardo S.; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder L.; Petray, Patricia B.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen. PMID:23291939

  12. Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine.

  13. Issues in pediatric vaccine-preventable diseases in low- to middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Dbaibo, Ghassan; Tatochenko, Vladimir; Wutzler, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The highest burden of pediatric vaccine-preventable disease is found in developing nations where resource constraints pose the greatest challenge, impacting disease diagnosis and surveillance as well as the implementation of large scale vaccination programmes. In November 2012, a Working Group Meeting convened in Casablanca to describe and discuss the status with respect to 8 vaccine-preventable diseases (pertussis, pneumococcal disease, measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV), rotavirus and meningococcal meningitis) to identify and consider ways of overcoming obstacles to pediatric vaccine implementation. Experts from Europe, Russia, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East, Africa and South East Asia participated in the meeting. A range of region-specific needs and barriers to uptake were discussed. The aim of this article is to provide a summary of the ongoing status with respect to pediatric vaccine preventable disease in the countries represented, and the experts' opinions and recommendations with respect to pediatric vaccine implementation. PMID:27322436

  14. Developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock

    PubMed Central

    Paton, David J.; Taylor, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. Globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. Conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the global eradication of rinderpest and the control of bluetongue in the UK and northern Europe. However, in many cases, livestock vaccines could benefit from improvement in some properties (e.g. stability, speed of onset and duration of immunity, and breadth of cross-protection to different serotypes or strains) and in some cases are not available at all. Compared with human vaccines, uptake of livestock products is highly cost-sensitive and their use may also need to be compatible with post-vaccination screening methods to determine whether or not animals continue to be infected. Requirements and prospects for new or improved vaccines are described for some priority viral diseases with potential for transboundary spread, particularly for foot-and-mouth disease. PMID:21893540

  15. Developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Paton, David J; Taylor, Geraldine

    2011-10-12

    Vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. Globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. Conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the global eradication of rinderpest and the control of bluetongue in the UK and northern Europe. However, in many cases, livestock vaccines could benefit from improvement in some properties (e.g. stability, speed of onset and duration of immunity, and breadth of cross-protection to different serotypes or strains) and in some cases are not available at all. Compared with human vaccines, uptake of livestock products is highly cost-sensitive and their use may also need to be compatible with post-vaccination screening methods to determine whether or not animals continue to be infected. Requirements and prospects for new or improved vaccines are described for some priority viral diseases with potential for transboundary spread, particularly for foot-and-mouth disease.

  16. Superior Protection from Live-Attenuated Vaccines Directed against Johne's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shippy, Daniel C.; Lemke, Justin J.; Berry, Aubrey; Nelson, Kathryn; Hines, Murray E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Johne's disease is an important enteric infection causing large economic losses associated with infected herds. In an attempt to fight this infection, we created two novel live-attenuated vaccine candidates with mutations in sigH and lipN (pgsH and pgsN, respectively). Earlier reports in mice suggested these vaccines are promising candidates to fight Johne's disease in ruminants. In this study, we tested the performances of the two constructs as vaccine candidates using the goat model of Johne's disease. Both vaccines appeared to provide significant immunity to goats against challenge from wild-type M. paratuberculosis. The pgsH and pgsN constructs showed a significant reduction in histopathological lesions and tissue colonization compared to nonvaccinated goats and those vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. Unlike the inactivated vaccine, the pgsN construct was able to eliminate fecal shedding from challenged animals, a feature that is highly desirable to control Johne's disease in infected herds. Furthermore, strong initial cell-mediated immune responses were elicited in goats vaccinated with pgsN that were not demonstrated in other vaccine groups. Overall, the results indicate the potential use of live-attenuated vaccines to control intracellular pathogens, including M. paratuberculosis, and warrant further testing in cattle, the main target for Johne's disease control programs. PMID:27806993

  17. [Impact of vaccination on the infectious diseases epidemiology: example of pertussis].

    PubMed

    Guiso, Nicole

    2007-04-01

    Several vaccines are now routinely used since fifty years in different developed countries. Their principal impact has been to decrease morbidity and mortality of the infectious diseases they are targeting. One disease, smallpox, is eradicated, poliomyelitis will be soon, diphteria is controlled in several countries but pertussis is still endemic although an efficacious vaccine was used. Why? Pertussis is an example of an infection for which the immunity of the population has changed after the introduction of generalized vaccination with killed whole cell pertussis vaccines, from a natural immunity due to infection to different types of vaccine-induced immunity. These different types of immunity have changed the protection against infection, disease and transmission. The impact of the generalized vaccination in a human population has been an important change in the epidemiology of the disease. In fact, a child-to-child transmission observed before the introduction of vaccination is now replaced by an adolescent-adult to infant transmission. The major consequence is an increase in the mortality and morbidity in non vaccinated infants mostly contaminated by their parents. Researches undertaken on the agent of the disease, the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis, conducted to the development of subunits vaccines, efficacious and better tolerated by infants than whole-cell vaccines. Many developed countries decided to change vaccines but also to add vaccine boosters for adolescents and adults in order to stop the transmission of the disease to infants. However, even after 15 years of studies in many countries, pertussis is still underestimated in adults and generalized adult vaccination remains difficult. The new goal now is to give information to medical students and health care workers in general in order to increase adolescent and adult's vaccination coverage.

  18. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05), demonstrating that vaccination-induced immunity reduces viral loads and delays disease progression. Contrarily, in vaccinated young rabbits higher viral loads were registered compared to non-vaccinated kittens. No significant variation (p=0.3824) was observed between viral loads of non-vaccinated domestic and wild RHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2014-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE=69% [95% CI: 50%-81%] and infection VE=63% [95% CI: 29%-81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Bulut, A.N.; Gubbins, S.; Stärk, K.D.C.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Sumption, K.J.; Paton, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE = 69% [95% CI: 50%–81%] and infection VE = 63% [95% CI: 29%–81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures. PMID:24530150

  1. A game dynamic model for delayer strategies in vaccinating behaviour for pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, C T

    2010-12-07

    Several studies have found that some parents delay the age at which their children receive pediatric vaccines due to perception of higher vaccine risk at the recommended age of vaccination. This has been particularly apparently during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella scare in the United Kingdom. Under a voluntary vaccination policy, vaccine coverage in certain age groups is a potentially complex interplay between vaccinating behaviour, disease dynamics, and age-specific risk factors. Here, we construct an age-structured game dynamic model, where individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to imitation dynamics depending on age-dependent disease prevalence and perceived risk of vaccination. Individuals may be timely vaccinators, delayers, or non-vaccinators. The model exhibits multiple equilibria and a broad range of possible dynamics. For certain parameter regimes, the proportion of timely vaccinators and delayers oscillate in an anti-phase fashion in response to oscillations in infection prevalence. Under an exogenous change to the perceived risk of vaccination as might occur during a vaccine scare, the model can also capture an increase in delayer strategists similar in magnitude to that observed during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine scare in the United Kingdom. Our model also shows that number of delayers steadily increases with increasing severity of the scare, whereas it saturates to specific value with increases in duration of the scare. Finally, by comparing the model dynamics with and without the option of a delayer strategy, we show that adding a third delayer strategy can have a stabilizing effect on model dynamics. In an era where individual choice--rather than accessibility--is becoming an increasingly important determinant of vaccine uptake, more infectious disease models may need to use game theory or related techniques to determine vaccine uptake.

  2. Dendritic cells and vaccine design for sexually-transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Duluc, Dorothee; Gannevat, Julien; Joo, Hyemee; Ni, Ling; Upchurch, Katherine; Boreham, Muriel; Carley, Michael; Stecher, Jack; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, Sangkon

    2013-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are major antigen presenting cells (APCs) that can initiate and control host immune responses toward either immunity or tolerance. These features of DCs, as immune orchestrators, are well characterized by their tissue localizations as well as by their subset-dependent functional specialties and plasticity. Thus, the level of protective immunity to invading microbial pathogens can be dependent on the subsets of DCs taking up microbial antigens and their functional plasticity in response to microbial products, host cellular components and the cytokine milieu in the microenvironment. Vaccines are the most efficient and cost-effective preventive medicine against infectious diseases. However, major challenges still remain for the diseases caused by sexually-transmitted pathogens, including HIV, HPV, HSV and Chlamydia. We surmise that the establishment of protective immunity in the female genital mucosa, the major entry and transfer site of these pathogens, will bring significant benefit for the protection against sexually-transmitted diseases. Recent progresses made in DC biology suggest that vaccines designed to target proper DC subsets may permit us to establish protective immunity in the female genital mucosa against sexually-transmitted pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Requirements for improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are currently used worldwide. With the emergence of various FMD virus serotypes and subtypes, vaccines must become more suitable for field-based uses under the current circumstances in terms of the fast and proper selection of vaccine strains, an extended vaccine development period for new viruses, protecting against the risk of virus leakage during vaccine manufacture, counteracting the delayed onset of immune response, counteracting shorter durations of immunity, and the accurate serological differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals and multiple vaccination. The quality of vaccines should then be improved to effectively control FMD outbreaks and minimize the problems that can arise among livestock after vaccinations. Vaccine improvement should be based on using attenuated virus strains with high levels of safety. Moreover, when vaccines are urgently required for newly spread field strains, the seed viruses for new vaccines should be developed for only a short period. Improved vaccines should offer superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. In addition, they should have highly protective effects without persistent infection. In this way, if vaccines are developed using new methods such as reverse genetics or vector vaccine technology, in which live viruses can be easily made by replacing specific protective antigens, even a single vaccination is likely to generate highly protective effects with an extended duration of immunity, and the safety and stability of the vaccines will be assured. We therefore reviewed the current FMD vaccines and their adjuvants, and evaluated if they provide superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. PMID:23596585

  4. Comparative morphology of the bursal nozzles in acoels (Acoela, Acoelomorpha).

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anatoly; Hooge, Matthew; Tyler, Seth

    2006-05-01

    Systematics of the Acoela is particularly difficult because of the paucity of readily discernible morphological features. In other soft-bodied worms, sclerotized structures, such as copulatory stylets, provide important characters that can be seen in whole mounts, but acoels generally lack such features. Among the few sclerotized structures in acoels are bursal nozzles-tubiform outlets on the seminal bursae that are believed to be conduits (spermatic ducts) through which allosperm are transported to the oocytes. Early classifications of the Acoela used features of the female reproductive system, including bursal nozzles, for distinguishing major groups, but the current system essentially ignores them as too plastic to provide higher-level distinctions. We used confocal and electron microscopy to further characterize bursal nozzles in five acoel species, and found all composed of actin-reinforced extensions of stacked, flat mesenchymal cells. In Notocelis gullmarensis, Aphanostoma bruscai, and Daku woorimensis, the nozzle is a stiffened region of the same cells forming the wall of the bursa. By contrast, in Wulguru cuspidata cells forming the nozzle are distinct from those of the bursa. The so-called bursal cap of A. bruscai and D. woorimensis has small sclerotized disjunct units within it, also composed of stacked, flat, actin-reinforced cells. The nozzle of W. cuspidata, prominent like that of other convolutid acoels, is relatively complex, its actin-reinforced cells sandwiched with secretory cells and its base bearing a "sorting apparatus" of egg-shaped cells that send narrow processes inside the spermatic duct. Cases of sperm inside the nozzle corroborate its assumed role in reproduction. Whereas most nozzles sit at the end of the bursa facing the ovary, in species of Pseudmecynostomum and purportedly in a few other acoels, they sit between the female pore and the bursa, constituting what we call a vaginal nozzle. All bursal nozzles of acoels show a common

  5. Human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro testing.

    PubMed

    Brake, D A; McIlhaney, M; Miller, T; Christianson, K; Keene, A; Lohnas, G; Purcell, C; Neilan, J; Schutta, C; Barrera, J; Burrage, T; Brough, D E; Butman, B T

    2012-01-01

    Next generation, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) molecular vaccines based on replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 viral vectored delivery of FMD capsid genes (AdFMD) are being developed by the United States Dept. of Homeland Security and industry partners. The strategic goal of this program is to develop AdFMD licensed vaccines for the USA National Veterinary Stockpile for use, if needed, as emergency response tools during an FMD outbreak. This vaccine platform provides a unique opportunity to develop a set of in vitro analytical parameters to generate an AdFMD vaccine product profile to replace the current lot release test for traditional, inactivated FMD vaccines that requires FMDV challenge in livestock. The possibility of an indirect FMD vaccine potency test based on a serological alternative was initially investigated for a lead vaccine candidate, Adt.A24. Results show that serum virus neutralization (SVN) based serology testing for Adt.A24 vaccine lot release is not feasible, at least not in the context of vaccine potency assessment at one week post-vaccination. Thus, an in vitro infectious titer assay (tissue culture infectious dose 50, TCID50) which measures FMD infectious (protein expression) titer was established. Pre-validation results show acceptable assay variability and linearity and these data support further studies to validate the TCID50 assay as a potential potency release test. In addition, a quantitative physiochemical assay (HPLC) and three immunochemical assays (Fluorescent Focus-Forming Unit (FFU); tissue culture expression dose 50 (TCED50); Western blot) were developed for potential use as in vitro assays to monitor AdFMD vaccine lot-to-lot consistency and other potential applications. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a traditional modified-live vaccine virus infectivity assay in combination with a set of physiochemical and immunochemical tests to build a vaccine product profile that will ensure the each Ad

  6. Vaccination of healthy and diseased koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a Chlamydia pecorum multi-subunit vaccine: evaluation of immunity and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kollipara, Avinash; George, Carmel; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2012-02-27

    Chlamydial infections represent a major threat to the long-term survival of the koala and a successful vaccine would provide a valuable management tool. Vaccination however has the potential to enhance inflammatory disease in animals exposed to a natural infection prior to vaccination, a finding in early human and primate trials of whole cell vaccines to prevent trachoma. In the present study, we vaccinated both healthy koalas as well as clinically diseased koalas with a multi-subunit vaccine consisting of Chlamydia pecorum MOMP and NrdB mixed with immune stimulating complex as adjuvant. Following vaccination, there was no increase in inflammatory pathological changes in animals previously infected with Chlamydia. Strong antibody (including neutralizing antibodies) and lymphocyte proliferation responses were recorded in all vaccinated koalas, both healthy and clinically diseased. Vaccine induced antibodies specific for both vaccine antigens were observed not only in plasma but also in ocular secretions. Our data shows that an experimental chlamydial vaccine is safe to use in previously infected koalas, in that it does not worsen infection-associated lesions. Furthermore, the prototype vaccine is effective, as demonstrated by strong levels of neutralizing antibody and lymphocyte proliferation responses in both healthy and clinically diseased koalas. Collectively, this work illustrates the feasibility of developing a safe and effective Chlamydia vaccine as a tool for management of disease in wild koalas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of secondary cases of meningococcal disease in household contacts by vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, B M; Hassan-King, M; Whittle, H C

    1978-01-01

    Household contacts of patients with group A meningococcal infection were vaccinated with either meningococcal vaccine or tetanus toxoid. Five of the 523 subjects who received tetanus toxoid developed meningococcal meningitis and another four probably had meningococcal disease. Only one possible case of meningococcal infection occurred among 520 contacts vaccinated with meningococcal vaccine. Vaccination had no effect on nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Vaccination of household contacts of patients with group A meningococcal infections is an effective way of using limited supplies of meningococcal vaccine, though its value would be limited in an epidemic. Secondary cases of meningococcal infection often occur within a few days of the index case, and, although vaccine alone seemed to provide adequate prophylaxis in these Nigerian subjects, additional chemoprophylaxis may be needed to cover this critical period. PMID:417754

  8. [Flu vaccine and auto-immune and/or inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Duchet-Niedziolka, Paula; Hanslik, Thomas; Mouthon, Luc; Guillevin, Loïc; Launay, Odile

    2011-03-01

    Patients with systemic inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases have an increased risk of infections particularly severe influenza infections. Annually vaccination can prevent these infections. Available data about the influenza vaccine in these patients show that, it remains well tolerated and effective even if the antibody response is lower compared to healthy controls. These data encourage to vaccine every year patients with systemic inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases with influenza vaccine, particularly patients taking immunosuppressant drugs or having respiratory, cardiac or renal chronic diseases according to guidelines. More data are needed about the severity of influenza infection and the efficacy of influenza vaccination in patients with systemic inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases to improve their vaccine coverage.

  9. Vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention of infectious diseases having cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jashin J; Huang, David B; Pang, Katie R; Tyring, Stephen K

    2004-04-01

    Although the development of antimicrobial drugs has advanced rapidly in the past several years, such agents act against only certain groups of microbes and are associated with increasing rates of resistance. These limitations of treatment force physicians to continue to rely on prevention, which is more effective and cost-effective than therapy. From the use of the smallpox vaccine by Jenner in the 1700s to the current concerns about biologic warfare, the technology for vaccine development has seen numerous advances. The currently available vaccines for viral illnesses include Dryvax for smallpox; the combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; inactivated vaccine for hepatitis A; plasma-derived vaccine for hepatitis B; and the live attenuated Oka strain vaccine for varicella zoster. Vaccines available against bacterial illnesses include those for anthrax, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Currently in development for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes are vaccines for HIV, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus. Other vaccines being investigated for prevention are those for cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, hepatitis C, and dengue fever, among many others. Fungal and protozoan diseases are also subjects of vaccine research. Among immunoglobulins approved for prophylactic and therapeutic use are those against cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A and B, measles, rabies, and tetanus. With this progress, it is hoped that effective vaccines soon will be developed for many more infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations.

  10. Working towards dengue as a vaccine-preventable disease: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Ambuj; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Dash, Paban K; Parida, Manmohan

    2017-10-01

    Dengue is an emerging viral disease that affects the human population around the globe. Recent advancements in dengue virus research have opened new avenues for the development of vaccines against dengue. The development of a vaccine against dengue is a challenging task because any of the four serotypes of dengue viruses can cause disease. The development of a dengue vaccine aims to provide balanced protection against all the serotypes. Several dengue vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages such as inactivated, live attenuated, recombinant subunit, and plasmid DNA vaccines. Area covered: The authors provide an overview of the progress made in the development of much needed dengue vaccines. The authors include their expert opinion and their perspectives for future developments. Expert opinion: Human trials of a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine have clearly demonstrated its potential as a dengue vaccine. Other vaccine candidate molecules such as DENVax, a recombinant chimeric vaccine andTetraVax, are at different stages of development at this time. The authors believe that the novel strategies for testing and improving the immune response of vaccine candidates in humans will eventually lead to the development of a successful dengue vaccine in future.

  11. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease After Implementation of 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Madoff, Lawrence C.; Coombes, Brandon; Pelton, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there is a different clinical profile and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children caused by nonvaccine types in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Observational study of childhood IPD in Massachusetts based on state public health surveillance data comparing pre-PCV13 (2007–2009) and post-PCV13 (2010–2012) eras. RESULTS: There were 168 pre-PCV13 cases of IPD and 85 post-PCV13 cases of IPD in Massachusetts children ≤5 years of age. PCV13 serotypes declined by 18% in the first 2 years after PCV13 use (P = .011). In the post-PCV13 phase, a higher proportion of children were hospitalized (57.6% vs 50.6%), and a higher proportion of children had comorbidity (23.5% vs 19.6%). Neither difference was statistically significant, nor were comparisons of IPD caused by vaccine and nonvaccine types. Children with comorbidities had higher rates of IPD caused by a nonvaccine type (27.6% vs 17.2%; P = .085), were more likely to be hospitalized (80.4% vs 50%; P < .0001), and were more likely to have a longer hospital stay (median of 3 days vs 0.5 days; P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Initial data suggest that nonvaccine serotypes are more common in children with underlying conditions, who have greater morbidity from disease. In the post-PCV13 era, a larger proportion of patients are hospitalized, but mortality rates are unchanged. Routine vaccination with PCV13 may not be enough to reduce the risk in patients with comorbidity. PMID:25002663

  12. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals.

    PubMed

    Liew, Pit Sze; Hair-Bejo, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described.

  13. [Vaccine might be an important means of chronic disease prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenhua; Yang, Weizhong

    2015-08-01

    The vaccine has played an important role in the struggle between human and infectious disease. However, with the development of society and economy, the non-communicable chronic disease has become the biggest threat to human health. The occurrence and development of chronic diseases is related to various factors. Whether vaccines to prevent chronic disease can be developed remains exploratory, while evidence revealing that there exists an important relationship between infection factors and chronic diseases is increasing. Therefore, the vaccine to prevent infection might become one of the most important means to effectively prevent and control chronic diseases.

  14. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  15. Effect of vaccination on transmission characteristics of highly virulent Newcastle disease virus in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Dadi, Kara; Kassa, Tesfu; Sahle, Mesfin; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vaccines produced in Ethiopia from vaccine strains used worldwide on the transmission characteristics of velogenic Newcastle disease virus field strain after different vaccination schemes. Chickens were vaccinated with Hitchner B1, La Sota or I-2 via the intraocular and intranasal routes. Vaccine and challenge viruses induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and contact birds. Prime-boost vaccination protected birds against morbidity and mortality and significantly reduced the incidence of viral shedding from chickens compared with single vaccinated and unvaccinated birds. Protection from disease and mortality was correlated with the presence of positive antibody titres (>4 log2) at day of challenge. Most of the unvaccinated and in-contact birds excreted the virus and showed a high level of antibody titres, indicating the high infectivity of the challenge virus. The detection of the challenge virus in most of vaccinated birds demonstrated that the tested vaccination protocols cannot fully protect birds from viral infection, replication and shedding, and vaccinated-infected birds can act as a source of infection for susceptible flocks. The high mortality observed in unvaccinated birds and their contacts confirmed the virulence of the challenge virus and indicated that this field virus strain can easily spread in an unvaccinated poultry population and cause major outbreaks. Progressive vaccinations supported by biosecurity measures should therefore be implemented to control the disease and introduction of the virus to the poultry farms.

  16. Newcastle disease vaccines-A solved problem or a continuous challenge?

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Afonso, Claudio L; Yu, Qingzhong; Miller, Patti J

    2016-12-16

    Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND must include strict biosecurity that prevents virulent NDV from contacting poultry, and also proper administration of efficacious vaccines. When administered correctly to healthy birds, ND vaccines formulated with NDV of low virulence or viral-vectored vaccines that express the NDV fusion protein are able to prevent clinical disease and mortality in chickens upon infection with virulent NDV. Live and inactivated vaccines have been widely used since the 1950's. Recombinant and antigenically matched vaccines have been adopted recently in some countries, and many other vaccine approaches have been only evaluated experimentally. Despite decades of research and development towards formulation of an optimal ND vaccine, improvements are still needed. Impediments to prevent outbreaks include uneven vaccine application when using mass administration techniques in larger commercial settings, the difficulties associated with vaccinating free-roaming, multi-age birds of village flocks, and difficulties maintaining the cold chain to preserve the thermo-labile antigens in the vaccines. Incomplete or improper immunization often results in the disease and death of poultry after infection with virulent NDV. Another cause of decreased vaccine efficacy is the existence of antibodies (including maternal) in birds, which can neutralize the vaccine and thereby reduce the effectiveness of ND vaccines. In this review, a historical perspective, summary of the current situation for ND and NDV strains, and a review of traditional and experimental ND vaccines are presented.

  17. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo; Yu, Qingzhong; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-03-01

    While there is typically 100% survivability in birds challenged with vNDV under experimental conditions, either with vaccines formulated with a strain homologous or heterologous (different genotype) to the challenge virus, vaccine deficiencies are often noted in the field. We have developed an improved and more stringent protocol to experimentally evaluate live NDV vaccines, and showed for the first time under experimental conditions that a statistically significant reduction in mortality can be detected with genotype matched vaccines. Using both vaccine evaluation protocols (traditional and improved), birds were challenged with a vNDV of genotype XIII and the efficacy of live heterologous (genotype II) and homologous (genotype XIII) NDV vaccines was compared. Under traditional vaccination conditions there were no differences in survival upon challenge, but the homologous vaccine induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific to the challenge virus. With the more stringent challenge system (multiple vaccine doses and early challenge with high titers of vNDV), the birds administered the homologous vaccine had superior humoral responses, reduced clinical signs, and reduced mortality levels than those vaccinated with the heterologous vaccine. These results provide basis for the implementation of more sensitive methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Vaccines and Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs: Practical Implications for the Rheumatologist.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Marcia A; Winthrop, Kevin L

    2017-02-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are highly vulnerable to infections because of abnormalities in their immune system, and because of immunosuppressive effects of their medications. Vaccinations in this population are complicated by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, which also modulate or suppress the immune system and potentially decrease the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccines. We review the available data regarding the impact of rheumatoid arthritis therapy on the immunogenicity of various common vaccines. We also review rheumatoid arthritis-specific vaccination recommendations, live vaccine safety concerns, and current gaps in our understanding of these issues."

  19. Reverse immunogenetics: from HLA-disease associations to vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Davenport, M P; Hill, A V

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in patients with either infectious or autoimmune diseases has led to the identification of several HLA alleles associated with either resistance or susceptibility to disease. Understanding the role of HLA molecules in the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells has led to the use of 'reverse immunogenetics': a novel approach to analysing the key antigenic peptides that are presented by the relevant HLA molecules. Recent advances in the analysis of naturally occurring peptides bound to HLA molecules has allowed the direct identification of antigenic peptides from living cells and has supported the development of vaccine candidates, such as the liver-stage antigen 1 in malaria.

  20. Marek's disease vaccines: a solution for today but a worry for tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M

    2008-07-18

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens that, in the absence of control measures, is capable of causing devastating losses in commercial poultry flocks. MD has been successfully controlled by vaccination since 1968. However, vaccine efficacy has decreased concomitantly with the increase in virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The constant evolution of MDV has forced the development of new vaccines or vaccine strategies that control the more virulent emergent strains. However, this race between the introduction of new vaccines and the evolution of MDV represents a major threat for the poultry industry. In addition to vaccination, other factors might have contributed to the evolution of MDV (intensive methods of chicken production, early exposure of the chickens to MDV and administration of vaccines at very low doses). From all the possible factors influencing MDV evolution, the effect of vaccination has received the greatest attention. MD vaccines protect with great efficacy against the development of the disease but they do not prevent infection or transmission. Sterilizing immunity could be a solution to stop the evolution of the virus but it has been proven to be extremely difficult, if at all possible, to obtain with MDV or with other herpesviruses. Other solutions to improve vaccine-induced protection are discussed in this paper.

  1. Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

  2. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra®) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo®) – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix®) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks. PMID:24729718

  3. Influence of disease burden, public perception, and other factors on new vaccine development, implementation, and continued use.

    PubMed

    Levine, M M; Levine, O S

    1997-11-08

    The development, implementation, and continued use of new vaccines depends on several factors. Although disease burden seems like an obvious quantitative measure for setting priorities for new vaccine development and use, resources are not always allocated proportionately. This is particularly evident for diseases that are unique (or largely limited) to people in developing countries. Public pressure based on perceptions of the risks associated with a disease or vaccine, the cost of new vaccines, and the ability to incorporate them into existing vaccination programmes also need to be considered in the decision to introduce new vaccines. Vaccine manufacturers play an important part in development of new vaccines, and therefore, the issues that are important to them, namely, production, intellectual property rights, and product liability, must be addressed. By advocating rational decisions, supported by accurate information, scientists and public-health professionals can have an important role in transforming the potential of new vaccines into the reality of new vaccine-preventable diseases.

  4. Effects of Chicken Interferon Gamma on Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Dunwoody, Robert P.; Marcano, Valerie; Diel, Diego G.; Williams, Robert J.; Gogal, Robert M.; Brown, Corrie C.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFNγ) during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFNγ with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigens were evaluated for their ability to enhance the avian immune response and their protective capacity upon challenge with virulent NDV. These systems consisted of: 1) a DNA vaccine expressing the Newcastle disease virus fusion (F) protein co-administered with a vector expressing the chIFNγ gene for in ovo and booster vaccination, 2) a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the chIFNγ gene (rZJ1*L/IFNγ) used as a live vaccine delivered in ovo and into juvenile chickens, and 3) the same rZJ1*L/IFNγ virus used as an inactivated vaccine for juvenile chickens. Co-administration of chIFNγ with a DNA vaccine expressing the F protein resulted in higher levels of morbidity and mortality, and higher amounts of virulent virus shed after challenge when compared to the group that did not receive chIFNγ. The live vaccine system co-delivering chIFNγ did not enhanced post-vaccination antibody response, nor improved survival after hatch, when administered in ovo, and did not affect survival after challenge when administered to juvenile chickens. The low dose of the inactivated vaccine co-delivering active chIFNγ induced lower antibody titers than the groups that did not receive the cytokine. The high dose of this vaccine did not increase the antibody titers or antigen-specific memory response, and did not reduce the amount of challenge virus shed or mortality after challenge. In summary, regardless of the delivery system, chIFNγ, when administered simultaneously with the vaccine antigen, did not enhance Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:27409587

  5. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne’s disease (JD). The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candi...

  6. Development of a novel thermostable Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease (ND) for village flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of the...

  7. Results of a national survey of infectious diseases specialists regarding influenza vaccination programs for healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Philip M; Septimus, Edward; Talbot, Thomas R; Beekmann, Susan E; Helms, Charles

    2010-10-01

    A minority of infectious diseases consultants currently work in healthcare institutions requiring influenza vaccination for healthcare workers, and in approximately half of these institutions, the healthcare workers who refuse vaccination do not face substantial consequences for their refusal. Although true mandatory policies are not common, a majority of infectious diseases consultants support such policies.

  8. A novel thermostable Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease for village flocks, especially in the developing countries. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, a reverse genetic system for the thermostable avirulent NDV...

  9. Optimization of the protocols for double vaccination against Marek's disease by using commercially available vaccines: evaluation of protection, vaccine replication, and activation of T cells.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Witter, Richard L; Pandiri, Arun R

    2012-06-01

    Revaccination against Marek's disease is a widespread practice in some countries. The rationale of this practice is unknown, and there is no consensus in the protocols. Recently, we have demonstrated that administration of the first vaccine at 18 days of embryonation followed by a more protective second vaccine at hatch (18ED/1d) reproduced systematically the benefits of revaccination under laboratory conditions. Here, we have used the same model to optimize the revaccination protocols by using currently available vaccines and to determine whether two features associated with Marek's disease vaccine-induced protection (activation of T cells and replication of vaccine virus) are involved in the revaccination protocols. Protection conferred by three revaccination protocols (turkey herpesvirus [HVT] 18ED/HVT+SB-1 1d, HVT 18ED/CVI988 1d, and HVT+SB-1 18ED/ CVI988 1d) was evaluated. Revaccination protocols also were compared with single vaccination protocols (HVT 18ED, HVT+SB-1 18ED, HVT+SB-1 1d, CVI988 18ED, and CVI988 1d). Our results demonstrated that it is possible to improve efficacy of the currently available vaccines by using them in revaccination programs. Administration of HVT 18ED/CVI988 1d and HVT+SB-1 18ED/CVI988 1d were the two protocols that conferred the highest protection against a very early challenge (2 days of age) with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus strain 648A. In a separate experiment, we evaluated vaccine replication and activation of T cells in single and revaccination protocols. Our results demonstrated that replication of the second vaccine, although decreased compared with single vaccination, could be detected at 3 days (HVT, CVI988) or at 6 days (SB-1). Administration of the first vaccine (HVT) at 18ED resulted in a high percentage of activated T cells. Administration of a second vaccine (either HVT-SB-1 or CVI988) at 1d resulted in increased intensity of MHC-II stain in activated T cells.

  10. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P

    2013-11-04

    This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive a