Science.gov

Sample records for bus seat belts

  1. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  2. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. 393.93 Section 393.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses...

  3. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. 393.93 Section 393.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses...

  4. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. 393.93 Section 393.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses...

  5. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. 393.93 Section 393.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses...

  6. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. 393.93 Section 393.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses...

  7. Compliance with seat belt use in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iribhogbe, Pius Ehiawaguan; Osime, Clement Odigie

    2008-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. A quarter of all fatalities due to injury occur due to road traffic crashes with 90% of the fatalities occurring in low- and medium-income countries. Poor compliance with the use of seat belts is a problem in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of seatbelt compliance in motor vehicles in Benin City, Nigeria. A five-day, observational study was conducted in strategic locations in Benin City. The compliance rates of drivers, front seat passengers, and rear seat passengers in the various categories of vehicles were evaluated, and the data were subjected to statistical processing using the Program for Epidemiology. A total of 369 vehicles were observed. This consisted of 172 private cars, 64 taxis, 114 buses, 15 trucks, and four other vehicles. The seat belt compliance rate for drivers was 52.3%, front seat passengers 18.4%, and rear seat passengers 6.1%. Drivers of all categories of vehicles were more likely to use the seat belt compared to front seat passengers (p = 0.000) and rear seat passengers (p = 0.000). Drivers of private cars were more likely to use seat belts compared to taxi drivers (p = 0.000) and bus drivers (p = 0.000). Front seat passengers in private cars were more likely to use the seat belt compared to front seat passengers in taxis (p = 0.000) and buses (p = 0.000). Rear seat passengers in private cars also were more likely to use seat belts compared to rear seat passengers in taxis (p = 0.000) and buses (p = 0.000). Compliance with seat belt use in Benin City is low. Legislation, educational campaigns, and enforcement of seat belt use are needed.

  8. Should Seat Belts Be Required on All School Buses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the limited case law involving seat belts for school buses and explores emerging legal issues surrounding use of common law causes of action to challenge school bus safety. (51 footnotes) (MLF)

  9. Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seat Belt Use Among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seat Belt Use

    PubMed Central

    LITT, DANA M.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.; LINKENBACH, JEFFREY W.; LANDE, GARY; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one’s own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. Methods High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Results Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one’s own seat belt use. Conclusions Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents’ behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms–based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID:24628560

  10. Seat belt and child seat use in Lipetskaya Oblast, Russia: frequencies, attitudes, and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Tran, Nhan; Klyavin, Vladimir E; Zambon, Francesco; Hatcher, Kristin W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding seat belt use patterns among drivers and passengers for the purpose of direct interventions or monitoring improvements, no study has described wearing rates for all seat positions in Russia. This study describes observed seat belt use and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of seat belt use in Lipetskaya Oblast, Russia. An observational study on the use of seat belts and child restraints in the Lipetskaya region conducted during October 2010 collected data in 6 districts and on 3 different road types. A roadside survey gathered information on knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions toward the use of seat belts from randomly selected drivers. Frequencies of seat belt use by seat position, gender, and road type were calculated. A multivariable logit model disclosed the associations between seat belt use and sociodemographic factors. The study design permitted comparison of observed seat belt use to self-reported seat belt use. A total of 25,795 vehicles and 39,833 drivers and passengers contributed observations. Overall, 55 percent of drivers were observed to be using seat belts. More than half (58%) of front seat passengers wore seat belts and only 9 percent of back seat passengers were observed to be wearing seat belts; 11 percent of cars with children had any type of child safety measure. Drivers on urban roads were less likely to wear seat belts compared to those on main highways and rural roads. Nearly 60 percent of survey respondents mentioned "seat belts save lives," and more than half mentioned law requirements and fines. Although the observed seat belt use in Lipetskaya Oblast is much higher than previous estimates in Russia, overall wearing rates remain far from universal. Rear seat passengers and children are particularly at risk. Because combined education and enforcement has proven to be effective elsewhere, such interventions are needed to improve seat belt use.

  11. Seat belt use-inducing system effectiveness

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-04-01

    Seat belt use inducing system effectiveness was measured in fleet automobiles of a private business and in rental automobiles at a large airport. There were three parts to the activity: 1. Seat belt use inducing systems and seat belt use counting sys...

  12. Seat Belt Sign and Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

    2013-01-01

    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term “seat belt sign” was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries. PMID:24479100

  13. Mandatory seat belt use.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to review mandatory seat belt use laws as they have been used around the world, to forecast the impact of such a law in Virginia, and, if appropriate, to propose a mandatory seat belt law for inclusion in the Code of V...

  14. Pattern of seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Routley, V; Ozanne‐Smith, J; Li, D; Hu, X; Wang, P; Qin, Y

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China for drivers, front seat passengers, and rear occupants of motor vehicles. Design Roadside observational study. Setting Four sites in central and northern Nanjing during daylight hours over 1 week in April 2005. Subjects Drivers and passengers of 17 147 cars, taxis, goods vans, and pickups, which traveled in the inside traffic lane. Main outcome measures Percentage seat belt wearing for each of seating position, age/sex, time of day, vehicle type, day of week. Results The rate of seat belt wearing was significantly higher in drivers (67.3%, 95% CI 66.6 to 68.0) than front seat passengers (18.9%, 95% CI, 18.0 to 19.8). It was negligible for second front seat passengers (2.6%, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.9) and rear seat passengers (0.5%, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.7). Belt tampering, such that protection would be reduced in the event of a crash, was observed for 18.5% of taxi drivers. Drivers were most likely to wear seat belts in cars and vans and at a city roundabout; front seat passengers were most likely to wear seat belts in non‐taxi vehicles, during the evening rush hour, if the driver was wearing a belt, and on the local north road. Drivers were least likely to wear a belt in the early morning, in pickups and taxis, on Tuesday (or the following week), and on the local north road; front seat passengers were least likely to wear a belt in taxis and if the driver was not wearing a belt. Conclusions Rates of seat belt wearing by passengers were low despite national legislation and provincial regulations coming into effect several months before the survey. Combined education and enforcement are necessary accompaniments to legislation. PMID:18056315

  15. Teens and seat belt use: What makes them click?

    PubMed

    Shults, Ruth A; Haegerich, Tamara M; Bhat, Geeta; Zhang, Xinjian

    2016-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes kill more adolescents in the United States than any other cause, and often the teen is not wearing a seat belt. Using data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 38 states, we examined teens' self-reported seat belt use while riding as a passenger and identified individual characteristics and environmental factors associated with always wearing a seat belt. Only 51% of high school students living in 38 states reported always wearing a seat belt when riding as a passenger; prevalence varied from 32% in South Dakota to 65% in Delaware. Seat belt use was 11 percentage points lower in states with secondary enforcement seat belt laws compared to states with primary enforcement laws. Racial/ethnic minorities, teens living in states with secondary enforcement seat belt laws, and those engaged in substance use were least likely to always wear their seat belts. The likelihood of always being belted declined steadily as the number of substance use behaviors increased. Seat belt use among teens in the United States remains unacceptably low. Results suggest that environmental influences can compound individual risk factors, contributing to even lower seat belt use among some subgroups. This study provides the most comprehensive state-level estimates to date of seat belt use among U.S. teens. This information can be useful when considering policy options to increase seat belt use and for targeting injury prevention interventions to high-risk teens. States can best increase teen seat belt use by making evidence-informed decisions about state policy options and prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection. PMID:2240346

  17. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  18. Mandatory seat belt use laws.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to review mandatory seat belt use laws as they have been used around the world, to forecast the impact of such a law in Virginia, and, if appropriate, to propose a mandatory seat belt law for inclusion in the Code of V...

  19. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  20. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt laws.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-01-01

    Low seat belt usage rates have persisted for years despite efforts to educate people about belts' benefits. There is ample documentation of the contribution of seat belts to saving lives and reducing injury. The emotional and pecuniary toll of the fa...

  1. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted. Methods: Seat belt use of drivers in relatively new cars with and without the reminder system was unobtrusively observed as vehicles were brought to dealerships for service. Results: Overall use rates were estimated at 71% for drivers in vehicles without the reminder system and 76% for drivers in vehicles with belt reminders (p<0.01). Conclusions: Seat belt use is relatively low in the United States. The present study showed that vehicle based reminder systems can be at least modestly effective in increasing belt use, which may encourage further development of such systems. PMID:12460965

  2. Seating position, seat belt wearing, and the consequences in facial fractures in car occupants.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Alexandre Siqueira Franco; Goldenberg, Dov; Alonso, Nivaldo; Bastos, Endrigo; Stocchero, Guilherme; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2007-06-01

    Trauma caused by traffic accidents is among the main etiologies involved in the occurrence of facial fractures throughout the world. However, the trauma mechanisms involved are different according to the location where the study was performed, due to different conditions of development, legislation, and culture. A retrospective study was done between February 2001 and July 2006, with the purpose of determining the epidemiology and the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of facial fractures among car occupants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Data were collected from 297 patients admitted with facial fractures to the emergency room of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Within this period, 151 individuals had been involved in traffic accidents, among which 56 (37.08%) were inside passenger cars. These were grouped based on the seating position that they were occupying at the time of the accident and the wearing of seat belts. Data concerning the number and location of fracture lines were obtained from the different groups, and a fracture/patient index (F/P I) was calculated to compare and make reference to the impact energy among these groups, for subsequent analysis and discussion. 323 fracture lines occurred among 56 patients who were car occupants. By applying the F/P I, we obtained higher values in the group of rear-seat passengers who were not wearing seat belts (7.23 fractures per patient), followed by the group of drivers not wearing seat belts (6.33 fractures per patient), the group of front-seat passengers not wearing seat belts (5.58 fractures per patient), the group of drivers wearing seat belts (5.54 fractures per patient) and, finally, the group of front-seat passengers wearing seat belts (4.00 fractures per patient). None of the rear-seat passengers was wearing seat belts. The data collected indicate that the driver position shows a high incidence of facial fractures, not being effectively protected by the seat

  3. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... School District (MCSD) of Ohio. With regard to changes to the regulatory text adopted by the October 2008... school buses greater than 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) GVWR, IC petitioned to change the requirement for school... Anchorages, School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  4. Factors related to nonuse of seat belts in Michigan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-09-01

    This study combined direct observation of seat belt use with interview methods to : identify factors related to seat belt use in a state with a mandatory seat belt use law. Trained : observers recorded restraint use for a probability sample of motori...

  5. Kinematics of pediatric crash dummies seated on vehicle seats with realistic belt geometry.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    A series of sled tests was performed using vehicle seats and Hybrid-III 6-year-old (6YO) and 10YO anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to explore possibilities for improving occupant protection for children who are not using belt-positioning booster seats. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorage locations that span the range of lap belt angles found in vehicles. Six tests each were performed with the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid III ATDs. One additional test was performed using a booster seat with the 6YO. The ATDs were positioned using an updated version of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) seating procedure that positions the ATD hips further forward with longer seat cushions to reflect the effect of cushion length on posture that has been measured with child volunteers. ATD kinematics were evaluated using peak head excursion, peak knee excursion, the difference between peak head and peak knee excursion, and the maximum torso angle. Shortening the seat cushion improved kinematic outcomes, particularly for the 10YO. Lap belt geometry had a greater effect on kinematics with the longer cushion length, with mid or forward belt geometries producing better kinematics than the rearward belt geometry. The worst kinematics for both ATDs occurred with the long cushion length and rearward lap belt geometry. The improvements in kinematics from shorter cushion length or more forward belt geometry are smaller than those provided by a booster seat. The results show potential benefits in occupant protection from shortening cushion length and increasing lap belt angles, particularly for children the size of the 10YO ATD.

  6. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies.

    PubMed

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age (< 30 years, 30-50 years, > 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  7. Seat belt use, especially among low-use drivers, increases as Florida upgrades to primary seat belt enforcement : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    As a secondary seat belt law State, Florida had worked : for many years to encourage more drivers to wear : their seat belts by participating in annual Click It or : Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations, and by conducting special : programs in rural areas of ...

  8. Effectiveness of Booster Seats Compared With No Restraint or Seat Belt Alone for Crash Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; He, Wei; Zhu, Shankuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster seats, compared with no restraint use and with seat belt use only, during motor vehicle crashes among U.S. children. Methods This was a retrospective matched cohort study with data from the 1998 through 2009 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The study sample consisted of children aged 0 to 10 years who were not seated in the front seat of the vehicle. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of overall, fatal, and regional body injury. Results Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats experienced less overall injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 0, adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.96; Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score of 2 or higher, adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58; ISS > 8, adjusted RR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.56), and less injury in most body regions except the neck (adjusted RR = 4.79, 95% CI = 1.43 to 16.00) than did children with no restraint use. Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats had an equal risk of injury but higher risks of neck (adjusted RR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.40) and thorax (adjusted RR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.33 to 6.15) injury than did children restrained by seat belts only. Conclusions Children using belt-positioning booster seats appear to experience a higher risk of AIS > 0 injury to the neck and thorax than do children using seat belts only. Future research should examine whether the observed increase in neck and thorax injuries can be attributed to improper use of booster seats. PMID:24050794

  9. Restraint use (seat belt and child passenger seat) survey

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    In Arizona, lack of restraint usage (seat belts and child passenger seats) was a contributing factor to an average of 687 fatalities per year which is nearly 60% of total fatalities. These tragic statistics could be dramatically decreased if effectiv...

  10. Seat belt injuries in impact.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1969-03-01

    Although the seat belt has been demonstrated to provide effective reduction of injuries and fatalities in automobile accidents by preventing ejection, a pattern of injuries directly attributable to impingement on the belt itself is becoming evident. ...

  11. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  12. School Bus Safety. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A roundtable discussion of the issue of seat belts in school buses features United States Representative Peter H. Kostmayer, who has introduced a bill providing incentive grants to states to adopt and enforce laws requiring the use of seat belts in new school buses; three bus manufacturing executives; and two educators. (MLF)

  13. School bus transportation for students seated in wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Karg, Patricia E

    2011-01-01

    For children with Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), transportation is considered a related service and a part of their education. This paper presents an overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation for students on school buses within the United States. The review includes the school transportation environment for wheelchair-seated students, applicable regulations and voluntary standards, primary safety issues for wheelchair-seated students, and key stakeholders roles in improving wheelchair transportation safety. Future actions to improve wheelchair transportation safety in school transportation are discussed, including the need to improve data collection, mandate payment for and use of RESNA WC19-compliant wheelchairs, improve training for bus operators and attendants, and require specialty certification for school bus operators who transport wheelchair-seated students.

  14. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P < 0.001). In terms of clinical outcome, no seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P < 0.001). Compared to seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs. PMID:26713066

  15. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  16. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  17. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  18. Papers on adult seat belts : effectiveness and use

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-06-01

    The eight papers in this volume describe analyses of the : effectiveness and use of adult seat belts, based on traffic : accident data. All eight were written between January 1984 and : May 1988. The topics addressed include front seat belt : effecti...

  19. Papers on adult seat belts--effectiveness and use

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-06-01

    The eight papers in the volume describe analyses of the effectiveness and use of adult seat belts, based on traffic accident data. All eight were written between January 1984 and May 1988. The topics addressed include front seat belt effectiveness (e...

  20. Ingress clearance requirements and seat positioning for automatic belt systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine how much clearance between a seat belt and seat cushion is needed for a driver to enter the front seat of an automobile equipped with automatic seat belts---without his/her having to lift the webbing, ...

  1. Prioritizing Safety with Seat Belts: The Unanswered Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Reviews conflicting federal and state developments (including liability lawsuits) involving seat belt installation on school buses. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board differ on this issue, and several states are considering seat belt legislation or crashworthiness studies. Hints are…

  2. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Ferro, Antonio; Spolaore, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003). Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor in

  3. Seat-belt message and the law?

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  4. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  5. States upgrade to primary enforcement seat belt laws : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    States with primary seat belt enforcement laws consistently : have higher observed daytime seat belt use rates than secondary : law States. Secondary belt law States, on the other : hand, consistently have more motor vehicle fatalities who : were not...

  6. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8%) or always (31.6%) use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7%) and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%). The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country. PMID:21679410

  7. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.210 Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes requirements for seat belt assembly anchorages to...

  8. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.210 Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes requirements for seat belt assembly anchorages to...

  9. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.210 Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes requirements for seat belt assembly anchorages to...

  10. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.210 Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes requirements for seat belt assembly anchorages to...

  11. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    PubMed

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  12. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Popoola, SO; Oluwadiya, KS; Kortor, JN; Denen-Akaa, P; Onyemaechi, NOC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24-h direct observational study of seat belt usage among vehicle occupants in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. By direct surveillance and using a datasheet, we observed 500 vehicles and their occupants for seat belt availability and compliance with its use. Chi-square test was used for test of significance between variables. Results: Twenty-five (5.0%) of the observed 500 vehicles had no seat belt at all. Overall, compliance was 277/486 (57.0%). Use of seat belt was highest in the afternoon with 124/194 (64.4%), followed by 111/188 (59.0%) in the morning and 42/95 (44.2%) at night. Compliance was highest among car occupants [209/308 (67.9%)] and private vehicles, and lowest among commercial vehicle occupants. Compliance among female drivers was 77.1% compared with 51.4% among male drivers. Among drivers, the mean age of seat belt users was 38.4 (7.7) years, which was significantly younger than the 41.3 (8.7) years mean age of non-users. Similar figures were obtained among other vehicle occupants. Conclusions: Compared with previous studies, seat belt usage has improved among Nigerian road users, but there is still room for improvement, especially early in the mornings and at nights. Since these were times when law enforcement agencies were not likely to be on the roads, we advocate for improved coverage by enforcement agents to enforce better compliance. PMID:24116327

  13. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  14. A program to increase seat belt use along the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Lawrence D; Hernandez, Delia; Byrd, Theresa; Cortes, Miguel

    2002-12-01

    A school-based, bilingual intervention was developed to increase seat belt use among families living along the Texas-Mexico border. The intervention sought to increase seat belt use by changing perceived norms within the community (i.e., making the nonuse of seat belts less socially acceptable). The intervention was implemented in more than 110 classrooms and involved more than 2100 children. Blind coding, validity checks, and reliability estimates contributed to a rigorous program evaluation. Seat belt use increased by 10% among children riding in the front seat of motor vehicles in the intervention community, as compared with a small but nonsignificant decline in use among control community children. Seat belt use among drivers did not increase.

  15. Seat Belts: 1949-1956

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-04-01

    The study assesses the impact of the consumer misconceptions, the lack of a seat belt standard, corporate attitudes towards safety, and the role of safety advocates. In addition, the study assesses the validity of the oft-stated hypothesis "safety do...

  16. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and... VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.222 Standard No. 222; School bus... requirements for school bus passenger seating and restraining barriers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this...

  17. Seat belt use on interstate highways.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J K; Williams, A F; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    More than 5,000 miles of limited-access highways in the eastern United States and Canada were traveled to observe seat belt use. Overall belt use was 58 percent in the United States and 79 percent in Canada. The data indicate that belt use in the United States follows a different pattern on interstate highways than on other streets and roads, with relatively high belt use rates (over 50 percent) appearing to be somewhat independent of belt use law provisions. PMID:2343969

  18. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Bedewi, Paul G; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Zwolinski, Joseph J; Meduvsky, Alex G; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of 4-point seat belt systems was investigated through MADYMO modeling, dummy tests and post mortem human subject tests. This study was conducted to assess the effect of 4-point seat belts on the risk of thoracic injury in frontal impacts, to evaluate the ability to prevent submarining under the lap belt using 4-point seat belts, and to examine whether 4-point belts may induce injuries not typically observed with 3-point seat belts. The performance of two types of 4-point seat belts was compared with that of a pretensioned, load-limited, 3-point seat belt. A 3-point belt with an extra shoulder belt that "crisscrossed" the chest (X4) appeared to add constraint to the torso and increased chest deflection and injury risk. Harness style shoulder belts (V4) loaded the body in a different biomechanical manner than 3-point and X4 belts. The V4 belt appeared to shift load to the clavicles and pelvis and to reduce traction of the shoulder belt across the chest, resulting in a reduction in chest deflection by a factor of two. This is associated with a 5 to 500-fold reduction in thoracic injury risk, depending on whether one assumes 4-point belts apply concentrated or distributed load. In four of six post mortem human subjects restrained by V4 belts during 40 km/h sled tests, chest compression was zero or negative and rib fractures were nearly eliminated. Submarining was not observed in any test with post mortem human subjects. Though lumbar, sacral and pelvic injuries were noted, they are believed to be due to the artificial restraint environment (no knee bolsters, instrument panels, steering systems or airbags). While they show significant potential to reduce thoracic injury risk, there are still many issues to be resolved before 4-point belts can be considered for production vehicles. These issues include, among others, potential effects on hard and soft neck tissues, of interaction with inboard shoulder belts in farside impacts and potential

  19. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R

    2010-11-01

    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  20. International survey of seat belt use exemptions

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-01-01

    Background Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. Methods This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non‐governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Results Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was “very good or good” and 57.7% characterized it as “fair or poor”. Conclusions This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to

  1. Evaluation of Kansas and Missouri rural seat belt demonstrations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown seat belt use is lower in rural areas of the United States, which may be one reason fatalities are higher in these areas. NHTSA sponsored two State-level demonstration projects to increase seat belt use in rural areas of Kansas and...

  2. Promoting the use of seat belts. Wessex Positive Health Team.

    PubMed

    1980-11-29

    A six-month study into the effect of a substantial programme of integrated health education promoting the use of seat belts showed no major change in the rates for occupants of front seats, which remained around 35%. Though there were increases of up to 5% in the rates for wearing seat belts immediately after the multimedia campaigns which achieved high penetration, only those among women drivers were sustained. Of the methods used to disseminate information, television had the greatest impact on the community, followed by press reports and radio broadcasts. It is concluded that health education alone is insufficient to increase significantly the use of car seat belts. Britain should follow its European partners and pass legislation requiring front seat occupants to wear belts. As the recent experience in Australia shows, the benefits will be considerable in terms of reducing mortality, morbidity, and consequential expenditure.

  3. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    PubMed

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P <.01); 56% preferred CC and 44% preferred BP but the difference was not significant. In total, 81% wanted to have extra seat belts in their family car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further

  4. Noncompliance with seat-belt use in patients involved in motor vehicle collisions

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brenneman, Frederick D.

    2005-01-01

    Background Seat-belt compliance in trauma patients involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) appears low when compared with compliance of the general public. In this study we wished to define the relative frequency of seat-belt use in injured Canadian drivers and passengers and to determine if there are risk factors particular to seat-belt noncompliance in this cohort. Methods We identified trauma patients who were involved in MVCs over a 24-month period and contacted them 2–4 years after the injury by telephone to administer a standardized survey. Potential determinants of seat-belt noncompliance were compared with the occurrence of an MVC by multiple logistic regression. Results Seat-belt noncompliance in 386 MVC patients was associated with drinking and driving, youth, speeding, male sex, being a passenger, smoking, secondary roads, rural residence, low level of education, overnight driving, having no dependents, licence demerit points, previous collisions, unemployment and short journeys. There was an increase in seat-belt awareness and a decrease in self-rated driving ability after the MVC. Conclusions Factors that indicate poor driving habits (alcohol, speeding, previous MVCs and driving offences) also predict seat-belt noncompliance. Injury prevention programs should selectively target these high-risk drivers to improve seat-belt compliance and limit associated injury and consumption of health care resources. PMID:16248134

  5. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... belt and shoulder harness that meets the applicable requirements specified in § 25.785 of this chapter...

  6. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... belt and shoulder harness that meets the applicable requirements specified in § 25.785 of this chapter...

  7. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... belt and shoulder harness that meets the applicable requirements specified in § 25.785 of this chapter...

  8. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... belt and shoulder harness that meets the applicable requirements specified in § 25.785 of this chapter...

  9. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... belt and shoulder harness that meets the applicable requirements specified in § 25.785 of this chapter...

  10. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    PubMed

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  11. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference point, shall extend forward from that contact point at an angle with the horizontal of not less... torso belt first contacts the uppermost torso belt anchorage.Seat belt anchorage means any component... line from the seating reference point to the nearest contact point of the belt with the anchorage shall...

  12. Estimating seat belt effectiveness using matched-pair cohort methods.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Peter; Wells, James D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2003-01-01

    Using US data for 1986-1998 fatal crashes, we employed matched-pair analysis methods to estimate that the relative risk of death among belted compared with unbelted occupants was 0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.41). This differs from relative risk estimates of about 0.55 in studies that used crash data collected prior to 1986. Using 1975-1998 data, we examined and rejected three theories that might explain the difference between our estimate and older estimates: (1) differences in the analysis methods; (2) changes related to car model year; (3) changes in crash characteristics over time. A fourth theory, that the introduction of seat belt laws would induce some survivors to claim belt use when they were not restrained, could explain part of the difference in our estimate and older estimates; but even in states without seat belt laws, from 1986 through 1998, the relative risk estimate was 0.45 (95% CI 0.39-0.52). All of the difference between our estimate and older estimates could be explained by some misclassification of seat belt use. Relative risk estimates would move away from 1, toward their true value, if misclassification of both the belted and unbelted decreased over time, or if the degree of misclassification remained constant, as the prevalence of belt use increased. We conclude that estimates of seat belt effects based upon data prior to 1986 may be biased toward 1 by misclassification.

  13. May 2004 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Air : Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign of the National Safety Council, : in conjunction with thousands of State and local law enforcement : agencies, conduct annual national seat belt mobiliza...

  14. Biomechanical considerations for assessing interactions of children and small occupants with inflatable seat belts.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Board, Derek; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2013-11-01

    NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents. Tests simulating a 6-year-old child asleep in a booster seat, with its head lying directly on its shoulder on top of the inflatable seat belt, were considered by engineering judgment, to represent a worst case scenario for interaction of an inflating seat belt with the head and neck of a child and/or small occupant. All evaluations resulted in ATD responses below Injury Assessment Reference Values reported by Mertz et al. (2003). In addition, the tests of the PMHS subjects resulted in no injuries from interaction of the inflating seat belt with the heads, necks, and chests of the subjects. Given the results from the ATD and PMHS tests, it was concluded that the injury risk to children and small occupants from deployment of inflatable seat belt systems is low.

  15. Seat belt use increases in Maine following change to primary enforcement : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    Primary seat belt laws are associated with higher selfreported : seat belt use rates and fewer traffic fatalities following : enactment. Primary laws allow police to issue a citation : solely upon observation of a seat belt violation. In contrast, : ...

  16. 23 CFR 1340.10 - Submission and approval of seat belt survey design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. 1340... § 1340.10 Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. (a) Contents: The following information shall be included in the State's seat belt survey design submitted for NHTSA approval: (1) Sample design...

  17. 23 CFR 1340.10 - Submission and approval of seat belt survey design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. 1340... § 1340.10 Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. (a) Contents: The following information shall be included in the State's seat belt survey design submitted for NHTSA approval: (1) Sample design...

  18. 23 CFR 1340.10 - Submission and approval of seat belt survey design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. 1340... § 1340.10 Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. (a) Contents: The following information shall be included in the State's seat belt survey design submitted for NHTSA approval: (1) Sample design...

  19. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Colón, I

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969

  20. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Possible causes of socioeconomic and ethnic differences in seat belt use among high school students.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Hong, L; Waldron, I

    1999-09-01

    This study has assessed seat belt use and factors which may influence seat belt use among high school students from three types of schools. The inner city schools had high proportions of African American and Hispanic American students from low income families, whereas the middle class school and private schools had high proportions of non-Hispanic white students from middle class families with college educated parents. Students from the inner city schools reported less seat belt use than students from the middle class school or private schools. Our analyses evaluated several hypotheses concerning possible reasons why inner city youth had lower rates of seat belt use. In accord with the social influences hypothesis, inner city youth reported lower rates of parental seat belt use and less often being told by parents to use their seat belts, and our regression results indicate that less parental modeling and encouragement of seat belt use was an important cause of inner city youth's lower rates of seat belt use. Our other hypotheses received weaker support, but we did find evidence for two hypothesized differences in attitudes which influence seat belt use. Specifically, inner city youth were more likely to agree with the statement, 'there is no point in wearing seat belts since you have no control over your fate or destiny', and inner city youth attributed less importance to safety concerns as a motivation for seat belt use. These attitudes appeared to contribute to lower rates of seat belt use by inner city youth.

  2. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  3. Strengthening seat belt use laws

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-01

    Traffic crashes are a leading cause : of death in the United States. : Wearing seat belts is the easiest and : most effective way of cutting the : highway death tolland strong : occupant protection laws are the most : effective way of increasing s...

  4. Reduced fatalities related to rear seat shoulder belts

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L.

    1999-01-01

    Methods—During 1988–96, fatalities to rear outboard seat occupants of passenger cars, classified by age of occupant and vehicle curb weight were matched to data on model year in which shoulder belts became standard equipment. The same data were obtained from the same years on back seat occupants in crashes from the Crashworthiness Data System. Weighted regression was performed on death rates per occupants in crashes by belt equipment, occupant age, and vehicle weight for all occupants and occupants who claimed to be restrained. Results—The risk of death is significantly lower in vehicles equipped with shoulder belts, midsized to larger cars, and among children. Claimed child restraint use is higher in cars with shoulder belts and claimed use of shoulder belts is higher among adolescents and young adults but lower among those 35 and older. However, older occupants have lower death rates in shoulder belt equipped cars. Conclusions—Shoulder belts substantially reduce risk of death relative to lap belts at prevalent use rates in each age group. Belt effectiveness when used cannot be estimated precisely because of invalid claimed use, but the lowered rates among vehicles with shoulder belts indicates that effectiveness given prevalent use is far more efficacious than lap belts without shoulder belts. PMID:10323573

  5. Improving seat belt use among teen drivers: findings from a service-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, Irwin A; Levine, Robert S; Schlundt, David; Bradley, Richard; Jones, Gennifer D; Zoorob, Roger J; Ekundayo, O James

    2013-10-01

    Low seat belt use and higher crash rates contribute to persistence of motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of teenage death. Service-learning has been identified as an important component of public health interventions to improve health behavior. A service-learning intervention was conducted in eleven selected high schools across the United States in the 2011-2012 school year. Direct morning and afternoon observations of seat belt use were used to obtain baseline observations during the fall semester and post-intervention observations in the spring. The Mann-Whitney U test for 2 independent samples was used to evaluate if the intervention was associated with a statistically significant change in seat belt use. We identified factors associated with seat belt use post-intervention using multivariable logistic regression. Overall seat belt use rate increased by 12.8%, from 70.4% at baseline to 83.2% post-intervention (p<0.0001). A statistically significant increase in seat belt use was noted among white, black, and Hispanic teen drivers. However, black and Hispanic drivers were still less likely to use seat belts while driving compared to white drivers. Female drivers and drivers who had passengers in their vehicle had increased odds of seat belt use. A high school service-learning intervention was associated with improved seat belt use regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender, but did not eliminate disparities adversely affecting minority youth. Continuous incorporation of service-learning in high school curricula could benefit quality improvement evaluations aimed at disparities elimination and might improve the safety behavior of emerging youth cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Year 1 of the Washington nighttime seat belt enforcement program : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The first year of the Washington nighttime belt program : ran from May 2007 through May 2008. During this period, WTSC ran three, two-week nighttime seat belt enforcement : campaigns. The primary message of the ad was that extra : seat-belt-focuse...

  7. 76 FR 18042 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0002] RIN 2127-AK41 Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt... designing and conducting State seat belt use observational surveys and the procedures for obtaining NHTSA... use rate, known as the Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (the Uniform...

  8. Factors Influencing Occupant-To-Seat Belt Interaction in Far-Side Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, C.A.; Fildes, B.N.; Gibson, T.J.; Boström, O.; Pintar, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seat belt interaction with a far-side occupant’s shoulder and thorax is critical to governing excursion towards the struck-side of the vehicle in side impact. In this study, occupant-to-belt interaction was simulated using a modified MADYMO human model and finite element belts. Quasi-static tests with volunteers and dynamic sled tests with PMHS and WorldSID were used for model validation and comparison. Parameter studies were then undertaken to quantify the effect of impact direction, seat belt geometry and pretension on occupant-to-seat belt interaction. Results suggest that lowering the D-ring and increasing pretension reduces the likelihood of the belt slipping off the shoulder. Anthropometry was also shown to influence restraint provided by the shoulder belt. Furthermore, the belt may slip off the occupant’s shoulder at impact angles greater than 40 degrees from frontal when no pretension is used. However, the addition of pretension allowed the shoulder to engage the belt in all impacts from 30 to 90 degrees. PMID:18184500

  9. Guidelines to observe and estimate statewide seat belt use at night.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    Research has shown that nighttime seat belt use is lower than daytime use. There is also an overrepresentation : of fatal crashes at night. Therefore a proper estimate of statewide nighttime seat belt use would be beneficial to : understanding the pr...

  10. Increasing seat belt use among part-time users : messages and strategies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-02-01

    Data indicate discrepancies between many persons' perceptions of themselves as seat belt users, and their actual behavior. The data also suggest that instead of targeting non-users, a greater increase in the national rate of seat belt use may be achi...

  11. North Carolina Seat Belt Law : questions commonly asked.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-09-21

    Who is covered by the law? : All drivers and front seat passengers ages sixteen and : older are covered by the seat belt law. Children less than : age sixteen are covered under the North Carolina Child : Passenger Safety (CPS) Law. Revisions to the C...

  12. 78 FR 79074 - Technical Report Evaluating Seat Belt Pretensioners and Load Limiters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... effectiveness of pretensioners and load limiters for seat belts in the front seats of passenger cars and LTVs... cars and LTVs sold in the United States were equipped with pretensioners and load limiters at the... at those seats. In passenger cars, CUVs, and minivans, a belted driver or right-front passenger has...

  13. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    PubMed

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  14. Kinematics and Shoulder Belt Position of Child Rear Seat Passengers during Vehicle Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B.

    2011-01-01

    Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the child’s lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the child’s shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 4–12, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems. PMID:22105379

  15. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009].

    PubMed

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  16. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  17. Daytime and nighttime seat belt use by fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    The difference in day and night seat belt use among fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants was : investigated by personal, environmental, and vehicle characteristics. In each of the 10 years reviewed, seat belt : use among fatally injured occupa...

  18. Vital Signs: Seat Belt Use Among Long-Haul Truck Drivers — United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang X.; Collins, James W.; Sieber, W. Karl; Pratt, Stephanie G.; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L.; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Robinson, Cynthia F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of occupational fatalities in the United States in 2012, accounting for 25% of deaths. Truck drivers accounted for 46% of these deaths. This study estimates the prevalence of seat belt use and identifies factors associated with nonuse of seat belts among long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs), a group of workers at high risk for fatalities resulting from truck crashes. Methods CDC analyzed data from its 2010 national survey of LHTD health and injury. A total of 1,265 drivers completed the survey interview. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between seat belt nonuse and risk factors. Results An estimated 86.1% of LHTDs reported often using a seat belt, 7.8% used it sometimes, and 6.0% never. Reporting never using a belt was associated with often driving ≥10 mph (16 kph) over the speed limit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9), working for a company with no written safety program (AOR = 2.8), receiving two or more tickets for moving violations in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 2.2), living in a state without a primary belt law (AOR = 2.1); and being female (AOR = 2.3). Conclusions Approximately 14% of LHTDs are at increased risk for injury and death because they do not use a seat belt on every trip. Safety programs and other management interventions, engineering changes, and design changes might increase seat belt use among LHTDs. Implications for Public Health Primary state belt laws can help increase belt use among LHTDs. Manufacturers can use recently collected anthropometric data to design better-fitting and more comfortable seat belt systems. PMID:25742382

  19. IRTAD Special Report : the availability of seat belt wearing data in OECD member countries, 1995

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-01

    This reports surveys the availability of seat belt wearing data in OECD Member countries. The injury-reducing effect of seat belts is estimated to be around 50 per cent for fatal and serious injuries. Seat belts are most effective in frontal and roll...

  20. Documenting How States Recently Upgraded to Primary Seat Belt Laws

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    States with primary seat belt enforcement laws consistently have higher observed daytime belt use rates than : secondary law States. Secondary belt law States, on the other hand, consistently have more occupant fatalities who : were not restrained th...

  1. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  2. Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michael R; Kallan, Michael J; Durbin, Dennis R; Winston, Flaura K

    2006-06-01

    To provide an estimate of benefit, if any, of child restraint systems over seat belts alone for children aged from 2 through 6 years. Cohort study. A sample of children in US passenger vehicle crashes was obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration by combining cases involving a fatality from the US Department of Transportation Fatality Analysis Reporting System with a probability sample of cases without a fatality from the National Automotive Sampling System. Children in tow-away [corrected] crashes occurring between 1998 and 2003. Use of child restraint systems (rear-facing and forward-facing car seats, and shield and belt-positioning booster seats) vs seat belts. Potentially confounding variables included seating position, vehicle type, model year, driver and passenger ages, and driver survival status. Death of child passengers from injuries incurred during the crash. Compared with seat belts, child restraints, when not seriously misused (eg, unattached restraint, child restraint system harness not used, 2 children restrained with 1 seat belt) were associated with a 28% reduction in risk for death (relative risk, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.97) in children aged 2 through 6 years after adjusting for seating position, vehicle type, model year, driver and passenger ages, and driver survival status. When including cases of serious misuse, the effectiveness estimate was slightly lower (21%) (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.05). Based on these findings as well as previous epidemiological and biomechanical evidence for child restraint system effectiveness in reducing nonfatal injury risk, efforts should continue to promote use of child restraint systems through improved laws and with education and disbursement programs.

  3. Seat belts and shoulder harnesses : smart protection in small airplanes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    Seat belts alone will protect you only in minor impacts. : Using shoulder belts in small aircraft would reduce major injuries by 88% and fatalities by 20%. Shoulder belt kits are now available for most airplanes. : Proper use and installation of chil...

  4. Need and Possibilities for Seat Belt Use Promotion in Bashkortostan, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Akhmadeeva, Leila; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Sussman, Steve; Khusnutdinova, Zolya; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    Bashkortostan is a republic in the Russian Federation with a population of 4.1 million. As with other health behaviors, the prevalence of seat belt use is low, which may account in part for the very high rate of motor-vehicle-related mortality in this republic. The authors discuss the need and potential for translating seat belt promotion programming from other Russian regions and other countries to Bashkortostan. The authors conclude that current policies developed in other countries could work well in the republic, if they are enforced. Meanwhile, initiatives such as the Sakhalin Road Safety Partnership offer great potential for translation in Bashkortostan as well as in other regions with similarly low seat belt use prevalence. PMID:18559882

  5. Seat belt use and fit among drivers aged 75 years and older in their own vehicles.

    PubMed

    Fong, Cameron K; Keay, Lisa; Coxon, Kristy; Clarke, Elizabeth; Brown, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe seat belt wearing patterns and quality of seat belt fit among drivers aged 75 years and older. A secondary aim is to explore associations between body shape, comfort, and seat belt use patterns. This is an observation and survey study of a cohort of 380 drivers aged 75 years and over. During home visits, photographs were taken of the drivers in their vehicles for later analysis of belt fit and a short survey was also administered to collect demographic data and information about seat belt use and comfort. Seat belt fit and use of belt and seat accessories were analyzed from the photographs. Data from 367 participants with photographs were analyzed. Whereas 97% reported using a seat belt and 90% reported their seat belt to be comfortable, 21% reported repositioning their seat belt to improve comfort. Good sash and lap belt fit were achieved in 53 and 59% of participants, respectively, but only 35% achieved overall good fit. Both poor sash and lap belt fit were observed in 23% of participants. Drivers who were in the obese category had over twice the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-4.1) of having a poor lap belt fit than those in the normal body mass index [BMI] range, and drivers who were overweight had 1.8 times the odds (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) of having poor lap belt fit. Older females also had twice the odds (95% CI, 1.3-3.5) of poor lap belt fit compared to older males, regardless of BMI. Sash belt fit did not vary significantly by BMI, stature, or gender. However older drivers who reported that they had not made any adjustments to the D-ring height had 1.7 times the odds of having poor sash belt fit than those who made adjustments (1.2-2.9). Females were 7.3 times more likely to report comfort problems than males (95% CI, 3.2, 16.3) but there was no association between reported comfort and BMI or seat belt fit. Drivers who reported comfort problems had 6 times the odds (3.2-13.6) of also reporting active repositioning of the belt

  6. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  7. Athletic Participation and Seat Belt Omission among U.S. High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Although seat belts save lives, adolescents may be disproportionately likely to omit their use. Using data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of over 16,000 U.S. public and private high school students, we employed a series of logical regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between past-year athletic participation and regular seat belt omission. Controlling for the effects of gender, age, race, parental education, and school urbanicity, student athletes were significantly less likely than nonathletes to report seat belt omission. Separate gender-specific analyses showed that this effect was significant for girls but only marginally significant for boys; in addition, the effect was strongest for adolescents who participated on three or more school or community sports teams. Possible explanations for the relationship between athletic participation and seat belt omission, including Jessor’s problem behavior syndrome, prosocial sport subcultures, and sensation seeking, are considered. PMID:19797539

  8. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  9. Seat belts are more effective than airbags in reducing thoracic aortic injury in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Brasel, Karen J; Quickel, Robert; Yoganandan, Narayan; Weigelt, John A

    2002-08-01

    Airbags reduce the probability of death in frontal collisions, but the effect is small compared with seat belts. Little is known about the influence of seat belts and airbags on the incidence of thoracic aortic injury (TAI). The National Automotive Sampling System database was queried for the years 1993 to 1998 to determine the impact of seat belts and airbags on the incidence of TAI in survivors of frontal motor vehicle crashes. Proportions were compared using the two-sample Z test. Seat belts prevent TAI regardless of airbag deployment. The effect of airbags is limited to those wearing seat belts. In frontal collisions without seat belt use, airbag deployment does not alter TAI incidence. Seat belts are considerably more effective in preventing TAI than airbags after frontal motor vehicle crashes. Prevention efforts should continue to emphasize the use of active restraints. Restraint use should be considered a risk factor in evaluating patients for potential TAI.

  10. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    PubMed

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  12. Analysing of critical force effects of aircraft seat belt using truss elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemenc, Marek; Markopoulos, Alexandros; Maršálek, Pavel

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of an aircraft seat belt crash test. The main goal is determination of a time course of the reactions in a lap belt anchoring points and their maximum values. This work was created on the basis of practical requirements from industry. Results are going to be reflected in developing a new type of aircraft seats. We mainly focus on the mathematical modelling of dynamic problems using the finite element method (FEM). Derived procedures are implemented in the Python programming language and are verified by several examples. A final calculation algorithm is applied on the analysis of the safety belt. We consider that a seat belt bending stiffness is very small compared to a tensile stiffness, therefore we used a 2D plane truss element.

  13. Guidelines to observe and estimate statewide seat belt use at night : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    Previous research has found an overrepresentation of fatal : crashes at night, as well as substantially lower seat belt use : among occupants of passenger vehicles at night compared : to seat belt use during the day. An estimate of statewide : nightt...

  14. 2005 survey of seat belt wearing rates

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    The 2005 seat belt survey showed a minor improvement in driver wearing : rates. Over the 2003 2005 period, estimated wearing rates for male drivers : increased by one percentage point to 83 per cent, and for female drivers : increased by two perc...

  15. Strategies to increase seat belt use : an analysis of levels of fines and the type of law.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between seat belt use in the States and (1) the : type of seat belt law enforcement (primary versus secondary), and (2) seat belt fine levels. : The study examined law type and lev...

  16. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  17. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... establishing the criteria for designing and conducting State seat belt use observational surveys, procedures for obtaining NHTSA approval of survey designs, and a new form for reporting seat belt use rates to.... Assignment of Observation Times D. Observation Procedures E. Quality Control F. Computation of Estimates III...

  18. Seat-belt injuries of the spine in young children.

    PubMed

    Rumball, K; Jarvis, J

    1992-07-01

    Seat-belt fractures of the lumbar spine in adolescents and adults are well recognised but there are few reports of these injuries in young children. We reviewed all seat-belt injuries in skeletally immature patients (Risser 0), seen at a tertiary referral centre between 1974 and 1991. There were ten cases, eight girls and two boys, with an average age of 7.5 years (3 to 13). Four distinct patterns of injury were observed, most commonly at the L2 to L4 level. Paraplegia, which is thought to be uncommon, occurred in three of our ten cases. Four children had intra-abdominal injuries requiring laparotomy. There was a delay in diagnosis either of the spinal or of the intra-abdominal injury in five cases, although all had contusion of the abdominal wall, the 'seat-belt sign'. Treatment of the fractures was conservative, by bed rest and then hyperextension casts. The incidence of this potentially devastating injury can be reduced by the optimal use of restraints, but there is often a delay in diagnosis. Our classification system may aid in the early detection and evaluation of this injury.

  19. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  20. Attitudes towards child restrains and seat belts usage in the learned population of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Waheed, Shahan; Kazi, Ghazala Irfan; Khursheed, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicles crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury related morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Recent evidence proves that properly used child seat belts can dramatically reduce the risk of severe and life-threatening injury from MVCs. There are rarities of thought and inspiration regarding the use of child seat belts in our society and region, therefore we lack of data regarding factors and paucity of usage of child seat belts in motor vehicles. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of child seat belt usage among the educated population in Karachi, Pakistan. Altogether 304 employees were investigated. They were employees of Aga Khan University who were using their cars and having children younger than 10 years old. A cross sectional observational study was designed, and a 36-item questionnaire in English was used to collect data on participants' demographic details, designation, educational level, economic status, validity of driving license, number of children and cars, availability of adult seat belts and child seat belts along with their functionality, awareness, knowledge and attitude toward its use, and reason of not using these devices. SPSS version 20 for Windows was used to analyze the data and the Chi-square test was used. Totally 290 participants were recruited with a response rate of 72% (212). Of 212 participants, 126 (59%) were male. 154 (72.6%) participants had valid driver licenses, and 154 (72.6%) had adult seat belts in their vehicles. Only 32 (15%) reported regular use of adult seat belts. Although 168 (79.2%) participants had some knowledge about child restrains (CRs), only 65 (22%) had CRs in their cars. Eighty-two (38.7%) participants got the knowledge about CRs and seat belts from media. Mothers were more concerned about the use of CRs than fathers. Only 14 (6.6%) parents were found to use both adult and child seat belts all the time. Of the 157 parents who did not us use CRs, 42 considered unnecessary

  1. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A

    2005-04-01

    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  2. The effect of a gearshift interlock on seat belt use by drivers who do not always use a belt and its acceptance among those who do.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; Singer, Jeremiah; Huey, Richard; Kerfoot, Laura

    2018-06-01

    Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury in a crash, yet in 2015, nearly 10,000 people killed in passenger vehicles were unrestrained. Enhanced seat belt reminders increase belt use, but a gearshift interlock that prevents the vehicle from being placed into gear unless the seat belt is used may prove more effective. Thirty-two people with a recent seat belt citation and who admitted to not always using a seat belt as a driver were recruited as part-time belt users and asked to evaluate two new vehicles. Sixteen drove two vehicles with an enhanced reminder for one week each, and 16 drove a vehicle with an enhanced reminder for one week and a vehicle with a gearshift interlock the following week. Sixteen full-time belt users who reported always using a seat belt drove a vehicle with a gearshift interlock for one week to evaluate acceptance. Relative to the enhanced reminder, the gearshift interlock significantly increased the likelihood that a part-time belt user used a belt during travel time in a trip by 21%, and increased the rate of belt use by 16%; this effect approached significance. Although every full-time belt user experienced the gearshift interlock, their acceptance of the technology reported in a post-study survey was fairly positive and not significantly different from part-time belt users. Six part-time belt users circumvented the gearshift interlock by sitting on a seat belt, waiting for the system to deactivate, or unbuckling during travel. The gearshift interlock increased the likelihood that part-time belt users buckled up and the rate of belt use during travel relative to the enhanced reminder but could be more effective if it prevented circumvention. An estimated 718-942 lives could be saved annually if the belt use of unbuckled drivers and front passengers increased 16-21%. Copyright © 2018 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human factors associated with the certification of airplane passenger seats : seat belt adjustment and release : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-06-01

    Two separate studies were accomplished to investigate human factors issues related to the use of lap belts. Human performance trials were conducted under two protocols to measure and assess: (1) seat belt tension adjustment during normal flight and e...

  4. Demonstration of the Trauma Nurses Talk Tough seat belt diversion program in North Carolina.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    Trauma Nurses Talk Tough is a seat belt diversion program originally developed at the Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in 1988. Attendance at the course is a condition for a one-time dismissal of a seat belt citation without fine or court...

  5. Evaluation of a high-visibility seat belt enforcement program on the Blue Ridge Parkway.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-11-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) conducted a high-visibility enforcement (HVE) seat belt program on a 24-mile section of the Blue Ridge Parkway (BRP) known as the Roanoke Corridor, that carries both park and commuter traffic. Seat belts are required b...

  6. Nighttime enforcement of seat belt laws : an evaluation of three community programs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-01

    Programs to enforce seat belt laws at night were conducted in Asheville and Greenville, North Carolina and Charleston, West Virginia. It was concluded that night belt use publicity and enforcement efforts can be effective both for increasing belt use...

  7. Achieving a high seat belt use rate : a guide for selective traffic enforcement programs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-04-01

    When used properly, lap/shoulder belts reduce the risk of fatal injury to front-seat passenger car occupants by 45% and the risk of moderate-to-critical injury by 50%. Even greater risk reduction results when seat belts are used properly in light tru...

  8. Evaluation of Maine's seat belt law change from secondary to primary enforcement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77% to 84%; night 69% to 81%). Although daytime belt use ...

  9. Daytime and nighttime seat belt use at selected sites in New Mexico

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Observational surveys of seat belt use were conducted at 108 observation sites across New Mexico during both daytime and nighttime hours. Belt use at night measured 6.2 percentage points lower than daytime. Belt use was related to sex, vehicle type, ...

  10. Is seat belt use associated with fewer days of lost work after motor vehicle collisions?

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jesse; McGwin, Gerald; MacLennan, Paul A; Rue, Loring W

    2004-05-01

    Seat belt use has consistently been shown to reduce motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study is to determine whether seat belt use is associated with fewer lost workdays among occupants involved in MVCs. The 1995 to 2000 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) data files were used. The NASS is a national probability sample of passenger vehicles involved in police-reported tow-away MVCs. Occupants' lost workdays, which are routinely collected as part of an NASS investigation, were compared according to seat belt use. During 1995 to 2000 in the United States, surviving occupants involved in MVCs lost a total of 42.1 million workdays (approximately 7.0 million lost workdays per year; 2.4 lost workdays per person). The overall difference in lost workdays between the belted and unbelted occupants was 1.59 days (1.99 days vs. 3.58 days, respectively; p < 0.001). After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, belted occupants had 1.52 fewer lost workdays compared with unbelted occupants (p < 0.001). This translates to an estimated 7.3 million lost workdays and an associated $566 million in lost wages and $1.25 billion in work-place costs attributable to lack of seat belt use in the United States during 1995 to 2000. Lost workdays attributable to MVCs in the United States have sizable financial implications. Furthermore, seat belt use significantly reduces lost time at work and is associated with a significant cost savings. The national impact of unbelted driving on work productivity is dramatic, and further efforts to promote appropriate seat belt use should continue as part of the national safety agenda.

  11. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  12. Compliance with the law on car seat-belt use in four cities of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, W; Podhipak, A; Khumdee, M; Sritamanoj, W; Youngkao, K; Suriyawongpaisal, P; Punyaratabundhu, P; Narksawat, K; Sujirarat, D; Phodaeng, C

    2000-04-01

    Surveys to determine the scope of compliance with the law requiring seat-belt use in Thailand were conducted by observation and interviews with drivers in four cities: namely, Bangkok Metropolis, Chiang Mai, Phuket and Nakhon Ratchasima. The work was carried out in two separate sessions: during the first month following enactment of the law, and six months after its enactment. The sample comprised 46,949 vehicles in the first session (January 1996) and 76,188 vehicles in the second session (July 1996). The results showed that 42.7 per cent of drivers used seat-belts in January and 30.7 per cent in July. When the data were disaggregated according to cities, it was found that more Bangkok drivers complied with the seat-belt law than in Phuket, 24.6 per cent; Chiang Mai, 22.1 per cent; and Nakhon Ratchasima, 18.3 per cent relatively low compliance rate was encountered among drivers of pick-up trucks (including those with modified roofs) and vans, particularly farmers and the self-employed. Women drivers tended to abide by the law more often than men (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.23). Inter-city travelers wore seat-belts more than those traveling in the city (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.68, 1.80). About one-fifth of non-users or those who rarely used seat-belts were unsure of the effectiveness of seat-belts in preventing serious injury or death in the case of an accident. Discomfort associated with using seat-belts and the perception that they were rendered unnecessary because of slow traffic in cities were other reasons for non-compliance in 50.6 per cent and 43.9 per cent of cases, respectively. The decline in compliance with the law six months after its enactment indicates that there may be a problem with uniform and consistent enforcement of the law.

  13. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and is... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to a... or pretensioner design type for which approval is sought and details on the complete package. The...

  14. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and is... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to a... or pretensioner design type for which approval is sought and details on the complete package. The...

  15. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and is... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to a... or pretensioner design type for which approval is sought and details on the complete package. The...

  16. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B

    2017-09-01

    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which...

  18. Seat belts and the law : mandatory use laws and the legal consequences of non-use

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-05-01

    This report analyzes the current legal status of the seat belt defense in civil actions. Particular emphasis is given to factors which have altered the evolution of the seat belt defense since 1982, the most significant being the passage of laws mand...

  19. Determining the Relationship of Primary Seat Belt Laws to Minority Ticketing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    Racial profiling is often raised as an issue when States change their seat belt law from secondary enforcement (i.e., stop only for some other violation) to primary enforcement (i.e., stop for an observed belt law violation alone). Thirteen States ma...

  20. Evaluation of the Washington nighttime seat belt enforcement program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    The Washington Traffic Safety Commission (WTSC) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) : conducted a high-visibility Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement (NTSBE) program in Washington. The two-year program : followed the basic Clic...

  1. Association between exposure/non-exposure to the mandatory seat belt law with regards to compliance in vehicle accident victims--a hospital review.

    PubMed

    Williams, E W; Reid, M; Lindo, J L M; Williams-Johnson, J; French, S; Singh, P; McDonald, A H

    2007-06-01

    Injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are a major challenge to the Jamaican healthcare system. In November 1999, Jamaica enacted legislation to make seat belt usage in motor vehicles compulsory. The effect of this policy change on seat belt usage is unclear. This study therefore sought to determine the prevalence of seat belt usage and to determine the association between exposure/non-exposure to the mandatory seat belt law and seat belt use in subjects who presented to the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) as a result of motor vehicle accidents. Subjects were recruited from June to November 2003, post-seat belt law (POBL) period, and May to October 1999, pre-seat belt law (PRBL) period. Data collected included demographic variables, seat belt use and position of the occupants in the vehicle. Of the 277 patients who were eligible for inclusion, data were complete in 258 subjects, 87 in the PRBL period and 171 in the POBL period. The prevalence of seat belt use was 47% (PRBL) and 63% (POBL) respectively. There was no significant gender difference at each period. The odds of wearing seat belt in the rear of a motor vehicle were significantly lower than that of a driver (Table 3, OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07, 0.48). Adjusting for age, gender and position in vehicle exposure, there was about 100% increase in the odds of seat belt use during the post seat belt law era (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.21, 3.61). It is concluded from this hospital-based study that the mandatory seat belt law legislature was associated with increased seat belt use in motor vehicle accident victims. However, current data from the Road Traffic Agency indicate that there is still an alarming number of fatalities. This clearly suggests that additional public health measures are needed to address the epidemic of motor vehicle trauma in Jamaica.

  2. Differences in Thoracic Injury Causation Patterns Between Seat Belt Restrained Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Locey, Caitlin M.; Zonfrillo, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to delineate age-based differences in specific thoracic injury diagnoses for seat belt restrained rear seat occupants and describe the associated injury causation in order to provide insight into how the load of the seat belt is transferred to occupants of various sizes. Using data from the Crash Investigation Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), 20 cases of rear seated, lap and shoulder belt restrained occupants with AIS2+ thoracic injuries in frontal crashes were reviewed. Seven were children and adolescents age 8–15 years, 5 were 16–24 years, 3 were 25–54 years, and 5 were 55+ years. Six of the seven 8–15 year olds sustained injuries to the lung in the form of pulmonary contusion or pneumothorax. Only three of the seven sustained a skeletal (sternum or rib) fracture; only one of these three involved multiple ribs bilaterally. In contrast, four of the five 16–24 year olds sustained at least one rib fracture - often multiple and bilateral. The adult cohort (25+ years) was involved in predominantly more minor crashes; however they all sustained complex rib fractures – seven of the eight involved multiple ribs, four of the eight were also bilateral. Belt compression – either from the shoulder belt or the lap belt – was identified as the primary cause of the thoracic injuries. Often, there was clear evidence of the location of belt loading from AIS 1 chest contusions or abrasions. These findings have implications for age-based thoracic injury criteria suggesting that that different metrics may be needed for different age groups. PMID:23169131

  3. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1340 - State Seat Belt Use Survey Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Office. • The reported Statewide seat belt use rate is based on a survey design that was approved by... Use, 23 CFR Part 1340. • The survey design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved by... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State Seat Belt Use Survey Reporting Form A Appendix A...

  4. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1340 - State Seat Belt Use Survey Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Office. • The reported Statewide seat belt use rate is based on a survey design that was approved by... Use, 23 CFR Part 1340. • The survey design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved by... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State Seat Belt Use Survey Reporting Form A Appendix A...

  5. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1340 - State Seat Belt Use Survey Reporting Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Office. • The reported Statewide seat belt use rate is based on a survey design that was approved by... Use, 23 CFR Part 1340. • The survey design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved by... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State Seat Belt Use Survey Reporting Form A Appendix A...

  6. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use : an analysis of socio-demographic variables.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    "Despite the extensive evidence about the benefits of seat belt use, there is a great deal of variation in use within the US. For example, the national average for seat belt use in 2009 was 84 percent while the state-level averages ranged from 68 per...

  7. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    Wearing a seat belt has been shown effective in avoiding : or reducing serious injury due to traffic crashes. While : belt use rates in the United States increased from under : 60% in 1994 to 83% in 2008, a substantial number of drivers : still drive...

  8. Primary laws and fine levels are associated with increases in seat belt use, 1997–2008 : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    Increasing seat belt usage in the United States has proved to be a : slow and difficult task. It has taken about 30 years since NHTSA : conducted the first seat belt and child restraint workshops in : 1978 to reach 84% usage in 2009. In general, seat...

  9. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D Appendix D to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY... BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National Average...

  10. A study of nighttime seat belt use in Indiana

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-09-01

    A direct observation study of nighttime seat belt use was conducted in Indiana surrounding the Click It or Ticket (May Mobilization) activities. Two nighttime full statewide surveys were conducted, one in April and the other in June 2006. For this st...

  11. A prospective study for the detection of vascular injury in adult and pediatric patients with cervicothoracic seat belt signs.

    PubMed

    Rozycki, Grace S; Tremblay, Lorraine; Feliciano, David V; Tchorz, Kathryn; Hattaway, Aaron; Fountain, Jack; Pettitt, Barbara J

    2002-04-01

    A delayed diagnosis of injury to cervicothoracic vessels from blunt trauma may cause significant adverse sequelae. The association of a cervicothoracic seat belt sign with such an injury is unknown. Algorithms were prospectively studied for the detection of occult vascular injury in patients with cervicothoracic seat belt signs. Patients with neck seat belt signs underwent arteriography or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Those with thoracic seat belt signs underwent aortography/arteriography if a ruptured thoracic aorta or injury to a great vessel was suspected or a neurovascular abnormality was present. During a 17-month period, 797 patients were admitted to the trauma service secondary to motor vehicle crashes. One hundred thirty-one (16.4%) had cervical or thoracic seat belt signs. Four (3%) of the patients had carotid artery injuries, the presence of which was strongly associated with a Glasgow Coma Scale score < 14, an Injury Severity Score > 16 (p < 0.0001), and the presence of a clavicle and/or first rib fracture (p < 0.0037). Of the remaining patients, 17 had thoracic trauma. There were no vascular injuries in the children and only one had thoracic trauma. The algorithms are safe and accurate for the detection of cervicothoracic vascular injury in adult and pediatric patients with seat belt signs. The cervicothoracic seat belt mark and an abnormal physical examination are an effective combination in screening for cervicothoracic vascular injury.

  12. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Beck, Laurie F; Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K

    2017-09-22

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. 2014. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash

  13. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has just : released a new resource for developing seat belt programs in : the traffic safety communityExpanding the Seat Belt Program : Toolbox: A Starter Kit for Trying New Program Ideas. : Resea...

  14. Risk of injury associated with the use of seat belts and air bags in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2008-01-01

    Although air bags have been reported to reduce passenger mortality in frontal collisions, they have also been reported as a cause of injury in motor vehicle collisions(MVCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients involved in MVCs to determine mortality and the pattern of injuries associated with seat belt use and air bag deployment. Information on patients involved in MVCs from 1988 to 2004 was obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). The data was evaluated based on four groups of safety devices: seat belt and deployed air bag (SBAB), seat belt only (SBO), deployed air bag only (ABO), and no safety devices (None). A total of 35,333 patients met study inclusion criteria. Air bags and seat belts used in combination decreased the risk of potentially fatal injuries, but increased the risk of lower extremity injuries (odds ratio, 1.35). The use of any type of restraint led to a decrease in the risk of injury or mortality in MVCs. Only half of all individuals in this study used any type of restraint device, which indicates the need for significant improvements in public health and safety seat belt utilization programs.

  15. Seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on child-sized dummies during run-off-road events.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta

    2017-05-29

    Run-off-road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury-causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off-road events. Real-world data show that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types, and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to occupant injury. Though countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off-road events are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on rear-seated child-sized anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during 2 different types of run-off-road events. The study was carried out using 2 test setups: a rig test with a vehicle rear seat mounted on a multi-axial robot simulating a road departure event into a side ditch and an in-vehicle test setup with a Volvo XC60 entering a side ditch with a grass slope, driving inside the ditch, and returning back to the road from the ditch. Potential subsequent rollovers or impacts were not included in the test setups. Three different ATDs were used. The Q6 and Q10 were seated on an integrated booster cushion and the Hybrid III (HIII) 5th percentile female was positioned directly on the seat. The seat belt retractor was equipped with a pre-pretensioner (electrical reversible retractor) with 3 force level settings. In addition, reference tests with the pre-pretensioner inactivated were run. Kinematics and the shoulder belt position were analyzed. In rig tests, the left-seated ATD was exposed to rapid inboard lateral loads relative to the vehicle. The displacement for each ATD was reduced when the pre-pretensioner was activated compared to tests when it was inactivated. Maximum inboard displacement occurred earlier in the event for all ATDs when the pre-pretensioner was activated. Shoulder belt slip-off occurred for the Q6 and Q10 in tests where the pre

  16. Evaluation of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement Demonstration Program and Identification of Characteristics of Unbelted High-Risk Drivers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a high-visibility nighttime seat belt enforcement program conducted in Maryland by measuring changes in day and night self-reported and observed seat belt use and crash outcomes. To better understand t...

  17. May 2006 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement programs. The 2006 national mobilization involved approximately $27 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the nation report...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... enforcement seat belt laws achieved 88% use.* Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for ...

  19. Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2011-03-01

    We studied National Trauma Data Bank data to determine the effectiveness of car safety devices in reducing mortality and injury severity in 184,992 patients between 1988 and 2004. Safety device variables were seat belt used plus air bag deployed; only seat belt used; only air bag deployed; and, as explicitly coded, no device used. Overall mortality was 4.17%. Compared with the no-device group, the seat-belt-plus-air-bag group had a 67% reduction in mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.33; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.39), the seatbelt- only group had a 51% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.49; 99% CI, 0.45-0.52), and the air-bag-only group had a 32% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.68, 99% CI, 0.57-0.80). Injury Severity Scores showed a similar pattern.

  20. Increasing seat belt use in New York City : evaluation of a demonstration project.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-11-01

    A high-visibility seat belt enforcement program was implemented along Northern Boulevard and surrounding neighborhoods in northern Queens, New York City. The goal was to determine if high-visibility enforcement could increase belt use in a localized ...

  1. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Michael C; Helms, Bridgett P

    2009-01-01

    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the “Click It or Ticket” and “Please Buckle Up—I Care” procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt use, and Please Buckle Up—I Care resulted in a 14-percentage-point increase. PMID:19721736

  2. Modeling the impact of rescinding Michigan's primary and secondary seat belt laws on death and injury from passenger vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Carter, Patrick M; Flannagan, Carol A C; Bingham, C Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Seat belts are the most effective method of decreasing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash injury. Advocacy groups have recently been successful in enacting repeals of mandatory motorcycle helmet laws in several states. In some states, this has prompted renewed efforts aimed at repealing mandatory seat belt laws. To evaluate and quantify the potential impact of rescinding seat belt laws on annual crash-related fatalities, nonfatal injuries, and associated economic costs, using Michigan as a model, to inform the national debate. Proportional injury rates were calculated utilizing police-reported statewide passenger vehicle crash data from 1999 and 2002, where belt use rates approximate estimates associated with repeal of primary and secondary seat belt laws. Proportional rates were applied to the most recent year of crash data (2011) to estimate changes in statewide fatalities and nonfatal injuries. National cost estimates were applied to injury data to calculate associated economic costs. Full repeal of the seat belt law is estimated to result in an additional 163 fatalities, 13,722 nonfatal injuries, and an associated societal cost of $1.6 billion annually. Repeal of the primary seat belt law only is estimated to result in an additional 95 fatalities, 9156 nonfatal injuries, and an associated societal cost of $1.0 billion annually. This analysis suggests that repealing the either the primary or full seat belt law would have a substantial and negative impact on public health, increasing motor vehicle crash related fatality, nonfatal injury, and associated economic costs.

  3. Association of rear seat safety belt use with death in a traffic crash: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Motao; Cummings, Peter; Chu, Haitao; Cook, Lawrence J

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the association of rear seat safety belt use with death in a traffic crash. Matched cohort study. The US during 2000 through 2004. Drivers (10,427) and rear seat passengers (15,922) in passenger vehicles that crashed and had at least one driver or rear passenger death. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) of death for a belted rear seat passenger compared with an otherwise similar unbelted rear passenger. Safety belt use was associated with a reduced risk of death for rear car occupants: outboard rear seat aRR 0.42 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.46), and center rear seat aRR 0.30 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.44). For rear occupants of light trucks, vans, and utility vehicles, the estimates were: outboard aRR 0.25 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.29), center aRR 0.34 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.48). If the authors' estimates are causal, traffic crash mortality can be reduced for rear occupants by approximately 55-75% if they use safety belts.

  4. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle–Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults — United States, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R.; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K.

    2017-01-01

    Problem/Condition Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. Reporting Period 2014. Description of Systems Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle–occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle–occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). Results Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle–occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the

  5. Motor vehicle seat belt restraint system analysis during rollover.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Steven E; Hock, Davis; Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2003-01-01

    The multi-planar and multiple impact long duration accident sequence of a real world rollover results in multidirectional vehicle acceleration pulses and multiplanar occupant motions not typically seen in a planar crash sequence. Various researchers have documented that, while contemporary production emergency locking seatbelt retractors (ELRs) have been found to be extremely effective in the planar crashes in which they are extensively evaluated, when subjected to multi-planar acceleration environments their response may be different than expected. Specifically, accelerations in the vertical plane have been shown to substantially affect the timeliness of the retractors inertial sensor moving out of its neutral position and locking the seat belt. An analysis of the vehicle occupant motions relative to the acceleration pulses sensed at the retractor location indicates a time phase shift that, under certain circumstances, can result in unexpected seat belt spool out and occupant excursions in these multi-planar, multiple impact crash sequences. This paper will review the various previous studies focusing on the retractors response to these multidirectional, including vertical, acceleration environments and review statistical studies based upon U.S. government collected data indicating a significant difference in belt usage rates in rollover accidents as compared to all other planar accident modes. A significant number of real world accident case studies will be reviewed wherein the performance of ELR equipped seatbelt systems spooled out. Finally, the typical occupant injury and the associated mechanism due to belt spool out in real world accidents will be delineated.

  6. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  7. 2006 seat belt use estimate for Native American tribal reservations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Indian Highway Safety Program, sponsored a project in fall 2004 to (a) establish the first baseline tribal reservation seat belt use rate, and (b) develop a me...

  8. Demonstration of the trauma nurses talk tough seat belt diversion program in North Carolina reaches high-risk drivers : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    Nationally, more than 8 of every 10 drivers wear seat belts, but : individual State belt rates vary from as high as 98% to as low as : 69%. Within individual States, rural areas often have lower rates. : Strong seat belt laws and highly visible enfor...

  9. Nighttime enforcement of seat belt laws: an evaluation of three community programs : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    Enforcement of seat belt laws has been conducted largely : during daylight hours. Daytime enforcement programs : have worked well to improve observed belt use rates during : the day, but have been shown less often to affect nighttime : use. Fatality ...

  10. Traffic Tech: Evaluation of Maryland's Nighttime Seat Belt Demonstration Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-04-01

    About half of all traffic fatalities occur at night, although only about one quarter of travel occurs after dark. Lower rates of seat belt use at night may be a factor. In terms of crash history, evidence suggests that unbelted drivers are more likel...

  11. Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  12. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter III of this title, if— (i) The survey's design was approved by the agency, in writing, on or after... design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved (except to the extent that the requirements... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1...

  13. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter III of this title, if— (i) The survey's design was approved by the agency, in writing, on or after... design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved (except to the extent that the requirements... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1...

  14. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter III of this title, if— (i) The survey's design was approved by the agency, in writing, on or after... design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved (except to the extent that the requirements... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1...

  15. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter III of this title, if— (i) The survey's design was approved by the agency, in writing, on or after... design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved (except to the extent that the requirements... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1...

  16. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter III of this title, if— (i) The survey's design was approved by the agency, in writing, on or after... design has remained unchanged since the survey was approved (except to the extent that the requirements... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1...

  17. Prediction of seat belt use among Iranian automobile drivers: application of the theory of planned behavior and the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Gregory, David; Madani, Abdoulhossain

    2011-02-01

    Seat belt use plays an important role in traffic safety by reducing the severity of injuries and fatality rates during vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of self-reported seat belt use in a sample of automobile drivers in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The theory of planed behavior and the health belief model served as the conceptual framework for the study. The convenience sample consisted of 284 eligible automobile drivers who frequented 8 petrol stations in different geographical areas of the city. Of the drivers approached to participate in the study, 21 declined to take part in the study and 12 other questionnaires were incomplete. Thus, a total of 251 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate=88.4%). A self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics and items arising from the theory of planed behavior and health belief model constructs were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (version 16, Chicago, IL, USA). The subjects' mean age was 31.6 years (SD=8.7), mostly male (72.9%), and 53.4 percent of them reported that they used their seat belt "often." Multiple regression analyses revealed that from the theory of planed behavior, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly predicted intention to use a seat belt (R2=0.38, F=51.1, p<.001); and subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention significantly predicted seat belt use (R2=0.43, F=45.7, p<.001). Arising from the health belief model, perceived benefits and perceived barriers significantly predicted seat belt use (R2=0.39, F=26.2, p<.001). This study revealed that automobile drivers who perceived more subjective norms, more behavioral control, greater intention to use seat belts as well as more benefits and fewer barriers were more likely to use their seat belts.

  18. Seat belt use, counseling and motor-vehicle injury during pregnancy: results from a multi-state population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Hulya; Weiss, Harold B; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K; Dunning, Kari

    2007-09-01

    Motor-vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalized trauma during pregnancy. The study objectives were to report the prevalence of seat belt counseling by prenatal care providers during pregnancy, seat belt use during the last trimester, and self-reported motor-vehicle injury during pregnancy. Differences were examined by age, race and education. A cross-sectional study design using self-reported 22 state data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2001 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used (n = 37,081). Estimates were computed using logistic regression from weighted counts. On average, reported prenatal care provider counseling for seat belt use occurred in 48.7% (38.2-58.8%) of prenatal visits. Women most likely to report being counseled were aged 20-29, non-White, Hispanic ethnicity, and less educated. Women 30 years of age or greater and that had a greater than high school education were more likely to report always wearing seat belts in the last trimester. On average, 2.3% (1.2-4.7%) of respondents reported being hurt in a "car accident" during pregnancy. Women less than 20 years old (3.0%), Black (3.9%), and less educated (3.2%) were the most likely to report being hurt in a crash during pregnancy. Based on PRAMS, it is estimated that about 92,500 pregnant women are hurt annually in motor-vehicle crashes in the United States. Despite this reported risk and the proven efficacy of restraint use, most pregnant women do not report being counseled about seat belt use during prenatal visits. Limitations of PRAMS methodology make it difficult to determine the association of prenatal counseling with seat belt use.

  19. Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in Colorado and Nevada

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    Colorado and Nevada initiated multiwave Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in October 2007. Four : waves of paid media and law enforcement activity were conducted over the next year. Three of these waves : were conducted independently of statewide...

  20. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  1. Identifying targets for improvement in nighttime seat belt use : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    Previous research has found that the proportion of unbelted : fatalities is greater at night than during the day. Failure to use : seat belts has been identified as an important factor in nighttime : fatalities, yet there are still many gaps in our k...

  2. Seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Cheema, Sohaila; Alrouh, Hekmat; Al-Thani, Mohammed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Mamtani, Ravinder

    2015-09-22

    In Qatar traffic injuries and fatalities are of serious concern. Mobile phone use whilst driving has been associated with increased risk of vehicular collisions and injuries. Seat belt use has been demonstrated to save lives and reduce the severity of road traffic injuries. Whereas previously published studies may have looked at all front passengers, this study aims to obtain reliable estimates of the prevalence of seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar. Additionally, we aim to investigate the association of these behaviors with other variables namely gender, time of the day and type of vehicle. An observational study on 2,011 vehicles was conducted in 2013. Data were collected at ten sites within Doha city over a two-week period. Two trained observers surveyed each car and recorded observations on a data collection form adapted from a form used in a 2012 Oklahoma observational study. Associations were assessed using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of .05 or less was considered statistically significant. Overall, 1,463 (72.7 %) drivers were found using a seat belt (95 % CI: 70.8-74.7 %) and 150 (7.5 %) their mobile phones (95 % CI: 6.3-8.6 %) during the observation period. Mobile phone use was significantly associated with not using a seat belt and driving a sport utility vehicle. Significantly lower rates of seat belt use were observed in the early morning and late afternoon. No gender differences were observed. Seatbelt use in Doha was found to be similar to countries in the region but lower than those in western countries. Also, studies from other high-income locations, reported lower rates of mobile phone use while driving than in Doha. Despite road traffic crashes being one of the leading causes of death in Qatar, three out of 10 drivers in Doha, Qatar, do not use a seat belt and about one in 12 use a mobile phone while driving. More efforts, in the form of awareness campaigns and increased law

  3. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (1) Eye bolts, shoulder bolts, or other bolt used to secure the pelvic restraint of seat belt... connecting webbing to an eye bolt shall be provided with a retaining latch or keeper which shall not move...) Single attachment hook for connecting webbing to any eye bolt shall be tested in the following manner...

  4. Transport Canada's surveys of seat belt use in Canada, 2004-2005

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-02-01

    The September 2004 and September 2005 surveys measured the seat belt usage rate separately in : rural Canada and urban Canada. Rural Canada was defined as towns with a population of less : than 10,000 but more than 1,000 that are located outside any ...

  5. May 2004 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    "Click It or Ticket" (CIOT) is an intense, short duration, seat belt high visibility publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2004 Mobilization involved approximately $32 million dollars of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies in 50 State...

  6. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael C.; Helms, Bridgett P.

    2009-01-01

    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the "Click It or Ticket" and "Please Buckle Up--I Care" procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt…

  7. Reducing death on the road: the effects of minimum safety standards, publicized crash tests, seat belts, and alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Two phases of attempts to improve passenger car crash worthiness have occurred: minimum safety standards and publicized crash tests. This study evaluated these attempts, as well as changes in seat belt and alcohol use, in terms of their effect on occupant death and fatal crash rates. METHODS. Data on passenger car occupant fatalities and total involvement in fatal crashes, for 1975 through 1991, were obtained from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. Rates per mile were calculated through published sources on vehicle use by vehicle age. Regression estimates of effects of regulation, publicized crash tests, seat belt use and alcohol involvement were obtained. RESULTS. Substantial reductions in fatalities occurred in the vehicle model years from the late 1960s through most of the 1970s, when federal standards were applied. Some additional increments in reduced death rates, attributable to additional improved vehicle crashworthiness, occurred during the period of publicized crash tests. Increased seat belt use and reduced alcohol use also contributed significantly to reduced deaths. CONCLUSIONS. Minimum safety standards, crashworthiness improvements, seat belt use laws, and reduced alcohol use each contributed to a large reduction in passenger car occupant deaths. PMID:8561238

  8. The Impact of Seat belts and Airbags on High Grade Renal Injuries and Nephrectomy Rates in Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Fantus, Richard J.; Mellett, Michele M.; Fantus, Richard J.; Villines, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the most common cause of blunt genitourinary trauma. We compared renal injuries with no protective device to those with seat belts and/or airbags utilizing the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Our primary endpoint was a reduction in high-grade renal injuries (grades III-V) with a secondary endpoint of reduction in nephrectomy rate. Materials and Methods The NTDB research datasets, admission year 2010, 2011, and 2012, were queried for MVC occupants with renal injury. Subjects were stratified by protective device and airbag deployment. Abbreviated Injury Score was converted to American Association for the Surgery of Trauma renal injury grade and nephrectomy rates were evaluated. Intergroup comparisons were analyzed for renal injury grades, nephrectomy, length of stay, and mortality with chi-square or one-way ANOVA. Protective device relative risk reduction was determined. Results A review of 466,028 MVCs revealed 3,846 renal injuries. Injured occupants without a protective device had a higher rate of high grade renal injury (45.1%) compared to those with seat belts (39.9%, p=0.008), airbags (42.3%, p=0.317), and seat belts with airbags (34.7%, p<0.001). Seat belts (20.0%, p<0.001), airbags (10.5% p<0.001), and seat belts with airbags (13.3%, p<0.001) reduced the rate of nephrectomy compared to no protective device (56.2%). The combination of seatbelts and airbags also reduced total hospital length of stay (p<0.001) and ICU days (p=0.005). Relative risk reduction of high-grade renal injuries (23.1%) and nephrectomy (39.9%) were highest for combined protective devices. Conclusions Occupants of MVCs with protective devices have reduced rates of high-grade renal injury and nephrectomy. Reduction appears most pronounced with the combination of seat belts and airbags. PMID:24846798

  9. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and programs. 1252.223-73 Section 1252.223-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... your company or organization, please visit the Buckle Up America section of NHTSA's Web site at www...

  10. Comparison of reporting of seat belt use by police and crash investigators: variation in agreement by injury severity.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Melissa A; Cummings, Peter

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate agreement between police and trained investigators regarding seat belt use by crash victims, according to injury severity. We used data from the National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) for front seat occupants, 16 years and older, in crashes during 1993-2000. Crashworthiness Data System investigators determined belt use from vehicle inspection, interviews, and medical record information; their assessment was considered the gold standard for this analysis. Occupant severity of injury was categorized in five levels from no injuries to death. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating characteristic curves for police reports of belt use. Among 48,858 occupants, sensitivity of a police report that a belt was used was 95.8% overall and varied only modestly by injury severity. Specificity of a police report that a belt was not used was 69.1% overall; it was the lowest among the uninjured (53.2%) and greatest among the dead (90.4%). The area under the curve was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.83) overall; this was lowest among those not injured (0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.76) and increased with injury severity to 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.90-0.93) among those who died. Police usually classify belted crash victims as belted, regardless of injury severity. But they often classify unbelted survivors as belted when they were not. This misclassification may result in exaggerated estimates of seat belt effectiveness in some studies.

  11. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use of service vehicle drivers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot-tested a new application of a technology-based intervention to increase seat belt use. The technology was based on a : contingency in which unbelted drivers experienced sustained haptic feedback to the gas pedal when they exceeded 25...

  12. Seat belts : their use among drivers killed in fatal crashes in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    SR300 Accident Report forms and corresponding Medical Examiner's reports were examined for fatal crashes which occurred during fiscal year 1973. The status of seat belt usage was noted for drivers whose deaths were directly related to the accidents a...

  13. Presidential initiative for increasing seat belt use nationwide : recommendations from the Secretary of Transportation : buckle up!

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-01

    On December 28, 1996 President Clinton asked all Americans to always wear seat belts, and to always keep children ages 12 and under buckled in the back seat where they are safest. On January 23, 1997, he directed the Secretary of Transportation to pr...

  14. Evaluation of the first year of the Washington nighttime seat belt enforcement program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-12-01

    The Washington Traffic Safety Commission (WTSC) received funding from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to conduct a high-visibility nighttime seat belt enforcement (NTSBE) program in Washington State. The two-year program is followi...

  15. Determinants of seat belt use behaviour: a protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Armoon, Bahram; Rakhshanderou, Sakineh; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Soori, Hamid; Simsekoghlu, Ozelem; Harooni, Javad

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The use of seat belts could prevent severe collision damage to people in vehicle accidents and keep passengers safe from sustaining serious injuries; for instance, it could prevent passengers from being thrown out of a vehicle after the collision. The current systematic review will identify and analyse the determinants of seat belt use behaviour. Methods and analysis We will include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies reporting the acquired data from passengers aged more than 12 years and drivers, from both commercial and personal vehicles. Online databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycINFO will be investigated in the current study. Published and available articles will be evaluated according to their titles and abstracts. Published papers conforming to the inclusion criteria will be organised for a complete review. Next, the full text of the remaining articles will be studied independently for eligibility by two authors. The quality of the selected studies will be assessed with appropriate tools. Based on the information obtained from the data extraction, the type of determinants of seat belt use will be classified. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required, because this is a protocol for a systematic review and no primary data will be collected. The authors will ensure to maintain the rights of the used and included articles in the present systematic review. The findings of this review will be published in a relevant peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017067511. PMID:29724739

  16. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  17. The impact of seat belts and airbags on high grade renal injuries and nephrectomy rate in motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Fantus, Richard Jacob; Fantus, Richard Joseph; Mellett, Michele M; Villines, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the most common cause of blunt genitourinary trauma. We compared renal injuries with no protective device to those with seat belts and/or airbags using NTDB. Our primary end point was a decrease in high grade (grades III-V) renal injuries with a secondary end point of a nephrectomy rate reduction. The NTDB research data sets for hospital admission years 2010, 2011 and 2012 were queried for motor vehicle collision occupants with renal injury. Subjects were stratified by protective device and airbag deployment. The AIS was converted to AAST renal injury grade and nephrectomy rates were evaluated. Intergroup comparisons were analyzed for renal injury grades, nephrectomy, length of stay and mortality using the chi-square test or 1-way ANOVA. The relative risk reduction of protective devices was determined. A review of 466,028 motor vehicle collisions revealed a total of 3,846 renal injuries. Injured occupants without a protective device had a higher rate of high grade renal injuries (45.1%) than those with seat belts (39.9%, p = 0.008), airbags (42.3%, p = 0.317) and seat belts plus airbags (34.7%, p <0.001). Seat belts (20.0%), airbags (10.5%) and seat belts plus airbags (13.3%, each p <0.001) decreased the nephrectomy rate compared to no protective device (56.2%). The combination of seatbelts and airbags also decreased total hospital length of stay (p <0.001) and intensive care unit days (p = 0.005). The relative risk reductions of high grade renal injuries (23.1%) and nephrectomy (39.9%) were highest for combined protective devices. Occupants of motor vehicle collisions with protective devices show decreased rates of high grade renal injury and nephrectomy. Reduction appears most pronounced with the combination of seat belts and airbags. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a rural seat belt demonstration program in Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-09-01

    Three southeastern States initiated high-visibility enforcement campaigns to address lower seat belt use in their rural areas than in non-rural areas. Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee conducted four waves of intensified enforcement and media from Nove...

  19. Association of seat belt use with death: a comparison of estimates based on data from police and estimates based on data from trained crash investigators

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Estimates of any protective effect of seat belts could be exaggerated if some crash survivors falsely claimed to police that they were belted in order to avoid a fine. The aim of this study was to determine whether estimates of seat belt effectiveness differed when based on belt use as recorded by the police and belt use determined by trained crash investigators. Design: Matched cohort study. Setting: United States. Subjects: Adult driver-passenger pairs in the same vehicle with at least one death (n=1689) sampled from crashes during 1988–2000; data from the National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Main outcome measure: Risk ratio for death among belted occupants compared with those not belted. Results: Trained investigators determined post-crash seat belt use by vehicle inspections for 92% of the occupants, confidential interviews with survivors for 5%, and medical or autopsy reports for 3%. Using this information, the adjusted risk ratio for belted persons was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.46). The risk ratio was also 0.36 using police reported belt use for the same crashes. Conclusions: Estimates of seat belt effects based upon police data were not substantially different from estimates which used data obtained by trained crash investigators who were not police officers. These results were from vehicles in which at least one front seat occupant died; these findings may not apply to estimates which use data from crashes without a death. PMID:12460976

  20. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... means the part of the seat that provides forward and rearward positioning of the seat bench and back... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds); and, a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR less than or equal to 4,536 kg manufactured...

  1. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... means the part of the seat that provides forward and rearward positioning of the seat bench and back... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds); and, a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR less than or equal to 4,536 kg manufactured...

  2. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... means the part of the seat that provides forward and rearward positioning of the seat bench and back... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds); and, a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR less than or equal to 4,536 kg manufactured...

  3. A focused educational intervention can promote the proper application of seat belts during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McGwin, Gerald; Willey, Paula; Ware, Amy; Kohler, Connie; Kirby, Tyler; Rue, Loring W

    2004-05-01

    The failure to properly use automobile restraints during pregnancy is a significant contributor to both maternal and fetal injury and death. Misconceptions as to the effects of restraint use on the fetus and a lack of instruction as to proper restraint positioning contribute to this problem. Focus groups were used to develop an intervention consisting of educational material for prenatal care clinic patients and staff pertaining to seat belt use during pregnancy. The intervention was administered over a 2-month period. Two groups of women, one preintervention and one postintervention, were surveyed to determine demographics, pregnancy status, and current restraint use characteristics. Preintervention and postintervention surveys were administered to 450 and 285 women, respectively. The proportion of women reporting correct placement of seat belts increased from 70.8% to 83.0% (p < 0.001) after the intervention. Knowledge of seat belt effectiveness also increased significantly (p < 0.001) after the intervention. Only 25.2% of women in the preintervention group reported receiving information from clinic staff on restraint use compared with 76.8% of the postintervention group (p < 0.001). Lack of knowledge regarding restraint use during pregnancy contributes to a lack of consistent and proper use of restraints. Educational tools that improve both knowledge and behavior have the potential to increase automotive safety during pregnancy.

  4. Determinants of seat belt use behaviour: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Armoon, Bahram; Rakhshanderou, Sakineh; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Soori, Hamid; Simsekoghlu, Ozelem; Harooni, Javad

    2018-05-03

    The use of seat belts could prevent severe collision damage to people in vehicle accidents and keep passengers safe from sustaining serious injuries; for instance, it could prevent passengers from being thrown out of a vehicle after the collision. The current systematic review will identify and analyse the determinants of seat belt use behaviour. We will include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies reporting the acquired data from passengers aged more than 12 years and drivers, from both commercial and personal vehicles. Online databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycINFO will be investigated in the current study. Published and available articles will be evaluated according to their titles and abstracts. Published papers conforming to the inclusion criteria will be organised for a complete review. Next, the full text of the remaining articles will be studied independently for eligibility by two authors. The quality of the selected studies will be assessed with appropriate tools. Based on the information obtained from the data extraction, the type of determinants of seat belt use will be classified. Ethics approval is not required, because this is a protocol for a systematic review and no primary data will be collected. The authors will ensure to maintain the rights of the used and included articles in the present systematic review. The findings of this review will be published in a relevant peer-reviewed journal. CRD42017067511. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Dynamic models to analyse the influence of the seat belt in a frontal collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oana, Oţăt; Nicolae, Dumitru; Ilie, Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    Traffic accidents are influenced by various factors, yet, the highest impacting ones are related to vehicle impact speed and collision type. Also, passive vehicle safety systems play a significant role upon the injuries suffered by vehicle occupants. Under the circumstances, a particularly important aspect to consider when using such systems is the position of the vehicle’s driver and its occupants. In what follows we embark upon an in-depth analysis in order to investigate the contact effects between the seat belt and the driver, under a dynamic regime. We set out to identify the variation of the kinematic and dynamic parameters for both the driver and the seat belt via comparative analyses between the normal position of the driver and some other out of position instances, considered as critical.

  6. North Carolina school bush crash data and issues related to seat belts on large school buses

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-04-01

    School bus transportation and safety is a very serious and sometimes controversial and : emotional issue. Although school buses have been shown to be a very safe form of : transportation, many parents and safety advocates question the absence of seat...

  7. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate

  8. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  9. Increasing seat belt use among 8- to 15-year-olds. Volume II, appendices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    The broad aim of this research project was to determine the nature and causes of non-use of seat belts among 8- to 15year- olds, and to recommend interventions and strategic approaches to increase usage among this age group. This report summarizes fi...

  10. Increasing seat belt use among 8- to 15-year-olds. Volume I, findings

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    The broad aim of this research project was to determine the nature and causes of non-use of seat belts among 8- to 15year- olds, and to recommend interventions and strategic approaches to increase usage among this age group. This report summarizes fi...

  11. Seat-Belt Use In US Counties: Limited Progress Toward Healthy People 2020 Objectives.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, Jacob; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Chen, Alan; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    Spikes in automobile fatalities in 2015 and 2016 have renewed discussions about automobile safety. We measured the prevalence of reported seat-belt compliance in every US county from 2002 to 2012 and found considerable variation. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Results of Transport Canada's survey of seat belt use in Canada, 2002-2003

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-09-01

    The September 2002 and September 2003 surveys were the first of their kind: the first to : measure the seat belt usage rate separately in rural Canada and urban Canada. Rural Canada was : defined as towns with a population of less than 10,000 but mor...

  13. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    PubMed

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  14. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, H.; Macdonald, S.; Richardson, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. PARTICIPANTS: The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. MAIN RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. CONCLUSIONS: The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road

  15. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-05-01

    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  16. Does obesity affect the position of seat belt loading in occupants involved in real-world motor vehicle collisions?

    PubMed

    Hartka, Thomas R; Carr, Hannah M; Smith, Brittany R; Melmer, Monica; Sochor, Mark R

    2018-02-28

    Previous work has shown that the lap belt moves superior and forward compared to the bony pelvis as body mass index (BMI) increases. The goal of this project was to determine whether the location of lap belt loading is related to BMI for occupants who sustained real-world motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). A national MVC database was queried for vehicle occupants over a 10-year period (2003-2012) who were at least 16 years old, restrained by a 3-point seat belt, sitting in the front row, and involved in a front-end collision with a change in velocity of at least 56 km/h. Cases were excluded if there was not an available computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen. CT scans were then analyzed using adipose enhancement of 3-dimensional reconstructions. Scans were assessed for the presence a radiographic seat belt sign (rSBS), or subcutaneous fat stranding due to seat belt loading. In scans in which the rSBS was present, anterior and superior displacement of rSBS from the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) was measured bilaterally. This displacement was correlated with BMI and injury severity. The inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded 151 cases for analysis. An rSBS could definitively be identified in 55 cases. Cases in which occupants were older and had higher BMI were more likely to display an rSBS. There was a correlation between increasing BMI and anterior rSBS displacement (P <.01 and P <.01, right and left, respectively). There was no significant correlation between BMI and superior displacement of the rSBS (P =.46 and P =.33, right and left, respectively). When the data were examined in terms of relating increasing superior displacement of the lap belt with Injury Severity Scale (P =.34) and maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) injury severity (P =.63), there was also no significant correlation. The results from this study demonstrated that anterior displacement of the radiographic seat belt sign but not superior displacement increased with higher BMI

  17. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  18. Estimated medical cost savings in Massachusetts by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Massachusetts if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savi...

  19. Head injury causation scenarios for belted, rear-seated children in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Katarina; Arbogast, Kristy B; Bostrom, Ola

    2011-02-01

    Head injuries are the most common serious injuries sustained by children in motor vehicle crashes and are of critical importance with regard to long-term disability. There is a lack of understanding of how seat belt-restrained children sustain head injuries in frontal impacts. The aim of the study was to identify the AIS2+ head injury causation scenarios for rear-seated, belt-restrained children in frontal impacts, including the set of parameters contributing to the injury. In-depth crash investigations from two National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) databases, the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS; 1997-2008) and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN; 1996-2009), were collected and analyzed in detail. Selection criteria were all frontal impacts with principal direction of force (PDOF) of 11, 12, and 1 o'clock involving rear-seated, three-point belt-restrained, with or without booster cushion, children from 3 to 13 years with an AIS2+ head injury. Cases were analyzed using the BioTab method of injury causation assessment in order to systematically analyze the injury causation scenario for each case. There were 27 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, 19 cases with MAIS2 head injuries and 8 cases with MAIS3+ head injuries, including 2 fatalities. Three major injury causation scenarios were identified, including head contact with seatback (10 cases), head contact with side interior (7 cases,) and no evidence of head contact (9 cases). Head injuries with seatback or side interior contact typically included a PDOF greater than 10 degree (similar to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety [IIHS] and EuroNCAP offset frontal testing) and vehicle maneuvers. For seatback contact, the vehicle's movements contributed to occupant kinematics inboard the vehicle, causing a less than optimal restraint of the torso and/or torso roll out of the shoulder belt. For side interior contact, the PDOF and

  20. Estimated medical cost savings in Utah by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to : a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Utah if a primary seat : belt law is implemented. The savings a...

  1. Estimated medical cost savings in Nevada by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Nevada if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savings are...

  2. Estimated medical cost savings in Vermont by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2005 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to the State of Vermont if a primary seat belt law is implemented. T...

  3. Impact of the Illinois Seat Belt Use Law on Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of the 1985 Illinois seat belt law is explored using Box-Jenkins Auto-Regressive, Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) techniques and monthly accident statistical data from the state department of transportation for January-July 1990. A conservative estimate is that the law provides benefits of $15 million per month in Illinois. (SLD)

  4. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  5. Primary laws and fine levels are associated with increases in seat belt use, 1997-2008

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    Increasing fine levels is a strategy that has potential to further raise seat belt use, in addition to primary law upgrades and high-visibility enforcement. Although the regression analyses did not find a statistically significant effect associated w...

  6. Incidence of ocular injuries from road traffic accidents after introduction of seat belt legislation.

    PubMed

    Vernon, S A; Yorston, D B

    1984-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to characterize any change in the pattern of ocular injuries following the introduction of compulsory front seat belt wear on 1 February 1983. During a 24-week period in 1981 (1 February to 31 July), 24 patients with eye and adnexal injuries as a result of motor car road traffic accidents (RTAs) were seen at the Bristol Eye Hospital: 12 of these patients required emergency surgery. In the identical period two years later (1 February to 31 July 1983), only 6 patients suffered ocular injury from RTAs: 3 of these required emergency surgery. All patients in the latter series obeying the legislation on seat belt use were injured by flying glass, indicating a possible change in pattern of injury. The decrease in incidence of ocular injuries from RTAs between the two series was shown to be statistically significant. The compulsory fitting of laminated glass to all new cars in Great Britain and Europe is strongly advised.

  7. Incidence of ocular injuries from road traffic accidents after introduction of seat belt legislation.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, S A; Yorston, D B

    1984-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to characterize any change in the pattern of ocular injuries following the introduction of compulsory front seat belt wear on 1 February 1983. During a 24-week period in 1981 (1 February to 31 July), 24 patients with eye and adnexal injuries as a result of motor car road traffic accidents (RTAs) were seen at the Bristol Eye Hospital: 12 of these patients required emergency surgery. In the identical period two years later (1 February to 31 July 1983), only 6 patients suffered ocular injury from RTAs: 3 of these required emergency surgery. All patients in the latter series obeying the legislation on seat belt use were injured by flying glass, indicating a possible change in pattern of injury. The decrease in incidence of ocular injuries from RTAs between the two series was shown to be statistically significant. The compulsory fitting of laminated glass to all new cars in Great Britain and Europe is strongly advised. PMID:6699864

  8. An Immediate Death by Seat Belt Compression; a Forensic Medicine Report

    PubMed Central

    Najari, Fares; Alimohammadi, Ali Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although death is a gradual process, sometimes sudden death occurs in a fraction of a minute or seconds. Here we report a 49-year-old man without any underlying disease, which has instantly died in an accident scene due to compression of neck critical elements by a three-point seat belt. The examination of the body and the results of the autopsy, toxicology and pathology tests are described from the viewpoint of forensic medicine. PMID:26495409

  9. Estimated medical cost savings in New Hampshire by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-03-01

    This report examines 2005 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to the State of New Hampshire if a primary seat belt law is implemen...

  10. Estimated medical cost savings in Rhode Island by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Rhode Island if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savin...

  11. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    PubMed

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-08-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p < 0.0001) that were 4 feet 9 inches or higher fit properly in the large SUV, only 87 (83%) of 105 students (p = 0.02) fit properly in the pickup truck, and only 91 (89%) of 102 students (p = 0.74) fit properly in the minivan. Substantial proportions of children meeting current height guidelines for an adult seat belt do not meet safety requirements for fit, especially in larger, commonly used vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic study, level III; Therapeutic study, level V.

  12. 75 FR 36780 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2000 East Lancs Lolyne Double...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... that your comments were received, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard with the comments..., 207 Seating Systems, 209 Seat Belt Assemblies, 210 Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, 217 Bus Emergency...

  13. Optimizing protection for rear seat occupants : assessing booster performance with realistic belt geometry using the hybrid III 6YO ATD.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-11-01

    A series of sled tests was conducted to examine the performance of booster seats under belt geometries representing the range found in the rear seats of current vehicles. Twelve tests were performed with the standard 6YO Hybrid III ATD and 29 tests w...

  14. Effect of realistic vehicle seats, cushion length, and lap belt geometry on child ATD kinematics.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    This series of sled tests examined the effect of using real vehicle seats on child ATD performance. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorag...

  15. Evaluation of a county enforcement program with a primary seat belt ordinance : St. Louis County, Missouri.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    In March 2007, St. Louis County implemented a seat belt ordinance that allowed for traditional : enforcement procedures. In order to increase usage on St. Louis County roads, particularly on roadways : with fatal or disabling injury crashes, the St. ...

  16. Effect of Increased Rear Row Occupancy on Injury to Seat Belt Restrained Children in Side Impact Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Matthew R.; Chen, Irene G.; Arbogast, Kristy B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work identified a similar risk of injury for children seated on the struck side and center rear in side impact crashes in passenger cars. In order to further explain this finding, we investigated the effect of sharing the rear row with other occupants on injury risk and delineated differences in injury patterns among the seat positions. These analyses, conducted from a large child specific crash surveillance system, included: children 4–15 years old, rear seated, seat belt restrained, in a passenger car, and in a side impact crash. Injury risk was compared among each rear seat position stratified by the presence of other occupants on the rear row. Occupants are at an increased risk of injury if they sit alone on their row as compared to sitting with other occupants. Patterns of injuries distinct to each seat position were delineated. PMID:16179151

  17. Evaluation of a rural demonstration program to increase seat belt use in the Great Lakes Region.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    Six States in the Great Lakes Region (Region 5) participated in a Rural Demonstration Program to increase seat belt : use in rural areas and among high-risk occupants, such as young males and occupants of pickup trucks. These : efforts, which include...

  18. An observational survey of safety belt and child safety seat use in Virginia : the 1989 update.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    The report has been prepared in response to a request from the Transportation Safety Administration of the Department of Motor Vehicles for data concerning the use of safety belts and child safety seats by the occupants of vehicles bearing Virginia l...

  19. belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-03-01

    A 2003 study estimated that if all States had primary seat belt laws from 1995 to 2002, over 12,000 lives would have been saved. Failure to implement a primary seat belt law creates a real cost to a States budget for Medicaid and other State medic...

  20. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M

    1989-09-01

    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.

  1. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  2. The impact of airbags and seat belts on the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in automobile accidents in New York State.

    PubMed

    Mouzakes, J; Koltai, P J; Kuhar, S; Bernstein, D S; Wing, P; Salsberg, E

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the effect driver-side and passenger-side airbags have had on the incidence and severity of maxillofacial trauma in victims of automobile accidents. Retrospective analysis of all automobile (passenger cars and light trucks) accidents reported in 1994. New York State. Of the 595910 individuals involved in motor vehicle accidents in New York in 1994, 377054 individuals were initially selected from accidents involving cars and light trucks. Of this subset, 164238 drivers and 62755 right front passengers were selected for analysis. Each case is described in a single record with approximately 100 variables describing the accident, eg, vehicle, safety equipment installed and utilized or deployed, occupant position, patient demographics, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnoses, and procedural treatments rendered. A maxillofacial trauma severity scale was devised, based on the ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Individuals using airbags and seat belts sustained facial injuries at a rate of 1 in 449, compared with a rate of 1 in 40 for individuals who did not use seat belts or airbags (P<.001). Those using airbags alone sustained facial injuries at the intermediate rate of 1 in 148, and victims using seat belts without airbags demonstrated an injury rate of 1 in 217 (P<.001). Use of driver-side airbags, when combined with use of seat belts, has resulted in a decrease in the incidence and severity of maxillofacial trauma.

  3. Seat belt and shoulder strap use among urban travelers : results of the summer 1977 survey : a report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    During nine days in June 1977, four major metropolitan areas of the state of Virginia were surveyed to determine seat belt use by summer urban travelers. Observer-data collectors were stationed at selected signalized intersections. Motorists in the l...

  4. Safety Belt Use: Traffic Safety Tips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This fact sheet, NHTSA Facts: Summer 1996, discusses traffic safety tips for wearing seat belts. It describes the correct way to wear a seat belt, how to sit, and differentiates between lap belts and shoulder belts. It points out that air bags provid...

  5. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-08

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  6. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standard establishes requirements for seats, their attachment assemblies, and their installation to... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph (a... applied simultaneously with the forces imposed on the seat by the seat belt assembly when it is loaded in...

  7. A statistical analysis of seat belt effectiveness in 1973-1975 model cars involved in towaway crashes. Volume 1

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-09-01

    Standardized injury rates and seat belt effectiveness measures are derived from a probability sample of towaway accidents involving 1973-1975 model cars. The data were collected in five different geographic regions. Weighted sample size available for...

  8. A methodology for analyzing general categorical data with misclassification errors with an application in studying seat belt effectiveness

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-06-01

    Author's abstract: In this report, a methodology for analyzing general categorical data with misclassification errors is developed and applied to the study of seat belt effectiveness. The methodology assumes the availability of an original large samp...

  9. The "seat belt mark" sign: a call for increased vigilance among physicians treating victims of motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Velmahos, G C; Tatevossian, R; Demetriades, D

    1999-02-01

    The use of seat belts is shown to cause a specific pattern of internal injuries. Skin bruise corresponding to the site of the seat belt is known as the "seat belt mark" (SBM) sign and is associated with a high incidence of significant organ injuries. No study has yet defined the exact incidence of injuries requiring intervention at the presence of this sign. The objective of this study was to find the incidence of surgically correctable injuries in belted car occupants with a SBM sign and to define strategies of early detection and treatment of such injuries. The prospective study included consecutive patients involved in road traffic accidents who were admitted at an academic Level I trauma center. Of 650 car occupants, 410 (63%) were restrained and 77 (12%) had a SBM across the abdomen, chest or neck. The injuries of these 77 patients were compared with the injuries of belted patients without an SBM sign. Of patients with SBMs, 9 per cent had neck bruises, 32 per cent had chest bruises, 40 per cent had abdominal bruises, and 19 per cent had bruises in multiple sites. No significant neck injuries were detected. Three patients were found to have myocardial contusion, and 10 patients had intra-abdominal injuries (predominantly bowel and mesenteric lacerations) requiring laparotomy. There was a near 4-fold increase in thoracic trauma (22.5% versus 6%; P=0.01) and a near 8-fold increase in intra-abdominal trauma (23% versus 3%; P < 0.0001) between the groups of patients with and without SBMs. The presence of the SBM sign should alert the physician to the high likelihood of specific internal injuries. Routine laparotomy or mandatory evaluation by specific diagnostic tests is not justified; rather, a high index of suspicion with a low threshold for appropriate diagnostic evaluation and/or surgical exploration should be maintained for the optimal management of such patients.

  10. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  11. An observational survey of safety belt and child safety seat use in Virginia : final report : the 1990 update.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-01-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request from the Transportation Safety Administration of the Virginia Department ofMotor Vehicles for data concerning the use of safety belts and child safety seats by the occupants of vehicles bearing Virgin...

  12. Evaluation of the effects of a seat belt education program among elementary school children in Loudoun County, Virginia

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-11-01

    Elementary school children in Loudoun County, Virginia took part in a program whose purpose was to acquaint them with the need to wear auto seat belts. Before, during and after this program, passengers and drivers of cars with children of elementary ...

  13. Results of Transport Canada's September 2002 survey of seat belt use in rural areas of the country

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-05-01

    The September 2002 survey was the first of its kind: the first to measure the seat belt : usage rate in rural Canada only. Rural Canada was defined as towns with a population of : fewer than 10,000 but more than 1,000 that are located outside any cen...

  14. Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study.

    PubMed

    Janssen, W

    1994-04-01

    Less-than-expected fatality reductions after seat-belt legislation has been introduced in a jurisdiction may be explained in terms of selective recruitment of parts of the driving population and/or behavioral adaptation by beginning belt users. The present investigation has compared the relative merits of these two hypotheses at the level of individual driver behavior. In the initial study the driving behavior of groups of habitual wearers and nonwearers of the belt was compared. Nonwearers made two trips, one with the belt on and one without the belt. Habitual wearers drove belted only. The main part of the experiment was a 105 km freeway route. Two additional tasks of a somewhat more critical nature, a double lane-change manoeuvre and the performance of a braking manoeuvre in front of a fixed obstacle, were performed after the freeway trips. Factor analysis on 39 variables describing driving behavior on the road and during the additional tasks resulted in five factors. One of these, the factor describing the distribution of driving speed on the freeway, differentiated between nonwearers and wearers (thus yielding support for the selective recruitment hypothesis) as well as between wearing and not wearing the belt by the same drivers (thus yielding support for the behavioral adaptation hypothesis). In the follow-up study the original wearers and nonwearers were assigned to one of four experimental treatments: (i) the promise by the experimenter of a considerable incentive for not having a culpable motor vehicle accident over a period of a year. Half the habitual wearer subjects were assigned to this condition. The expectation was that this group would become more careful in their driving; (ii) a control group, consisting of the remaining habitual wearers; (iii) the agreement between the experimenter and the subject that the latter would buckle up in everyday driving for the year to come--half the habitual nonwearer subjects were assigned to this condition; (iv) a

  15. Seat belt and shoulder strap use among urban travelers : a comparison of survey results from 1974, 1975, and 1976.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-01-01

    During nine days in late January 1974, four major metropolitan areas of the state of Virginia were surveyed in an effort to determine seat belt use by urban travelers. Observer-data collectors were stationed at selected signalized intersections. Moto...

  16. Car Seats for Growing Children: Guidelines for Counselling Parents on Which Type of Car Seat To Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Transportation, Springfield. Div. of Traffic Safety.

    Children's car seats provide protection from the types of injury with the worst consequences. This document presents guidelines for selecting and installing child car seats, booster seats, and seat belts. The document includes suggestions for identifying when a child's safety restraint system should be changed, for determining if the restraint…

  17. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p < 0.001) or the right side (belted: RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-5.1; p < 0.004) of the occupant's body. For occupants involved in side-impact crashes, there was no difference in the risk of thoracic aorta injury whether the impacting force was applied toward the left or toward the right side of the occupant's body. Seat belt use provided a protective benefit such that the risk of thoracic aorta injury among unbelted occupants was three times higher than among belted occupants (RR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.2-4.3; p < 0.001); however, the benefit varied across impact direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However

  18. Seat belt and shoulder strap use among urban travelers : a comparison of results from 1974 and 1975 surveys : a report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    During nine consecutive days in late January 1974, four major metropolitan areas of the state of Virginia were surveyed in an effort to determine seat belt use by urban travelers. Observer data collectors were stationed at selected signalized interse...

  19. The effect of rear-seat overloading in a car crash: pathological and kinematics evidences.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Duccio; Sammicheli, Michele; Cortucci, Cristiano

    2013-09-01

    Seat belts have been shown to decrease the incidence of lethal lesions to the head, chest, and abdomen. Since the introduction of seat belts, it is reported that the incidence of traumatic lesions in these body parts is reduced. In the meantime, the characteristic lesions to the chest and abdomen caused by the use of seat belts are described (J Trauma. 2007;62(6):1473-1480).Reported is a peculiar case of an oblique front-to-rear car collision, in which overloading of the rear seat with packages pushed forward the passenger front seat in an abnormal way, causing fatal thoracic and abdominal lesions.The authors underline that the seat belt protection device is defeated if front seats are damaged by heavy unanchored bags on the rear seat or on the rear parcel shelf of a motor vehicle.

  20. An academic, business, and community alliance to promote evidence-based public health policy: the case of primary seat belt legislation.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, Irwin A; Schlundt, David G; Moore, Wayne E; Smith, Patricia E; Zoorob, Roger J; Levine, Robert S

    2013-08-01

    An academic, business, and community alliance comprising 285 organizations, including 43 national groups represented on a Blue Ribbon Panel organized by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation, targeted Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin for high involvement/intervention consisting of community organization and other political action to support passage of primary seat belt laws. State-level alliance activities began in January 2003. All six states enacted a primary seat belt law between 2004 and 2009. From January 2003 to May 2010, passage of primary legislation was 4.5 times as likely (95% CI 1.90, 10.68) in states with high versus low alliance involvement. Positive interaction between high alliance involvement and offers of federal incentives may have occurred as well. This evidence of success suggests that academic-business-community alliances for action to promote evidence-based public health policy may be effective.

  1. Comfort and convenience specifications for safety belts : shoulder belt fit, pressure and pullout forces

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-04-30

    A three-part study was conducted to further define comfort requirements for seat belt systems with respect to shoulder belt fit, shoulder belt contact pressure, and 3-point restraint system pullout forces. Objective of the belt-fit portion of the stu...

  2. 2017 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-08-01

    The use of safety belts and child safety seats is a proven means of reducing injuries to motor vehicle occupants involved in traffic crashes. There have been various methods used in efforts to increase safety belt and safety seat usage. Past efforts ...

  3. 2016 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    The use of safety belts and child safety seats is a proven means of reducing injuries to motor vehicle occupants involved in traffic crashes. There have been various methods used in efforts to increase safety belt and safety seat usage. Past efforts ...

  4. An investigation of safety belt usage and effectiveness

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-03-01

    This interim report contains primarily a theoretical discussion of problems of inference in studies on seat belt utilization and effectiveness. Seat belt effectiveness in accidents is initially discussed from a population paramenter point of, view. T...

  5. Identifying information that promotes belt-positioning booster use. Volume 2, Appendices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    Many parents with low educational attainment prematurely graduate their children to seat belt restraint rather than use belt-positioning booster seats. This study aimed to identify interventions that promoted booster seat use among this population. F...

  6. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  7. IMPACTS OF BUS STOP IMPROVEMENTS

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-03-23

    Improving bus stops by providing shelters, seating, signage, and sidewalks is relatively inexpensive and popular among riders and local officials. Making such improvements, however, is not often a priority for U.S. transit providers because of compet...

  8. A case of hemothorax following seat-belt injury with a bulla in the apex of the lung: a subtype of spontaneous hemopneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Haruyuki; Akiyama, Naoko; Murao, Masaki; Yamauchi, Yosuke; Nakamura, Teruya; Sekiya, Naosumi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Miyagatani, Yasusuke

    2015-05-01

    We experienced a case of a subtype of spontaneous hemopneumothorax caused by external forces associated with a seat-belt injury. A female aged 39 years sustained a minor collision with an oncoming car while she was driving. Although pneumothorax was not detected, hemothorax and bleeding from the area surrounding the subclavian artery were observed on contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). After confirming continuous bleeding into the thoracic cavity after superselective arterial embolization, we performed emergency open surgery. We found a bulla in the apex of the lung, and the thoracic stump of the bulla was considered the source of bleeding. In this case, the direct cause of hemothorax was considered to be the external force associated with the seat-belt injury. When a bulla in the apex of the lung and continuous bleeding are both observed on CT, spontaneous hemopneumothorax should be suspected, necessitating open chest surgery in cases where pneumothorax is not observed.

  9. Identifying information that promotes belt-positioning booster use. Volume 1, Summary and findings

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    Many parents with low educational attainment prematurely graduate their children to seat belt restraint rather than use belt-positioning booster seats. This study aimed to identify interventions that promoted booster seat use among this population. F...

  10. Booster Seat Effectiveness Among Older Children: Evidence From Washington State.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark; Carlson, Lindsay L; Rees, Daniel I

    2017-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. Children aged 8-12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8-12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatality reduction by safety belts for front-seat occupants of cars and light trucks : updated and expanded estimates based on 1986-99 FARS data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimated in 1984 that manual 3-point safety belts : reduce the fatality risk of front-seat occupants of passenger cars by 45 percent relative to the unrestrained : occupant. The agency still relies ...

  12. Influence of standing or seated pelvis on dummy responses in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Burnett, Roger

    2012-03-01

    There is a question whether the standing or seated pelvis should be used in Hybrid III dummy evaluations of seats and belt restraint systems in severe rear impacts. This study compares the standing and seated Hybrid III pelvis in matched rear sled tests. Sixteen sled tests were found at 10, 16 and 24 km/h rear delta V in Ford's archives where matched tests were run with the standing and seated pelvis in a belted Hybrid III dummy. Two new tests were conducted at 40 km/h rear delta V to extend the severity range. The head, chest and pelvis were instrumented with triaxial accelerometers and the upper and lower neck, thoracic spine and lumbar spine had transducers measuring triaxial loads and moments. Belt Loads were measured. High-speed video recorded different views of the dummy motion. Dummy kinematics and biomechanical responses were compared for all of the data with the two different Hybrid III pelvic designs. In the 40 km/h sled tests, the dummy motion and excursion were essentially similar with the standing and seated pelvis. The similarities included the lap belt interaction with the pelvis and the leg movement upward flexing the hip joint. Overall, similar biomechanic and kinematic responses were found, including the pelvic acceleration, spinal forces and moments. For the lower speed tests at 10, 16 and 24 km/h, the motion sequence was also similar with the two different pelvises, including the upward movement of the legs as the seat was loaded and rebound kinematics. The biomechanical responses were similar. The seated pelvis involves only a small portion of the upper leg molded into the vinyl skin of the pelvis and does not limit leg rotation at the hip joint. Furthermore, lap belt loads were minimal during the rearward movement of the dummy. The matched testing showed no significant difference in occupant kinematics or biomechanical responses between the standing and seated pelvis in rear sled tests. The Hybrid III dummy with the seated pelvis is suitable

  13. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    electric 22 ft. bus that offers greater range than battery-electric buses can provide. Designed to seat 22 passengers plus standees, this Ebus model...system that has both parallel and series operating modes. The relatively low volume of many truck and bus designs has inhibited the development of...that battery packs need to be designed for 50,000 lifetime energy storage cycles in a hybrid transit bus vs. just 3,600 cycles in the typical

  14. Thoracolumbar junction injuries after rollover crashes: difference between belted and unbelted front seat occupants.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Guiot, Bernard H

    2009-10-01

    Motor vehicle collision (MVC) is one of the most common causes of thoracolumbar junction (TLJ) injury. Although it is of no doubt that the use of seatbelt reduces the incidence and severity of MVC-induced TLJ injury, how it is protective for front-seat occupants of an automobile after rollover crashes is unclear. Among 200 consecutive patients with a major TLJ (Th11-L2) injury due to high-energy trauma admitted from 2000 to 2004, 22 patients were identified as front-seat occupants of a four-wheel vehicle when a rollover crash occurred. The 22 patients were divided into two groups: 10 who were belted, and 12 who were unbelted. Patients' demographics including the mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), incidence of neurologic deficit, level of TLJ injury, and type of TLJ injury according to the AO fracture classification were compared between the two groups. Neurologic deficit was present exclusively in the unbelted group, and the difference in the incidence was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Similarly, AO type B/C injury was present exclusively in the unbelted group. The belted group had a significantly lower mean ISS than the unbelted group (P < 0.01). Comparison between the ejected and non-ejected victims within the unbelted group revealed no statistical difference in the incidence of neurologic deficit or type of injury. It is likely that the high incidence of neurologic deficit in the unbelted group was due to the high incidence of AO type B/C injury. This study indirectly proves the efficacy of seatbelt in reducing the severity of rollover-induced TLJ injury. Because of the limited number of cases, it is uncertain whether ejection from vehicle, which occurs exclusively in the unbelted victims, is a crucial factor in determining the severity or type of injury after rollover crashes.

  15. Thoracolumbar junction injuries after rollover crashes: difference between belted and unbelted front seat occupants

    PubMed Central

    Guiot, Bernard H.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle collision (MVC) is one of the most common causes of thoracolumbar junction (TLJ) injury. Although it is of no doubt that the use of seatbelt reduces the incidence and severity of MVC-induced TLJ injury, how it is protective for front-seat occupants of an automobile after rollover crashes is unclear. Among 200 consecutive patients with a major TLJ (Th11-L2) injury due to high-energy trauma admitted from 2000 to 2004, 22 patients were identified as front-seat occupants of a four-wheel vehicle when a rollover crash occurred. The 22 patients were divided into two groups: 10 who were belted, and 12 who were unbelted. Patients’ demographics including the mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), incidence of neurologic deficit, level of TLJ injury, and type of TLJ injury according to the AO fracture classification were compared between the two groups. Neurologic deficit was present exclusively in the unbelted group, and the difference in the incidence was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Similarly, AO type B/C injury was present exclusively in the unbelted group. The belted group had a significantly lower mean ISS than the unbelted group (P < 0.01). Comparison between the ejected and non-ejected victims within the unbelted group revealed no statistical difference in the incidence of neurologic deficit or type of injury. It is likely that the high incidence of neurologic deficit in the unbelted group was due to the high incidence of AO type B/C injury. This study indirectly proves the efficacy of seatbelt in reducing the severity of rollover-induced TLJ injury. Because of the limited number of cases, it is uncertain whether ejection from vehicle, which occurs exclusively in the unbelted victims, is a crucial factor in determining the severity or type of injury after rollover crashes. PMID:19688353

  16. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  17. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  18. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 2003 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2003 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2003 survey continues to document the results after enactment of a statewide mandatory safety belt law in 1994 and safety belt enforcemen...

  20. 2004 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2004 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2004 survey continues to document the results after enactment of a statewide mandatory safety belt law in 1994 and safety belt enforcemen...

  1. Use of booster seats by Michigan children 4-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Bingham, C Raymond; Vivoda, Jonathon M; Ragunathan, Trivellore

    2005-11-01

    This study reports the results of a statewide survey of restraint use by 4-8-year-old children in Michigan conducted between July 13 and 29, 2004. In this study, 3420 4-8-year-old children were observed traveling in passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks. Restraint use was estimated for children traveling in all vehicles combined, as well as for each vehicle type separately. Children's restraint use was also calculated by the sex, age, and belt use of the driver. Separate estimates were also made of the restraint use of 4-8-year-old children by the combination of sex and belt use of the driver. Overall, 8.6 +/- 5.9% of 4-8-year-old children were seated in a booster seat, 48.8 +/- 10.3% were wearing a safety belt, 5.1 +/- 3.4% were seated in a child safety seat, and the remaining 37.5 +/- 11.5% were traveling completely unrestrained. When examining the rates by vehicle type, booster seat use was highest among children riding in sport-utility vehicles and lowest for those in pickup trucks. Surprisingly, children riding in passenger cars were more likely to be completely unrestrained than those in any other type of vehicle. While the sex of the driver did not seem to influence the restraint use of target-aged children, the driver's age did seem to have an effect. Booster seat use was quite low (0.6%) for children traveling with a driver over the age of 60, compared to 7.0 and 9.1% for those riding with drivers 16-29 and 30-59 years of age, respectively. The safety belt use of the driver also had a substantial influence on children's restraint use. Irrespective of driver sex, children riding with belted drivers were traveling in booster seats about 10% of the time, while those riding with unbelted drivers were only in booster seats 1-2% of the time.

  2. Effectiveness of safety belt warning and interlock systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-04-01

    Rental cars in Fayetteville, N.C., were equipped with four seat belt and warning systems: (Phase I) detachable shoulder and lap belt, no warning system; (Phase II) detachable shoulder and lap belt, warning system (January 1, 1972 standard); (Phase II...

  3. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  4. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  5. Overrepresentation of seat belt non-users in traffic crashes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-04-01

    This study used observations of driver belt use linked with driver history information to conclude that non-users of belts are overrepresented in traffic crashes. Examining average numbers of accidents and violations per observed belted and unbelted ...

  6. A study of nighttime seat belt use in Indiana

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    Overall belt use rates observed during the daytime and nighttime survey waves are presented in Table 2. Belt use observed during the daytime and nighttime pre-mobilization waves was very similar. During the post-mobilization waves, daytime belt use w...

  7. 2009 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2009 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2009 survey continues to document the results after enactment of original "secondary enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  8. 2002 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2002 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2002 survey continues to document the results after enactment of original "secondary enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  9. 2001 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2001 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2001 survey continues to document the results after enactment of original "secondary enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  10. 2010 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2010 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2010 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the original "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in...

  11. 2007 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2007 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2007 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the initial "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  12. 2006 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2006 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2006 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the initial "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  13. 2008 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2008 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2008 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the initial "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  14. 2005 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2005 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2005 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the initial "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  15. Effects of North Carolina's mandatory safety belt law on children.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, L. H.; Bracken, J.; Stewart, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of the North Carolina law mandating that all front seat passengers use a safety belt on children 4 through 15 years of age. METHODS: North Carolina collision reports, completed by local police or the state highway patrol for crashes with greater than $500 worth of damage, were analyzed using time series analysis on the monthly percentage of deaths and serious injuries between January of 1980 and February of 1994. RESULTS: Following the 1985 implementation of the law, children 4 to 15 years of age experienced a 42% decline in deaths and serious injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The mandatory safety belt law in North Carolina has been associated with a decline in deaths and serious injuries. Additional research in needed to assess the seat belt behaviors of this age group as well as the specific effects of seat belt use using outcome measures more precise than those available in police crash reports. PMID:9346051

  16. Application of a bus seat buffer to mitigate frontal crash effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanisławek, Sebastian; Dziewulski, Paweł; Sławiński, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of coach occupant safety during crash events. The authors present a simple low-cost seat buffer concept which may mitigate the effects of frontal impact. The method of computer simulation was chosen to solve the problem efficiently. The Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in the LS-DYNA commercial code was used. The testing procedure was based on European Commission regulations, under which vehicles move at a defined speed. Simulations have shown that seat occupants suffer serious trauma during a crash, with the head experiencing relatively high acceleration, thus resulting in an HIC36 of 1490. The installation of a protective buffer mounted on the upper part of the seat reduced the HIC36 to only 510. However, in its current form it does not meet the requirements of the regulations. Further modifications to the overlay shape and structure are essential in order to better improve the deceleration of passengers' bodies. Moreover, a detailed model of seats and their anchorage should be taken into account. A more flexible structure should provide more positive and more accurate results.

  17. 2015 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-08-01

    The use of safety belts and child safety seats has been shown to be an effective means of : reducing injuries to motor-vehicle occupants involved in traffic crashes. There have been various : methods used in efforts to increase safety belt and safety...

  18. 2001 Safety belt usage survey in Kentucky

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2001 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2001 survey continues to document the results after enactment of a statewide mandatory safety belt law in 1994. It also documented the lo...

  19. 2002 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2002 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2002 survey continues to document the results after enactment of a statewide mandatory safety belt law in 1994. Data were collected at 20...

  20. 2000 Safety belt usage survey in Kentucky

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2000 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2000 survey continues to document the results after enactment of a statewide mandatory safety belt law in 1994. Data were collected at 20...

  1. Seat-belt trauma of the breast in a pregnant woman causing milk-duct injury: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, P; Harries, S; Clarke, D; Jones, L

    2010-01-01

    Injury to the milk-duct following a road traffic accident has not been reported in the literature. This case report describes a 25-year-old postpartum lady with massive swelling of the breast due to milk-duct injury and collection of milk within the breast. We describe the possible mechanism of milk-duct injury, its presentation and management, and also review the literature on seat-belt injury to the breast. PMID:20529454

  2. Drivers' assessment of Ford's belt reminder system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; Wells, Joann K

    2003-12-01

    In recent model years, Ford vehicles have been equipped with a supplementary seat belt reminder system that flashes and chimes intermittently for up to 5 min if the driver is unbelted. Sound- and light-based belt reminder systems of various types are beginning to appear in the market place, and it is important to learn about their acceptance and ability to increase belt use. The present study was designed to ascertain consumer reaction and reported belt use regarding the Ford system. Personal interviews were conducted with 405 drivers of vehicles with the reminder system. Among the drivers, 67% said they had activated the belt reminder one or more times, 73% said that the last time this happened they fastened their belts, 46% said their belt use had increased since driving this vehicle, 78% said they liked the reminder system, and 79% said they wanted a reminder system like this in their next vehicle. Five percent had disabled the system. Part-time users were responsive to the reminder, for example, of those who said they currently used belts usually but not on some occasions, 70% said they fastened their seat belts the last time the reminder was activated and 76% said their belt use had increased. Five percent spontaneously mentioned the belt reminder as an especially disliked feature of their new vehicles, and 2% said their belt use had decreased since having it. The 7% of respondents who reported they used belts never or very occasionally were least responsive to the system. Overall, the Ford belt reminder system is being favorably received.

  3. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  4. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., comprised of at least a frame, seat, and wheels. Wheelchair occupant restraint anchorage means the provision... passenger seat that has another seat behind it is subjected to the application of force as specified in S5.1.3.1 and S5.1.3.2, and subsequently, the application of additional force to the seat back as...

  5. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., comprised of at least a frame, seat, and wheels. Wheelchair occupant restraint anchorage means the provision... passenger seat that has another seat behind it is subjected to the application of force as specified in S5.1.3.1 and S5.1.3.2, and subsequently, the application of additional force to the seat back as...

  6. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., comprised of at least a frame, seat, and wheels. Wheelchair occupant restraint anchorage means the provision... passenger seat that has another seat behind it is subjected to the application of force as specified in S5.1.3.1 and S5.1.3.2, and subsequently, the application of additional force to the seat back as...

  7. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., comprised of at least a frame, seat, and wheels. Wheelchair occupant restraint anchorage means the provision... passenger seat that has another seat behind it is subjected to the application of force as specified in S5.1.3.1 and S5.1.3.2, and subsequently, the application of additional force to the seat back as...

  8. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... chronological order): Studies NTSB, 1987 In 1987, the NTSB reported on its investigation of forty-three post... seat belts by using the sled test data obtained from NHTSA's 2002 school bus safety study. For... incorporate test procedures to test lap/shoulder belts in small school buses and voluntarily-installed lap...

  9. Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Braver, E.; Whitfield, R.; Ferguson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of seating position, combined with restraint use and airbag status, on children's risk of dying in crashes. Methods—Using 1988–95 data from the United States Fatality Analysis Reporting System, risk of death was compared among front and rear seated passengers aged 12 and younger who were involved in fatal crashes for different categories of restraint use and in vehicles with and without passenger airbags. Results—Restrained children in rear seats had the lowest risk of dying in fatal crashes. Among children seated in the rear, risk of death was reduced 35% in vehicles without any airbags, 31% in vehicles equipped only with driver airbags, and 46% in vehicles with passenger airbags. Both restrained and unrestrained children aged 0–12 were at lower risk of dying in rear seats. Rear seats also afforded additional protection to children aged 5–12 restrained only with lap belts compared with lap/shoulder belted children in front seats. Children were about 10–20% less likely to die in rear center than in rear outboard positions. Conclusions—Parents and others who transport children should be strongly encouraged to place infants and children in rear seats whether or not vehicles have airbags. Existing laws requiring restraint use by children should be strengthened and actively enforced. PMID:9788087

  10. Seat Belts: Are They the Best Solution to the Real Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeau, Lee F.

    1985-01-01

    More children are killed outside their school buses than inside. To solve this problem, we should improve bus design, provide driver training programs for all school bus drivers, utilize the latest safety devices available, and improve ridership safety curriculum. (MLF)

  11. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    PubMed

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P < 0.00), perceived presence of a passenger-side airbag ( P < 0.00), all children in the vehicle seating ( P = 0.09). In the multivariate analysis, only the association between child rear seating and all children in the vehicle seating were similar between Hispanic and non-Hispanic motorists. Controlling for other factors, the presence of a passenger-side airbag appeared to be more strongly associated with rear seating among non-Hispanics compared to Hispanics (RR 1.5 versus 1.1). Fewer Hispanic motorists drove vehicles with all children in the rear compared with the non-Hispanic motorists (48% versus 56%); this difference appears to be associated with the finding that

  13. Occupant Dynamics in Rollover Crashes: Influence of Roof Deformation and Seat Belt Performance on Probable Spinal Column Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, John E.; King, Dottie; Burke, Donald S.

    2007-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the United States for people ages 3–33, and rollover crashes have a higher fatality rate than any other crash mode. At the request and under the sponsorship of Ford Motor Company, Autoliv conducted a series of dynamic rollover tests on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUV) during 1998 and 1999. Data from those tests were made available to the public and were analyzed in this study to investigate the magnitude of and the temporal relationship between roof deformation, lap–shoulder seat belt loads, and restrained anthropometric test dummy (ATD) neck loads. During each of the three FMVSS 208 dolly rollover tests of Ford Explorer SUVs, the far-side, passenger ATDs exhibited peak neck compression and flexion loads, which indicated a probable spinal column injury in all three tests. In those same tests, the near-side, driver ATD neck loads never predicted a potential injury. In all three tests, objective roof/pillar deformation occurred prior to the occurrence of peak neck loads (Fz, My) for far-side, passenger ATDs, and peak neck loads were predictive of probable spinal column injury. The production lap and shoulder seat belts in the SUVs, which restrained both driver and passenger ATDs, consistently allowed ATD head contact with the roof while the roof was contacting the ground during this 1000 ms test series. Local peak neck forces and moments were noted each time the far-side, passenger ATD head contacted (“dived into”) the roof while the roof was in contact with the ground; however, the magnitude of these local peaks was only 2–13% of peak neck loads in all three tests. “Diving-type” neck loads were not predictive of injury for either driver or passenger ATD in any of the three tests. PMID:17641975

  14. Occupant dynamics in rollover crashes: influence of roof deformation and seat belt performance on probable spinal column injury.

    PubMed

    Bidez, Martha W; Cochran, John E; King, Dottie; Burke, Donald S

    2007-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the United States for people ages 3-33, and rollover crashes have a higher fatality rate than any other crash mode. At the request and under the sponsorship of Ford Motor Company, Autoliv conducted a series of dynamic rollover tests on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUV) during 1998 and 1999. Data from those tests were made available to the public and were analyzed in this study to investigate the magnitude of and the temporal relationship between roof deformation, lap-shoulder seat belt loads, and restrained anthropometric test dummy (ATD) neck loads. During each of the three FMVSS 208 dolly rollover tests of Ford Explorer SUVs, the far-side, passenger ATDs exhibited peak neck compression and flexion loads, which indicated a probable spinal column injury in all three tests. In those same tests, the near-side, driver ATD neck loads never predicted a potential injury. In all three tests, objective roof/pillar deformation occurred prior to the occurrence of peak neck loads (F ( z ), M ( y )) for far-side, passenger ATDs, and peak neck loads were predictive of probable spinal column injury. The production lap and shoulder seat belts in the SUVs, which restrained both driver and passenger ATDs, consistently allowed ATD head contact with the roof while the roof was contacting the ground during this 1000 ms test series. Local peak neck forces and moments were noted each time the far-side, passenger ATD head contacted ("dived into") the roof while the roof was in contact with the ground; however, the magnitude of these local peaks was only 2-13% of peak neck loads in all three tests. "Diving-type" neck loads were not predictive of injury for either driver or passenger ATD in any of the three tests.

  15. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  16. The Effect of Booster Seat Use on Pediatric Injuries in Motor Vehicle Frontal Crashes.

    PubMed

    Caskey, Sean; Hammond, Joshua; Peck, Jeffery; Sardelli, Matthew; Atkinson, Theresa

    2018-04-20

    Motor vehicle crashes are a significant source of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Studies indicate that booster seats significantly improve seat belt fit for children who have not attained a height of 145 cm (4' 9"). This study examined injuries occurring in booster age children up to age 12, as the majority of children do not attain 145 cm until this age. The purpose of the study was to identify differences in injuries due to the type of restraint used, with attention to musculoskeletal injuries. Vehicle and occupant data were obtained from a publically available statistical sample of tow-away crashes. Frontal crashes over an 8-year period were examined. A data set of cases was created involving children ages 5 to 12 years who were unrestrained, restrained using the vehicle's lap and shoulder belt, and restrained using a booster seat with the vehicle's lap and shoulder seat belt. Injury severity, frequency, and patterns of distribution were compared. Unrestrained children experienced moderate to severe injuries 3.8 to 19 times more frequently than children using restraints. There were more injuries to the head and face in unrestrained versus restrained children, but the head and face was the most frequently injured region for all groups. There were no serious cervical spine injuries reported for any group. Lower extremity fractures were not observed in booster seat users but occurred at similar rates in both unrestrained and seat belt restrained children. These fractures occurred in older children who were involved in more severe crashes. Unrestrained children were more likely to experience moderate and severe injuries than restrained children. The data sample suggests that booster use may reduce the risk of extremity fracture, as there were no extremity fractures in children restrained with booster seats. This work provides evidence for the efficacy of booster use for preventing orthopaedic injury in children. This evidence can be used to inform parents

  17. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    PubMed Central

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  18. Evaluation of Safe Kids Week 2004: Age 4 to 9? It's Booster Seat Time!

    PubMed Central

    Howard, A; Beben, N; Rothman, L; Fiissel, D; MacArthur, C

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a national one week media campaign promoting booster seat use. Design Pre‐test, post‐test design based on nationally representative random digit dialing telephone survey, with control for exposure to campaign. Setting Canada. Subjects Parents of children aged 4–9 years. Interventions During a one week campaign in May 2004, information on booster seat use was distributed via a national media campaign, retail stores, medical clinics, and community events. Information included pamphlets with guidelines for booster seat use, as well as a growth chart (designed by Safe Kids Canada) to assist parents in determining if their child should be using a booster seat. Assessing seat belt fit was described in detail on the growth chart. Main outcome measures Knowledge, attitudes, and self‐reported behaviors regarding booster seat use. Results Respondents in the group exposed to the campaign were twice as likely to report using a booster seat with lap and shoulder belt for their child (47%), compared to those in the pre‐test (24%) and the unexposed (23%) groups (p<0.001). However, only small differences in general knowledge regarding booster seat use were found between the groups. Conclusions A one week national media campaign substantially increased self‐reported use of booster seats. Parents did not remember details of the campaign content, but did remember implications for their own child. PMID:17018673

  19. Evaluation of Safe Kids Week 2004: age 4 to 9? It's booster seat time!

    PubMed

    Howard, A; Beben, N; Rothman, L; Fiissel, D; MacArthur, C

    2006-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a national one week media campaign promoting booster seat use. Pre-test, post-test design based on nationally representative random digit dialing telephone survey, with control for exposure to campaign. Canada. Parents of children aged 4-9 years. During a one week campaign in May 2004, information on booster seat use was distributed via a national media campaign, retail stores, medical clinics, and community events. Information included pamphlets with guidelines for booster seat use, as well as a growth chart (designed by Safe Kids Canada) to assist parents in determining if their child should be using a booster seat. Assessing seat belt fit was described in detail on the growth chart. Knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behaviors regarding booster seat use. Respondents in the group exposed to the campaign were twice as likely to report using a booster seat with lap and shoulder belt for their child (47%), compared to those in the pre-test (24%) and the unexposed (23%) groups (p<0.001). However, only small differences in general knowledge regarding booster seat use were found between the groups. A one week national media campaign substantially increased self-reported use of booster seats. Parents did not remember details of the campaign content, but did remember implications for their own child.

  20. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... emergency exit. (f) Each occupant of a seat equipped with a shoulder harness must fasten the shoulder harness during takeoff and landing, except that, in the case of crewmembers, the shoulder harness need not be fastened if the crewmember cannot perform his required duties with the shoulder harness fastened...

  1. Observed patterns of misuse of child safety seats

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : (NHTSA) sponsored a study to observe more than 5,900 : children in safety seats or wearing safety belts in : suburban shopping centers in the spring and summer of : 1995. The Ketron Division of the...

  2. The premature graduation of children from child restraints to vehicle safety belts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-10-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children between 40 and 80 pounds, however, usage is estimated at only 5% nationally. The goal of this project was to determine reasons for the premature graduation of children from child safety seat...

  3. Seat strength in rear body block tests.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; White, Samuel D

    2016-07-03

    This study collected and analyzed available testing of motor vehicle seat strength in rearward loading by a body block simulating the torso of an occupant. The data were grouped by single recliner, dual recliner, and all belts to seat (ABTS) seats. The strength of seats to rearward loading has been evaluated with body block testing from 1964 to 2008. The database of available tests includes 217 single recliner, 65 dual recliner, and 18 ABTS seats. The trends in seat strength were determined by linear regression and differences between seat types were evaluated by Student's t-test. The average peak moment and force supported by the seat was determined by decade of vehicle model year (MY). Single recliner seats were used in motor vehicles in the 1960s to 1970s. The average strength was 918 ± 224 Nm (n = 26) in the 1960s and 1,069 ± 293 Nm (n = 65) in the 1980s. There has been a gradual increase in strength over time. Dual recliner seats started to phase into vehicles in the late 1980s. By the 2000s, the average strength of single recliner seats increased to 1,501 ± 335 Nm (n = 14) and dual recliner seats to 2,302 ± 699 Nm (n = 26). Dual recliner seats are significantly stronger than single recliner seats for each decade of comparison (P < .001). The average strength of ABTS seats was 4,395 ± 1,185 in-lb for 1989-2004 MY seats (n = 18). ABTS seats are significantly stronger than single or dual recliner seats (P < .001). The trend in ABTS strength is decreasing with time and converging toward that of dual recliner seats. Body block testing is an quantitative means of evaluating the strength of seats for occupant loading in rear impacts. There has been an increase in conventional seat strength over the past 50 years. By the 2000s, most seats are 1,700-3,400 Nm moment strength. However, the safety of a seat is more complex than its strength and depends on many other factors.

  4. 75 FR 68664 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Child Restraint Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... early graduation from booster seats to lap and shoulder belts. Estimates are computed by double-pair... 3-4-year-olds there is evidence of increased risk of injury when restrained in booster seats rather.... Among 4-8-year-olds there is strong evidence of increased risk of injury when restrained by lap and...

  5. Summary of nighttime belt use studies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    Despite gains in the daytime national seat belt rate over the past few years, reaching 81 percent in 2006 (Glassbrenner and Ye, 2007), the number of fatalities has remained basically unchanged. One reason for this may be that many fatalities occur at...

  6. Occupant responses in conventional and ABTS seats in high-speed rear sled tests.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Burnett, Roger; Prasad, Priya

    2018-01-02

    This study compared biomechanical responses of a normally seated Hybrid III dummy on conventional and all belts to seat (ABTS) seats in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests. It determined the difference in performance with modern (≥2000 MY) seats compared to older (<2000 MY) seats and ABTS seats. The seats were fixed in a sled buck subjected to a 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled test. The pulse was a 15 g double-peak acceleration with 150 ms duration. The 50th percentile Hybrid III was lap-shoulder belted in the FMVSS 208 design position. The testing included 11 <2000 MY, 8 ≥2000 MY, and 7 ABTS seats. The dummy was fully instrumented, including head accelerations, upper and lower neck 6-axis load cells, chest acceleration, thoracic and lumbar spine load cells, and pelvis accelerations. The peak responses were normalized by injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to assess injury risks. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student's t test. High-speed video documented occupant kinematics. Biomechanical responses were lower with modern (≥2000 MY) seats than older (<2000 MY) designs. The lower neck extension moment was 32.5 ± 9.7% of IARV in modern seats compared to 62.8 ± 31.6% in older seats (P =.01). Overall, there was a 34% reduction in the comparable biomechanical responses with modern seats. Biomechanical responses were lower with modern seats than ABTS seats. The lower neck extension moment was 41.4 ± 7.8% with all MY ABTS seats compared to 32.5 ± 9.7% in modern seats (P =.07). Overall, the ABTS seats had 13% higher biomechanical responses than the modern seats. Modern (≥2000 MY) design seats have lower biomechanical responses in 40.2 km/h rear sled tests than older (<2000 MY) designs and ABTS designs. The improved performance is consistent with an increase in seat strength combined with improved occupant kinematics through pocketing of the occupant into the seatback, higher and more forward head restraint, and other design changes. The methods

  7. Retractor-Based Stroking Seat System and Energy-Absorbing Floor to Mitigate High Shock and Vertical Acceleration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-15

    Seat stroke, Lumbar loads, Accelerative load, M&S analysis, Blast , UBB, LS- DYNA , ATD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...typical blast input load to the seat . Resulting crew injuries are monitored for various vertical accelerative loading scenarios. The retractor load...an enforced blast pulse, this hull structural thickness does not have any effect on the results. 2.2 Seatbelt model Automotive seat belts with

  8. Evaluation of changes in pelvic belt tension during 2 weight-bearing functional tasks.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2012-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate changes in pelvic belt tension during 2 weight-bearing functional tasks (transition from bipedal to unipedal stance [BUS] and walking) and to evaluate the reliability and the percentage variation for belt tension scores from trial to trial. A cross-sectional repeated-measures study was conducted with 10 healthy male participants (mean age, 28.3 ± 8.8years). Participants performed 10 trials of BUS and walking while wearing a nonelastic pelvic compression belt (PCB) applied distal to the anterior superior iliac spines, with a load cell positioned in the center of the belt. The load cell was calibrated using known weights (1-10kg) to define the relationship between the applied tension and voltage change (R(2) = 0.99). Load cell tension values were recorded in voltage signals and then converted to newtons of force using appropriate conversion values (0.012V = 10N). Mean and standard deviation values, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1), and percentage standard error of measurements (% SEM) were analyzed for PCB tension recorded during the BUS and walking trials. The mean tension achieved with a PCB was found to be 41.02 (±4.23) N during BUS and 44.07 (±5.80) N during walking. The trial-to-trial reliability (ICC 3,1) was high (ICC ≥0.9), and the variation in PCB tension across 10 trials (% SEM) was 4% or less. The mean tension achieved during the tasks was 44 N or less. The reliability is high, and the variation is low across the trials, which implies that a PCB could be used to produce consistent effects during repetition of the tasks (BUS and walking). Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomechanical assessment of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Rouhana, Stephen W; Board, Derek; DeSmet, Ed; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt system and compared it to that of a 3-point seatbelt system, which has a long history of good real-world performance. Frontal-impact sled tests were conducted with Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and with post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using both restraint systems and a generic rear-seat configuration. Results from these tests demonstrated: a) reduction in forward head excursion with the inflatable seatbelt system when compared to that of a 3-point seatbelt and; b) a reduction in ATD and PMHS peak chest deflections and the number of PMHS rib fractures with the inflatable seatbelt system and c) a reduction in PMHS cervical-spine injuries, due to the interaction of the chin with the inflated shoulder belt. These results suggest that an inflatable seatbelt system will offer additional benefits to some occupants in the rear seats. Further research is needed to assess the field effectiveness, customer comfort and acceptance and change in the belt usage rate with the inflatable seatbelt system.

  10. Automatic safety belt usage in 1981 Toyotas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of automatic restraint systems provided in Toyota Cressidas in increasing use of seat belts, and to evaluate attitude of owners toward those systems. Data were collected through telephone...

  11. Seat belt and shoulder strap use among urban travelers : interim report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    Because of the need to establish a data baseline for belt usage without mandatory legislation, a survey of selected areas of the state of Virginia was conducted during January 1974 to determine lap and shoulder belt use by urban travelers. Observer-d...

  12. Do parental decision-making patterns predict compliance with use of child booster seats?

    PubMed

    Shimony-Kanat, Sarit; Gofin, Rosa; Kienski Woloski Wruble, Anna C; Mann, Leon

    2018-03-01

    Booster seat use for 4-9 year olds remains the lowest of all age groups in many countries. The objective of this study is to examine whether parents' decision-making patterns, as measured by the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, relate to car booster seat use. Israeli parents of 4-7 years old children (n = 398) answered a questionnaire about car safety and decision-making habits. Ninety per cent of parents reported having a booster seat; 70.5% reported consistent booster seat use in general and on short drives during the last month (booster seat use compliance index). Greater compliance index was positively related to a vigilant decision-making pattern, passenger compliance with rear seat belts and families with fewer children. Lower booster seat use compliance index was associated with buck-passing decision-making pattern. Health professionals and policy-makers should take into account parents' habitual decision-making patterns when designing interventions for car booster seat compliance.

  13. Carpooling and booster seats: a national survey of parents.

    PubMed

    Macy, Michelle L; Clark, Sarah J; Freed, Gary L; Butchart, Amy T; Singer, Dianne C; Sasson, Comilla; Meurer, William J; Davis, Matthew M

    2012-02-01

    Booster seat use among school-aged children has been consistently lower than national goals. In this study, we sought to explore associations between parental experiences with booster seats and carpooling. We conducted a cross-sectional Web-based survey of a nationally representative panel of US parents in January 2010. As part of a larger survey, parents of 4- to 8-year-old children responded to 12 questions related to booster seats and carpooling. Of 1612 parents responding to the full survey (response rate = 71%), 706 had a 4- to 8-year-old child and 681 met inclusion rules. Most parents (76%) reported their child used a safety seat when riding in the family car. Of children reported to use seat belts, 74% did so in accordance with their state law. Parent report of child safety seat use was associated with younger child age and with the presence of state booster seat laws. Sixty-four percent of parents carpool. Among parents who carpool and whose children use a child safety seat: 79% indicated they would always ask another driver to use a booster seat for their child and 55% reported they always have their child use their booster seat when driving friends who do not have boosters. Carpooling is a common driving situation during which booster seat use is inconsistent. Social norms and self-efficacy are associated with booster seat use. Clinicians who care for children should increase efforts to convey the importance of using the size-appropriate restraint for every child on every trip.

  14. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  15. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  16. Establishing special needs car seat loan program.

    PubMed

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Stout, J; Doll, J P; Jones, J; Feller, N

    1990-04-01

    Car seat loan and rental programs have provided many families with low-cost access to child restraints. When an infant or child is unable to be accommodated in a standard car seat or seat belt owing to physical or medical problems, parents of these children have few, if any available resources. The establishment and operation of a loan program at the Indiana University School of Medicine for children who are medically fragile is reviewed in this article. This program was developed by the Automotive Safety for Children Program at the James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University Medical Center, to meet the special transportation needs of children with respiratory, orthopaedic, and other medical and physical difficulties. A summary table is included to highlight restraints that have performed satisfactorily during dynamic crash tests and are used to meet patient transportation needs at Riley Hospital. Guidelines for establishing and maintaining a child restraint loan program for children with special needs are outlined to encourage replication of this effort.

  17. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Aviation Flights AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Clarification of prior... seat usage conforms to the limitations contained in the approved portion of the Airplane Flight Manual... following. At the time of the impact, the Pilatus PC-12/45 airplane was operating as a personal flight under...

  18. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Curto, Ariadna; Fu, Marcela; Martínez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and correlates of safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in the city of Barcelona (Spain). We performed a study using direct observation with a cross-sectional design. We selected 2,442 private cars, commercial vehicles, and taxis from all districts of Barcelona. The prevalence of people not wearing safety belt was 10.5% among drivers, 4.6% among front seat passengers, and 32.2% among some of the rear passengers. It was higher among the passengers than among the drivers, regardless of the type of the vehicle. The prevalence of mobile phone usage while driving during a moment of the trip was 3.8%. Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Usage and effectiveness of seat and shoulder belts in rural Pennsylvania accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-12-01

    This report presents an analysis of lap-belt and shoulder- belt usage and effectiveness in rural Pennsylvania accidents. The data were collected by the Pennsylvania State Police under an agreement with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrati...

  20. The cost-effectiveness of air bags by seating position.

    PubMed

    Graham, J D; Thompson, K M; Goldie, S J; Segui-Gomez, M; Weinstein, M C

    1997-11-05

    Motor vehicle crashes continue to cause significant mortality and morbidity in the United States. Installation of air bags in new passenger vehicles is a major initiative in the field of injury prevention. To assess the net health consequences and cost-effectiveness of driver's side and front passenger air bags from a societal perspective, taking into account the increased risk to children who occupy the front passenger seat and the diminished effectiveness for older adults. A deterministic state transition model tracked a hypothetical cohort of new vehicles over a 20-year period for 3 strategies: (1) installation of safety belts, (2) installation of driver's side air bags in addition to safety belts, and (3) installation of front passenger air bags in addition to safety belts and driver's side air bags. Changes in health outcomes, valued in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs (in 1993 dollars), were projected following the recommendations of the Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. US population-based and convenience sample data were used. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Safety belts are cost saving, even at 50% use. The addition of driver's side air bags to safety belts results in net health benefits at an incremental cost of $24000 per QALY saved. The further addition of front passenger air bags results in an incremental net benefit at a higher incremental cost of $61000 per QALY saved. Results were sensitive to the unit cost of air bag systems, their effectiveness, baseline fatality rates, the ratio of injuries to fatalities, and the real discount rate. Both air bag systems save life-years at costs that are comparable to many medical and public health practices. Immediate steps can be taken to enhance the cost-effectiveness of front passenger air bags, such as moving children to the rear seat.

  1. The NASA Ames integral aircraft passenger seat concept - A human engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A new NASA Ames concept for an aircraft passenger seat has been under research and development since 1968. It includes many human-factor features that will provide protection to the passenger from vibration, jostle, and high impact. It is comfortable and safer than any of the seats presently in use. An in-depth design, fabrication, and impact analysis was conducted in order to design a seat that will maximize passenger protection in high g impacts (20 g horizontal -Gx, 36 g vertical +Gz, 16 g lateral Gy). The method for absorbing impact energy was accomplished with a combination of stretching stainless steel cables, thread breaking of stitches, hydraulic mechanism and the special Temper Form cushions. The restraint system for the seat consisted of a lap belt and shoulder harness inertia reel combination.

  2. Primary Enforcement of Mandatory Seat Belt Laws and Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Policies that allow directly citing motorists for seat belt non-use (primary enforcement) have been shown to reduce motor vehicle crash deaths relative to secondary enforcement, but the evidence base is dated and does not account for recent improvements in vehicle designs and road safety. The purpose of this study was to test whether recent upgrades to primary enforcement still reduce motor vehicle crash deaths. In 2016, researchers used motor vehicle crash death data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System for 2000-2014 and calculated rates using both person- and exposure-based denominators. Researchers used a difference-in-differences design to estimate the effect of primary enforcement on death rates, and estimated negative binomial regression models, controlling for age, substance use involvement, fixed state characteristics, secular trends, state median household income, and other state-level traffic safety policies. Models adjusted only for crash characteristics and state-level covariates models showed a protective effect of primary enforcement (rate ratio, 0.88, 95% CI=0.77, 0.98; rate difference, -1.47 deaths per 100,000 population, 95% CI= -2.75, -0.19). After adjustment for fixed state characteristics and secular trends, there was no evidence of an effect of upgrading from secondary to primary enforcement in the whole population (rate ratio, 0.98, 95% CI=0.92, 1.04; rate difference, -0.22, 95% CI= -0.90, 0.46) or for any age group. Upgrading to primary enforcement no longer appears protective for motor vehicle crash death rates. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2009-04-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  4. [Roadside observation on the use of safety belt in Guangzhou and Nanning cites of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-ping; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca; Zhou, Ying

    2006-08-01

    To determine the rates of correct use of safety belt (CUSB) among drivers and front seat passengers in Guangzhou and Nanning through roadside observation and to provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention plan and to strengthen road safety law enforcement. Observational sites were randomly selected from three road types (Highway, Main Street and Subordinate Street). Targeted automobiles were observed at each site at four different times and uniformed checklists were used to record safety belt use during observations. Within each vehicle, belt use by drivers of different sex, road type, workday/weekend, day/night and seating position were calculated. Data was analyzed, using Chi-square tests to compare the statistic significance. (1)The rate of CUSB and non-use rate among drivers were higher in Nanning than in Guangzhou (P= 0.00) but the rate of incorrect use was on the contrarary. (2) The rate of CUSB by front seat passengers in Guangzhou was higher than that in Nanning (P = 0.04); as well as the rate of (P = 0.00) incorrect use while the non-use rate was on the contrarary. (3)In general, the rate of CUSB was higher on highways than on local streets (P = 0.00). (4) The CUSB rate of drivers and front seat passengers was higher at daytime than at night (P = 0.00), and the rate of incorrect use was higher at working days than weekends (P = 0.00). (5) The CUSB rate was higher for female drivers than for males in Guangzhou (P = 0.00), but there no statistical significance was found in Nanning (P = 0.21). Results suggested that intervention actions should be undertaken to raise the awareness of the importance of safety belt use. Effective public information and education programs, law enforcement and mandatory safety belt use, prioritizing programs on people neglegent to the importance are necessary to increase the safety belt use and to decrease the mortality and injuries caused by traffic accidents.

  5. Beating the Odds. An Educational Program Relating Safety Belt Use to Health Lifestyles for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    This program module is designed to encourage the use of safety measures in driving, emphasizing the use of seat belts. The learning activities focus upon: (1) the importance of the use of safety belts as the most effective preventive measure in a safe and healthy lifestyle; (2) the reasons people cite for not wearing safety belts and the accuracy…

  6. Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four transportation experts on issues related to school buses. The experts respond to the following questions: will advertisements placed on buses be used to generate district revenue; will compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas become standard fuel for school buses; and will school bus seat belts be mandatory and…

  7. The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

  8. Assessing child belt fit, volume II : effect of restraint configuration, booster seat designs, seating procedure, and belt fit on the dynamic response of the hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in sled tests.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    A total of 49 dynamic sled tests were performed with the Hybrid III 10YO to examine issues relating to child belt fit. The goals of these tests were to evaluate ATD response to realistic belt geometries and belt fit, develop methods for accurate, rep...

  9. Driver seat belt use indicates decreased risk for child passengers in a motor vehicle crash.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Cody S; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T; Olson, Lenora M

    2010-03-01

    We examined the association between driver restraint use and child emergency department (ED) evaluation following a motor vehicle crash (MVC). This cohort study included child passengers aged 0-12 years riding with an adult driver aged 21 years or older involved in a MVC in Utah from 1999 to 2004. The 6 years of Utah MVC records were probabilistically linked to statewide Utah ED records. We estimated the relative risk of ED evaluation following a MVC for children riding with restrained versus unrestrained drivers. Generalized estimating equations were used to calculate relative risks adjusted for child, driver, and crash characteristics. Six percent (6%) of children riding with restrained adult drivers were evaluated in the ED compared to twenty-two percent (22%) of children riding with unrestrained adult drivers following a MVC (relative risk 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.32). After adjusting for child, vehicle, and crash characteristics, the relative risk of child ED evaluation associated with driver restraint remained significant (relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.94). Driver restraint use was associated with child restraint use, less alcohol/drug involvement, and lower relative risk of severe collision types (head-on, rollover). Driver seat belt use is associated with decreased risk of ED evaluation for child passengers in the event of a MVC. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seat Integrated and Conventional Restraints: A Study of Crash Injury/Fatality Rates in Rollovers

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  11. Roll seat belt induced injury of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H

    1976-05-01

    A case of duodenal rupture with a roll three-point seatbelt is described. It is apparently the seventh reported case of duodenal rupture in safety belt users. A female driver fell asleep, and her car went off the road, rolling forward in a ditch, slowing slightly, and then came to a sudden stop. The rupture was unusual: on the first part of duodenum, intraperitoneal, and longitudinal. The rupture mechanism is discussed, and the deficiencies of the roll seatbelt pointed out in accidents like the one described.

  12. Development of industry-based strategies for motivating seat-belt usage

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-03-01

    A variety of incentive-based programs to motivate safety belt use were tested during the 18-month grant period in order to define optimal incentive strategies for particular corporate settings. Initial programs provoked important research questions w...

  13. Observed safety belt use : Fall 2000 national occupant protection use survey

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-02-01

    Overall front seat outboard passenger shoulder belt use in the United States was estimated at 71% in the Fall of 2000, according to results obtained from the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) conducted by the National Highway Traffic Sa...

  14. Safety belt use laws : evaluation of primary enforcement and other provisions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-10-01

    As of January 1995, all states except Maine and New Hampshire had laws requiring safety belt use. These laws vary widely in their enforcement options (primary or secondary), scope of coverage (vehicles covered and seats covered), fine levels, and oth...

  15. The effectiveness of automatic belts in reducing fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas.

    PubMed

    Nash, C E

    1989-12-01

    Toyota Cressidas have had motor driven automatic belts since 1981. Their observed use rates have been consistently close to 100%. This paper compares fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas with those in the similar Nissan Maximas (which are equipped with three-point manual belts) using the latest data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. After making adjustments for differences in the average ages of front seat occupants of the two fleets, the Toyotas have a fatality rate that is about three-quarters that of the Nissans. From this, the fatality-reducing effectiveness for the Toyota automatic belts is estimated to be 40% with an uncertainty of +/- 8%. This effectiveness estimate is consistent with earlier estimates of automatic belt effectiveness.

  16. Evaluation of head and face injury potential of current airline seats during crash decelerations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1966-06-01

    A large percentage of deaths in commercial-airline crashes is produced as the body and lower limbs flail around the seat belt. According to a previous study, a 10-foot-diameter sphere of clear area would be necessary to prevent a person from striking...

  17. Impact injury to the pregnant female and fetus in lap belt restraint.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1968-12-01

    Although it has been well established that the lap (seat) belt offers considerable protection against injury or death in crash environments, there has long been controversy over the injury potential to the pregnant female. This question is of importa...

  18. An exploratory study of parents' use and knowledge of car safety seats in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Purc-Stephenson, Rebecca J; Ren, Jianhua; Snowdon, Anne W

    2010-12-01

    As the number of vehicles in China rapidly increases and there is no child safety seat law, the issue of road safety for children is a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine parents' use and knowledge of car safety seats in Beijing, China. Using a convenience sample of 843 parents, survey results showed that only 64.8% of parents used a safety restraint for their children; the remaining 35.2% of children, of which most were toddlers or school-aged children, travelled unrestrained in vehicles. Among parents who used a safety restraint, only 24.2% were using it correctly based on the child's age (for infants), weight and height. Common reasons for not using a safety seat included difficulty finding safety seats (56.6%), cost (26.1%), and a preference to hold the child (18.1%). Moreover, a large proportion of parents prematurely transitioned their child from a safety seat to seat belt. The results highlight the need to develop injury prevention interventions that communicate the benefits and encourage the use of child safety restraints in China.

  19. Child posture and shoulder belt fit during extended night-time traveling: an in-transit observational study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Ash, Joseph H; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    Understanding pediatric occupant postures can help researchers indentify injury risk factors, and provide information for prospective injury prediction. This study sought to observe lateral head positions and shoulder belt fit among older child automobile occupants during a scenario likely to result in sleeping - extended travel during the night. An observational, volunteer, in-transit study was performed with 30 pediatric rear-seat passengers, ages 7 to 14. Each was restrained by a three-point seatbelt and was driven for seventy-five minutes at night. Ten subjects used a high-back booster seat, ten used a low-back booster seat, and ten used none (based on the subject height and weight). The subjects were recorded with a low-light video camera, and one frame was analyzed per each minute of video. The high-back booster group exhibited a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mean frequency of poor shoulder belt fit compared to the no-booster and low-back booster groups. The high-back booster group also exhibited statistically significant decreases in the 90(th) percentile of the absolute value of the relative lateral motion of the head. The low-back booster group did not result in statistically significant decreases in poor shoulder belt fit or lateral head motion compared to the no-booster group. These results are consistent with the presence of large lateral supports of the high-back booster which provided support to the head while sleeping, reducing voluntary lateral occupant motion and improving shoulder belt fit. Future work includes examining lap belt fit in-transit, and examining the effects of these observations on predicted injury risk.

  20. Child Posture and Shoulder Belt Fit During Extended Night-Time Traveling: An In-Transit Observational Study.

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Ash, Joseph H.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding pediatric occupant postures can help researchers indentify injury risk factors, and provide information for prospective injury prediction. This study sought to observe lateral head positions and shoulder belt fit among older child automobile occupants during a scenario likely to result in sleeping - extended travel during the night. An observational, volunteer, in-transit study was performed with 30 pediatric rear-seat passengers, ages 7 to 14. Each was restrained by a three-point seatbelt and was driven for seventy-five minutes at night. Ten subjects used a high-back booster seat, ten used a low-back booster seat, and ten used none (based on the subject height and weight). The subjects were recorded with a low-light video camera, and one frame was analyzed per each minute of video. The high-back booster group exhibited a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mean frequency of poor shoulder belt fit compared to the no-booster and low-back booster groups. The high-back booster group also exhibited statistically significant decreases in the 90th percentile of the absolute value of the relative lateral motion of the head. The low-back booster group did not result in statistically significant decreases in poor shoulder belt fit or lateral head motion compared to the no-booster group. These results are consistent with the presence of large lateral supports of the high-back booster which provided support to the head while sleeping, reducing voluntary lateral occupant motion and improving shoulder belt fit. Future work includes examining lap belt fit in-transit, and examining the effects of these observations on predicted injury risk. PMID:22105378

  1. Comparison of self-reported and observed prevalence of safety belt and helmet use in Florence.

    PubMed

    Lorini, C; Pieralli, F; Mersi, A; Cecconi, R; Garofalo, G; Santini, M G; Bonaccorsi, G

    2014-01-01

    Safety belt and helmet use was estimated from PASSI data and measured through Ulisse observations. Between 2008 and 2012 a total of 2,081 cars and motorcycle users were interviewed in the LHU of Florence and a total of 59,787 drivers (11,870 front passengers, 1,129 rear passengers and 16,816 motorcyclists) were observed. The comparison between self-reported and observed prevalences was performed by calculating the over-reporting factor (ORF), defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of seat belt or helmet use. The time trend of the prevalence (both from self-reported and observed data) and of the ORF was assessed by using linear regression and Poisson's regression, respectively. The correlation between self-reported and observed prevalence is high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.95 (p <0.05). Regarding front seat belt use rates, the difference between self-reported and observed data increases over time and the ORF range varies from 1.12 to 1.32. Rear seat belt data show a great variability, and the ORF varies from 0.67 to 1.37. In 2011 and 2012, the observed prevalence was higher than the self-reported one (ORF <1). Helmet use rates are very high, close to 100% with both methods; ORF has very small oscillations and ranges from 0.98 to 1, showing a good correlation between self-reported and observational data. There are no significant temporal variations both for the prevalences of use and for the ORF. The reasonable accuracy of self-reported data makes this method fit in the routinary assessment of safety belts and helmet usage, in order to limit the observations of the Ulisse system at predetermined time intervals. However, self-reported estimates need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor.

  2. Correct use of safety belts and child restraint devices in cars among children in Goiânia.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Roberto Medeiros; Felisbino Júnior, Pedro; Braga, Felipe de Moura; da Costa Neto, Sílvio Dias; Belo, Felipe Marques; Reginaldo, Sandro da Silva; de Moraes, Frederico Barra

    2014-01-01

    to conduct an observational study, by means of campaigns, regarding the use of child restraint devices in cars in Goiânia. this was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample built up as cases arose. The data were gathered into an Excel spreadsheet and were analyzed descriptively and statistically (SPSS 16.0), using chi-square and taking p < 0.05 as significant. in 2006, 410 cars were evaluated, and in 2010, 544 cars were evaluated. Around 85% of the occupants were using seat belts correctly at both times (p = 0.650). In 2006, it was observed that a total of 273 passengers were occupying the rear seats, while in 2010 there were 226. Among these, 178 and 170 were using seat belts, respectively, i.e. 65.2% and 75.22% (p = 0.001). In 2006, five children were occupying the front seat without using the seat belt, while in 2010, this number was 42 (p < 0.001). In 2010, it was observed that 458 vehicles were transporting children on the rear seats, and this was being done correctly in 214 vehicles, i.e. 46.72%. In 2006, of the 410 vehicles analyzed, only 90 of them (21.95%) were transporting children correctly (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a difference in the variables within the year evaluated, in which transportation done correctly in the front seat was much more frequent than transportation done correctly in the rear seats, in both years (p < 0.001). Cars transported one to four children, while vans transported one to nine children. In 2006, one van transporting children irregularly was observed, while in 2010 it was done correctly in all cases. comparing these two years (2006 and 2010) in which data were gathered, we can conclude that changes in behavior among drivers in Goiânia have begun, with regard to safety when transporting children in vehicles, with an improvement of 25% (p < 0.001). A large part of this has come through changes in knowledge among this segment of the population, through campaigns that have been carried out

  3. Performance Evaluation of Child Safety Seats in Far-Side Lateral Sled Tests at Varying Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A.; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles. PMID:20184846

  4. Encouraging full time use of safety belts among current part-time users

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    A large percentage of drivers report using their seat belts only some of the time. Most part-time users report they buckle up only for highway driving because they believe that driving around their community does not expose them to a significant risk...

  5. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support the... energy absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine. (e) Each berth must be... § 25.561. Berths must be free from corners and protuberances likely to cause injury to a person...

  6. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support the... energy absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine. (e) Each berth must be... § 25.561. Berths must be free from corners and protuberances likely to cause injury to a person...

  7. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support the... energy absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine. (e) Each berth must be... § 25.561. Berths must be free from corners and protuberances likely to cause injury to a person...

  8. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support the... energy absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine. (e) Each berth must be... § 25.561. Berths must be free from corners and protuberances likely to cause injury to a person...

  9. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support the... energy absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine. (e) Each berth must be... § 25.561. Berths must be free from corners and protuberances likely to cause injury to a person...

  10. COM-BUS : A Southern California Subscription Bus Service

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-05-01

    The evolution and operations of the COM-BUS Subscription Commuter Bus Service are documented. COM-BUS is a privately owned organization operating at a profit without any form of subsidy. COM-BUS serves approximately 2,000 commuters per day on 47 rout...

  11. Compatibility of booster seats and vehicles in the U.S. market.

    PubMed

    Bing, Julie A; Agnew, Amanda M; Bolte, John H

    2018-05-19

    The objective of this study was to analyze booster and rear vehicle seat dimensions to identify the most frequent compatibility problems. Measurements were collected from 40 high-back and backless boosters and 95 left rear and center rear row seating positions in 50 modern vehicles. Dimensions were compared for 3,800 booster/vehicle seat combinations. For validation and estimation of tolerance and correction factors, 72 booster installations were physically completed and compared with measurement-based compatibility predictions. Dimensions were also compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) volumetric envelopes of forward-facing child restraints and boosters. Seat belt buckles in outboard positions accommodated the width of boosters better than center positions (success rates of 85.4 and 34.7%, respectively). Adequate head restraint clearance occurred in 71.9 to 77.2% of combinations, depending on the booster's head support setting. Booster recline angles aligned properly with vehicle seat cushion angles in 71.5% of combinations. In cases of poor angle alignment, booster angles were more obtuse than the vehicle seat angles 97.7% of the time. Head restraint interference exacerbated angle alignment issues. Data indicate success rates above 90% for boosters being fully supported by the length of the seat cushion and for adequate height clearance with the vehicle roofline. Comparison to ISO envelopes indicates that most boosters on the U.S. market are taller and angled more obtusely than ISO target envelopes. This study quantifies some of the common interferences between boosters and vehicles that may complicate booster usage. Data are useful for design and to prioritize specific problem areas.

  12. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants?

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu

    2017-05-29

    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  13. Participative education for children: an effective approach to increase safety belt use.

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, G R; Geller, E S

    1990-01-01

    Vehicle license plate numbers and the shoulder belt use of front-seat occupants were recorded unobtrusively when parents delivered and picked up their children at a Montessori school during 5-day baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases. Practicing and presenting a 15-min safety belt skit increased the safety belt use of those 6 kindergarten children who were not consistent belt users 82% above their preintervention baseline belt use mean of 47%. The belt use of these children's parents (who watched the skit) increased to 56% above their baseline mean of 36%. Also, mean safety belt use of 11 primary school children who watched the skit increased to 70% above their baseline of 28%. Mean safety belt use of the older children's parents (who didn't watch the skit) remained at approximately 31% for each phase, regardless of whether children were vehicle occupants. The follow-up observations, taken 3 months after the intervention, revealed 60% belt use for the kindergartners, 48% for the primary school children, and 71% for the kindergartners' parents when the children were vehicle occupants but only 30% when the parents were driving alone. PMID:2373658

  14. Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters.

    PubMed

    Foret-Bruno, J Y; Trosseille, X; Page, Y; Huère, J F; Le Coz, J Y; Bendjellal, F; Diboine, A; Phalempin, T; Villeforceix, D; Baudrit, P; Guillemot, H; Coltat, J C

    2001-11-01

    In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties. In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have been equipped with the Programmed Restraint System (PRS) since 1995. The PRS is a restraint system that combines belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension. In an initial design of the Programmed Restraint System (PRS1), the belt load limiter was a steel component designed to shear at a given shoulder force, namely 6 kN. It was mounted between the retractor and the lower anchorage point of the belt. The design of the PRS was modified in 1998 (PRS2), but the principle of load limitation was maintained. The threshold was decreased to 4 kN and this lower belt belt-force limiter has been combined with a specially designed airbag. This paper reports on 347 real-world frontal accidents where the EES (Equivalent Energy Speed) ranged from 35 to 75 km/h. One hundred and ninety-eight (198) of these accidents involved cars equipped with the 6 kN load limiter

  15. Evaluation of bus emissions generated near bus stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Li, Tiezhu

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a methodology for quantification of bus emissions generated near bus stops based on the real-world on-road emissions data collected by the Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS). Data collection was carried out on an urban diesel bus throughout a bus line under normal operation condition on four work days. Stop influence zone is defined as the area in which the normal bus driving is interrupted by bus stops. The second-by-second data were screened out within the stop influence zone. And the bus running state near a stop was classified into three driving modes, deceleration, idling, and acceleration. Then emission characteristics were analyzed for each mode. Under the idling condition, the emission rates (g s-1) were not constant all the time. The NOX emission rate decreased in the first 4-6 s while the corresponding emission rates of CO2, CO, NOX, and HC increased in the last 4 s of idling. Besides, the influence of bus stop characteristics on emissions was investigated using statistical methods. Platform type, length and location of bus stops showed significant effects on the length of the stop influence zone. However, there were no significant effects on distance-based emission factors.

  16. Driver injury in near- and far-side impacts: Update on the effect of front passenger belt use.

    PubMed

    Parenteau, Chantal S; Viano, David C

    2018-04-03

    This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury, and identifies the sources for severe driver head injury. 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the risk for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4 + F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat. Side impacts were identified with GAD1 = L or R without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front-outboard occupants were included without ejection (ejection = 0). Injury severity was defined by MAIS and fatality (F) by TREATMNT = 1 or INJSEV = 4. Weighted data were determined. The risk for MAIS 4 + F was determined using the number of occupants with known injury status MAIS 0 + F. Standard errors were determined. Overall, belted drivers had greater risks for severe injury in near-side than far-side impacts. As a sole driver, the risk was 0.969 ± 0.212% for near-side and 0.313 ± 0.069% for far-side impacts (P < .005). The driver's risk was 0.933 ± 0.430% with an unbelted passenger and 0.596 ± 0.144% with a belted passenger in near-side impacts. The risk was 2.17 times greater with an unbelted passenger (NS). The driver's risk was 0.782 ± 0.431% with an unbelted passenger and 0.361% ± 0.114% with a belted passenger in far-side impacts. The risk was 1.57 times greater with an unbelted passenger (P < .10). Seat belt use was 66 to 95% effective in preventing MAIS 4 + F injury in the driver. For belted drivers, the head and thorax were the leading body regions for Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 4+ injury. For near-side impacts, the leading sources for AIS 4+ head injury were the left B-pillar, roof, and other vehicle. For far-side impacts, the leading sources were the other occupant, right interior, and roof (8.5%). Seat belt

  17. Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents? A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Albertsson, Pontus; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2005-03-01

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows; women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes.

  18. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in § 27.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious... combination with the safety belt, constitutes a torso restraint system as described in TSO-C114. (c) Each... weight of at least 170 pounds, considering the dimensional characteristics of the restraint system...

  19. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dynamic conditions specified in § 29.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by... combination with the safety belt, constitutes a torso restraint system as described in TSO-C114. (c) Each... weight of at least 170 pounds, considering the dimensional characteristics of the restraint system...

  20. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the inertial factors specified in § 29.561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in § 29.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious...

  1. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the inertial factors specified in § 29.561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in § 29.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious...

  2. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the inertial factors specified in § 29.561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in § 29.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious...

  3. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the inertial factors specified in § 29.561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in § 29.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious...

  4. Occupant Kinematics in Simulated Autonomous Driving Vehicle Collisions: Influence of Seating Position, Direction and Angle.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Shigeki; Yamada, Katsunori; Gotoh, Mitsuaki

    2017-11-01

    This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments. The effect of seat recline was also studied in the forward-facing and rear-facing cases by assuming three positions: driving position, resting position and relaxed position. Occupants were represented by human body finite element models. The results of part one showed that the front seat (rear-facing) occupants were restrained by the seatback, resulting in T1 forward displacement less than 100 mm; the rear seat occupants were restrained by the seatbelt resulting larger T1 forward displacement more than 500 mm. The results of the part two showed the directional dependence of occupant restraint. Greater T1 displacements were observed when the occupant faced lateral or front oblique. However, the seatbelt provided some restraint in all directions considered. The seatback generated contact force to the occupant when it was in the impact direction, including the lateral directions. The relaxed position allowed increased excursion compared to the driving position when the occupant faced rearward, but the magnitude of this increase was lower with lower impact speed.

  5. From Seat Belts to Safe Brakes, Here's the Latest School Bus News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Provides an update on emerging safety issues, new technological developments, and upcoming regulations that could affect school transportation programs. Two new sets of federal regulations to watch for will govern underground fuel storage tanks and hazardous materials, and restrict asbestos in vehicle brake linings. (MD)

  6. Design of temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For difficult wiring and big measuring error existed in the traditional temperature detection method for drum of belt conveyor, a temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor based on Radio Frequency(RF) communication is designed. In the device, detection terminal can collect temperature data through tire pressure sensor chip SP370 which integrates temperature detection and RF emission. The receiving terminal which is composed of RF receiver chip and microcontroller receives the temperature data and sends it to Controller Area Network(CAN) bus. The test results show that the device meets requirements of field application with measuring error ±3.73 ° and single button battery can provide continuous current for the detection terminal over 1.5 years.

  7. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object except as provided for in § 27.562(c)(5). A shoulder harness (upper torso restraint), in... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the static inertial load factors specified in § 27...

  8. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object except as provided for in § 27.562(c)(5). A shoulder harness (upper torso restraint), in... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the static inertial load factors specified in § 27...

  9. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object except as provided for in § 27.562(c)(5). A shoulder harness (upper torso restraint), in... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the static inertial load factors specified in § 27...

  10. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object except as provided for in § 27.562(c)(5). A shoulder harness (upper torso restraint), in... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the static inertial load factors specified in § 27...

  11. Evaluation of Maryland, Oklahoma and the District of Columbia's seat belt law change to primary enforcement

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-03-01

    Some states allow an officer to stop a motorist for an observed belt law violation alone (primary enforcement). Most require that the initial stop be made for some other violation before a belt citation can be issued (secondary enforcement). In 1997,...

  12. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiposition Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.

    1994-01-01

    Back of seat pivots about either of two axes: one axis for folding back to form bed and second, higher axis for folding forward to form compact ottoman, even when seat thickly padded. Long and short links used to adjust back of seat to variety of positions. Multiposition seat designed for use in spacecraft also adapted to airplanes and land vehicles.

  14. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  15. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  16. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  17. Car Seat Inspection Among Children Older Than Three: Using Data to Drive Practice in Child Passenger Safety

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Amber M.; Teddy, Amy J.; Macy, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children ages 4-12 in the United States. Despite this high risk of injury from MVCs in this age group, parental awareness, and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables included, if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. Chi-square statistics were used to compare change in restraint use upon arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Results Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected [rear-facing carrier (40.3%), rear-facing convertible (10.2%), and forward-facing (19.3%) car seats]. Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children age 4 and above were found to be in a sub-optimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Conclusion Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Forgotten Child. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26308122

  18. An energy-absorbing sliding seat for reducing neck injury risks in rear impact--analysis for prototype built.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated overall performance of an energy-absorbing sliding seat concept for whiplash neck injury prevention. The sliding seat allows its seat pan to slide backward for some distance under certain restraint force to absorb crash energy in rear impacts. A numerical model that consisted of vehicle interior, seat, seat belt, and BioRID II dummy was built in MADYMO to evaluate whiplash neck injury in rear impact. A parametric study of the effects of sliding seat parameters, including position and cushion stiffness of head restraint, seatback cushion stiffness, recliner characteristics, and especially sliding energy-absorbing (EA) restraint force, on neck injury criteria was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of the sliding seat concept with that of other existing anti-whiplash mechanisms. Optimal sliding seat design configurations in rear crashes of different severities were obtained. A sliding seat prototype with bending of a steel strip as an EA mechanism was fabricated and tested in a sled test environment to validate the concept. The performance of the sliding seat under frontal and rollover impacts was checked to make sure the sliding mechanism did not result in any negative effects. The protective effect of the sliding seat with EA restraint force is comparable to that of head restraint-based and recliner stiffness-based anti-whiplash mechanisms. EA restraint force levels of 3 kN in rear impacts of low and medium severities and 6 kN in impacts of high severity were obtained from optimization. In frontal collision and rollover, compared to the nonsliding seat, the sliding seat does not result in any negative effects on occupant protection. The sled test results of the sliding seat prototype have shown the effectiveness of the concept for reducing neck injury risks. As a countermeasure, the sliding seat with appropriate restraint forces can significantly reduce whiplash neck injury risk in rear impacts of low, medium, and high

  19. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  20. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  1. A dynamic seating intervention for wheelchair seating discomfort.

    PubMed

    Crane, Barbara A; Holm, Margo B; Hobson, Douglas; Cooper, Rory A; Reed, Matthew P

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new user-adjustable wheelchair seating system designed to relieve discomfort for long-duration wheelchair users. This objective was carried out using the newly developed Tool for Assessing Wheelchair disComfort (TAWC) as the primary outcome measure. Two wheelchair users each tested two different designs and feedback from the wheelchair users regarding the first design was used to guide development of the second design. A single-subject research methodology was used, allowing long-duration (up to 2 wks per test) evaluation of the wheelchair seating systems and comparison of subject discomfort levels with those experienced during a baseline period using their own wheelchairs. The experimental wheelchair seating systems employed existing automotive seating with embedded pneumatic bladders that allowed adjustment of the seat and back-support characteristics. The test wheelchair also had tilt, recline, and elevating leg rests. The two subjects completed limited periods of testing with the first design, both finding poor results with either stable or increased levels of discomfort. Subject feedback was used to redesign the wheelchair seat. After redesign, both subjects tested the second design and found it substantially more comfortable. The selected research methodology was a very positive method for a progressive wheelchair seating design and the second design provided improved comfort for both users when compared with that experienced using their own wheelchairs and the first test wheelchair. Future research of this type of user-controlled technology is recommended.

  2. Car seat inspection among children older than 3 years: Using data to drive practice in child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Amber M; Teddy, Amy J; Macy, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables were included if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. χ statistics were used to compare change in restraint use on arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of the total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected (rear-facing carrier [40.3%], rear-facing convertible [10.2%], and forward-facing [19.3%] car seats). Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children 4 years and older were found to be in a suboptimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Booster Age Child. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  3. Advocacy for booster seat legislation in Florida: a lesson in politics and policy formation.

    PubMed

    Haring, R Sterling; Frattaroli, Shannon; Schneider, Eric B; Holland, M Becker; Vernick, Jon S

    2015-04-01

    MVCs are a major contributor to child injury and death. Infant restraint seats and child booster seats have been shown to reduce the odds of severe injury or death when used correctly. While all states have mandated the use of these restraint systems, the age at which a child can be legally restrained using an adult seat belt varies from state to state. Efforts to strengthen Florida's weak child restraint laws have failed for more than a decade; in the 2014 legislative session, advocates succeeded in raising the state's age requirement from 3 years to 5  years. While many factors contributed to this year's success, some key elements included efficient communication of supporting data, a strong and broad advocacy network and the leveraging of election year political rivalries. Efforts to further strengthen the law will continue into future legislative sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  5. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  6. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  7. Contact dermatitis to training toilet seat (potty seat dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Claire O; Barros, Mark A; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2018-05-29

    Allergic contact dermatitis from various components of toilet seats has been well described. We report a case of a young boy presenting with an atypical pattern of dermatitis who was found to be allergic to his training toilet seat. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this diagnosis and the role of potty seats as the causative factor. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Local police enforcement, public information and education strategies to foster more and proper use of child safety seats by toddlers : evaluation of a demonstration project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-03-01

    This project evaluated the effects of enforcing safety belt (SB)/child safety seat (CSS) laws and providing public information and education (PI&E) about the laws and use and proper use of CSSs--without external funding. Project goals focused on incr...

  9. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  10. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Interactive Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Smart Seat.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Selvarajan, Sophia; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2016-04-20

    A lightweight, flexible, cost-effective, and robust, single-electrode-based Smart Seat-Triboelectric Nanogenerator (SS-TENG) is introduced as a promising eco-friendly approach for harvesting energy from the living environment, for use in integrated self-powered systems. An effective method for harvesting biomechanical energy from human motion such as walking, running, and sitting, utilizing widely adaptable everyday contact materials (newspaper, denim, polyethylene covers, and bus cards) is demonstrated. The working mechanism of the SS-TENG is based on the generation and transfer of triboelectric charge carriers between the active layer and user-friendly contact materials. The performance of SS-TENG (52 V and 5.2 μA for a multiunit SS-TENG) is systematically studied and demonstrated in a range of applications including a self-powered passenger seat number indicator and a STOP-indicator using LEDs, using a simple logical circuit. Harvested energy is used as a direct power source to drive 60 blue and green commercially available LEDs and a monochrome LCD. This feasibility study confirms that triboelectric nanogenerators are a suitable technology for energy harvesting from human motion during transportation, which could be used to operate a variety of wireless devices, GPS systems, electronic devices, and other sensors during travel.

  12. 76 FR 64795 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various Transport Category..., 91xx, 92xx, 93xx, 95xx, and 96xx series passenger seat assemblies, installed on various transport... seat assemblies identified in Annex 1, Issue 2, dated March 19, 2004, of Sicma Aero Seat Service...

  13. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  14. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  15. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  16. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

  17. Evaluation of wheelchair seating system crashworthiness: "drop hook"-type seat attachment hardware.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G; Ha, D; Deemer, E; Karg, P

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the crashworthiness of commercially available hardware that attaches seat surfaces to the wheelchair frame. A low cost static crashworthiness test procedure that simulates a frontal impact motor vehicle crash. Safety testing laboratory. Eleven unique sets of drop-hook hardware made of carbon steel (4), stainless steel (4), and aluminum (3). Replicated seat-loading conditions associated with a 20g/48 kph frontal impact. Test criterion for seat loading was 16,680 N (3750 lb). Failure load and deflection of seat surface. None of the hardware sets tested met the crashworthiness test criterion. All failed at less than 50% of the load that seating hardware could be exposed to in a 20g/48 kph frontal impact. The primary failure mode was excessive deformation, leading to an unstable seat support surface. Results suggest that commercially available seating drop hooks may be unable to withstand loading associated with a frontal crash and may not be the best option for use with transport wheelchairs.

  18. GO Bus impact analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  19. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditionsmore » would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.« less

  20. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    Glass, Bob; Mathis, Mike; Cochran, Ron; Garback, John

    2018-06-08

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  1. Burn from car seat heater in a man with paraplegia: case report

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cheryl; Gittler, Michelle; Lee, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Objective/background Heated car seats are a common feature in newer automobiles. They are increasingly being recognized as potential hazards as there have been multiple reports of significant burns to its users. The potential for harm is considerably increased in those with impaired sensation with the possibility of a devastating injury. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 26-year-old male with a T8 ASIA A paraplegia presented to the outpatient clinic for management of a hip burn. Two weeks prior to his visit he was driving a 2004 Jeep Cherokee for approximately 30 minutes. He was unaware that the driver's side seat warmer was set on high. He denied that his seat belt was in direct contact with the skin of his right hip. He presented to an acute care hospital that evening with a hip burn where he was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and instructed to apply it until his scheduled follow-up clinic visit. In clinic, the hip wound was unstageable with approximately 95% eschar. A dressing of bismuth tribromophenate in petrolatum was applied to the wound and he was instructed to change the dressing daily. This was later changed to an antimicrobial alginate dressing. The ulcer eventually healed. Conclusions This case illustrates the significant risk of car seat heaters in individuals with spinal cord injuries or neurological impairment who have decreased sensation. Additionally, it highlights an atypical area of potential for burn. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for a heightened awareness for this unique and dangerous situation. PMID:21756574

  2. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... engaged in public transportation, or private non-profit organizations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary... program announcement of project selections. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal...

  4. 75 FR 35877 - Bentley Motors Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...) of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 209, Seat Belt Assemblies. BMI filed an... approximately 300 nonconforming seat belt assemblies, produced during the 12 months prior to December 18, 2009...) Installation instructions. A seat belt assembly, other than a seat belt assembly installed in a motor vehicle...

  5. Effects of elastic seats on seated body apparent mass responses to vertical whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, K N; Rakheja, S; Marcotte, Pierre; Shahmir, A

    2015-01-01

    Apparent mass (AM) responses of the body seated with and without a back support on three different elastic seats (flat and contoured polyurethane foam (PUF) and air cushion) and a rigid seat were measured under three levels of vertical vibration (overall rms acceleration: 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 m/s(2)) in the 0.5 to 20 Hz range. A pressure-sensing system was used to capture biodynamic force at the occupant-seat interface. The results revealed strong effects of visco-elastic and vibration transmissibility characteristics of seats on AM. The response magnitudes with the relatively stiff air seat were generally higher than those with the PUF seats except at low frequencies. The peak magnitude decreased when sitting condition was changed from no back support to a vertical support; the reduction however was more pronounced with the air seat. Further, a relatively higher frequency shift was evident with soft seat compared with stiff elastic seat with increasing excitation. The effects of visco-elastic properties of the body-seat interface on the apparent mass responses of the seated body are measured under vertical vibration. The results show considerable effects of the coupling stiffness on the seated body apparent mass, apart from those of excitation magnitude and back support.

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... those that address: Primary enforcement of seat belt laws that cover everyone in every seat. Police officers ... seat belt use with primary enforcement seat belt laws that cover everyone in the vehicle. www.cdc. ...

  7. Selecting seats for steel industry mobile machines based on seat effective amplitude transmissibility and comfort.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Leanne F; Oliver, Michele L; Jack, Robert J; Dickey, James P; Eger, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to help a steel industry partner select the most appropriate of three high end heavy equipment seats to retrofit a number of their heavy mobile machines used in the steel making process. The participants included 8 males (22.3 ± 2.0 yrs.) and 8 females (23.5 ± 1.8 yrs.) with no experience operating heavy mobile equipment. Previously recorded 6-DOF chassis acceleration data from a Pot Hauler (a machine which picks up and transports pots of slag) were used to extract six, 20 second representative profiles for implementation on a lab-based heavy machine simulator (6-DOF Parallel Robotics System Corporation robot). Subjects sat on three heavy equipment seats (BeGe7150, Grammar MSG 95G1721, and a 6801 Isringhausen with the seat pan cushion retrofitted with a Skydex cushion) mounted on the simulator. Each subject completed three trials for each combination of seat (n=3) and vibration profile (n=6). Chassis and operator/seat interface vibration were measured by 2, 6-DOF vibration transducers. Variables included Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT) (X,Y,Z,Roll,Pitch,Yaw,6DOF Vector Sum) to determine if the seat was attenuating or amplifying the vibration, 6-degree of freedom (DOF) vibration total value weighted predicted comfort (Avc) (according to ISO 2631-1) and operator reported comfort (ORC). Factorial ANOVAs revealed significant differences (p < or = 0.05) between seats for all SEAT variables but different seats performed better than others depending on the axis. Significant differences between males and females were observed for SEAT in X,Y, and Pitch as well as for Avs. As expected there were significant differences between vibration profiles for all assessed variables. A number of interaction effects were observed, the most frequently occurring of which was between seat and vibration profile. Based upon the number of seat and vibration profile interactions, results suggest that a single seat is not suited for all tested

  8. Commuter rail seat testing and analysis of facing seats

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    Tests have been conducted on the Bombardier back-to-back commuter rail car seat in a facing-seat configuration to evaluate its performance under static and dynamic loading conditions. Quasi-static tests have been conducted to establish the load defle...

  9. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  10. 75 FR 74134 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or private non-profit organizations... public transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Grantees... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus...

  11. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  12. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  13. Bus driver sues.

    PubMed

    1996-09-06

    A bus driver, known as John Doe, sued his employer, alleging that he was fired when he voluntarily disclosed that he was HIV-positive and needed a rest from the long hours of driving. The driver sued for back wages, benefits, and compensatory and punitive damages under the New Jersey Law Against Discrimination. Academy Bus tours told the driver he could not return to work without a doctor's examination. Doe has an excellent driving record and was certified as physically fit to work as a bus driver 14 months prior to his termination.

  14. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or private non-profit... Table 1 will provide funds to help maintain the nation's public transportation bus fleet, infrastructure... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration State of Good Repair Bus and Bus...

  15. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-28

    vehicle interior layout Current design guidance is based on outdated anthropometry Previous studies of seated anthropometry have not included the...personal protective equipment (PPE) for seat and vehicle interior layout • Current design guidance is based on outdated anthropometry • Previous...studies of seated anthropometry have not included the effects of PPE on posture and body shape • Detailed anthropometric data needed for the design

  16. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-31

    ergonomics and safety assessments. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 3 INTRODUCTION The design of seats and interiors for a wide variety of...DHMs) began to be used for ergonomic assessments and design of vehicle interiors and seats , particularly for driver workstation layout (Chaffin 2001...in a vehicle mockup by varying the steering wheel position relative to the pedals. The participants adjusted the seat to obtain a comfortable

  17. Electric bus systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  18. Bus-Programmable Slave Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Slave microprocessors in multimicroprocessor computing system contains modified circuit cards programmed via bus connecting master processor with slave microprocessors. Enables interactive, microprocessor-based, single-loop control. Confers ability to load and run program from master/slave bus, without need for microprocessor development station. Tristate buffers latch all data and information on status. Slave central processing unit never connected directly to bus.

  19. Lateral bias in theatre-seat choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria; Reese, Miriam; Elias, Lorin J

    2014-01-01

    Examples of behavioural asymmetries are common in the range of human behaviour; even when faced with a symmetrical environment people demonstrate reliable asymmetries in behaviours like gesturing, cradling, and even seating. One such asymmetry is the observation that participants tend to choose seats to the right of the screen when asked to select their preferred seating location in a movie theatre. However, these results are based on seat selection using a seating chart rather than examining real seat choice behaviour in the theatre context. This study investigated the real-world seating patterns of theatre patrons during actual film screenings. Analysis of bias scores calculated using photographs of theatre patrons revealed a significant bias to choose seats on the right side of the theatre. These findings are consistent with the prior research in the area and confirm that the seating bias observed when seats are selected from a chart accurately reflects real-world seating behaviour.

  20. Car seat safety: literature review.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    After staggering numbers of infants were killed in automotive crashes in the 1970s, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended in 1974 universal use of car seats for all infants. However, positional problems were reported when car seats are used with premature infants less than 37 weeks gestational age as a result of head slouching and its sequelae. In 1990, the AAP responded with another policy statement introducing car seat testing. It recommended that any infant at or under 37 weeks gestational age be observed in a car seat prior to discharge from the hospital. The AAP did not give specific guidelines on type of car seat, length of testing, equipment, or personnel proficiency, however. Few nurseries have standard policies to evaluate car seats, to teach parents about car seats, or to position newborns in them, and not all hospitals actually conduct car seat challenges or have common standards for testing that is performed.

  1. A survey of child safety seat and safety belt use in Virginia : the 1987 update.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-01-01

    Observational surveys of belt use by the motoring public in Virginia have been conducted in two series: (1) 1974-1977 and (2) 1983-1987. Only the latter data are presented in this report. Each year data were collected in the Roanoke, Northern Virgini...

  2. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  3. School bus and children's traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-ming; Hargarten, Stephen; Zhu, Shan-kuan

    2007-08-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries. We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries. The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  4. Late Precambrian (740 Ma) charnockite, enderbite, and granite from Jebel Moya, Sudan: A link between the Mozambique Belt and the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.J.; Dawoud, A.S.

    1991-09-01

    New Rb-Sr and whole rock and U-Pb zircon data are reported for deep-seated igneous rocks from Jebel Moya in east-central Sudan. This exposure is important because it may link the high-grade metamorphic and deep-seated igneous rocks of the Mozambique Belt with the greenschist-facies and ophiolitic assemblages of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, both of Pan-African (ca. 900-550 Ma) age. The rocks of Jebel Moya consist of pink granite, green charnockite, and dark enderbite. A twelve-point Rb-Sr whole rock isochron for all three lithologies yields an age of 730 {plus minus} 31 Ma and an initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of 0.7031 {plus minus}more » 1. Nearly concordant zircon ages for granite, charnockite, and enderbite are 744 {plus minus} 2,742 {plus minus} 2, and 739 {plus minus} 2 Ma, respectively. Initial {epsilon}-Nd for these rocks are indistinguishable at 3.0 {plus minus} 0.4. The data suggest that the charnockite, enderbite, and granite are all part of a deep-seated igneous complex. The initial isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd indicate that Jebel Moya melts were derived from a mantle source that experienced significantly less time-integrated depletion of LRE and LIL elements than the source of Arabian-Nubian Shield melts. The ages for Jebel Moya deep-seated igneous rocks are in accord with data from elsewhere in the Mozambique Belt indicating that peak metamorphism occurred about 700-750 Ma. The northward extension of the Mozambique Belt to the Arabian-Nubian Shield defines a single east Pan-African orogen. The principal difference between the northern and southern sectors of this orogen may be the greater degree of thickening and subsequent erosion experienced in the south during the late Precambrian, perhaps a result of continental collision between East (Australia-India) and West Gondwanaland (S. America-Africa) about 750 Ma.« less

  5. Factors Affecting Booster Seat Use.

    PubMed

    Aita-Levy, Jerussa; Henderson, Lauren

    2016-10-01

    Objective To identify general awareness of booster seats as well as reasons for use and nonuse in an urban pediatric emergency room. Methods A total of 100 questionnaires were completed consisting of 24 questions each. Questions included knowledge of booster seat guidelines, source of knowledge, awareness of risks, and confidence in booster seats. Afterward, participants were provided an educational handout. Results Majority of parents reported currently using or having used a booster seat. The most popular reason was to protect from injury (78%), and reason for nonuse was size (44%). Majority of parents agreed that motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death in children. However, 56% of parents prematurely transitioned child out of a booster seat. Only 20% reported learning about booster seats from their pediatrician. Conclusion Parents continue to transition their children prematurely from booster seats. Current state laws need revision as well as further education using simplified illustrated guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....) above the top of the seat surface at the point where the seat surface is intersected by the seat post axis. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain a permanent mark or ring that clearly indicates the... integrity of the seat post. This mark shall be located no less than two seat-post diameters from the lowest...

  7. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....) above the top of the seat surface at the point where the seat surface is intersected by the seat post axis. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain a permanent mark or ring that clearly indicates the... integrity of the seat post. This mark shall be located no less than two seat-post diameters from the lowest...

  8. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogenmore » fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.« less

  9. Automated recognition of rear seat occupants' head position using Kinect™ 3D point cloud.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Helen; Kim, Jinyong; Arbogast, Kristy; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Cross, Suzanne; Charlton, Judith

    2017-12-01

    Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) will improve understanding of out-of-position (OOP) trends. To quantify OOP positions, an NDS was conducted. Families used a study vehicle for two weeks during their everyday driving trips. The positions of rear-seated child occupants, representing 22 families, were evaluated. The study vehicle - instrumented with data acquisition systems, including Microsoft Kinect™ V1 - recorded rear seat occupants in 1120 driving 26 trips. Three novel analytical methods were used to analyze data. To assess skeletal tracking accuracy, analysts recorded occurrences where Kinect™ exhibited invalid head recognition among a randomly-selected subset (81 trips). Errors included incorrect target detection (e.g., vehicle headrest) or environmental interference (e.g., sunlight). When head data was present, Kinect™ was correct 41% of the time; two other algorithms - filtering for extreme motion, and background subtraction/head-based depth detection are described in this paper and preliminary results are presented. Accuracy estimates were not possible because of their experimental nature and the difficulty to use a ground truth for this large database. This NDS tested methods to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head positions for rear-seated child occupants utilizing Kinect™ motion-tracking. This study's results informed recent ATD sled tests that replicated observed positions (most common and most extreme), and assessed the validity of child

  10. The Bus Stops Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explores some of the factors to consider before school planners decide to buy new school buses. Provides a checklist to help build and maintain a bus fleet. Concludes by addressing bus safety and advertising. (GR)

  11. Effect of Booster Seat Design on Children’s Choice of Seating Positions During Naturalistic Riding

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Marianne; Bohman, Katarina; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this naturalistic study was to investigate the effect of booster seat design on the choice of children’s seating positions during naturalistic riding. Data was collected through observations of children during in-vehicle riding by means of a film camera. The children were positioned in high back boosters in the rear seat while a parent drove the car. The study included two different booster designs: one with large head and torso side supports, and one with small head side supports and no torso side supports. Six children between three and six years of age participated in the study. Each child was observed in both boosters. The duration of the seating positions that each child assumed was quantified. The design with large side head supports resulted more often in seating positions without head and shoulder contact with the booster’s back. There was shoulder-to-booster back contact during an average of 45% of riding time in the seat with the large head side supports compared to 75% in the seat with the small head supports. The children in the study were seated with the head in front of the front edge of the head side supports more than half the time, in both boosters. Laterally, the children were almost constantly positioned between the side supports of the booster in both seats. The observed seating positions probably reduce the desired protective effect by the side supports in side impact, and may increase the probability of head impact with the vehicle interior in frontal impact. PMID:21050601

  12. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  13. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) above the top of the seat surface at the point where the seat surface is intersected by the seat post axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... adjustment); the mark shall not affect the structural integrity of the seat post. This mark shall be located...

  14. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) above the top of the seat surface at the point where the seat surface is intersected by the seat post axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... adjustment); the mark shall not affect the structural integrity of the seat post. This mark shall be located...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers J333a-1970, Operator Protection for Agricultural and Light Industrial Tractors. (ii) Seat belts... wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and... Society of Automotive Engineers, J386-1969, Seat Belts for Construction Equipment. Seat belts for...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers J333a-1970, Operator Protection for Agricultural and Light Industrial Tractors. (ii) Seat belts... wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and... Society of Automotive Engineers, J386-1969, Seat Belts for Construction Equipment. Seat belts for...

  17. Stadium seating--a market analysis.

    Treesearch

    Jerry A. Sesco; Edwin Kallio

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of stadiums and seating in six North Central States; summarizes the purchasing methods for stadium seats; presents estimates of the present and future market; and points out the increasing competition to wood stadium seating form substitute materials.

  18. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  19. An observational survey of safety belt and child safety seat use in Virginia : the 1988 update.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    Observational surveys of safety belt use in Virginia have been conducted in two series. The first covered 1974 through 1977, and the second 1983 through 1988. This report is concerned only with the latter series and encompasses use rates that are the...

  20. Integrated seat frame and back support

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  1. Traffic rule violations of private bus drivers and bus crashes in Sri Lanka: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Poudel, Krishna C; Nakahara, Shinji; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini Chinthika; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-06-01

    To explore the association between self-reported traffic rule violations of private sector bus drivers and bus crashes in the Kandy district, Sri Lanka. We carried out a case-control study from August to September 2006. Cases were all the private bus drivers registered in the Kandy district and involved in crashes reported to the police between November 2005 and April 2006 (n = 63). We included two control groups: the private bus drivers working on the same routes of the cases (n = 90; matched controls) and the drivers selected randomly from the other routes of the district (n = 111; unmatched controls). We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on the self-reported traffic rule violations and analyzed the association between the self-reported traffic rule violations and crashes using logistic regression. The following variables showed significant associations with private bus crashes: illegal overtaking (matched controls, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 14.78, unmatched controls, AOR = 1.04), taking passengers outside the bus bays (matched controls, AOR = 3.96, unmatched controls, AOR = 2.29), and overloading (matched controls, AOR = 10.26, unmatched controls, AOR = 1.93). However, we did not observe an association between high-speed driving and bus crashes matched controls, AOR = 1.22, unmatched controls, AOR = 0.81. Traffic rule violations, such as illegal overtaking, overloading, and taking passengers outside the bus bays, are significant risk factors for private bus crashes in Sri Lanka.

  2. 23 CFR 1340.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE General § 1340.1 Purpose. This part establishes uniform criteria for State surveys of seat belt use conducted under 23 U.S.C. 402, procedures for NHTSA approval of survey designs, and administrative requirements relating to State seat belt surveys. ...

  3. 23 CFR 1340.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE General § 1340.1 Purpose. This part establishes uniform criteria for State surveys of seat belt use conducted under 23 U.S.C. 402, procedures for NHTSA approval of survey designs, and administrative requirements relating to State seat belt surveys. ...

  4. 23 CFR 1340.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE General § 1340.1 Purpose. This part establishes uniform criteria for State surveys of seat belt use conducted under 23 U.S.C. 402, procedures for NHTSA approval of survey designs, and administrative requirements relating to State seat belt surveys. ...

  5. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  6. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  7. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  8. Estimated minimum savings to the medicaid budget in Florida by implementing a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-03-01

    A 2003 study estimated that if all States had primary laws from 1995 to 2002, over 12,000 lives would have been saved. Failure to implement a primary belt law creates a real cost to a States budget for Medicaid and other State medical expenditures...

  9. Estimated minimum savings to the Medicaid budget in Arkansas by implementing a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-03-01

    A 2003 study estimated that if all States had primary laws from 1995 to 2002, over 12,000 lives would have been saved. Failure to implement a primary belt law creates a real cost to a States budget for Medicaid and other State medical expenditures...

  10. Estimated minimum savings to the Medicaid budget in Missouri by implementing a primary seat belt law

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-03-01

    A 2003 study estimated that if all States had primary laws from 1995 to 2002, over 12,000 lives would have been saved. Failure to implement a primary belt law creates a real cost to a States budget for Medicaid and other State medical expenditures...

  11. Evaluation of wheelchair drop seat crashworthiness.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G; Ha, D; van Roosmalen, L; Karg, P; Deemer, E

    2001-05-01

    Wheelchair seating crash performance is critical to protecting wheelchair users who remain seated in their wheelchairs during transportation. Relying upon computer simulation and sled testing seat loads associated with a 20 g/48 kph (20 g/30 mph) frontal impact and 50th percentile male occupant were estimated to develop test criteria. Using a static test setup we evaluated the performance of various types of commercially available drop seats against the loading test criteria. Five different types of drop seats (two specimens each) constructed of various materials (i.e. plastics, plywood, metal) were evaluated. Two types of drop seats (three of the total 10 specimens) met the 16650 N (3750 lb) frontal impact test criteria. While additional validation of the test protocol is necessary, this study suggests that some drop seat designs may be incapable of withstanding crash level loads.

  12. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...\\ Morgan, Christina. ``Effectiveness of Lap/Shoulder Belts in the Back Outboard Seating Positions,'' DOT HS... has also pursued vehicle-based technologies for increasing seat belt use. These include sensors in the... driver position, enhanced SBRSs primarily relied on sensors found in the seat belt buckle and latch...

  13. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  14. Observations of seating position of front seat occupants relative to the side of the vehicle.

    PubMed

    Dinas, Arthur; Fildes, Brian N

    2002-01-01

    This study was an on-road observational study of the seating position and limb position of front seat occupants relevant to the side of the car for a representative sample of occupants during straight road driving and turning manoeuvres. A video camera captured over 650 front-on images of passenger car occupants in Metropolitan Melbourne. Results showed a significant numbers of occupants were seated out-of-position while travelling on the road and that a number of these were seated in a manner that may possibly result in injury from the deployment of a side airbag. This was particularly so while turning, a situation common in many side impacts. A substantial number of front seat occupants' arms were exposed to severe injury in the event of a side impact crash. These findings highlight a number of aspects of seating behaviour of driver and front passengers that need to be taken into account when designing side impact airbags.

  15. Biomechanics of volunteers subject to loading by a motorized shoulder belt tensioner.

    PubMed

    Good, Craig A; Viano, David C; Ronsky, Janet L

    2008-04-15

    A biomechanical study using human volunteers. Motorized shoulder belt tensioning is a new seatbelt technology that is likely to be incorporated into future vehicles. The objective of this study was to characterize the upper torso biomechanics of 3 sizes of adult volunteers (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male) subjected to motorized shoulder belt tensioning in the static environment. There is a lack of volunteer data concerning the biomechanics of occupants subject to motorized precrash shoulder belt tensioning. Studies of torso repositioning by the air force for ejection seats are much too aggressive to be relevant to motorized systems. Low-level motorized shoulder belt tensioning is well tolerated by vehicle occupants but optimized performance by occupant size is unknown. Nineteen male and 6 female subjects were instrumented in a fixture designed to support the occupant leaning forward and apply seatbelt tension. The subjects were 5th percentile females, 50th percentile males, and 95th percentile males. Reflective markers were placed on the subjects to monitor torso kinematics during tensioning. Changes in spinal curvature were small during shoulder belt tensioning and the angular motion of the torso originated within 4.2 cm of the pelvis-femur junction or H-point. Torso repositioning and retraction timing was found to be: 54.3 degrees in 0.78 seconds for the 5th percentile female, 57.6 degrees in 0.95 seconds for the 50th percentile male, and 42.2 degrees in 0.92 seconds for the 95th percentile male. Occupant size has a significant effect on retraction time to reposition the torso during shoulder belt tensioning. Larger vehicle occupants require more time because of a slower retraction velocity. The results are sufficiently simple that a lumped-mass model can predict tensioning kinetics.

  16. Large school bus design vehicle dimensions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-09-01

    A survey of United States school bus operators and manufacturers was conducted to define the larger sizes of school buses in regular use. A mid-60 passenger type-c bus (SB-C) and a mid-80 passenger type-D bus (SB-D) were selected as design vehicles. ...

  17. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  18. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  19. Electric School Bus Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Electric School Bus Evaluation Electric School Bus Evaluation Photo of children boarding school bus . NREL is evaluating the performance of electric and conventional school buses operated by two California school districts. Photo courtesy of School Bus Fleet Magazine NREL is evaluating the in-service

  20. Nonlinearity in the vertical transmissibility of seating: the role of the human body apparent mass and seat dynamic stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufano, Saverio; Griffin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a seat in reducing vibration depends on the characteristics of the vibration, the dynamic characteristics of the seat, and the dynamic characteristics of the person sitting on the seat. However, it is not known whether seat cushions influence the dynamic response of the human body, whether the human body influences the dynamic response of seat cushions, or the relative importance of human body nonlinearity and seat nonlinearity in causing nonlinearity in measures of seat transmissibility. This study was designed to investigate the nonlinearity of the coupled seat and human body systems and to compare the apparent mass of the human body supported on rigid and foam seats. A frequency domain model was used to identify the dynamic parameters of seat foams and investigate their dependence on the subject-sitting weight and hip breadth. With 15 subjects, the force and acceleration at the seat base and acceleration at the subject interface were measured during random vertical vibration excitation (0.25-25 Hz) at each of five vibration magnitudes, (0.25-1.6 ms-2 r.m.s.) with four seating conditions (rigid flat seat and three foam cushions). The measurements are presented in terms of the subject's apparent mass on the rigid and foam seat surfaces, and the transmissibility and dynamic stiffness of each of the foam cushions. Both the human body and the foams showed nonlinear softening behaviour, which resulted in nonlinear cushion transmissibility. The apparent masses of subjects sitting on the rigid seat and on foam cushions were similar, but with an apparent increase in damping when sitting on the foams. The foam dynamic stiffness showed complex correlations with characteristics of the human body, which differed between foams. The nonlinearities in cushion transmissibilities, expressed in terms of changes in resonance frequencies and moduli, were more dependent on human body nonlinearity than on cushion nonlinearity.

  1. CEV Seat Layout Evaluation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-15

    Photographic documentation of the CEV Seat Layout Evaluation taken in the Orion mockup located in bldg 9NW, Johnson Space Center (JSC). Test subjects in orange Launch and Entry Suit (LES) is visible in the seat.

  2. Seatbelt use, attitudes, and changes in legislation: an international study.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Fuller, Ray; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina; Davou, Bettina; Justo, Joao

    2002-11-01

    The use of seat belts is among the most effective methods of reducing injury in motor vehicle crashes. We examined trends in seat belt use by university students from 13 European countries between 1990 and 2000, in relation to changes in legislation, attitudes, and hazardous driver behaviors. Data were collected via an anonymous standardized questionnaire from university students in Belgium, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Spain. There were 10,576 respondents in 1990, and 10,294 in 2000. Data were also collected from 1672 students in the United States in 2000. Analyses were performed in early 2002. Reported seat belt use increased from 63% to 73% in male students, and from 66% to 77% in female students over the decade. There were marked increases in seat belt use in countries with changes in legislation or enforcement from 1990 to 2000, with 24% to 64% more respondents reporting seat belt use in 2000. The prevalence of use and noted changes during this period correlated with findings from national surveys (r= 0.91). Attitudes to seat belt use were associated with behavior both within and between countries. Nonuse of seat belts was positively related to alcohol-impaired driving and failure to obey speed limits. Legislation has a substantial impact on the use of vehicle seat belts, but additional gains require efforts to change attitudes within the university student population.

  3. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  4. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  5. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  6. 16 CFR § 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) above the top of the seat surface at the point where the seat surface is intersected by the seat post axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... adjustment); the mark shall not affect the structural integrity of the seat post. This mark shall be located...

  7. 78 FR 65756 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992 Jeep Wrangler Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... comments were received, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard with the comments. Note that all... Control Rearward Displacement, 205 Glazing Materials, 207 Seating Systems, 210 Seat Belt Assembly... the vehicle is not already so equipped. Standard No. 209 Seat Belt Assemblies: Inspection of seat...

  8. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  9. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1200 - CERTIFICATIONS AND ASSURANCES FOR NATIONAL PRIORITY SAFETY PROGRAM GRANTS (23 U.S.C. 405)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seat belt or age appropriate child restraint • Coverage of all passenger motor vehicles • Minimum fine... occupants riding in a passenger motor vehicle to be restrained in a seat belt or a child restraint, was... secured in a seat belt or age-appropriate child restraint while in a passenger motor vehicle and a minimum...

  10. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1200 - Certifications and Assurances for National Priority Safety Program Grants (23 U.S.C. 405)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seat belt or age appropriate child restraint • Coverage of all passenger motor vehicles • Minimum fine... occupants riding in a passenger motor vehicle to be restrained in a seat belt or a child restraint, was... secured in a seat belt or age-appropriate child restraint while in a passenger motor vehicle and a minimum...

  11. Analyzing the first years of the click it or ticket mobilizations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    The Click It or Ticket seat belt enforcement programs conducted between 2000 and 2006 were an important factor in increasing seat belt use nationwide and in virtually all States. This was the case for observed belt use, belt use in fatalities, and se...

  12. Thermal comfort of aeroplane seats: influence of different seat materials and the use of laboratory test methods.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2003-07-01

    This study determined the influence of different cover and cushion materials on the thermal comfort of aeroplane seats. Different materials as well as ready made seats were investigated by the physiological laboratory test methods Skin Model and seat comfort tester. Additionally, seat trials with human test subjects were performed in a climatic chamber. Results show that a fabric cover produces a considerably higher sweat transport than leather. A three-dimensional knitted spacer fabric turns out to be the better cushion alternative in comparison to a moulded foam pad. Results from the physiological laboratory test methods nicely correspond to the seat trials with human test subjects.

  13. Transit Bus Fuel Economy and Performance Simulation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of bus simulation studies to determine the effects of various design and operating parameters on bus fuel economy and performance. The bus components are first described in terms of how they are modeled. Then a variat...

  14. Bus Crashworthiness Issues. Highway Special Investigation Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-09-01

    School bus and motorcoach travel are two of the safest forms of transportation in the United States. Each year, on average, nine school bus passengers and four motorcoach passengers are fatally injured in bus crashes, according to the National Highwa...

  15. Effectiveness of Bus Signal Priority : Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Effectiveness of Bus Signal Priority (BSP) study evaluates BSP?s impact on traffic operations. The goal was to examine how different situations, such as the level of congestion, placement of bus stops, presence of express bus service, and number of t...

  16. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  17. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  18. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  19. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus...

  20. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus...