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Sample records for business exposure index

  1. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aims This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. Methods We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 × 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Results The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52–0.93). Conclusion The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements

  2. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Stoddard, Anne M; Roelofs, Cora; Sembajwe, Grace; Sapp, Amy L; Sorensen, Glorian

    2009-03-26

    This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 x 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements quantitative exposure assessment with an

  3. Competency Index. [Business/Computer Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This index allows the user to scan the competencies under each title for the 28 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Titles of the 28 units are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; professional and ethical standards; economic and business…

  4. Business policies affecting secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Siobhan E; Skinner, Bron; Mage, Caroline; Goldstein, Adam O; Kramer, Kathryn; Steiner, Julea; Staples, Ann H

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent legislative and voluntary policy changes, a significant number of workplaces, recreational venues, and public facilities do not offer the public full protection from secondhand smoke exposure. The current study assessed smoking policies, attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and support for policy change among business owners and managers of businesses open to the public in North Carolina. Business owners and managers were interviewed over the phone. Businesses included all airports, arcades, malls, bowling alleys, and arenas (seating more than 500) in the state as well as a random sample of grocery and convenience stores. A 100% smoke-free policy was reported in 53% of businesses, ranging from 12% in bowling alleys to 97% in arenas. A large majority of business owners and managers understand the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure (82%-89%) and support restrictions on smoking in their businesses (84%-91%). Barriers to voluntary policy change included the lack of legal requirement (39%) and fear of the loss of business (53%). This study used self-report data from business owners and managers; the accuracy of the business smoking policy, customer and employee exposure time, and number of complaints may vary across respondents. It is also possible some participants were influenced by factors of social desirability of responses. Continued progress in establishing 100% smoke-free indoor environments may depend on successful advocacy in instituting legislation mandating the elimination of secondhand smoke in all public places. Advocacy efforts should include education around addressing economic concerns of businesses.

  5. Business Education Index 1991. Volume 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Carol A., Ed.

    This document lists 2,000 business education articles and research studies published during 1991. The list was compiled from 44 business education publications, especially from journals essential to research and teaching, with emphasis on information systems, economic education, business teacher education, and vocational education (primarily…

  6. Business Education Index 1993. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Complied from a Selected List of Periodicals and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains approximately 3,800 entries on business education topics indexed from business education publications and those related to business education. Priority in indexing was given to journals that are essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum with emphasis on information systems (including…

  7. Photoresist Exposure Parameter Extraction from Refractive Index Change during Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Soo; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Eun-Mi; Oh, Jin-Kyung; Byun, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Yeon-Un; Oh, Hye-Keun; An, Ilsin; Lee, Kun-Sang; Park, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    1998-12-01

    The refractive indices of photoresist are usually measured byan ellipsometer or spectrophotometer, but the values are limited to pre-exposure. It is known thatthe real and imaginary indices are changed during the exposure.But there is little report on these variations since itis difficult to measure this refractive index change at deep ultraviolet. The DillABC parameters show a significant variation with the resist and substrate thicknessas well as the experimental conditions.A method is suggested to extract the parameters from the refractive index changes.We can get the refractive index change and extract the Dill ABC exposure parameters from that.The multiple thin film interference calculation is used to fit the measured transmittance data.The results of our experiments and calculations for several resists including193 nm chemically amplified resists are compared with other methods.The results are agreed well with the full multilayer thin film simulation.

  8. Development and implementation of a business continuity management risk index.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Michael

    This paper will present the building blocks for developing and implementing the BCM risk index; whether it is used as a comprehensive metric for risk or preparedness. This paper introduces the concept of a business continuity management (BCM) risk index--a comprehensive metric that measures and reports the status of the primary 'intended outcome' of the BCM programme to top management. In addition to measuring the primary programme output,;the BCM risk index can be used to demonstrate the overall value of the BCM programme to executive management. This is accomplished because the BCM risk index allows quantitative measurement of current risk levels and their comparison with established risk tolerances. The BCM Risk Index can provide executive management with reports on the risk level of individual business units, departments, subsidiaries or the enterprise in a way that drives both risk management and BCM initiatives. The name 'risk index' can be misleading, however. The BCM risk index concept can also be used to measure preparedness levels. In fact, implementation at DTE Energy has resulted in calling it the 'preparedness index', which is used to measure and report preparedness levels rather than risk levels.

  9. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  10. Business Education Index 1992. Volume 53. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This index provides entries for business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of periodicals and yearbooks published during 1992. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum with emphasis on information systems (including business communications),…

  11. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  12. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  13. Development of solvent exposure index for construction painters.

    PubMed

    Wang, S W; Qian, H; Weisel, C; Nwankwo, C; Fiedler, N

    2011-06-01

    This article describes methodological approaches for reconstructing long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents among construction painters. A detailed exposure questionnaire was administered to 125 painters to develop a job exposure matrix (JEM). The questionnaire inquired about painting activities with solvent-based paints and use of protection equipment for the previous 25 years in 5-year intervals. Current and historical distributions of solvent air concentrations were assessed for the same time period based on the following information: industrial hygiene measurements, paint composition changes, and VOC emission rate changes from architectural and industrial maintenance coatings. Changes in protection factors of respirators were also assessed. A cumulative solvent exposure index was calculated for each painter through Monte Carlo simulations by combining appropriate input distributions of solvent air concentrations and protection factors of respirators with JEM. Sensitivity simulations revealed that the historical variations in solvent air concentrations had a higher impact on the cumulative solvent exposure index than changes in protection factors for respirators. Fifty-eight percent of painters were classified with a different exposure quartile when the solvent exposure index was used vs. an exposure based only on years using solvent-based paints, suggesting the need for more detailed exposure analysis than just years working when conducting epidemiologic studies for this worker population.

  14. Development of Solvent Exposure Index for Construction Painters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.W.; Qian, H.; Weisel, C.; Nwankwo, C.; Fiedler, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes methodological approaches for reconstructing long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents among construction painters. A detailed exposure questionnaire was administered to 125 painters to develop a job exposure matrix (JEM). The questionnaire inquired about painting activities with solvent-based paints and use of protection equipment for the previous 25 years in 5-year intervals. Current and historical distributions of solvent air concentrations were assessed for the same time period based on the following information: industrial hygiene measurements, paint composition changes, and VOC emission rate changes from architectural and industrial maintenance coatings. Changes in protection factors of respirators were also assessed. A cumulative solvent exposure index was calculated for each painter through Monte Carlo simulations by combining appropriate input distributions of solvent air concentrations and protection factors of respirators with JEM. Sensitivity simulations revealed that the historical variations in solvent air concentrations had a higher impact on the cumulative solvent exposure index than changes in protection factors for respirators. Fifty-eight percent of painters were classified with a different exposure quartile when the solvent exposure index was used vs. an exposure based only on years using solvent-based paints, suggesting the need for more detailed exposure analysis than just years working when conducting epidemiologic studies for this worker population. PMID:21660830

  15. Business Data Bases: The Policies and Practices of Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Charles J.

    1978-01-01

    Representatives from three companies (Management Contents, ABI/INFORM, Predicasts) explain the coverage, content, thesauri, updating, products, and capabilities of their data bases. A panel of librarians from (1) a special library, (2) an academic library, and (3) a public library report on the use of business data bases in their respective…

  16. The Business Education Index 1988. Index of Business Education Articles, Research Studies, and Textbooks Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals, Publishers, and Yearbooks Published During the Year 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Carol A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This index, changed in the focus of the research as well as in its format, covers business education publications and those related to business education. Priority is given to journals that are essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum with emphasis on information systems (including business communications),…

  17. Influence of Early Exposure to Family Business Experience on Developing Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarling, Cath; Jones, Paul; Murphy, Lyndon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the influences of family business and exposure to family business ideas upon students and graduates during their transition from higher education (HE) towards career identification of entrepreneurship. It explores influences, values and experiences actively impacting on business start-up following…

  18. Influence of Early Exposure to Family Business Experience on Developing Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarling, Cath; Jones, Paul; Murphy, Lyndon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the influences of family business and exposure to family business ideas upon students and graduates during their transition from higher education (HE) towards career identification of entrepreneurship. It explores influences, values and experiences actively impacting on business start-up following…

  19. Delineating Research Forums for Business and Management Education Scholars: The Business and Management Education Influence Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The authors used bibliometric analysis to create indices for both the percentage of articles a journal publishes on business and management education (BME) research and the relative scholarly impact an article is likely to have after being published in that journal. They envision that the dissemination of these indices will be helpful for scholars…

  20. Delineating Research Forums for Business and Management Education Scholars: The Business and Management Education Influence Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The authors used bibliometric analysis to create indices for both the percentage of articles a journal publishes on business and management education (BME) research and the relative scholarly impact an article is likely to have after being published in that journal. They envision that the dissemination of these indices will be helpful for scholars…

  1. [Effect of UV index in the skin exposure].

    PubMed

    Gerbaudo, Mabel; Dionisio de Cabalier, María E

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted from October 2003 to March 2005, collecting data through the measuring authorized volunteers measuring their photoexposition . It worked with the equipment (Safesun from Optix Tech, Inc.), available for measuring. The radiation impact of solar on the city of Cordoba, was chosen measurements for a clear spot on the terrace of the Observatory Environmental Laprida located at 854, in a position that excedes level approximately 30 meters from Piazza San Martin (centerhistoric city). It had two fixed radiation sensors total solar and ultraviolet A radiation sensor manual ultraviolet calibrated according to the erythemal response of skin measuring human ultraviolet index and the maximum exposure timer ecommended for different skin types (Safesun from Optix Tech, Inc.).The aim of this study was to measure the rate and exposure ultraviolet (UV) to evaluate the erythemal effect on most sensitive areas of the face and neck to noon fotoexposición solar in the four annual seasons, and thus promote extending protection regulations to prevent the effects harmful UV non-ionizing radiation. The analysis of the data, UV index values indicate that from the Winter season is observed to undergo the risk of exposure excessive radiation at noon solar day is measured with high Fall UV index is high in spring and high-very high and with days end in the Summer season daily with UV index very high and extreme. This risk remains in the four annual seasons and according to the criteria of the World Health Organization is need to perform significant work to develop measures, education campaigns and outreach, which tend to diminish the sun exposure, hours with the highest incidence of lightning ultraviolet in the four annual seasons. The global environmental degradation and thus destruction of the ozone layer, has been a direct cause of the increase in ultraviolet radiation on earth, which resulted increased rates of cancer incidence and prevalence skin, within the

  2. Immersion exposure system using high-index materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Keita; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Mori, Sunao; Yamada, Akihiro; Ogusu, Makoto; Yamashita, Keiji; Nishikawara, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Takatoshi; Hasegawa, Noriyasu; Hara, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2008-03-01

    ArF water immersion systems with a numerical aperture (NA) of over 1.3 have already introduced for the node up to 45- nm half-pitch production. For the next generation of lithography, we focus on ArF immersion lithography using high-index materials. At present, LuAG (n=2.14) is the most promising candidate as a high-index lens material. Second-generation fluids (n=1.64) have the sufficient performance as a high-index immersion fluid. The combination of LuAG and a second-generation fluid can enhance the NA up to 1.55 and the exposure system would be available for the 34-nm half-pitch node when k1 is 0.27. Although high-index immersion lithography is attractive since it is effective in raising resolution, there are some issues not encountered in water immersion system. The issues of LuAG are its availability and the intrinsic birefringence. Fluid degradation induced by dissolved oxygen or laser irradiation, lens contamination, and residual fluid on a wafer are the specific issues of the immersion system. In this article, we introduce the current status for the above issues and discuss the feasibility of ArF immersion system using high-index materials.

  3. The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

  4. The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

  5. The impact of processing delay on the exposure index value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, M. L.; Brennan, P. C.; Last, J.; Rainford, L.

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography poses the risk of unnoticed increases in patient dose. Manufacturers responded to this by offering an exposure index (EI) value to clinicians. Use of the EI value in clinical practice is encouraged by the American College of Radiology and American Association of Physicists in Medicine. This study assesses the impact of processing delay on the EI value. An anthropormorphic phantom was used to simulate three radiographic examinations; skull, pelvis and chest. For each examination, the phantom was placed in the optimal position and exposures were chosen in accordance with international guidelines. A Carestream (previously Kodak) computed radiography system was used. The imaging plate was exposed, and processing was delayed in various increments from 30 seconds to 24 hours, representing common delays in clinical practice. The EI value was recorded for each exposure. The EI value decreased considerably with increasing processing delay. The EI value decreased by 100 within 25 minutes delay for the chest, and 20 minutes for the skull and pelvis. Within 1 hour, the EI value had fallen by 180, 160 and 100 for the chest, skull and pelvis respectively. After 24 hours, the value had decreased by 370, 350 and 340 for the chest, skull and pelvis respectively, representing to the clinician more then a halving of exposure to the detector in Carestream systems. The assessment of images using EI values should be approached with caution in clinical practice when delays in processing occur. The use of EI values as a feedback mechanism is questioned.

  6. Evaluation of digital radiography practice using exposure index tracking.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alexander W; Zhou, Yifang; Allahverdian, Janet; Nute, Jessica L; Lee, Christina

    2016-11-08

    Some digital radiography (DR) detectors and software allow for remote download of exam statistics, including image reject status, body part, projection, and exposure index (EI). The ability to have automated data collection from multiple DR units is conducive to a quality control (QC) program monitoring institutional radiographic exposures. We have implemented such a QC program with the goal to identify outliers in machine radiation output and opportunities for improvement in radiation dose levels. We studied the QC records of four digital detectors in greater detail on a monthly basis for one year. Although individual patient entrance skin exposure varied, the radiation dose levels to the detectors were made to be consistent via phototimer recalibration. The exposure data stored on each digital detector were periodically downloaded in a spreadsheet format for analysis. EI median and stan-dard deviation were calculated for each protocol (by body part) and EI histograms were created for torso protocols. When histograms of EI values for different units were compared, we observed differences up to 400 in average EI (representing 60% difference in radiation levels to the detector) between units nominally cali-brated to the same EI. We identified distinct components of the EI distributions, which in some cases, had mean EI values 300 apart. Peaks were observed at the current calibrated EI, a previously calibrated EI, and an EI representing computed radiography (CR) techniques. Our findings in this ongoing project have allowed us to make useful interventions, from emphasizing the use of phototimers instead of institutional memory of manual techniques to improvements in our phototimer calibration. We believe that this QC program can be implemented at other sites and can reveal problems with radiation levels in the aggregate that are difficult to identify on a case-by-case basis.

  7. Business Education Index 1987. Volume 48. Index of Business Education Articles, Research Studies, and Textbooks Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals, Publishers, and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Rosemarie, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This index lists business education articles, research studies, and textbooks that were compiled from a selected list of periodicals, publishers, and yearbooks published during 1987. A total of 19 general publications and 48 periodicals were indexed. The materials are indexed under 94 subject headings, including the following: accounting,…

  8. Refractive index change during exposure for 193-nm chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Keun; Sohn, Young-Soo; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Eun-Mi; Byun, Sung Hwan; An, Ilsin; Lee, Kun-Sang; Park, In-Ho

    1999-06-01

    Some of the important areas to be improved for lithography simulation are getting correct exposure parameters and determining the change of refractive index. It is known that the real and imaginary refractive indices are changed during exposure. We obtained these refractive index changes during exposure for 193 nm chemically amplified resists. The variations of the transmittance as well as the resist thickness were measured during ArF excimer laser exposure. We found that the refractive index change is directly related to the concentration of the photo acid generator and de-protected resin. It is important to know the exact values of acid concentration from the exposure parameters since a small difference in acid concentration magnifies the variation in the amplified de-protection during post exposure bake. We developed and used a method to extract Dill ABC exposure parameters for 193 nm chemically amplified resist from the refractive index change upon exposure.

  9. Paediatric entrance doses from exposure index in computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, E.; Martinez, D.; Fernandez, J. M.; Ordiales, J. M.; Prieto, C.; Floriano, A.; Ten, J. I.

    2008-06-01

    Over the last two years we have evaluated paediatric patient doses in projection radiography derived from exposure level (EL) in computed radiography (CR) in a large university hospital. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for 3501 paediatric examinations was calculated from the EL, which is a dose index parameter related to the light emitted by the phosphor-stimulable plate, archived in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) header of the images and automatically transferred to a database using custom-built dedicated software. Typical mean thicknesses for several age bands of paediatric patients was estimated to calculate ESAK from the EL values, using results of experimental measurements with phantoms for the typical x-ray beam qualities used in paediatric examinations. Mean/median ESAK values (in µGy) for the age bands of <1 year, 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years have been obtained for chest without a bucky: 51/41, 57/34, 91/54 and 122/109; chest with a bucky (for only the last three age bands): 114/87, 129/105 and 219/170; abdomen: 119/91, 291/225, 756/600 and 1960/1508 and pelvis: 65/48, 455/314, 943/707 and 2261/1595. Sample sizes of clinical images used for the (indirect) measurements were 1724 for chest without a bucky, 799 for chest with a bucky, 337 for abdomen and 641 for pelvis. The methodology we describe could be applicable to other centres using CR as an imaging modality for paediatrics. Presently, this method is the only practical approach to automatically extract parameters contained in the DICOM header, for the calculation of patient dose values for the CR modality.

  10. Mapping Exposure to Multi-Pollutants Using Environmental Biomonitors-A Multi-Exposure Index.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Helena C; Köbel, Melanie; Palma-Oliveira, José; Pinho, Pedro; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Atmosphere is a major pathway for transport and deposition of pollutants in the environment. In industrial areas, organic compounds are released or formed as by-products, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F's). Inorganic chemical elements, including lead and arsenic, are also part of the pollutants mixture, and even in low concentrations may potentially be toxic and carcinogenic. However, assessing the spatial pattern of their deposition is difficult due to high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Lichens have been used as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition, because these organisms encompass greater spatial detail than air monitoring stations and provide an integration of overall pollution. Based upon the ability of lichens to concentrate pollutants such as PCDD/F and chemical elements, the main objectives of this study were to develop a new semi-quantitative multi-pollutant toxicity exposure index (TEQ-like), derived from risk estimates, in an attempt to correlate several atmospheric pollutants to human exposure levels. The actual pollutant concentrations were measured in the environment, from biomonitors (organisms that integrate multi-pollutants), enabling interpolation and mapping of contaminant deposition within the region. Thus, the TEQ-like index provides a spatial representation not from absolute accumulation of the different pollutants, but from the accumulation weighted by their relative risk. The assessment of environmental human exposure to multi-pollutants through atmospheric deposition may be applied to industries to improve mitigation processes or to health stakeholders to target populations for a comprehensive risk assessment, epidemiological studies, and health recommendations.

  11. [Reliability and validity of a generic job exposure matrix applied on a small-business].

    PubMed

    Haro-García, Luis; Celis-Quintal, Germán; López-Rojas, Pablo; Sánchez-Román, Francisco Raúl; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo

    2007-01-01

    to evaluate the reliability and validity of a generic job exposure matrix (JEM) applied in a small business. procedures to evaluate a JEM integrated by six sections: the number of exposed workers per area, frequency of exposure, time of exposure time, level of exposure, safety controls, and proximity to source of exposure, was evaluated. The JEM also obtains information about possible health effects from exposure to occupational/environment agents. Two observers estimated the risk of exposure to epoxy resins on 31 workers of an epoxy resin facility in Mexico City. The rater agreements between the two observers were assessed through percent agreement (PA), weighted kappa (kappa(w)) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). disagreements were greater for the number of exposed workers (PA = 61.3, kappa(w) = 0.24, ICC = 0.33), level of exposure (PA= 66.7, kappa(w) = 0.25, ICC= 0.56), and safety controls (PA = 54.8, kappa(w) = 0.23, ICC = 0.69) sections. Percent agreement and kappa(w) were 64% and 0.58, respectively. In accordance with Landis and Koch, Altman, Fleiss, and Byrt classifications for the interpretation of kappa value, the weighted kappa (0.58) ranged from moderate to a fair good level. despite the discordance in some sections, the JEM proved to be useful to identify the risk of exposure in this type of small business.

  12. [Proposal of a concise index for the evaluation of the exposure to repetitive movements of the upper extremity (OCRA index)].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D

    1996-01-01

    In the light of data and speculation contained in the literature, and based on procedures illustrated in a previous research project in which the authors describe and evaluate occupational risk factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs), this article proposes a method for calculating a concise index of exposure to repetitive movements of the upper limbs. The proposal, which still has to be substantiated and validated by further studies and applications, is conceptually based on the procedure recommended by the NIOSH for calculating the Lifting Index in manual load handling activities. The concise exposure index (OCRA index) in this case is based on the relationship between the daily number of actions actually performed by the upper limbs in repetitive tasks, and the corresponding number of recommended actions. The latter are calculated on the basis of a constant (30 actions per minute) which represents the action frequency factor, and is valid-hypothetically-under so-called optimal conditions; the constant is diminished case by case (using appropriate factors) as a function of the presence and characteristics of the other risk factors (force, posture, complementary elements, recovery periods). Although still experimental, the exposure index can be used to obtain an integrated and concise assessment of the various risk factors analysed, and to classify occupational scenarios featuring significant and diversified exposure to such risk factors.

  13. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  14. Methods to Calculate the Heat Index as an Exposure Metric in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Peng, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental health research employs a variety of metrics to measure heat exposure, both to directly study the health effects of outdoor temperature and to control for temperature in studies of other environmental exposures, including air pollution. To measure heat exposure, environmental health studies often use heat index, which incorporates both air temperature and moisture. However, the method of calculating heat index varies across environmental studies, which could mean that studies using different algorithms to calculate heat index may not be comparable. Objective and Methods: We investigated 21 separate heat index algorithms found in the literature to determine a) whether different algorithms generate heat index values that are consistent with the theoretical concepts of apparent temperature and b) whether different algorithms generate similar heat index values. Results: Although environmental studies differ in how they calculate heat index values, most studies’ heat index algorithms generate values consistent with apparent temperature. Additionally, most different algorithms generate closely correlated heat index values. However, a few algorithms are potentially problematic, especially in certain weather conditions (e.g., very low relative humidity, cold weather). To aid environmental health researchers, we have created open-source software in R to calculate the heat index using the U.S. National Weather Service’s algorithm. Conclusion: We identified 21 separate heat index algorithms used in environmental research. Our analysis demonstrated that methods to calculate heat index are inconsistent across studies. Careful choice of a heat index algorithm can help ensure reproducible and consistent environmental health research. Citation: Anderson GB, Bell ML, Peng RD. 2013. Methods to calculate the heat index as an exposure metric in environmental health research. Environ Health Perspect 121:1111–1119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206273

  15. DSSTox chemical-index files for exposure-related ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) ARYEXP and GEOGSE files are newly published, structure-annotated files of the chemical-associated and chemical exposure-related summary experimental content contained in the ArrayExpress Repository and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Series (based on data extracted on September 20, 2008). ARYEXP and GEOGSE contain 887 and 1064 unique chemical substances mapped to 1835 and 2381 chemical exposure-related experiment accession IDs, respectively. The standardized files allow one to assess, compare and search the chemical content in each resource, in the context of the larger DSSTox toxicology data network, as well as across large public cheminformatics resources such as PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) ARYEXP and GEOGSE files are newly published, structure-annotated files of the chemical-associated and chemical exposure-related summary experimental content contained in the ArrayExpress Repository and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Series (based on data extracted on September 20, 2008). ARYEXP and GEOGSE contain 887 and 1064 unique chemical substances mapped to 1835 and 2381 chemical exposure-related experiment accession IDs, respectively. The standardized files allow one to assess, compare and search the chemical content in each resource, in the context of the larger DSSTox toxicology data network, as well as across large public cheminformatics resourc

  16. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  17. Relationships between ambient ozone regimes and white clover forage production using different ozone exposure indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heagle, Allen S.; Stefanski, Leonard A.

    Plant responses to seasonal exposure to tropospheric ozone (O 3) are mediated by interactions with physical and genetic factors that complicate attempts to develop a measure of O 3 exposure (exposure index) that best relates to plant response. Dozens of exposure indexes have been tested for best fit to yield response data from open-top chamber studies. These tests have limited applicability because of possible confounding caused by variability in experimental protocols used in chamber dose-response studies. A 2-yr study in ambient air at eight locations in the USA measured relative effects of ambient O 3 on forage weight of a sensitive (NC-S) and a resistant (NC-R) clone of white clover. Protocols included uniform growth medium, irrigation, exposure duration and genetics (clones). Plants were harvested to determine NC-S/NC-R forage biomass ratios after each of four 28-day periods. High ratios indicated low O 3 concentrations, and low ratios indicated high concentrations. We used these results in attempts to identify the relative suitability of several exposure indexes in defining O 3 exposure-forage biomass relationships. Indexes were calculated using combinations of O 3 exposure forms (SUM00, SUM06, W95, W126, and AOT04), diurnal and seasonal accumulating times and harvests. Squared correlations ( r2's) between the index and biomass ratio were used as a general indication of relative suitability of the different indexes. Squared correlations were much higher for indexes coupled with harvests 2, 3 and 4, than for harvest 1. Even higher r2's occurred for indexes coupled with the combined mean forage ratio for harvests 2, 3 and 4. Squared correlations were most sensitive to the choice of hourly averaging times. Lowest r2's occurred for the 24 h accumulating period, much higher r2's occurred for the 12 h daylight period, and the highest r2's occurred for periods of 6 h or less during midday, regardless of all other factors. The exposure form was important only for 24

  18. Development of a Composite Trauma Exposure Risk Index

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honghu; Prause, Nicole; Wyatt, Gail E.; Williams, John K.; Chin, Dorothy; Davis, Teri; Loeb, Tamra; Marchand, Erica; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.

    2015-01-01

    The high burden of exposure to chronic life adversities and trauma is quite prevalent, but assessment of this risk burden is uncommon in primary care settings. This calls for a brief, multiple dimensional mental health risk screening tool in primary care settings. We aimed to develop such a screening tool named the UCLA Life Adversities Screener (LADS). Using pooled data across four studies from the UCLA Center for Culture, Trauma and Mental Health Disparities, five domains of mental health risk including perceived discrimination, sexual abuse histories, family adversity, interpersonal violence, and trauma histories, were identified. Regression models for depression (Centers for Epidemiology Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)) and PTSD (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS)), controlling for demographic factors, were fitted to to develop a weighted continuous scale score for the UCLA LADS. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the five-domain structure, while Item Response Theory (IRT) endorsed the inclusion of each item. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the score was predictive for classifying subjects as reaching clinical threshold criteria for either depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) ≥14 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) or anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire-13 (PHQ-13) ≥10). An optimal cut of 0.33 is suggested based on maximizing sensitivity and specificity of the LADS score, identifying patients at high risk for mental health problems. Given its predictive utility and ease of administration, the UCLA LADS could be useful as a screener to identify racial minority individuals in primary care settings who have a high trauma burden, needing more extensive evaluation. PMID:25984638

  19. Development of a composite trauma exposure risk index.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honghu; Prause, Nicole; Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Chin, Dorothy; Davis, Teri; Loeb, Tamra; Marchand, Erica; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F

    2015-09-01

    The high burden of exposure to chronic life adversities and trauma is quite prevalent, but assessment of this risk burden is uncommon in primary care settings. This calls for a brief, multiple dimensional mental health risk screening tool in primary care settings. We aimed to develop such a screening tool named the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Life Adversities Screener (LADS). Using pooled data across 4 studies from the UCLA Center for Culture, Trauma, and Mental Health Disparities, 5 domains of mental health risk including perceived discrimination, sexual abuse histories, family adversity, intimate partner violence, and trauma histories, were identified. Regression models for depression (Centers for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), controlling for demographic factors, were fitted to develop a weighted continuous scale score for the UCLA LADS. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 5-domain structure, while item response theory endorsed the inclusion of each item. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the score was predictive for classifying subjects as reaching clinical threshold criteria for either depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II ≥ 14 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ≥ 10) or anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire-13 ≥10). An optimal cut of 0.33 is suggested based on maximizing sensitivity and specificity of the LADS score, identifying patients at high risk for mental health problems. Given its predictive utility and ease of administration, the UCLA LADS could be useful as a screener to identify racial minority individuals in primary care settings who have a high trauma burden, needing more extensive evaluation.

  20. Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies.

  1. Retrospective Assessment of Exposure to Chemicals for a Microelectronics and Business Machine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Donald A.; Woskie, Susan R.; Jones, James H.; Silver, Sharon R.; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969–2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

  2. The Social Progress Index in International Business Site Selection: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Sandra K.

    2016-01-01

    International businesses face a difficult task when trying to decide where to place or expand a business that could be located anywhere in the world. Each country is a complex system of human capabilities, technical systems, [infrastructure bases, laws, cultures and economic systems. How can a company know which country is best for it today, and…

  3. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Luis; Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making.

  4. Patient dose, gray level and exposure index with a computed radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. R.; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-02-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is gradually replacing conventional screen-film system in Brazil. To assess image quality, manufactures provide the calculation of an exposure index through the acquisition software of the CR system. The objective of this study is to verify if the CR image can be used as an evaluator of patient absorbed dose too, through a relationship between the entrance skin dose and the exposure index or the gray level values obtained in the image. The CR system used for this study (Agfa model 30-X with NX acquisition software) calculates an exposure index called Log of the Median (lgM), related to the absorbed dose to the IP. The lgM value depends on the average gray level (called Scan Average Level (SAL)) of the segmented pixel value histogram of the whole image. A Rando male phantom was used to simulate a human body (chest and head), and was irradiated with an X-ray equipment, using usual radiologic techniques for chest exams. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF, TLD100) were used to evaluate entrance skin dose and exit dose. The results showed a logarithm relation between entrance dose and SAL in the image center, regardless of the beam filtration. The exposure index varies linearly with the entrance dose, but the angular coefficient is beam quality dependent. We conclude that, with an adequate calibration, the CR system can be used to evaluate the patient absorbed dose.

  5. The relationship of metal exposure and condition index in Potamocorbula amurensis in San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.L.; Luoma, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    Trends in condition index were examined to assess the effects of metal exposure on the bivalve, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay. P. amurensis is a euryhaline filter feeder used as a biosentinel of metal contamination in San Francisco Bay. Condition index, metal concentration, and metal content were determined monthly since November, 1990 at 6 sites. Condition index (Cl) is the weight of a 15 mm clam interpolated from the regression of weight and length at each site and time. The Cl was lower where metal concentration and content were higher. The Cl of P. amurensis over 4 years ranged from 13--19 mg in the upstream region of the North Bay where total metal exposure (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) was greatest. The Cl ranged from 19--28 mg in the downstream region of the North Bay and at a site in the South Bay where total metal exposure was lowest. Seasonal trends in Cl, indicative of changes in reproductive status, were absent in regions of high, variable metal exposure. There were strong seasonal trends in the Cl in regions of low, less variable metal exposure. Temporal changes in Ag and Cd appear to have the strongest relationship with Cl in areas where tissue concentrations of these metals were high. Where metals appear to influence Cl, those influences may interact with other factors such as salinity and availability of food.

  6. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile

    PubMed Central

    Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making. PMID:27606592

  7. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Carotid Arteries Calcification Index in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-07-01

    The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C). The tested group was subjected to computed tomography angiography of carotid arteries. Evaluation of the carotid arteries calcification indexes was conducted. The average value of the total calcification index of the carotid arteries (CAci) amounted to 368.28 ± 384.21. In subgroup A and B in relation to subgroup C, CAci was significantly higher. In summary, active and passive smoking in patients with essential hypertension may be associated with a higher calcification index of carotid arteries.

  8. Assessing exposure to allied ground troops in the Vietnam War: a quantitative evaluation of the Stellman Exposure Opportunity Index model.

    PubMed

    Ginevan, Michael E; Watkins, Deborah K; Ross, John H; O'Boyle, Randy A

    2009-06-01

    The Exposure Opportunity Index (EOI) is a proximity-based model developed to estimate relative exposure of ground troops in Vietnam to aerially applied herbicides. We conducted a detailed quantitative evaluation of the EOI model by using actual herbicide spray missions isolated in time and space. EOI scores were calculated for each of 36 hypothetical receptor location points associated with each spray mission for 30 herbicide missions for two time periods - day of herbicide application and day 2-3 post-application. Our analysis found an enormous range of EOI predictions with 500-1000-fold differences across missions directly under the flight path. This quantitative examination of the EOI suggests that extensive testing of the model's code is warranted. Researchers undertaking development of a proximity-based exposure model for epidemiologic studies of either Vietnam veterans or the Vietnamese population should conduct a thorough and realistic analysis of how precise and accurate the model results are likely to be and then assess whether the model results provide a useful basis for their planned epidemiologic studies.

  9. SU-E-I-27: Establishing Target Exposure Index Values for Computed Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, N; Tchou, P; Belcher, K; Scott, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a standard set of target exposure index (TEI) values to be applied to Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) readers in accordance with International Electrotechnical Committee 62494-1 (ed. 1.0). Methods: A large data cohort was collected from six USAF Medical Treatment Facilities that exclusively use Agfa CR Readers. Dose monitoring statistics were collected from each reader. The data was analyzed based on anatomic region, view, and processing speed class. The Agfa specific exposure metric, logarithmic mean (LGM), was converted to exposure index (EI) for each data set. The optimum TEI value was determined by minimizing the number of studies that fell outside the acceptable deviation index (DI) range of +/− 2 for phototimed techniques or a range of +/−3 for fixed techniques. An anthropomorphic radiographic phantom was used to corroborate the TEI recommendations. Images were acquired of several anatomic regions and views using standard techniques. The images were then evaluated by two radiologists as either acceptable or unacceptable. The acceptable image with the lowest exposure and EI value was compared to the recommended TEI values using a passing DI range. Results: Target EI values were determined for a comprehensive list of anatomic regions and views. Conclusion: Target EI values must be established on each CR unit in order to provide a positive feedback system for the technologist. This system will serve as a mechanism to prevent under or overexposures of patients. The TEI recommendations are a first attempt at a large scale process improvement with the goal of setting reasonable and standardized TEI values. The implementation and effectiveness of the recommended TEI values should be monitored and adjustments made as necessary.

  10. Franchise Index/Profile: A Franchise Evaluation Process. Small Business Management Series No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigelman, C. R.

    The book is presented as an aid to those who have decided to invest in, or who are seriously interested in investigating, a franchise opportunity. The material presented is an index of basic information a person should have about a particular franchise to enable him to make a valid determination as to whether or not a specific franchise is the…

  11. Concentration-time exposure index for modeling soil fumigation under various management scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; He, J M; Knuteson, J A

    2004-01-01

    Best management decisions in soil fumigation require informed management selections of soil type, field geometry, application dosage, and depth to maximize fumigant distribution for efficacy and minimize off-site transport for environmental safety. An efficacy- or exposure-based concentration-time exposure index (CTEI) was used to serve as a continuous quantitative efficacy assessment for soil fumigation by subsurface drip irrigation using numerical model simulations. The CTEI was defined as the ratio between the soil volume where concentration-time (CT) exceeded a threshold value for a particular pest-fumigant combination and the total soil volume required for fumigation treatment. Applications of CTEI as a simple efficacy index were demonstrated by simulating combinations of three soil types (loam, sandy loam, sand); three field configurations consisting of 102- and 203-cm-wide bed systems and a flat surface system; three application depths (15, 30, 45 cm); and two application rates (82 and 327 kg ha(-1)) for 1,3-dichloropropene against citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) using a threshold air-phase CT value of 12 microg h cm(-3) obtained from a separate field study. For soil fumigation by subsurface drip irrigation, the order of importance in optimizing CTEI was soil type, depth of application and depth of treatment, dosage, and field configuration. Model simulation using CTEI as a numeric efficacy index can be an effective alternative to assist in the planning of field trials for making final management decisions concerning soil fumigation or other pesticide applications.

  12. Short-Term Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Influences on Placental Vascularization Indexes.

    PubMed

    Hettfleisch, Karen; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Carvalho, Mariana Azevedo; Pastro, Luciana Duzolina Manfré; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Saldiva, Silvia R D M; Saldiva, Paulo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2017-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that air pollution can affect human health and that certain pollutant gases lead to adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. We evaluated the influence of individual maternal exposure to air pollution on placental volume and vascularization evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study on low-risk pregnant women living in São Paulo, Brazil. The women carried passive personal NO2 and O3 monitors in the week preceding evaluation. We employed the virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) technique using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound to evaluate placental volume and placental vascular indexes [vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI)]. We analyzed the influence of pollutant levels on log-transformed placental vascularization and volume using multiple regression models. We evaluated 229 patients. Increased NO2 levels had a significant negative association with log of VI (p = 0.020 and beta = -0.153) and VFI (p = 0.024 and beta = -0.151). NO2 and O3 had no influence on the log of placental volume or FI. NO2, an estimator of primary air pollutants, was significantly associated with diminished VI and VFI in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  14. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). Purpose To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Methods Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Results Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Conclusions Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR. PMID:26229619

  15. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  16. Early-Life Bisphenol A Exposure and Child Body Mass Index: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, Bruce P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Deria, Sirad; Khoury, Jane; Howe, Chanelle J.; Venners, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase childhood obesity risk, but few prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this relationship. Objective: We sought to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) at 2–5 years of age in 297 mother–child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (HOME Study). Methods: Urinary BPA concentrations were measured in samples collected from pregnant women during the second and third trimesters and their children at 1 and 2 years of age. BMI z-scores were calculated from weight/height measures conducted annually from 2 through 5 years of age. We used linear mixed models to estimate BMI differences or trajectories with increasing creatinine-normalized BPA concentrations. Results: After confounder adjustment, each 10-fold increase in prenatal (β = –0.1; 95% CI: –0.5, 0.3) or early-childhood (β = –0.2; 95% CI: –0.6, 0.1) BPA concentrations was associated with a modest and nonsignificant reduction in child BMI. These inverse associations were suggestively stronger in girls than in boys [prenatal effect measure modification (EMM) p-value = 0.30, early-childhood EMM p-value = 0.05], but sex-specific associations were imprecise. Children in the highest early-childhood BPA tercile had lower BMI at 2 years (difference = –0.3; 95% CI: –0.6, 0.0) and larger increases in their BMI slope from 2 through 5 years (BMI increase per year = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) than children in the lowest tercile (BMI increase per year = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13). All associations were attenuated without creatinine normalization. Conclusions: Prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures were not associated with increased BMI at 2–5 years of age, but higher early-childhood BPA exposures were associated with accelerated growth during this period. Citation: Braun JM, Lanphear BP, Calafat AM, Deria S, Khoury J, Howe CJ, Venners SA. 2014. Early-life bisphenol A exposure and

  17. Early Childhood Poverty, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and Body Mass Index Trajectories Through Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gary W.; Beavis, Anna; Ong, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether cumulative risk exposure underlies the relation between early childhood poverty and body mass index (BMI) trajectories. Methods. We interviewed youths and their mothers in rural upstate New York (168 boys and 158 girls) from 1995 to 2006 when the youths were aged 9, 13, and 17 years. At each interview, we calculated their BMI-for-age percentile. Results. Early childhood poverty predicted BMI growth trajectories from ages 9 to 17 years (b = 3.64; SE = 1.39; P < .01). Early childhood poverty also predicted changes in cumulative risk (b = 0.31; SE = 0.08; P < .001). Cumulative risk, in turn, predicted BMI trajectories (b = 2.41; SE = 0.75; P < .01). Finally, after we controlled for cumulative risk, the effect of early childhood poverty on BMI trajectories was no longer significant, indicating that cumulative risk exposure mediated the relation between early childhood poverty and BMI trajectories (b = 2.01; SE = 0.94). Conclusions. We show for the first time that early childhood poverty leads to accelerated weight gain over the course of childhood into early adulthood. Cumulative risk exposure during childhood accounts for much of this accelerated weight gain. PMID:20966374

  18. Early childhood poverty, cumulative risk exposure, and body mass index trajectories through young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W; Beavis, Anna; Ong, Anthony D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed whether cumulative risk exposure underlies the relation between early childhood poverty and body mass index (BMI) trajectories. We interviewed youths and their mothers in rural upstate New York (168 boys and 158 girls) from 1995 to 2006 when the youths were aged 9, 13, and 17 years. At each interview, we calculated their BMI-for-age percentile. Early childhood poverty predicted BMI growth trajectories from ages 9 to 17 years (b = 3.64; SE = 1.39; P < .01). Early childhood poverty also predicted changes in cumulative risk (b = 0.31; SE = 0.08; P < .001). Cumulative risk, in turn, predicted BMI trajectories (b = 2.41; SE = 0.75; P < .01). Finally, after we controlled for cumulative risk, the effect of early childhood poverty on BMI trajectories was no longer significant, indicating that cumulative risk exposure mediated the relation between early childhood poverty and BMI trajectories (b = 2.01; SE = 0.94). We show for the first time that early childhood poverty leads to accelerated weight gain over the course of childhood into early adulthood. Cumulative risk exposure during childhood accounts for much of this accelerated weight gain.

  19. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13–17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.12–0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30–1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09–30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  20. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth.

  1. Associations between different measures of anticholinergic drug exposure and Barthel Index in older hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Soiza, Roy L; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare associations between four measures of anticholinergic exposure (anticholinergic risk scale, ARS; anticholinergic drug burden, DBAC; number and use versus no use of anticholinergic drugs), Barthel Index (BI, physical function) and Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT, cognitive function) on admission in older hospitalized patients. Methods: Prospective observational study of a consecutive series of 271 older patients (age 83 ± 7 years) from community-dwelling and institutionalized settings, admitted to an acute geriatric admission unit between 28 September 2011 and 18 December 2011. The main outcome measures were BI quartiles (primary outcome) and AMT (secondary outcome) on admission. Results: Anticholinergic prevalence was 47%. Multinomial logistic regression showed higher DBAC was associated with a greater risk of being in the lower BI quartiles versus highest BI quartile (Q4). This risk was significant for Q3 (p = 0.04) and Q2 (p = 0.02) but not for Q1 (p = 0.06). A greater number of anticholinergic drugs was associated with a higher risk of being in Q2 (p = 0.02). This risk was not significant for either Q3 (p = 0.10) or Q1 (p = 0.06). No significant associations were observed either with use of anticholinergic medication or with ARS and BI quartiles. AMT did not show independent associations with any of the four measures of anticholinergic exposure. Conclusion: In older hospitalized patients, DBAC and some crude measures of anticholinergic exposure, but not ARS, showed independent associations with lower BI, but not AMT. These results highlight differences between various measures of anticholinergic drug exposure when studying their associations with functional status. PMID:25114784

  2. Are exposure index values consistent in clinical practice? A multi-manufacturer investigation.

    PubMed

    Butler, M L; Rainford, L; Last, J; Brennan, P C

    2010-01-01

    The advent of digital radiography poses the risk of unnoticed increases in patient dose. Manufacturers have responded to this by offering an exposure index (EI) value to the clinician. Whilst the EI value is a measure of the air kerma at the detector surface, it has been recommended by international agencies as a method of monitoring radiation dose to the patient. Recent studies by the group have shown that EI values are being used in clinical practice to monitor radiation dose and assess image quality. This study aims to compare the clinical consistency of the EI value in computed radiography (CR) and direct digital radiography (DR) systems. An anthropormorphic phantom was used to simulate four common radiographic examinations: skull, pelvis, chest and hand. These examinations were chosen as they provide contrasting exposure parameters, image detail and radiation dose measurements. Four manufacturers were used for comparison: Agfa Gaevert CR, Carestream CR, Philips Digital Diagnost DR and Siemens DR. For each examination, the phantom was placed in the optimal position and exposure parameters were chosen in accordance with European guidelines and clinical practice. Multiple exposures were taken and the EI recorded. All exposure parameters and clinical conditions remained constant throughout. For both DR systems, the EI values remained consistent throughout. No significant change was noted in any examination. In both CR systems, there were noteworthy fluctuations in the EI values for all examinations. The largest for the Agfa system was a variation of 1.88-2.21 for the skull examination. This represents to the clinician a doubling of detector dose, despite all exposure parameters remaining constant. In the Kodak system, the largest fluctuation was seen for the chest examination where the EI ranged from 2560 to 2660, representing approximately an increase of 30 % in radiation dose, despite consistent parameters. The fluctuations seen with the CR systems are most

  3. Evaluation of the effects of subject thickness on the exposure index in digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Takeshi; Takeda, Kazuki; Murakami, Seiichi; Ogawa, Haruhisa; Ogawa, Masato; Sakamoto, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure index (EI) was proposed as a new X-ray dose index by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and has since been implemented as an international standard. The EI is calculated by use of an approximation equation under IEC-specified calibration conditions. However, several factors encountered in clinical practice, including the patient's body thickness and the tube voltage, differ with regard to these calibration conditions. We, therefore, require a solid water phantom-based function that can incorporate the IEC-specified conditions and different subject thicknesses to evaluate the effects of subject thickness on the EI. Here, we assumed average thicknesses of 10 cm for a child, 15 cm for slender patients, and 21 cm for an average adult abdomen and we evaluated errors, that are included in the EI, which were calculated by use of the function. Our results suggested that the EI depends on the subject thickness. At the 21-cm thickness (average adult abdomen), the display EI exhibited a small error level. In contrast, EI values calculated from the calibration conditions exhibited maximum errors that were as high as 34 % at the lower subject thicknesses (10 and 15 cm), suggesting a significant influence of the subject thickness on the EI. In conclusion, the EI should be used cautiously during the examination of children and thin patients, with a complete understanding of the discrepancy revealed by our study results.

  4. The Revised Strain Index: an improved upper extremity exposure assessment model.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2016-10-14

    The Revised Strain Index (RSI) is a distal upper extremity (DUE) physical exposure assessment model based on: intensity of exertion, frequency of exertion, duration per exertion, hand/wrist posture and duration of task per day. The RSI improves upon the 1995 Strain Index (SI) by using continuous rather than categorical multipliers, and replacing duty cycle with duration per exertion. In a simulation of 13,944 tasks, the RSI and 1995 SI showed good agreement in risk predictions for 1995 SI scores ≤3 (safe) and >13.5 (hazardous). For tasks with 1995 SI scores of >3 and ≤13.5, the two models showed marked disagreement, with the RSI providing much greater discriminations between 'safe' and 'hazardous' tasks for various combinations of force, repetition and duty cycle. We believe the RSI is a substantially improved model that will be useful for DUE task analysis, intervention and design. Practitioner Summary: RSI is a substantial improvement over the 1995 SI. It should be a valuable tool for designing and analysing tasks to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries. RSI is applicable to a wide variety of tasks including very low force and very high repetition tasks such as keyboard use.

  5. Experimental Optimization of Exposure Index and Quality of Service in Wlan Networks.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Vermeeren, Günter; Poorter, Eli De; Moerman, Ingrid; Goudos, Sotirios K; Luc, Martens; Wout, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the first real-life optimization of the Exposure Index (EI). A genetic optimization algorithm is developed and applied to three real-life Wireless Local Area Network scenarios in an experimental testbed. The optimization accounts for downlink, uplink and uplink of other users, for realistic duty cycles, and ensures a sufficient Quality of Service to all users. EI reductions up to 97.5% compared to a reference configuration can be achieved in a downlink-only scenario, in combination with an improved Quality of Service. Due to the dominance of uplink exposure and the lack of WiFi power control, no optimizations are possible in scenarios that also consider uplink traffic. However, future deployments that do implement WiFi power control can be successfully optimized, with EI reductions up to 86% compared to a reference configuration and an EI that is 278 times lower than optimized configurations under the absence of power control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chronic intermittent high altitude exposure, occupation, and body mass index in workers of mining industry.

    PubMed

    Esenamanova, Marina K; Kochkorova, Firuza A; Tsivinskaya, Tatyana A; Vinnikov, Denis; Aikimbaev, Kairgeldy

    2014-09-01

    The obesity and overweight rates in population exposed to chronic intermittent exposure to high altitudes are not well studied. The aim of the retrospective study was to evaluate whether there are differences in body mass index in different occupation groups working in intermittent shifts at mining industry at high altitude: 3800-4500 meters above sea level. Our study demonstrated that obesity and overweight are common in workers of high altitude mining industry exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. The obesity rate was lowest among miners as compared to blue- and white-collar employees (9.5% vs. 15.6% and 14.7%, p=0.013). Obesity and overweight were associated with older age, higher rates of increased blood pressure (8.79% and 5.72% vs. 1.92%), cholesterol (45.8% and 45.6% vs. 32.8%) and glucose (4.3% and 1.26% vs. 0.57%) levels as compared to normal body mass index category (p<0.0001 for all). There were differences in patterns of cholesterol and glucose levels in men and women employees according to occupation type. In conclusion, obesity and overweight rates are prevalent and associated with increase in blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels in workers of mining industry exposed to intermittent high-altitude hypoxia. Therefore, assessment and monitoring of body mass index seems to be essential in those who live and work at high altitudes to supply the correct nutrition, modify risk factors, and prevent related disorders.

  7. [The NSI (Noise Sensitivity Index)--a method for the demonstration of acute physical symptoms in noise exposure and combination exposure].

    PubMed

    Meister, A; Bening, Y; Brumm, L M

    1989-01-01

    The NSI (Noise Sensitive Index) is a method suitable for the single or repeated recording of acute, subjectively perceived bodily complaints caused by exposure against noise alone or combined with additional physical factors (e.g. physical load, high temperature) during the lapse of exposure. The paper describes the application of NSI in 6 experimental investigations. The results are indicative regarding their dependence on components of exposure and personality. If certain rules are taken into consideration, application, scoring and interpretation of NSI is easy, not very time consuming, and profitable.

  8. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  9. The impact of exposure misclassification on associations between prepregnancy body mass index and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Diesel, Jill C.; Abrams, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is a widely used marker of maternal nutritional status that relies on maternal self-report of prepregnancy weight and height. Pregravid BMI has been associated with adverse health outcomes for the mother and infant, but the impact of BMI misclassification on measures of effect has not been quantified. The authors applied published probabilistic bias analysis methods to quantify the impact of exposure misclassification bias on well-established associations between self-reported prepregnancy BMI category and five pregnancy outcomes (small- and large-for gestational age birth (SGA; LGA), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), gestational diabetes (GDM), and preeclampsia) derived from a hospital-based delivery database in Pittsburgh, PA (2003-2005; n=18 362). The bias analysis method recreates the data that would have been observed had BMI been correctly classified, assuming given classification parameters. The point estimates derived from the bias analysis account for random error as well as systematic error caused by exposure misclassification bias and additional uncertainty contributed by classification errors. In conventional multivariable logistic regression models, underweight women were at increased risk of SGA and sPTB, and reduced risk of LGA, while overweight, obese, and severely obese women had elevated risks of LGA, GDM, and preeclampsia compared with normal-weight women. After applying the probabilistic bias analysis method, adjusted point estimates were attenuated, indicating the conventional estimates were biased away from the null. However, the majority of relations remained readily apparent. This analysis suggests that in this population, associations between self-reported prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy outcomes are slightly overestimated. PMID:20168307

  10. DESICCATION INDEX: A MEASURE OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY ADVERSE AERIAL EXPOSURE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN AN OREGON (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) blade necrosis resulting from intertidal aerial exposure is describe. A desiccation index was developed to quantitatively assess this damage. This index was then used to evaluate the extent of desiccation damage across intertidal bathymetric slopes (st...

  11. DESICCATION INDEX: A MEASURE OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY ADVERSE AERIAL EXPOSURE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN AN OREGON (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) blade necrosis resulting from intertidal aerial exposure is describe. A desiccation index was developed to quantitatively assess this damage. This index was then used to evaluate the extent of desiccation damage across intertidal bathymetric slopes (st...

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Demographic Index of Cultural Exposure (DICE) in Two Mexican-Origin Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Rick A.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability and validity evidence is provided for the Demographic Index of Cultural Exposure (DICE), consisting of six demographic proxy indicators of acculturation, within two community samples of Mexican-origin adults (N= 497 for each sample). Factor analytic procedures were used to examine the common variance shared between the six demographic…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Demographic Index of Cultural Exposure (DICE) in Two Mexican-Origin Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Rick A.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability and validity evidence is provided for the Demographic Index of Cultural Exposure (DICE), consisting of six demographic proxy indicators of acculturation, within two community samples of Mexican-origin adults (N= 497 for each sample). Factor analytic procedures were used to examine the common variance shared between the six demographic…

  14. Unfinished business: Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) for post-1971 U.S. uranium underground miners.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Gary E; Dawson, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Congress enacted the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) in 1990 and amended it in 2000. Included for compensation were underground uranium miners who developed health problems related to radiation exposures. Neither the 1990 Act nor the 2000 Amendments covered post-1971 workers. In this article, we will examine regulatory history and scientific evidence used for the passage of RECA for the pre-1972 miners and will present evidence supporting the inclusion of the post-1971 workers.

  15. Validation of sun exposure and protection index (SEPI) for estimation of sun habits.

    PubMed

    Detert, H; Hedlund, S; Anderson, C D; Rodvall, Y; Festin, K; Whiteman, D C; Falk, M

    2015-12-01

    In both Sweden and Australia high incidence rates of skin cancer have become a major health problem. In prevention and risk communication, it is important to have reliable ways for identifying people with risky sun habits. In this study the validity and reliability of the questionnaire Sun Exposure Protection Index (SEPI), developed to assess individual's sun habits and their propensity to increase sun protection during routine, often brief, clinical encounters, has been evaluated. The aim of our study was to evaluate validity and reliability of the proposed SEPI scoring instrument, in two countries with markedly different ultraviolet radiation environments (Sweden and Australia). Two subpopulations in Sweden and Australia respectively were asked to fill out the SEPI together with the previously evaluated Readiness to Alter Sun Protective Behaviour questionnaire (RASP-B) and the associated Sun-protective Behaviours Questionnaire. To test reliability, the SEPI was again filled out by the subjects one month later. Comparison between SEPI and the questions in the Sun-protective Behaviours Questionnaire, analyzed with Spearman's Rho, showed good correlations regarding sun habits. Comparison between SEPI and RASP-B regarding propensity to increase sun protection showed concurrently lower SEPI mean scores for action stage, but no difference between precontemplation and contemplation stages. The SEPI test-retest analysis indicated stability over time. Internal consistency of the SEPI, assessed with Cronbach's alpha estimation showed values marginally lower than the desired >0.70 coefficient value generally recommended, and was somewhat negatively affected by the question on sunscreen use, likely related to the classic "sunscreen paradox". There were some differences in the performance of the SEPI between the Swedish and Australian samples, possibly due to the influence of "available" sunlight and differing attitudes to behaviour and protection "at home" and on vacation

  16. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Chen, B; Qian, J; Jin, L; Jin, T; Lu, D

    2010-03-01

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) > or =25 kg/m(2)) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  17. Exposure to electric power generator noise among small scale business operators in selected communities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ana, Godson R E E; Luqman, Yesufu A; Shendell, Derek G; Owoaje, Eme T

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate and erratic power supplies mean small businesses use electric generators for alternative power. The authors' goal in the study described here was to assess noise from electric generators and impacts in the commercial areas of Agbowo and Ajibode in Ibadan, Nigeria. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels [dBA]) were measured over 12 weeks, three times a day, during the 2010 dry season using a sound level meter. A questionnaire was administered (515 respondents; 304 in Agbowo, 211 in Ajibode) and audiometric measurements were conducted on 40% of respondents. Mean noise levels varied by source (104 ± 7.7 dBA [diesel], 94.0 ± 6.3 dBA [petrol]) and were highest midday (90.6 ± 5.3 dBA [Agbowo], 70.9 ± 6.2 dBA [Ajibode]). Mean noise levels in Agbowo (78.5 ± 3.9 dBA) and Ajibode (65.7 ± 4.4 dBA) exceeded World Health Organization guidelines (65 dBA) for outdoor commercial environments. Working and living in Agbowo was significantly associated with current evidence of hearing impairment (odds ratio: 6.8, 95% confidence interval: 3.4-13.7). Reducing exposure to noise from electric power generators serving urban small businesses and homes is warranted.

  18. Is Graduate Students' Research Exposure to Business Ethics Comprehensive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate-level education, at its core, has a focus on specific, in-depth disciplinary subject matter, with a strong emphasis on methods, conceptual framework, and research. For the developing student, exposure to both past and current research developments is mainly achieved by reading and studying articles published in leading journals in their…

  19. Seeing Green: Mere Exposure to Money Triggers a Business Decision Frame and Unethical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Brief, Arthur P.; Sousa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Can mere exposure to money corrupt? In four studies, we examined the likelihood of unethical outcomes when the construct of money was activated through the use of priming techniques. The results of Study 1 demonstrated that individuals primed with money were more likely to demonstrate unethical intentions than those in the control group. In Study…

  20. Seeing Green: Mere Exposure to Money Triggers a Business Decision Frame and Unethical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Brief, Arthur P.; Sousa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Can mere exposure to money corrupt? In four studies, we examined the likelihood of unethical outcomes when the construct of money was activated through the use of priming techniques. The results of Study 1 demonstrated that individuals primed with money were more likely to demonstrate unethical intentions than those in the control group. In Study…

  1. Is Graduate Students' Research Exposure to Business Ethics Comprehensive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate-level education, at its core, has a focus on specific, in-depth disciplinary subject matter, with a strong emphasis on methods, conceptual framework, and research. For the developing student, exposure to both past and current research developments is mainly achieved by reading and studying articles published in leading journals in their…

  2. Impact of Cultural Exposure on Young Chinese Students' Adaptation in a UK Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi; Harding, Richard; Mai, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study examines young Chinese students' (born post 1985) adaptation to cultural exposure in the UK. Built from data collected from in-depth interviews, the research establishes that, through direct communication with students from various cultural backgrounds during teamwork, the Chinese students adapt to varying degrees in ideology,…

  3. A bill to require the Small Business Administration to submit a regular National Small Business Index to Congress to assess how policies provide incentives or impediments to small business development.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2012-05-17

    Senate - 05/17/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Incorporating exposure information into the toxicological prioritization index decision support framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) decision support framework was previously developed to facilitate incorporation of diverse data to prioritize chemicals based on potential hazard. This ToxPi index was demonstrated by considering results of bioprofiling related to po...

  5. Incorporating exposure information into the toxicological prioritization index decision support framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) decision support framework was previously developed to facilitate incorporation of diverse data to prioritize chemicals based on potential hazard. This ToxPi index was demonstrated by considering results of bioprofiling related to po...

  6. Tulsa's IndEx Program. A Business-Led Initiative for Welfare Reform and Economic Development. Connections To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Maria L.

    In 1992, the Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce in Oklahoma established a welfare-to-work program called Industrial Exchange, Inc. (IndEx). IndEx provides welfare recipients with a combination of education activities and work experience. By contracting with local companies to perform light manufacturing and packaging work at a central site,…

  7. [The application of a synthetic index of exposure in the manual lifting of patients: the initial validation experiences].

    PubMed

    Battevi, N; Consonni, D; Menoni, O; Ricci, M G; Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D

    1999-01-01

    Via a multicentre study coordinated by the EPM research group carried out in 216 wards in a total of 56 hospitals, old peoples homes and geriatric departments, it was possible to quantify exposure to patient handling (classified in 4 classes: 0-1.5 negligible, 1.51-5 slight to average, 5.01-10 average to high, > 10 elevated), and at the same time identify the damage to the lumbosacral spine thus caused. Both assessment of exposure and identification of health impairment were carried out using homogeneous methods. Subjects with work seniority in the job of less than 6 months and subjects who had been transferred because of back trouble were excluded from the study. It was therefore possible to carry out two types of study to assess the association between exposure and impairment. In study A, covering 3021 subjects, an analysis was performed of the association between exposure index, positive response to the anamnestic threshold for lumbosacral disorders and acute low back pain using the method of logistic analysis to obtain the prevalence odds ratios. In study B, covering 418 subjects, the analysis of association was performed on the incidence rates of episodes of acute low back pain and pharmacologically controlled acute low back pain, assuming that exposure in the wards had remained constant. The technique used was Poisson regression, thereby calculating the relative incidence rate ratios. Both for PORs and IRRs the reference group consisted of the exposure class judged as negligible (exposure index 0-1.5). The results showed that the PORs calculated for positive lumbar threshold were significant for increasing exposure classes with a positive trend for the second and third exposure class but not for the last, presumably due to a healthy worker selection effect. Neither in Study A nor in Study B were any associations observed between exposure and acute low back pain occurring in the previous 12 months: this may be due to the fact that the impairment indicator does

  8. A water risk index for portfolio exposure to climatic extremes: conceptualization and an application to the mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnafous, Luc; Lall, Upmanu; Siegel, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Corporations, industries and non-governmental organizations have become increasingly concerned with growing water risks in many parts of the world. Most of the focus has been on water scarcity and competition for the resource between agriculture, urban users, ecology and industry. However, water risks are multi-dimensional. Water-related hazards include flooding due to extreme rainfall, persistent drought and pollution, either due to industrial operations themselves, or to the failure of infrastructure. Most companies have risk management plans at each operational location to address these risks to a certain design level. The residual risk may or may not be managed, and is typically not quantified at a portfolio scale, i.e. across many sites. Given that climate is the driver of many of these extreme events, and there is evidence of quasi-periodic climate regimes at inter-annual and decadal timescales, it is possible that a portfolio is subject to persistent, multi-year exceedances of the design level. In other words, for a multi-national corporation, it is possible that there is correlation in the climate-induced portfolio water risk across its operational sites as multiple sites may experience a hazard beyond the design level in a given year. Therefore, from an investor's perspective, a need exists for a water risk index that allows for an exploration of the possible space and/or time clustering in exposure across many sites contained in a portfolio. This paper represents a first attempt to develop an index for financial exposure of a geographically diversified, global portfolio to the time-varying risk of climatic extremes using long daily global rainfall datasets derived from climate re-analysis models. Focusing on extreme daily rainfall amounts and using examples from major mining companies, we illustrate how the index can be developed. We discuss how companies can use it to explore their corporate exposure, and what they may need to disclose to investors and

  9. A novel environmental exposure index and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lingjun; Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Liu, Fengqiong; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Lin, Lisong; Qiu, Yu; Cai, Lin

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the collective effect of environmental factors and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND). A hospital-based case-control study, including 319 oral cancer patients and 994 frequency-matched controls, was conducted in Fujian, China. We raised a weighed environmental exposure index according to nine significant environmental factors obtained from multivariable logistic regression model. And then, the index was classified into three categories according to the tertiles of controls (<1.34, 1.34-2.43, and >2.43). Multiplicative and additive interactions were evaluated between environmental exposure index and family cancer history. Our results showed that environmental exposure index was associated with an increased risk of oral cancer especially for those with family cancer history. Compared to subjects with low environmental exposure index and without family cancer history, those with high index and family cancer history showed the highest magnitude of OR in oral cancer risk (OR 10.40, 95% CI 5.46-19.80). Moreover, there was a multiplicative interaction between environmental exposure index and family cancer history for the risk of oral cancer (P < 0.001). This study puts forward a novel environmental exposure index, which enables a comprehensive evaluation on the overall effect of environmental risk factors on oral cancer among NSND and may interact with family cancer history. Further studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Effects of Lifestyle Exposure and Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality Parameters of Fertile Men.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spermatogenesis is vulnerable to disruption. Some sperm quality studies have reported unfavorable trends in male reproductive health indicators, and lifestyle exposures (LE) and excess body adiposity have been among the factors implicated. LE (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumpt...

  11. Effects of Lifestyle Exposure and Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality Parameters of Fertile Men.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spermatogenesis is vulnerable to disruption. Some sperm quality studies have reported unfavorable trends in male reproductive health indicators, and lifestyle exposures (LE) and excess body adiposity have been among the factors implicated. LE (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumpt...

  12. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Small Business Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of small businesses in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each business establishment size category to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the earthquake on small businesses. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by business establishment size.

  13. Section 7--discussion of the mechanical index and other exposure parameters. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    There have been long-term efforts to identify a threshold pressure for the onset of inertial cavitation under conditions relevant to ultrasound in medicine. Before the introduction of the output display standard [AIUM/NEMA, 1992a], quantities such as the spatial peak pulse average intensity (I(SPPA)), and, earlier, Im, the spatial peak intensity averaged over the largest half-cycle, were used to give a measure of the potential of a cavitation-based bioeffect due to an acoustic field. Relatively early in the Output Display Standard development effort, the Food and Drug Administration indicated a need for a superior indicator for the potential for cavitation-related bioeffects, initiating a search for such an index. The following paragraphs give an outline of the steps used to develop the Mechanical Index, its relevance as a potential bioeffects indicator, and some information on other exposure parameters involved in bioeffects research.

  14. Refractory GERD: increased body mass index is associated with persisting acid exposure but not hypersensitive esophagus or functional heartburn.

    PubMed

    Viazis, Nikos; Karamanolis, George P; Anastasiou, Jiannis; Keyoglou, Anastasia; Vlachogiannakos, Jiannis; Ladas, Spiros D; Karamanolis, Dimitrios G

    2013-12-01

    To compare the incidence of persistent abnormal acid exposure, hypersensitive esophagus (HE), and functional heartburn (FH) in obese/overweight and normal-weight patients referred for impedance-pH monitoring, because of persisting gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms despite therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). ΜETHODS: Patients with normal endoscopy and typical GERD symptoms, despite PPI therapy twice daily, underwent 24-h impedance-pH monitoring while on therapy. Distal esophageal acid exposure (% time pH<4) was measured and reflux episodes were classified into acid or nonacid. A positive symptom index was defined when at least 50% of symptom events were preceded by reflux episodes. Patients were categorized as those with persistent abnormal acid exposure, those with HE, and those with FH. The incidence of persistent abnormal acid exposure, HE, and FH between overweight/obese patients (BMI≥25 kg/m) and normal-weight patients (BMI<25 kg/m) was subsequently evaluated. A total of 246 patients (women: 158, men: 88, increased BMI: 151, normal BMI: 95, mean age 55, range 18-75 years) were included. Persistent abnormal acid exposure was found in 39 patients (increased BMI: 31, normal BMI: 8), HE in 77 patients (increased BMI: 43, normal BMI: 34), and FH in 118 patients (increased BMI: 69, normal BMI: 49). When comparing BMI among all three groups, patients with increased BMI were more likely to have acid reflux than HE or FH (P=0.03). In patients with GERD symptoms refractory to double-dose PPI therapy, those with increased BMI are more likely to have persistent abnormal acid exposure than HE or FH.

  15. Antenatal Dexamethasone Exposure in Preterm Infants Is Associated with Allergic Diseases and the Mental Development Index in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wan-Ning; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Li-Tung; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g. The status of antenatal exposure to steroids and allergic diseases were surveyed using a modified ISAAC questionnaire for subjects aged 2–5 years old. We analyzed Th1/Th2/Th17 expression of mRNA, cytokines (using the Magpix® my-system), and mental development index (MDI). Results: Among the 40 patients that were followed, the data showed that the antenatal dexamethasone exposure group (N = 24) had a significantly higher incidence of allergic diseases (75.0% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001) when compared to the non-dexamethasone exposure group (N = 16), especially with regard to asthma (41.7% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.003) and allergic rhinitis (58.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.013), but not atopic dermatitis. No statistical difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels of total white blood cell count between the dexamethasone exposure and non-exposure groups (p > 0.05). However, the asthma group had higher IL-5 levels (p = 0.009), and the MDI was shown to be significantly higher in the dexamethasone exposure group (90.38 ± 3.31 vs. 79.94 ± 3.58, p = 0.043) while no significant difference was found between the PDI of the two groups. Conclusions: Exposure to antenatal dexamethasone in preterm infants will increase their susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis. Preterm infants’ exposure to antenatal dexamethasone also

  16. Proposal of a novel evaluation index for the effects of shear stress and exposure time on hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Toshitaka; Obara, Hiromichi; Hsu, Huai-Che; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Naoto; Enosawa, Shin

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a novel evaluation index for the effects of shear stress level and exposure time on hepatocyte damage. Suspensions of rat hepatocytes (0.5 mL) were subjected to shear stress from 1.2 to 3.1 Pa for 10 min (n = 3) using a rheoscope. We counted living and dead cells in photographs taken at 1-min intervals using a digital camera attached to the microscope. Living and dead cells were distinguished using a Trypan blue exclusion test. Under each level of shear stress, at each 1-min time interval, we measured the viability [living-cell number (t)/countable cell number (t)] and the ratio of living cells [RLC: living-cell number (t)/countable cell number in the initial condition]. The effects of shear stress and exposure time on viability and RLC were assessed by multiple regression analysis. As expected, we observed an increase in the number of dead cells and little change in the number of living cells when shear stress was increased. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) to predict the effectiveness of viability and RLC indicated a low to moderate correlation. Viability correlated with shear stress and exposure time (p < 0.001); however, RLC only correlated with exposure time of shear stress (p < 0.001). In this test condition, viability was strongly related not to living-cell damage but to dead-cell damage. Therefore, we propose RLC as a novel and effective index for investigating the effect of shear stress on living hepatocytes.

  17. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and

  18. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-07-01

    Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference.

  19. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation.

    PubMed

    Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L

    2008-12-01

    To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P < 0.001). Salivary cotinine in employees was reduced by 75%, from 3.6 ng/ml at baseline to 0.9 ng/ml at follow-up (P < 0.001). The findings were presented to the public through press releases and interviews and were cited in over 20 media articles. The project demonstrates the positive effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in the hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.

  20. SU-E-I-52: Effect of Various X-Ray Beam Qualities On the Exposure Index

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumatsu, S; Iwase, K; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, N; Morishita, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The exposure index (EI) proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62494-1 is expected to be utilized as a standard dose index by every manufacturer. The IEC recommended the usage of RQA5 for the EI. However, X-ray beam qualities, particularly in clinical practices, vary depending on the examination objects and exposure conditions, including usage of anti-scatter grids. We investigated the effects of the X-ray beam qualities other than RQA5 on the EI. Methods: The Xray beam qualities of RQA3, 5, 7, and 9 in IEC 61267 Ed. 1.0 were adopted in a computed radiography system. A uniform exposure without objects was performed to measure the exposure indicators (S values) and air kerma (K). The relational equations between the S values and K were derived for the determination of the EI values. The EI values for RQA3, 7, and 9 were compared to those for RQA5 at the fixed S values of 100, 200, 400, and 600. Finally, the half-value layers (HVLs) using four grids (ratio 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1) for the RQA5 X-ray were compared to those with RQA3–9. Results: The EI values for RQA3, 7, and 9 were up to 35.3%, 11.8%, and 38.7% higher, respectively, than that for RQA5 at the S value of 600. The HVLs without grids and with various grids for RQA5 were 6.85 mm Al. and in the range of 6.94–7.29 mm Al. (ΔHVL: up to 0.44 mm Al.), respectively. This variation in the HVLs with grids was smaller than that observed for RQA3–9 (ΔHVL: 2.0–7.5 mm Al.). Conclusion: Although the usage of grids may not greatly affect the EI, the X-ray beam quality for the determination of the EI cannot be ignored in the clinical evaluation of the dose index.

  1. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  2. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-10-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O{2/-}•), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S -transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  3. Urinary trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) as an index of selenium (Se) exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, V.C.; Levander, O.A.

    1986-03-01

    Large doses of certain Se compounds have been suggested as cancer chemoprevention agents in humans and better techniques for assessing Se status at such intakes are needed. Others have shown that urinary TMSe excretion is a function of Se exposure in rats and an HPLC method has recently been developed for measuring TMSe in urine. In their studies, young male rats were injected i.p. with 6 to 600 ..mu..g Se as selenite or L-selenomethionine containing 3..mu..Ci /sup 75/Se as the appropriate tracer. Urine was collected for 24 hours and desalted. TMSe was separated by HPLC on a strong cation exchanger with NH/sub 4/C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/ (pH 5.0) as the eluting buffer. Identification of TMSe was confirmed by autoradiographic TLC vs. authentic standards. The fraction of urinary Se excreted as TMSe increased from 2 to 70% as the amount of selenite injected increased. Only 3 to 53% appeared in urine as TMSe after injection of equivalent doses of selenomethionine. There was little or no effect of crude (chow) vs. purified (casein) diet on the excretion of TMSe after selenite injection, but Se-deficient rats excreted more Se in the form of TMSe than Se-supplemented rats. Urinary TMSe is a promising tool for assessing Se exposure but more work is needed to evaluate the effect of various dietary forms of Se on the excretion of TMSe in the urine.

  4. Chronic exposure of grandparents to poverty and body mass index trajectories of grandchildren: a prospective intergenerational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao

    2015-02-01

    In this study, I used the growth curve model to examine the association between grandparents' (first generation (G1)) life-course exposure to chronic poverty and grandchildren's (third generation (G3)) body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) growth trajectories. This association was estimated separately for male and female grandchildren. Analyses were based on prospective data from a US longitudinal survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968-2011), and 2 of its supplemental studies: the Child Development Supplement (1997-2011) and the Transition into Adulthood Study (1997-2011). A prospectively enrolled nationally representative cohort of 2,613 G3 youth (1,323 male, 1,290 female) sampled in the 2 supplemental studies was linked to 1,719 grandparents from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics core sample. Chronic exposure to poverty among grandparents was prospectively ascertained annually over a 30-year period prior to the collection of data on grandchildren. Findings suggested that grandparents' chronic poverty exposure was positively associated with the slope of the BMI trajectory among granddaughters (β = 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.17) but not among grandsons (β = 0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.04, 0.08). The association between grandparents' chronic poverty exposure and granddaughters' BMI growth slope remained even after controlling for parental (second generation (G2)) socioeconomic status and BMI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure from automobile exhaust fumes using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level as an index.

    PubMed

    Wattana, Suparat; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha

    2004-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hydrocarbon compounds which originate from incomplete combustion. In humans, PAHs are bioactivated to reactive metabolites which can bind covalently to DNA and subsequently initiate mutation and carcinogenesis. The measurement of PAHs exposure may be used as an index to classify a cancer risk group. The purpose of the present study was to measure the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of PAHs, in subjects exposed to automobile exhaust fumes compared to non-exposed subjects. A urine sample was collected from each individual subject after the end of a working day and quantitated for 1-hydroxypyrene and creatinine by HPLC and spectrophotometric method, respectively. The results showed that average urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level in exposed subjects was significantly higher than non-exposed subjects (mean +/- SD of 0.0035 +/- 0.0032 and 0.0011 +/- 0.0010 micromol/l, respectively; P = 0.000). Average urinary creatinine level in exposed subjects was also significantly higher than non-exposed subjects (mean +/- SD of 0.01 +/- 0.005 and 0.008 +/- 0.006 mol/l, respectively; P = 0.040). The ratio of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene/mol creatinine level, of the exposed subjects was significantly higher than that of the non-exposed subjects (mean +/- SD of 0.37 +/- 0.28 and 0.19 +/- 0.22 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively; P = 0.002). Automobile exhaust fume exposed subjects have a higher risk to be exposed to PAHs than the non-exposed subjects. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level can be used as an index for an exposure of PAHs which have originated from automobile exhaust fumes and other sources as well.

  6. Association between indoor air pollutant exposure and blood pressure and heart rate in subjects according to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Su, Huey-Jen; Liang, Hsiu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of high body mass index (BMI) of subjects on individual who exhibited high cardiovascular disease indexes with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) when exposed to high levels of indoor air pollutants. We collected 115 office workers, and measured their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and HR at the end of the workday. The subjects were divided into three groups according to BMI: 18-24 (normal weight), 24-27 (overweight) and >27 (obese). This study also measured the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5), as well as the bacteria and fungi in the subjects' work-places. The pollutant effects were divided by median. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the health effects of indoor air pollution exposure according to BMI. Our study showed that higher levels of SBP, DBP and HR occurred in subjects who were overweight or obese as compared to those with normal weight. Moreover, there was higher level of SBP in subjects who were overweight or obese when they were exposed to higher levels of TVOC and fungi (p<0.05). We also found higher value for DBP and HR with increasing BMI to be associated with exposure to higher TVOC levels. This study suggests that individuals with higher BMI have higher cardiovascular disease risk when they are exposed to poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and specifically in terms of TVOC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Assessing spatial patterns of metal bioaccumulation in French mosses by means of an exposure index.

    PubMed

    Holy, Marcel; Leblond, Sébastien; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried

    2009-07-01

    The European Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys (UNECE-ICP Vegetation) is a programme performed every 5 years since 1990 in at least 21 European countries. The moss surveys aim at uncovering the spatiotemporal patterns of metal and nitrogen bioaccumulation in mosses. In France, the moss survey was conducted for the third time in 2006. Five hundred thirty-six monitoring sites were sampled across the whole French territory. The aim of the presented study is to give an integrative picture of the metal bioaccumulation for the entire French territory without geographical gaps. Furthermore, confounding factors of the metal bioaccumulation in mosses should be investigated. Element loads of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) measured in the French campaign 2006 were aggregated to a multi-metal index (MMI). This index was first introduced in the German moss surveys and represents the mean rank of each monitoring site or estimated raster cell regarding all elements referred to. Hence, the spatial variability of the metal bioaccumulation in France could be assessed as a whole. A comparison of the MMI map with the spatial patterns of the Cu loads in mosses was then drawn, as Cu originates to a large extent from urban sources. Applying CHAID, the MMI and the Cu loads in the mosses were further investigated with regard to confounding factors. The said results were discussed on the basis of recent scientific publications. The MMI surface map shows high values in strongly industrialized and urbanized regions as well as at sites of high altitude, lying, for example in the Massif Central and the French Alps. Accordingly, the CHAID decision tree consequently shows the altitude to be the statistically most significant influencing factor of the MMI followed by the sampled moss species. As for the MMI map, the surface map for Cu mirrors urban agglomerations, as high values can be

  8. An index of prenatal steroid exposure predicts adult face perception skills.

    PubMed

    Leow, Mei Chern; Davis, Greg

    2012-12-01

    Face perception skills are fundamental to social cognition, yet they vary markedly across individuals. This diversity has stimulated controversy over the relative contributions of genetic factors, prenatal environment, and postnatal experience to face perception. Recent twin studies have found that face perception is heritable, highlighting the potential for substantial prenatal determination of these skills. In contrast, previous work on potential influences of the prenatal hormonal environment on social cognition have found no association between 2D:4D, a marker for prenatal androgen exposure, and processing of facial emotional expressions, apparently precluding a major role for prenatal hormones in governing face perception. We propose that substantial predictive relationships between 2D:4D and face perception may have been masked in previous work because the task employed required both face perception and processing of others' emotions, the latter component being greatly influenced by circulating hormones in adults. To assess prenatal hormone influences on face perception without requiring emotion processing, we related 2D:4D to the face inversion effect (FIE), a measure of the recruitment of specialist face processes to visual perception. The magnitude of the resulting predictive relationship (r = .52) compared surprisingly well with that found between identical twins' face perception (rs = .27-.61), suggesting that mechanisms of 2D:4D may account for a substantial proportion of perinatal influences on face processing. Furthermore, we employed 2D:4D as a common scale to map individual differences in the FIE onto prenatal testosterone:estrogen ratios, assayed by Lutchmaya, Baron-Cohen, Raggatt, Knickmeyer, and Manning (Early Human Development 77:23-28, 2004). The substantial overlap between the two data sets further implicates prenatal steroids in adult face perception skills.

  9. Gastroesophageal pressure gradients in gastroesophageal reflux disease: relations with hiatal hernia, body mass index, and esophageal acid exposure.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Durk R; van Herwaarden, Margot A; Smout, André J P M; Samsom, Melvin

    2008-06-01

    The roles of intragastric pressure (IGP), intraesophageal pressure (IEP), gastroesophageal pressure gradient (GEPG), and body mass index (BMI) in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia (HH) are only partly understood. In total, 149 GERD patients underwent stationary esophageal manometry, 24-h pH-metry, and endoscopy. One hundred three patients had HH. Linear regression analysis showed that each kilogram per square meter of BMI caused a 0.047-kPa increase in inspiratory IGP (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.026-0.067) and a 0.031-kPa increase in inspiratory GEPG (95% CI 0.007-0.055). Each kilogram per square meter of BMI caused expiratory IGP to increase with 0.043 kPa (95% CI 0.025-0.060) and expiratory IEP with 0.052 kPa (95% CI 0.027-0.077). Each added year of age caused inspiratory IEP to decrease by 0.008 kPa (95% CI -0.015-0.001) and inspiratory GEPG to increase by 0.008 kPa (95% CI 0.000-0.015). In binary logistic regression analysis, HH was predicted by inspiratory and expiratory IGP (odds ratio [OR] 2.93 and 2.62, respectively), inspiratory and expiratory GEPG (OR 3.19 and 2.68, respectively), and BMI (OR 1.72/5 kg/m(2)). In linear regression analysis, HH caused an average 5.09% increase in supine acid exposure (95% CI 0.96-9.22) and an average 3.46% increase in total acid exposure (95% CI 0.82-6.09). Each added year of age caused an average 0.10% increase in upright acid exposure and a 0.09% increase in total acid exposure (95% CI 0.00-0.20 and 0.00-0.18). BMI predicts IGP, inspiratory GEPG, and expiratory IEP. Age predicts inspiratory IEP and GEPG. Presence of HH is predicted by IGP, GEPG, and BMI. GEPG is not associated with acid exposure.

  10. Integrated biomarker response index used in laboratory exposure of the mussel Mytilus edulis to water accommodated fractions of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhang, Xinxin; Hu, Shunxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and to set up a quantitative evaluation method in monitoring the environmental pollution is of great importance. Individuals of Mytilus edulis, collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, were thus exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil under controlled lab conditions. Mussels were exposed to different concentrations of WAFs for 96h acute toxicity experiment and 15d chronic toxicity experiment, a 7d restoration experiment was conducted after toxicity experiment as well. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST, GPx and GR) were measured in gills of mussels. The purpose of the study was to screen out a series of sensitive biomarkers and set up an Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) for marine oil pollution monitoring. Results showed: (1) WAFs exposure induced the increased activities of CAT, GST, GPx and GR in gills, revealing a stimulation effect on the antioxidant system. Activities of enzymes were more significantly altered in response to higher concentrations of WAFs (2.3 and 5.0 mg.L-1) than lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.1 mg.L-1). After restoration experiment, the activities decreased to the initial levels. (2) IBR was set up base on the laboratory experiment, which showed a positive relationship with WAFs exposure concentrations. Therefore, IBR was suggested to be a potentially useful tool in assessing the oil pollution.

  11. Assessment of automatic exposure control performance in digital mammography using a no-reference anisotropic quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barufaldi, Bruno; Borges, Lucas R.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.; Schiabel, Homero; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) is used in mammography to obtain acceptable radiation dose and adequate image quality regardless of breast thickness and composition. Although there are physics methods for assessing the AEC, it is not clear whether mammography systems operate with optimal dose and image quality in clinical practice. In this work, we propose the use of a normalized anisotropic quality index (NAQI), validated in previous studies, to evaluate the quality of mammograms acquired using AEC. The authors used a clinical dataset that consists of 561 patients and 1,046 mammograms (craniocaudal breast views). The results show that image quality is often maintained, even at various radiation levels (mean NAQI = 0.14 +/- 0.02). However, a more careful analysis of NAQI reveals that the average image quality decreases as breast thickness increases. The NAQI is reduced by 32% on average, when the breast thickness increases from 31 to 71 mm. NAQI also decreases with lower breast density. The variation in breast parenchyma alone cannot fully account for the decrease of NAQI with thickness. Examination of images shows that images of large, fatty breasts are often inadequately processed. This work shows that NAQI can be applied in clinical mammograms to assess mammographic image quality, and highlights the limitations of the automatic exposure control for some images.

  12. Color Doppler Sonographic Evaluation of Peak Systolic Velocity and Pulsatility Index in Artery after Pulsed HIFU Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Chiu, Wei-Hsiu; Yeh, Chi-Fang

    2011-09-01

    The objective of current study was to investigate the functional changes in arteries induced by pulsed-HIFU with or without microbubbles. Sonication was applied at an ultrasound frequency of 1 MHz with a burst length of 50 ms and a repetition frequency of 1 Hz. The duration of the whole sonication was 6s. The abdominal aortas of Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically exposed and sonicated with pulsed HIFU; the pulsed HIFU beam was aimed using color images of the blood flow. There was no obvious normalized peak systolic velocity (PSV) change at various acoustic powers of pulsed-HIFU exposure in the absence of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). However, the normalized PSV change induced by pulsed-HIFU decreased with the injected dose of UCA at acoustic powers. At this time, the normalized pulsatility index (PI) change in the vessel subjected to pulsed-HIFU increased in proportion to UCA dose. Additional research is needed to investigate the detailed mechanical effects of pulsed-HIFU exposure on blood flow and the structure of vessel walls.

  13. Optimization of exposure index values for the antero-posterior pelvis and antero-posterior knee examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, M. L.; Rainford, L.; Last, J.; Brennan, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    Introduction The American Association of Medical Physicists is currently standardizing the exposure index (EI) value. Recent studies have questioned whether the EI value offered by manufacturers is optimal. This current work establishes optimum EIs for the antero-posterior (AP) projections of a pelvis and knee on a Carestream Health (Kodak) CR system and compares these with manufacturers recommended EI values from a patient dose and image quality perspective. Methodology Human cadavers were used to produce images of clinically relevant standards. Several exposures were taken to achieve various EI values and corresponding entrance surface doses (ESD) were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Image quality was assessed by 5 experienced clinicians using anatomical criteria judged against a reference image. Visualization of image specific common abnormalities was also analyzed to establish diagnostic efficacy. Results A rise in ESD for both examinations, consistent with increasing EI was shown. Anatomic image quality was deemed to be acceptable at an EI of 1560 for the AP pelvis and 1590 for the AP knee. From manufacturers recommended values, a significant reduction in ESD (p=0.02) of 38% and 33% for the pelvis and knee respectively was noted. Initial pathological analysis suggests that diagnostic efficacy at lower EI values may be projection-specific. Conclusion The data in this study emphasize the need for clinical centres to consider establishing their own EI guidelines, and not necessarily relying on manufacturers recommendations. Normal and abnormal images must be used in this process.

  14. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Body Mass Index in Children Up To 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, epidemiologic studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are limited despite animal studies indicating PBDEs’ potential role as an obesogen. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal concentrations of BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and ΣPBDEs during pregnancy were associated with anthropometric measures in children aged 1–8 years. Methods: We examined 318 mother–child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort enrolled from 2003 through 2006 (Cincinnati, OH). Serum PBDEs were measured at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. We measured child height (1–8 years), weight (1–8 years), body mass index (BMI) (2–8 years), waist circumference (4–8 years), and body fat (8 years). To account for repeated measures, we used linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between maternal PBDEs and child anthropometric measures. Results: We found no statistically significant associations between prenatal PBDEs and height or weight z-score. A 10-fold increase in maternal serum BDE-153 was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = –0.36; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.13) at 2–8 years, smaller waist circumference (β = –1.81 cm; 95% CI: –3.13, –0.50) at 4–8 years, and lower percent body fat (β = –2.37%; 95% CI: –4.21, –0.53) at 8 years. A decrease in waist circumference at 4–8 years was observed with a 10-fold increase in BDE-100 (β = –1.50 cm; 95% CI: –2.93, –0.08) and ΣPBDEs (β = –1.57 cm; 95% CI: –3.11, –0.02). Conclusions: Reverse causality may have resulted in prenatal PBDEs, particularly BDE-153, and decreased BMI, waist circumference, and body fat. Citation: Vuong AM, Braun JM, Sjödin A, Webster GM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2016. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and body mass index in children up to 8 years of age

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers

    PubMed Central

    Kunt, Halil; Şentürk, İhsan; Gönül, Yücel; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Ahsen, Ahmet; Hazman, Ömer; Bal, Ahmet; Genç, Abdurrahman; Songur, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Background In the literature, some articles report that the incidence of numerous diseases increases among the individuals who live around high-voltage electric transmission lines (HVETL) or are exposed vocationally. However, it was not investigated whether HVETL affect bone metabolism, oxidative stress, and the prevalence of thyroid nodule. Methods Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone density measurements, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), RANK, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphor, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were analyzed to investigate this effect. Results Bone mineral density levels of L1–L4 vertebrae and femur were observed significantly lower in the electrical workers. ALP, phosphor, RANK, RANKL, TOS, OSI, and anteroposterior diameter of the left thyroid lobe levels were significantly higher, and OPG, TAS, and FT4 levels were detected significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group. Conclusion Consequently, it was observed that the balance between construction and destruction in the bone metabolism of the electrical workers who were employed in HVETL replaced toward destruction and led to a decrease in OPG levels and an increase in RANK and RANKL levels. In line with the previous studies, long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field causes disorders in many organs and systems. Thus, it is considered that long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field affects bone and thyroid metabolism and also increases OSI by increasing the TOS and decreasing the antioxidant status. PMID:26929645

  16. [The application of the concise exposure index to repetitive movement tasks of the upper limbs in various production settings: preliminary experience and validation].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E

    1996-01-01

    A summary of eight investigations is presented, which were carried out using standardised methods, for the purpose of quantifying exposure to tasks involving repetitive movements of the upper limbs, as well as quantifying the prevalence of Work Related Musculo Skeletal Disorders of the upper limbs in groups of exposed workers. A total of 462 exposed workers were examined, and the study also took into account the data pertaining to a matched control group comprising 749 workers not exposed to any specific occupational risk. Regarding the quantification of exposure to increased risk, use was made of a Concise Index (OCRA), proposed by the Authors in a previous publication. The data resulting from the eight investigations were used for the study of measurements and models of association among the exposure variables (mainly represented by the OCRA index), as well as the effect variables represented by the prevalence of the various WMSDs of the upper limbs taken both individually and jointly. Significant associations were reported between the OCRA index and an effect indicator represented by the prevalence of all the WSMDs of the upper limbs, calculated on the number of upper limbs at risk. When a logarithmic conversion of the relative exposure (OCRA) and injury indices was carried out, a simple linear regression model resulted which seems to provide a satisfactory predictive performance of the risk of WMSDs of the upper limbs, based on the exposure index. The study confirmed the efficacy of various other models designed to predict effects based on multiple linear regression functions, in which the independent variables are represented by both the OCRA exposure index and by parameters relative to the breakdown by sex and age of the groups of exposed workers.

  17. Use of an index to reflect the aggregate burden of long-term exposure to criteria air pollutants in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Amy D; Woodruff, Tracey J; Buffler, Patricia A; Davis, Devra L

    2002-01-01

    Air pollution control in the United States for five common pollutants--particulate matter, ground-level ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide--is based partly on the attainment of ambient air quality standards that represent a level of air pollution regarded as safe. Regulatory and health agencies often focus on whether standards for short periods are attained; the number of days that standards are exceeded is used to track progress. Efforts to explain air pollution to the public often incorporate an air quality index that represents daily concentrations of pollutants. While effects of short-term exposures have been emphasized, research shows that long-term exposures to lower concentrations of air pollutants can also result in adverse health effects. We developed an aggregate index that represents long-term exposure to these pollutants, using 1995 monitoring data for metropolitan areas obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. We compared the ranking of metropolitan areas under the proposed aggregate index with the ranking of areas by the number of days that short-term standards were exceeded. The geographic areas with the highest burden of long-term exposures are not, in all cases, the same as those with the most days that exceeded a short-term standard. We believe that an aggregate index of long-term air pollution offers an informative addition to the principal approaches currently used to describe air pollution exposures; further work on an aggregate index representing long-term exposure to air pollutants is warranted. PMID:11834467

  18. [The assessment of exposure to and the activity of the manual lifting of patients in wards: methods, procedures, the exposure index (MAPO) and classification criteria. Movimientazione e Assistenza Pazienti Ospedalizzati (Lifting and Assistance to Hospitalized Patients)].

    PubMed

    Menoni, O; Ricci, M G; Panciera, D; Occhipinti, E

    1999-01-01

    Since a method for quantifying exposure to patient handling in hospital wards is lacking, the authors describe and propose a model for identifying the main risk factors in this type of occupational exposure: presence of disabled patients, staff engaged on manual handling of patients, structure of the working environment, equipment and aids for moving patients, training of workers according to the specific risk. For each factor a procedure for identification and assessment is proposed that is easily applicable in practice. The authors also propose a formula for the calculation of a condensed exposure index (MAPO Index), which brings together the various factors. The exposure index, which requires further, detailed study and validation, makes it possible, in practice, to plan the preventive and health measures according to a specific order of priority, thus complying with the requirements of Chapter V of Law 626/94. From a practical point of view, in the present state of knowledge, it can be stated that for MAPO Index values between 0 and 1.5, risk is deemed negligible, average for values between 1.51 and 5, and high for values exceeding 5.

  19. Are E-Businesses Trustworthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsey, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a quantitative approach to evaluate the trustworthiness of e-businesses as measured by the E-business Trustworthy Index, EBTI, developed as part of this research. The problem is that despite the importance of e-business trustworthiness and the findings from many studies, there are few if any objective measures that evaluate the…

  20. Are E-Businesses Trustworthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsey, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a quantitative approach to evaluate the trustworthiness of e-businesses as measured by the E-business Trustworthy Index, EBTI, developed as part of this research. The problem is that despite the importance of e-business trustworthiness and the findings from many studies, there are few if any objective measures that evaluate the…

  1. A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Body Mass Index and Childhood Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Air Pollution: The Southern California Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ernest; Gilliland, Frank D.; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Lurmann, Frederick; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood body mass index (BMI) and obesity prevalence have been associated with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), maternal smoking during pregnancy, and vehicular air pollution. There has been little previous study of joint BMI effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: Information on exposure to SHS and maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected on 3,318 participants at enrollment into the Southern California Children’s Health Study. At study entry at average age of 10 years, residential near-roadway pollution exposure (NRP) was estimated based on a line source dispersion model accounting for traffic volume, proximity, and meteorology. Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed by parent questionnaire. Associations with subsequent BMI growth trajectory based on annual measurements and attained BMI at 18 years of age were assessed using a multilevel modeling strategy. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with estimated BMI growth over 8-year follow-up (0.72 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.31) and attained BMI (1.14 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.62). SHS exposure before enrollment was positively associated with BMI growth (0.81 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.27) and attained BMI (1.23 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.61). Growth and attained BMI increased with more smokers in the home. Compared with children without a history of SHS and NRP below the median, attained BMI was 0.80 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.27, 1.32) with exposure to high NRP without SHS; 0.85 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.43, 1.28) with low NRP and a history of SHS; and 2.15 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 1.52, 2.77) with high NRP and a history of SHS (interaction p-value 0.007). These results suggest a synergistic effect. Conclusions: Our findings strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke and NRP contribute to development of childhood obesity and suggest that combined exposures may have synergistic effects. Citation: McConnell R, Shen E

  2. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  3. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  4. A new accurate and flexible index to assess the contribution of building materials to indoor gamma exposure.

    PubMed

    Nuccetelli, Cristina; Leonardi, Federica; Trevisi, Rosabianca

    2015-05-01

    The role of building materials as a source of gamma radiation has been recognized in the new EU Basic Safety Standards Directive which introduces an index I to screen building materials of radiological concern. This index was developed to account for average concrete values of thickness and density, the main structural characteristics of building materials that have an effect on gamma irradiation. Consequently, this screening procedure could be unfit in case of significantly different density and/or thickness of the building materials under examination. The paper proposes a more accurate and flexible activity concentration index, accounting for the actual density and thickness of building materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  6. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  7. A longitudinal cohort study of body mass index and childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and air pollution: the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Rob; Shen, Ernest; Gilliland, Frank D; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Lurmann, Frederick; Berhane, Kiros

    2015-04-01

    Childhood body mass index (BMI) and obesity prevalence have been associated with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), maternal smoking during pregnancy, and vehicular air pollution. There has been little previous study of joint BMI effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure. Information on exposure to SHS and maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected on 3,318 participants at enrollment into the Southern California Children's Health Study. At study entry at average age of 10 years, residential near-roadway pollution exposure (NRP) was estimated based on a line source dispersion model accounting for traffic volume, proximity, and meteorology. Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed by parent questionnaire. Associations with subsequent BMI growth trajectory based on annual measurements and attained BMI at 18 years of age were assessed using a multilevel modeling strategy. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with estimated BMI growth over 8-year follow-up (0.72 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.31) and attained BMI (1.14 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.62). SHS exposure before enrollment was positively associated with BMI growth (0.81 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.27) and attained BMI (1.23 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.61). Growth and attained BMI increased with more smokers in the home. Compared with children without a history of SHS and NRP below the median, attained BMI was 0.80 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.27, 1.32) with exposure to high NRP without SHS; 0.85 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.43, 1.28) with low NRP and a history of SHS; and 2.15 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 1.52, 2.77) with high NRP and a history of SHS (interaction p-value 0.007). These results suggest a synergistic effect. Our findings strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke and NRP contribute to development of childhood obesity and suggest that combined exposures may have synergistic effects.

  8. Effect of lymphocytes culture variations on the mitotic index and on the dicentric yield following gamma radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Roy, L; Grégoire, E; Gruel, G; Roch-Lefevre, S; Voisin, Pa; Busset, A; Martin, C; Voisin, Ph

    2012-08-01

    Fundamentals of biological dosimetry are described in the International Atomic Energy Agency manual, but all over the world each laboratory is using its own protocol. To test the influence of protocol variations, some blood samples were exposed to 0.5 Gy of gamma radiation and mitotic index and dicentric rates were measured under different experimental conditions. The effect of seven parameters [bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU), phytohaemagglutinin and colcemid concentrations, blood and medium volumes, culture duration and incubation temperature] was tested using a Placket and Burman experimental design. The analysis reveals that the mitotic index was influenced by the concentration of BrdU, medium and blood volumes, the culture duration and the temperature. However, none of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. The dicentric assay is robust against reagent variations within the range tested. These results could be used by relevant laboratories as elements of their procedures robustness in any event requiring such demonstration.

  9. Selective exposure reporting and Medline indexing limited the search sensitivity for observational studies of the adverse effects of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Susan; Dickersin, Kay

    2005-06-01

    To explore development of possible approaches leading to a sensitive and precise Medline search to identify observational studies of the association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer, an adverse event. We compared the results of a series of Medline searches to a gold standard comprising 58 reports from a 1996 systematic review examining the relationship between oral contraceptives and the development of breast cancer. Sensitivity (the proportion of gold standard publications identified) and precision (the proportion of retrieved publications that were included in the gold standard) were calculated for each Medline search. We identified all 58 articles when the search was not limited by terms related to oral contraceptives, but precision was less than 1% (58 of 6,120). Indexing was problematic when oral contraceptives or hormones were not mentioned in the title or abstract (n = 8) or full text (n = 2). Search strategies identifying all relevant studies were possible but arguably impractical; additional research is needed to generalize our findings. Authors and editors should ensure that all interventions and outcomes examined are reported and indexers should make sure they are indexed. Central registration of observational studies and all variables they examined should be considered to assure identification of studies examining adverse events associated with health interventions.

  10. 56Fe Particle Exposure Results in a Long-Lasting Increase in a Cellular Index of Genomic Instability and Transiently Suppresses Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-01-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24h), intermediate (7d), and/or long time points (2–3mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  11. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  12. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and infant growth and body mass index at seven years: A pooled analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Thomsen, Cathrine; Koppen, Gudrun; Eggesbø, Merete

    2016-09-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposure to EDCs results in later obesity. However, the few epidemiological investigations on dioxins are inconclusive. We investigated perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, infant growth and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. We pooled data from 3 European birth cohorts (Belgian, Norwegian, Slovak) with exposure assessment in cord blood or breast milk. Two cohorts had dioxin-like toxicity assessed using dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay and one cohort had measured concentrations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenols with CALUX relative potency values applied. Growth was cohort- and sex-specific change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24months (N=367). BMI was calculated at around 7years (median 7.17, interquartile range [IQR] 7.00-7.37years, N=251), and overweight defined according to international standards for children equivalent to adult BMI >25kg/m(2) (Cole and Lobstein, 2012). We fitted multivariate models using generalized estimating equations, and tested effect modification by sex, breastfeeding and cohort. Results per 10pgCALUXTEQ/g lipid increase in exposure. Dioxin exposure was highest in the Belgian and lowest in the Norwegian cohort; median (IQR) of the pooled sample 13 (12.0) pgCALUXTEQ/g lipid. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds appeared associated with increased growth between 0 and 24months (adjusted estimate for change in z-score: β=0.07, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14). At 7years, dioxins exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in girls (adjusted estimate for BMI units β=0.49, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.91) but not in boys (β=-0.03, 95% CI: -0.55, 0.49) (p-interaction=0.044). Furthermore, girls had a 54% (-6%, 151%) increased risk of overweight at 7years (p-interaction=0.023). Perinatal exposure to

  13. Dietary patterns related to glycemic index and load and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in the Western New York Exposure and Breast Cancer Study123

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Susan E; McCann, William E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Marshall, James R; Edge, Stephen B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Muti, Paola; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2007-01-01

    Background Reduced rank regression (RRR) has been used to identify dietary patterns that predict variation in a selected risk factor and may be useful in describing dietary exposures associated with glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). Objective To estimate breast cancer risk, we compared the relative utility of RRR-derived dietary patterns predictive of GI and GL with those of simple GI and GL. Design RRR was used to identify dietary patterns predicting GI and GL from food-frequency data obtained in the Western New York Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (1166 cases, 2105 controls). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were estimated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for energy and nondietary breast cancer risk factors. Results Sweets, refined grains, and salty snacks explained 34% of the variance in GI and 68% of the variance in GL. In general, breast cancer risks were not associated with GI, GL, or dietary pattern score. However, we observed a significant reduction in postmenopausal breast cancer risk with GI and GL pattern scores combined (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.93), especially in women with a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥25 (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.93). Conversely, in premenopausal women, increased risks were associated with high GL pattern scores only for women with a body mass index ≥25 (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.69). Conclusions Although RRR may be useful in studies of diet and disease, our results suggest that RRR dietary patterns based on GI and GL provide similar information regarding the association between breast cancer, GI, and GL. PMID:17684220

  14. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  15. The influence of body size, condition index and tidal exposure on the variability in metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Mubiana, Valentine K; Vercauteren, Kathleen; Blust, Ronny

    2006-11-01

    Mussels are commonly used to monitor metal pollution despite high inter-individual variability in tissue concentrations. In this study, influences of body size, condition index and tidal height on concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated. Body weight was inversely related to metal concentrations and for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn the regression was affected by tidal height. Except for As, Fe and Mn metal concentrations were inversely related to physiological status though no differences between essential and non-essential metals were obvious. After correcting for body size, tidal height was related positively to As, Cd and Zn, negatively related to Cu, Fe and Mn while Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were independent of tidal height. The study recommends stringent measures during sampling for biomonitoring or metal concentrations at each location must be normalized to a common body size, CI and tidal height.

  16. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  17. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  18. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  19. An objective approach using three indexes for determining fatal hypothermia due to cold exposure; statistical analysis of oxyhemoglobin saturation data.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Daisuke; Asari, Masaru; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Maseda, Chikatoshi; Yamada, Hiromi; Ichimaru, Chisato; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shiono, Hiroshi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Makino, Yosuke; Shimizu, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of oxyhemoglobin (O2-Hb) saturation levels in the left and right heart blood is useful in the assessment of exposure to cold surroundings before death. We quantified conventional subjective visual evaluation of O2-Hb saturation levels and developed useful diagnostic criteria for fatal hypothermia: O2-Hb saturation in the left heart blood (L-O2Hb) was ⩾36%, the O2-Hb saturation gap between the left and right heart blood (L-R gap) was ⩾13%, and the O2-Hb saturation ratio of the left to right heart blood (L/R ratio) was ⩾1.8. When we used L-O2Hb of ⩾36% as a basic criterion and applied a further criterion of an L-R gap of ⩾13% or an L/R ratio of ⩾1.8, these criteria registered a sensitivity level of ⩾86% and specificity level of ⩾93% for the diagnosis of fatal hypothermia. This method can be useful for determining fatal hypothermia in connection with conventional autopsy findings, as well as histological and biochemical markers.

  20. Business, Economics, Management Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Edward Zip

    This annotated bibliography includes reference sources pertaining to business, economics, and management that are located in the libraries of the Portland and Gorham campuses of the University of Southern Maine. Specific reference sources are listed under the categories of: (1) indexes and abstracts; (2) dictionaries and encyclopedias, including…

  1. Business, Economics, Management Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Edward Zip

    This annotated bibliography includes reference sources pertaining to business, economics, and management that are located in the libraries of the Portland and Gorham campuses of the University of Southern Maine. Specific reference sources are listed under the categories of: (1) indexes and abstracts; (2) dictionaries and encyclopedias, including…

  2. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  3. Business Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to do business with EPA's Clean Air Markets, including registering to use the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS), the CAMD Business System (CBS), and learn how to submit monitored emissions data.

  4. The bacterial community structure of hydrocarbon-polluted marine environments as the basis for the definition of an ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S; Commendatore, Marta G; Gil, Mónica N; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities.

  5. The Bacterial Community Structure of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Marine Environments as the Basis for the Definition of an Ecological Index of Hydrocarbon Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S.; Commendatore, Marta G.; Gil, Mónica N.; Dionisi, Hebe M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities. PMID:24964812

  6. Ultrasound exposure (mechanical index 1.8) with acoustic radiation force impulse evokes extrasystolic waves in rabbit heart under concomitant administration of an ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Nitta, Naotaka; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Akai, Kazuki; Takakayama, Noriya; Sasanuma, Hideki; Ogata, Yukiyo; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Iwaki

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a modality for elasticity imaging of various organs using shear waves. In some situations, the heart is a candidate for elasticity evaluation with ARFI. Additionally, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) provides information on the blood flow conditions of the cardiac muscle. This study aimed to evaluate ARFI's effect on the heart concomitantly with UCA administration (i.e., perfluorobutane). Ultrasound with ARFI was applied to the hearts of male Japanese white rabbits (n = 3) using a single-element focused transducer with or without UCA administration. They were exposed to ultrasound for 0.3 ms with a mechanical index (MI) of 1.8. UCA was administered in two ways: a single (bolus) injection or drip infusion. Electrocardiograms were recorded to identify arrhythmias during ultrasound exposure. Extrasystolic waves were observed following ultrasound exposure with drip infusion of UCA. Life-threatening arrhythmia was not observed. The frequency of the extra waves ranged from 4.2 to 59.6 %. With bolus infusion, extra waves were not observed. Arrhythmogenicity was observed during ultrasound (MI 1.8) with ARFI and concomitant administration of UCA in rabbits. Although the bolus administration of UCA was similar to its clinical use, which may not cause extra cardiac excitation, cardiac ultrasound examinations with ARFI should be carefully performed, particularly with concomitant use of UCA.

  7. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  8. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  9. A pilot randomized clinical trial utilizing the drug burden index to reduce exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications in older people.

    PubMed

    Gnjidic, Danijela; Le Couteur, David G; Abernethy, Darrell R; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2010-11-01

    The drug burden index (DBI) is an evidence-based tool that utilizes pharmacologic principles to calculate an individual's total exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications. Higher DBI has been associated with functional impairment in observational studies of older people. To assess the impact of providing information about DBI to general practitioners (GPs) on prescribing for older people. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial with 3 months of follow-up. Participants were volunteers aged ≥70 years, living in self-care retirement villages in Sydney, Australia. The study intervention involved a letter and phone call to GPs, using DBI to prompt them to consider cessation or dose reduction of anticholinergic and sedative medications. The primary study outcome was to assess the impact of information about DBI on prescribing practices of the GPs. A total of 115 participants were enrolled, 57 in the intervention group (from 6 sites) and 58 in the control group (from 6 sites). At baseline, 19 of 57 participants in the intervention group and 31 of 58 participants in the control group had a DBI >0 (p < 0.05). At follow-up, a DBI change was observed in 16 participants. DBI decreased in 12 participants, 6 (32%) in the intervention group, and 6 (19%) in the control group. GPs identified the following barriers to reducing anticholinergic and sedative drugs: uncomfortable altering prescriptions initiated by specialists; unable to influence patients' attitudes; unaware of patients' medications and strong clinical indication. The intervention targeting GPs' prescribing practices was less effective than anticipated in reducing anticholinergic and sedative drug exposure, and barriers were identified. Future studies should explore multidisciplinary interventions, engaging patients, specialists, GPs, and pharmacists.

  10. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  11. Business Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the increasing role of business in sponsoring Grand Awards for the top high school science students in each of 13 disciplines of the International Science and Engineering Fair. Phillips Petroleum Company and other businesses sponsor the student science awards to recognize gifted and talented students and to motivate other…

  12. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  13. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  14. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and impracticable...

  15. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and impracticable...

  16. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and impracticable...

  17. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and impracticable...

  18. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and impracticable...

  19. Unexpected Online Sources for Business Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorthill, Rachel R.

    1985-01-01

    Four databases--PsycINFO, ERIC, Health Planning and Administration, Public Affairs Information Service--were examined to determine percentage of business journals indexed and degree of business terminology included in controlled vocabulary. Sample searches were compared to same search in Management Contents and ABI/INFORM. A list of business…

  20. Unexpected Online Sources for Business Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorthill, Rachel R.

    1985-01-01

    Four databases--PsycINFO, ERIC, Health Planning and Administration, Public Affairs Information Service--were examined to determine percentage of business journals indexed and degree of business terminology included in controlled vocabulary. Sample searches were compared to same search in Management Contents and ABI/INFORM. A list of business…

  1. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  2. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  3. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  4. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  5. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  6. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  7. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  8. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casale, Giuseppe R; Siani, Anna Maria; Diémoz, Henri; Agnesod, Giovanni; Parisi, Alfio V; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m(-2) and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m(-2). The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Business Ownership and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Ken, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles: "Women in Management" (Zimmerer); "Business Boot Camp (interviews with young entrepreneurs)" (Kaser); "Plan Your Own Business Project" (Kohns); "Business Education and the Middle Level Student" (Patterson, Leblanc); and "Small Business Ownership Planning" (Fiber). (SK)

  10. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  11. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  12. DSSTox chemical-index files for exposure-related experiments in ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus: enabling toxico-chemogenomics data linkages

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) ARYEXP and GEOGSE files are newly published, structure-annotated files of the chemical-associated and chemical exposure-related summary experimental content contained in the ArrayExpress Repository and Gene Expression Omnibus...

  13. DSSTox chemical-index files for exposure-related experiments in ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus: enabling toxico-chemogenomics data linkages

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) ARYEXP and GEOGSE files are newly published, structure-annotated files of the chemical-associated and chemical exposure-related summary experimental content contained in the ArrayExpress Repository and Gene Expression Omnibus...

  14. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  15. Image quality and radiation reduction of 320-row area detector CT coronary angiography with optimal tube voltage selection and an automatic exposure control system: comparison with body mass index-adapted protocol.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jiyeon; Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal; Shim, Hackjoon; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-06-01

    To assess the image quality and radiation exposure of 320-row area detector computed tomography (320-ADCT) coronary angiography with optimal tube voltage selection with the guidance of an automatic exposure control system in comparison with a body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocol. Twenty-two patients (study group) underwent 320-ADCT coronary angiography using an automatic exposure control system with the target standard deviation value of 33 as the image quality index and the lowest possible tube voltage. For comparison, a sex- and BMI-matched group (control group, n = 22) using a BMI-adapted protocol was established. Images of both groups were reconstructed by an iterative reconstruction algorithm. For objective evaluation of the image quality, image noise, vessel density, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Two blinded readers then subjectively graded the image quality using a four-point scale (1: nondiagnostic to 4: excellent). Radiation exposure was also measured. Although the study group tended to show higher image noise (14.1 ± 3.6 vs. 9.3 ± 2.2 HU, P = 0.111) and higher vessel density (665.5 ± 161 vs. 498 ± 143 HU, P = 0.430) than the control group, the differences were not significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups for SNR (52.5 ± 19.2 vs. 60.6 ± 21.8, P = 0.729), CNR (57.0 ± 19.8 vs. 67.8 ± 23.3, P = 0.531), or subjective image quality scores (3.47 ± 0.55 vs. 3.59 ± 0.56, P = 0.960). However, radiation exposure was significantly reduced by 42 % in the study group (1.9 ± 0.8 vs. 3.6 ± 0.4 mSv, P = 0.003). Optimal tube voltage selection with the guidance of an automatic exposure control system in 320-ADCT coronary angiography allows substantial radiation reduction without significant impairment of image quality, compared to the results obtained using a BMI-based protocol.

  16. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  17. Effect of indoor air pollution during cooking on peak expiratory flow rate and its association with exposure index in rural women.

    PubMed

    Sukhsohale, Neelam D; Narlawar, Uday W; Phatak, Mrunal S; Agrawal, Sanjay B; Ughade, Suresh N

    2013-01-01

    Routine exposure to domestic cooking fuels is an important source of indoor air pollution causing deterioration of lung function. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study in 760 non-smoking rural women involved in household cooking with four types of cooking fuels i.e. Biomass, Kerosene stove, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Mixed (combination of two and more cooking fuels). Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal PEFR. The overall prevalence of abnormal PEFR was found to be 29.1% with greater predominance among biomass fuel users (43.3%) with high risk ratio (1.86) as compared to kerosene (0.63), LPG (0.75) and mixed (0.66) fuel users. However the pair wise comparison of different groups of cooking fuels by Marascuilo procedure reported significant differences within different groups except kerosene--mixed group. The study also demonstrated a negative correlation between observed PEFR and exposure indices in different cooking fuels (r = -0.51). Our results indicate that prolonged exposure to cooking fuels particularly biomass fuels as a source of cooking adversely affects PEFR in nonsmoking rural women.

  18. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), calcium and magnesium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), Ca/Mg and calcium concentrations (r=0.64, p<0.005), and sulfuric ion and magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, p<0.005). Negative correlations were found between sulfuric ion concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.31, p<0.01), and magnesium concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.32, p<0.01). This suggests that mouth rinse from employees working with sulfuric acid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  19. Effect of field exposure to 38-year-old residual petroleum hydrocarbons on growth, condition index, and filtration rate of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer B; Valiela, Ivan; Olsen, Ylva S; Reddy, Christopher M

    2008-07-01

    In September 1969, the Florida barge spilled 700,000 L of No. 2 fuel oil into the salt marsh sediments of Wild Harbor, MA. Today a substantial amount, approximately 100 kg, of moderately degraded petroleum remains within the sediment and along eroding creek banks. The ribbed mussels, Geukensia demissa, which inhabit the salt marsh creek bank, are exposed to the spilled oil. Examination of short-term exposure was done with transplantation of G. demissa from a control site, Great Sippewissett marsh, into Wild Harbor. We also examined the effects of long-term exposure with transplantation of mussels from Wild Harbor into Great Sippewissett. Both the short- and long-term exposure transplants exhibited slower growth rates, shorter mean shell lengths, lower condition indices, and decreased filtration rates. The results add new knowledge about long-term consequences of spilled oil, a dimension that should be included when assessing oil-impacted areas and developing management plans designed to restore, rehabilitate, or replace impacted areas.

  20. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not from...

  1. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not from...

  2. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not from...

  3. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not from...

  4. Business Continuity Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    13 B. BUSINESS IMPACT ANALYSIS ................................................................17 C. RECOVERY STRATEGY...Business Continuity Institute BCM business continuity management BCP business continuity plan BIA business impact analysis... environmental , health and safety ERP Enterprise Resource Planning FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FISMA Federal Information Security Management

  5. Tribal Business Assistance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdowne, Michele

    The Salish Kootenai College Tribal Business Assistance Center was established in 1994 to provide technical assistance to individuals who are pursuing a small business. The center assists the entrepreneur by way of individual consultation with business advisors, small business workshops, and business administration courses that have been created…

  6. Risky Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Widespread efforts by colleges and universities to reduce expenses and raise revenues can increase the institution's exposure to risk. Common risks arise from neglect of physical plant, government regulation, financial burdens, campus security and crime, sexual harassment, third-party contracts, staff reduction, failure to educate, and…

  7. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-03-07

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  8. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  9. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  10. Coming to Schools: Creativity Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an index that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…

  11. Coming to Schools: Creativity Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an index that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…

  12. Toward an International Partnership: Business Activities and the Foreign Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kitzie

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations for integrating instruction in business and foreign languages to prepare future business workers to deal with increasing need for international business-related exchange include: exchange with business instructors abroad; insight into other countries' cultural traditions; and exposure to native speakers. (CB)

  13. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals: Historical Index of Titles 1949-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    International ISSN: 0002-2349 Indexed : Jan 1965-Oct 1966 Continued as: Aerospace International Continued as: Military Technology ...Countermeasures See also: Military Science & Technology Cross & Cockade International Journal ISSN: 1360-9009 Indexed : 2003 - D DISAM Journal of...Aerospace World LCCN: 93-645603; sn 92-25877 Indexed : Oct 1992-1993 Formerly: Interavia Continued as: Interavia: Business & Technology (Bound as

  14. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  15. School-Business Partnerships: Understanding Business Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    School-business partnerships have been shown to enhance educational experiences for students. There has, however, been limited research demonstrating the priorities and perspectives of for-profit business leaders on those partnerships. In order to address that gap, the researcher interviewed business leaders in two different areas of Texas. After…

  16. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  17. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  18. The Business of Business is "English"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    A current trend indicates that credentials in English can and do move people successfully into business related careers. Colleges of business administration and English departments might take an important cue from the trend and work together to offer a double major or co-major in English business. Such a program would offer undergraduate students…

  19. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  20. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill -Part 2: Population exposure, public health response, and an air quality index for urban fires.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashish; Spak, Scott N; Stone, Elizabeth A; Downard, Jared; Bullard, Robert; Pooley, Mark; Kostle, Pamela A; Mainprize, Matthew W; Wichman, Michael D; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O

    2015-03-01

    The Iowa City Landfill in eastern Iowa, United States, experienced a fire lasting 18 days in 2012, in which a drainage layer of over 1 million shredded tires burned, generating smoke that impacted the surrounding metropolitan area of 130,000 people. This emergency required air monitoring, risk assessment, dispersion modeling, and public notification. This paper quantifies the impact of the fire on local air quality and proposes a monitoring approach and an Air Quality Index (AQI) for use in future tire fires and other urban fires. Individual fire pollutants are ranked for acute and cancer relative risks using hazard ratios, with the highest acute hazard ratios attributed to SO2, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Using a dispersion model in conjunction with the new AQI, we estimate that smoke concentrations reached unhealthy outdoor levels for sensitive groups out to distances of 3.1 km and 18 km at 24-h and 1-h average times, respectively. Modeled and measured concentrations of PM2.5 from smoke and other compounds such as VOCs and benzo[a]pyrene are presented at a range of distances and averaging times, and the corresponding cancer risks are discussed. Through reflection on the air quality response to the event, consideration of cancer and acute risks, and comparison to other tire fires, we recommend that all landfills with shredded tire liners plan for hazmat fire emergencies. A companion paper presents emission factors and detailed smoke characterization.

  1. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill -Part 2: Population exposure, public health response, and an air quality index for urban fires

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashish; Spak, Scott N.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Downard, Jared; Bullard, Robert; Pooley, Mark; Kostle, Pamela A.; Mainprize, Matthew W.; Wichman, Michael D.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa City Landfill in eastern Iowa, United States, experienced a fire lasting 18 days in 2012, in which a drainage layer of over 1 million shredded tires burned, generating smoke that impacted the surrounding metropolitan area of 130,000 people. This emergency required air monitoring, risk assessment, dispersion modeling, and public notification. This paper quantifies the impact of the fire on local air quality and proposes a monitoring approach and an Air Quality Index (AQI) for use in future tire fires and other urban fires. Individual fire pollutants are ranked for acute and cancer relative risks using hazard ratios, with the highest acute hazard ratios attributed to SO2, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Using a dispersion model in conjunction with the new AQI, we estimate that smoke concentrations reached unhealthy outdoor levels for sensitive groups out to distances of 3.1 km and 18 km at 24-h and 1-h average times, respectively. Modeled and measured concentrations of PM2.5 from smoke and other compounds such as VOCs and benzo[a]pyrene are presented at a range of distances and averaging times, and the corresponding cancer risks are discussed. Through reflection on the air quality response to the event, consideration of cancer and acute risks, and comparison to other tire fires, we recommend that all landfills with shredded tire liners plan for hazmat fire emergencies. A companion paper presents emission factors and detailed smoke characterization. PMID:25624787

  2. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 2: Population exposure, public health response, and an air quality index for urban fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish; Spak, Scott N.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Downard, Jared; Bullard, Robert L.; Pooley, Mark; Kostle, Pamela A.; Mainprize, Matthew W.; Wichman, Michael D.; Peters, Thomas M.; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.

    2015-03-01

    The Iowa City Landfill in eastern Iowa, United States, experienced a fire lasting 18 days in 2012, in which a drainage layer of over 1 million shredded tires burned, generating smoke that impacted the surrounding metropolitan area of 130,000 people. This emergency required air monitoring, risk assessment, dispersion modeling, and public notification. This paper quantifies the impact of the fire on local air quality and proposes a monitoring approach and an air quality index (AQI) for use in future tire fires and other urban fires. Individual fire pollutants are ranked for acute and cancer relative risks using hazard ratios, with the highest acute hazard ratios attributed to SO2, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Using a dispersion model in conjunction with the new AQI, we estimate that smoke concentrations reached unhealthy outdoor levels for sensitive groups out to distances of 3.1 km and 18 km at 24-h and 1-h average times, respectively. Modeled and measured concentrations of PM2.5 from smoke and other compounds such as VOCs and benzo[a]pyrene are presented at a range of distances and averaging times, and the corresponding cancer risks are discussed. Through reflection on the air quality response to the event, consideration of cancer and acute risks, and comparison to other tire fires, we recommend that all landfills with shredded tire liners plan for hazmat fire emergencies. A companion paper presents emission factors and detailed smoke characterization.

  3. Index interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.

    1993-01-01

    The Index Interferometer is a novel instrument being developed by Northeast Photosciences. The instrument is a breakthrough in the high-accuracy measurement of the index of refraction, the dispersion, and the index profile of materials. The instrument accurately measures the index of refraction of materials to one or two more significant figures than previous instruments. Material slices polished moderately flat are sufficient, without any requirement for special or complicated material shapes, such as prisms. The index profile at any chosen wavelength can be measured using a simple color filter. No special laser sources or carefully collimated parallel beams are required. The index profile over an entire sample can be directly obtained at any desired wavelength. This instrument is remarkable in that it greatly increases the accuracy of measurement, eliminates the need for high-quality, extremely narrow sources and for fabrication of special-geometry samples, and adds additional features, such as index profile measurements. The technique compares the fringe pattern from the top surface with that from a reference mirror to determine the thickness. Then, with the aid of a filtered white light source, the interference pattern from the back surface is compared with that from the front to yield the optical thickness of the sample. The combination of the two measurements gives the index. The back surface fringe pattern itself gives the index profile.

  4. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  5. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  6. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  7. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  8. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  9. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  10. Military Business Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Military Business Success By: Lieutenant...TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Military Business Success 6. AUTHOR(S) Ahmad, Mohamad Krastev, Radostin Puciato, Arkadiusz 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...unlimited. MILITARY BUSINESS SUCCESS Mohamad Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel, Malaysian Air Force Radostin Krastev, Captain, Bulgarian Air

  11. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  12. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  13. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  14. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  15. Business English: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montag, Elizabeth J.; Shaw, Warren

    Intended as an English elective subject for senior high school students, this business English course guide provides students with the communication tools that can lead to success in the business world. Units cover the following topics: introduction to Business English (punctuation, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and use of reference tools);…

  16. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  17. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  18. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  19. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  20. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  1. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  2. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  3. Open for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and outcomes of Lane Community College's (LCC) Business Assistance Center, which offers a wide range of management assistance services to local small businesses. Explains how state-funded programs, based on the LCC model, resulted in a network of Small Business Development Centers. (CBC)

  4. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  5. Business Reengineering - Government Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    3 EXPLANATION OF THE DOD FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING PROCESS IMPROVEMENT..... 5 STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1...STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1): Planning activities analyze the current process baseline benchmarking the current external environment and...these questions to access the status of your organization and its need for reorganization change. Strategic Business Planning " What, if any, change

  6. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  7. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelling index of rat thymus: influence of different BrdU doses and exposure times as analyzed both in tissue sections and in single cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, S; Orfao, A; Alberca, V; Ciudad, J; López, A; Hernández, L C; Carbajo-Pérez, E

    1995-01-01

    Tissue sections and single cell suspensions of rat thymus were analyzed by flow and image cytometry to study the effects of different doses of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg and different labelling periods (15, 30 and 60 min) on the BrdU-labelling index. The proportions of BrdU-labelled cells, as analyzed by flow cytometry, were similar in the different groups of our study. However, the quality of the results was not exactly the same, since when the BrdU dose decreased, the separation between BrdU-positive S-phase cells and both the G0/G1 and the G2/M BrdU-negative cells on a DNA/BrdU histogram became less clear. On the other hand, the proportion of BrdU-labelled cells in tissue sections was greater in the groups of animals that received doses of 100 mg/kg and were killed 15, 30 or 60 min later than in the sections obtained from the remaining groups. Our results show that both dose and exposure time to BrdU may influence the final results when cell proliferation is assessed, the variations obtained clearly depending on the technique used for the immunological detection of BrdU-positive S-phase cells.

  8. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  9. Visceral larvae as a predictive index of the overall level of fish batch infection in European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus): A rapid procedure for Food Business Operators to assess marketability.

    PubMed

    Guardone, L; Nucera, D; Pergola, V; Costanzo, F; Costa, E; Tinacci, L; Guidi, A; Armani, A

    2017-06-05

    The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), one of the most important pelagic fish resources in the Mediterranean Sea, is frequently infected by anisakid larvae. Food Business Operators (FBOs) should use appropriate sampling plans and analytical methods to avoid commercialization of massively infected batches and reduce the risk of transmission of viable zoonotic larvae. In this study, performed at FishLab (Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Pisa) during 2016, an official sampling plan was associated with a digestion protocol for the inspection of anchovies. Considering that anisakid larvae are usually located in the fish visceral cavity and in the adjacent muscles (VM), this part was analyzed. In particular, we assessed the reliability of the digestion of a subsample of 150g (±30g) of VM, randomly collected from 29 specimens, in estimating the marketability of the anchovies' batch. Fifty-seven samples of 29 anchovies were collected. Each anchovy was sectioned to separate VM. All the subsamples were digested, and visible larvae counted. A high correlation between the number of larvae in VM regions and in the total batch was observed, indicating a very significant contribution of the VM region on total number of parasites. The Mean Abundance (MA) was used to assess the batch marketability according to a threshold calculated on the basis of the maximum number of nematodes tolerated per sample. Considering that the MA can be calculated only when the number of examined specimens is known, the number of visible Larvae per gram of tissue (LpG) was calculated on 150g (±30g) of VM subsamples. A LpG marketability threshold was calculated dividing the maximum number of tolerated nematodes by the average weight of a sample of 29 anchovies calculated considering data available in literature. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the LpG threshold, the marketability of 57 batches assessed on the basis of the MA threshold was assumed as the gold

  10. Multifractal analysis of Moroccan family business stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, long-range temporal correlations at different scales in Moroccan family business stock returns are investigated. For comparison purpose, presence of multifractality is also investigated in Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) major indices: MASI which is the all shares index and MADEX which is the index of most liquid shares. It is found that return series of both family business companies and major stock market indices show strong evidence of multifractality. In particular, empirical results reveal that short (long) fluctuations in family business stock returns are less (more) persistent (anti-persistent) than short fluctuations in market indices. In addition, both serial correlation and distribution characteristics significantly influence the strength of the multifractal spectrums of CSE and family business stocks returns. Furthermore, results from multifractal spectrum analysis suggest that family business stocks are less risky. Thus, such differences in price dynamics could be exploited by investors and forecasters in active portfolio management.

  11. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  12. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  13. Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: the consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J

    2011-07-01

    Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.

  14. Multifractal in Volatility of Family Business Stocks Listed on Casablanca STOCK Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    In this paper, we check for existence of multifractal in volatility of Moroccan family business stock returns and in volatility of Casablanca market index returns based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) technique. Empirical results show strong evidence of multifractal characteristics in volatility series of both family business stocks and market index. In addition, it is found that small variations in volatility of family business stocks are persistent, whilst small variations in volatility of market index are anti-persistent. However, large variations in family business volatility and market index volatility are both anti-persistent. Furthermore, multifractal spectral analysis based results show strong evidence that volatility in Moroccan family business companies exhibits more multifractality than volatility in the main stock market. These results may provide insightful information for risk managers concerned with family business stocks.

  15. Translating climate data for business decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Businesses are bound to play an integral role in global and local climate change adaptation efforts, and integrating climate science into business decision-making can help protect companies' bottom-line and the communities which they depend upon. Yet many companies do not have good means to measure and manage climate risks. There are inherent limiting factors to incorporating climate data into existing operations and sourcing strategies. Spatial and temporal incongruities between climate and business models can make integration cumbersome. Even when such incongruities are resolved, raw climate data must undergo multiple transformations until the data is deemed actionable or otherwise translatable in dollar terms. However, the predictability of future impacts is advancing along with the use of second-order variables such as Cooling Degree Days and Water-Limited Crop productivity, helping business managers make better decisions about future energy and water demand requirements under the prospect of rising temperatures and more variable rainfall. This presentation will discuss the methods and opportunities for transforming raw climate data into business metrics. Results for the 2015 Corporate Adaptation Survey, led by Four Twenty Seven and in partnership with Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, will also be presented to illustrate existing gaps between climate science and its application in the business context.

  16. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  17. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science . . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...broad category of inquiry that can be used to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. Data Science : the study of where infor...Management Sciences (INFORMS) This scientific process of transforming data into insight with ana- lytics for better decision-making has taken the form

  18. Small Business Procurement Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event , 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT...18 Target the Small Business Accessible Market within the Department of the Navy $77.8B Department of the Navy Total SB Eligible Spend

  19. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  20. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  1. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  2. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  3. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  4. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  5. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  6. Exploration of Business (9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide provides teachers with a business exploration curriculum for grade 9. The course is designed to introduce beginning students to the language of business, to careers, to consumerism, to economics, and to technology. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, describes the program structure, and lists program goals and…

  7. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  8. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  9. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  10. Selective Lessons from Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the author has participated in many gatherings where business leaders have been invited to provide educational leaders with advice regarding the way they should lead their schools. Some of these events proved satisfying, but others proved disastrous. In this article, the author argues that it is a mistake to invite business leaders…

  11. Teaching Business Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKillop, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Business is integral to the functioning of the national economy, politics, education and everyday living. It is without question that business education is a vital part of the high school experience, and should be seen as required courses rather than electives. Preparing high school students for real life beyond high school happens in the business…

  12. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  13. Learning About Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    In the teacher's guide, learning experiences focus on helping students in primary grades develop their understanding of the interrelationships among businesses, workers, and families through examinations of local stores and businesses and of the workers who work in them. Students are given the opportunity to acquire economical awareness and…

  14. Social enterprise. Risky business.

    PubMed

    2007-02-15

    The skills needed to run a social enterprise are similar to those needed for conventional business. Accounts for social enterprises will have a 'double bottom line', showing social benefit as well as profit. Finding a good mentor is vital, as is setting out a clear vision and values in your business plan.

  15. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  16. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  17. Veterans in Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    These materials provide information on conducting small business training seminars for veterans. First, a discussion is presented of the development of the guide based on 1983 field testing of the seminar and evaluations conducted by Small Business Administration (SBA) officials, the seminar contracts, and trainers. The next sections deal with the…

  18. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  19. Comprehensive Business Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Program Planning and Development.

    This curriculum is designed to provide elective courses in business for academic track high school students in Connecticut. The guide is organized in three sections. The first section introduces the concept of business education for nonvocational students, lists the objectives of the courses, describes the course structure, explains the idea of…

  20. A Bilingual Business Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger-Merino, Kathleen A.

    Foreign language skills are necessary not only in international commerce but also in domestic business with the growing Hispanic American population. Many Hispanics have only minimal English skills and prefer to do business in Spanish and use Spanish language media. Because Hispanic Americans account for a significant portion of the consumer…

  1. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Nancy; And Others

    This curriculum guide recommends the essential content for high school programs in business education in South Carolina. It contains course outlines which are based on competencies needed in the labor market and/or for personal business management. The guide contains 20 course descriptions which are arranged in alphabetical order. Each course is…

  2. The Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, William H., Jr.

    The publication is designed to serve as a guide for those responsible for business education in Pennsylvania, emphasizing curriculum planning and the development of course guidelines. Chapter one deals with planning the business education program within the framework of the principles of curriculum construction. Program implementation at the…

  3. Supervised Business Experience Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This handbook explains how to conduct a supervised business education experience program in Missouri, outlining the program, rationale, components, principles, and resources. Specifically, the 11 units cover the following: (1) introduction to supervised business experience; (2) program design; (3) state policies; (4) the advisory committee; (5)…

  4. None of Your Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Jana

    1989-01-01

    Local business owners in college towns say they can't compete when an institution sells computers, pizza, or books. With unrelated-business income tax legislation a threat, institutions are addressing these concerns by cooperating with retailers. (Author/MSE)

  5. The Business Writer's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusaw, Charles T.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to be a comprehensive, practical reference guide for courses in business writing or business communication. Alphabetical entries provide coverage of grammar, usage, style, format, and writing procedure--planning, research, outlining, methods of development, and so on--and also include specific information on letters,…

  6. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  7. Business Schools at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BizEd, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Explores pervasive forces, such as faculty shortages, pressures to enhance curricular relevance, and intense, worldwide competition, that are threatening traditional business schools. Describes recommendations reached by the Management Education Task Force formed by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, which addressed these…

  8. Business Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This handbook covers the field of business education in Missouri, outlining the program, rationale, components, principles, and resources. Specifically, the 13 sections cover the following: (1) the mission of business education; (2) the secondary program; (3) the postsecondary program; (4) adult education; (5) student organizations; (6)…

  9. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  10. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  11. Mind Your Own Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.; Kirkwood, Hal P., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Like any well-run company deciding on what products and services to offer, a good library should pay attention to customer demand when it is building its business reference collection. What kind of information do business patrons want? Most are looking for company and industry details: a corporate address or name of an officer, financial data for…

  12. Business Principles 201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting a secondary-level course on business principles. Intended as part of an office skills or accounting/data processing program, the course provides the management viewpoint toward the planning and operation of a business. First, the goals and objectives of the course are outlined. Provided…

  13. Defining Business English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, G. D.

    Business language is directed both outward, toward the general public and inward, toward the particular type of business. In the first instance, it approximates lay language and has contributed some expressions to common usage. In the second instance, it departs from lay language and becomes specialized within each industry, sometimes to the point…

  14. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  15. Microcomputers in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscat, Eugene

    1980-01-01

    This article acquaints business educators with the equipment, terminology, and the wide range of applications microcomputers have in business education programs. Areas examined include hardware, software, computer-assisted instruction (drill and practice, simulation, and tutorial), computer-managed instruction, and word processing. (CT)

  16. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  17. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  18. Learning About Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    In the teacher's guide, learning experiences focus on helping students in primary grades develop their understanding of the interrelationships among businesses, workers, and families through examinations of local stores and businesses and of the workers who work in them. Students are given the opportunity to acquire economical awareness and…

  19. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  20. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  1. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  2. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  3. Business size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2001-10-01

    In a recent work, we introduced two models for the dynamics of customers trying to find the business that best corresponds to their expectation for the price of a commodity. In agreement with the empirical data, a power-law distribution for the business sizes was obtained, taking the number of customers of a business as a proxy for its size. Here, we extend one of our previous models in two different ways. First, we introduce a business aggregation rate that is fitness dependent, which allows us to reproduce a spread in empirical data from one country to another. Second, we allow the bankruptcy rate to take a different functional form, to be able to obtain a log-normal distribution with power-law tails for the size of the businesses.

  4. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  5. English through Business and Business through English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Tay

    This paper describes a highly specialized ESL program for a group of foreign students at the University of Southern California. The students were foreign graduates in business administration and economics who were entering the MBA program at USC. Previous experience with such students indicated that many entered the program with an insufficient…

  6. Business Communications Students Demonstrate Realistic Business Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol M.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that business communication students can improve their management and communications skills by forming teams and playing the roles of corporate employees, including holding stockholders' meetings, drawing up reports, discussing new products, and in general honing their professional appearance and conduct. (JC)

  7. English through Business and Business through English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Tay

    This paper describes a highly specialized ESL program for a group of foreign students at the University of Southern California. The students were foreign graduates in business administration and economics who were entering the MBA program at USC. Previous experience with such students indicated that many entered the program with an insufficient…

  8. Making the Business Case for Software Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Balanced Scorecard - Norton and Kaplan 2.4.2 Customer Index: Andersen Consulting 2.4.3 Information Economics (IE) - The Beta Group...organizational processes. 2.4.1 Balanced Scorecard - Norton and Kaplan The Balanced Scorecard , conceived by Robert Kaplan and David Norton [ Kaplan 1993], is... Norton , David P. "The Balanced Scorecard : Measures That Drive Perform- ance." Harvard Business Review 70, 1

  9. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  10. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  11. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  12. Unfinished Business in Bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Klingspon, Kara L.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.

    2016-01-01

    Unfinished business (incomplete, unexpressed or unresolved relationship issues with the deceased) is frequently discussed as a risk factor for chronic and severe grief reactions. However, few empirical studies have examined this construct. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the presence and severity of unfinished business as well as common themes of unfinished business reported in open-ended qualitative narratives among a sample of 224 bereaved individuals. In bivariate analyses, self-reported presence of unfinished business and the severity of distress due to unfinished business were both found to be associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. However, after controlling for potential confounds, distress related to unresolved issues with the deceased emerged as a more robust correlate of these outcomes. Qualitative responses were categorized, and the type of reported unfinished business was not significantly related to the degree of unfinished business distress or other bereavement outcomes. These findings provide preliminary justification for bereavement interventions that aim to ameliorate distress related to unresolved relational issues with the deceased. PMID:26057117

  13. Street drugs: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Su'a, F

    1989-11-01

    In the profession of law enforcement, we see drug abuse as our most serious crime problem. We also realize that simply making arrests, by itself, won't solve the problem. The drug business might be the filthiest business on earth, but it's not a business that forces customers to buy dope. Dope dealers may be ruthless and may even kill, but no one forces anyone to buy drugs at gunpoint. The truth is that drug dealers would go nowhere, were it not for the customers.

  14. U.S. Serial Services Price Index for 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the 1997 U.S. Serials Services Price Index, produced by the Library Materials Price Index Committee of the American Library Association's Association for Library Collections and Technical Services. Finds a 3.9% increase over 1996. Includes eight tables covering U.S. Serial Services, business, general and humanities, law, science and…

  15. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  16. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  17. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  18. Give Kids the Business!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Teachers' ideas for teaching elementary secondary school students about business, industry, economics, consumerism, and money management are presented. Class activities involving a toy automotive industry, a consumer convention, and a class "microtown" are described. (CJ)

  19. Maintenance Business Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  20. Communicating with Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Anne

    1983-01-01

    States that schools should work directly with businesses in developing new curricula. Lists general principles to be observed during this process in order to facilitate communication between the two groups. (NRJ)

  1. "Education Is Everybody's Business."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Janean G.

    1982-01-01

    A school-business partnership in Indianapolis (Indiana) has had significant results in raising student test scores, increasing attendance and reducing tardiness, and meeting schools' curriculum objectives. (Author/MLF)

  2. Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  3. The Business Flight Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, P.; Simpson, D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a simulation program based on a workshop approach designed for postsecondary business students. Features and benefits of the workshop technique are discussed. The authors cover practical aspects of designing and implementing simulation workshops. (CH)

  4. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms. Images Figure 2 PMID:17225850

  5. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E

    2006-12-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms.

  6. The "Financial Counseling and Planning" Indexing Project: Establishing a Correlation between Indexing, Total Citations, and Library Holdings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The researcher hypothesized that increasing the number of indexing services covering a journal would increase library holdings and total citations for the journal. A sample group of 40 Journal Citation Reports (JCR) journals in the "Business, Finance" category was identified and checked for the number of times indexed in Ulrich's…

  7. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  8. Small Business Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) invites small businesses, or those with 500 employees or less, to write for a copy of its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program solicitation, to be issued January 2, 1985. To receive a copy, contact the SBIR Program Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20545; telephone 301-353-5707. The closing date for this solicitation is March 15, 1985.

  9. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  10. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales Solution Department, off-site... and location is International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit,...

  11. A Selected and Annotated Guide to Business Reference Sources in the University of Cincinnati Libraries. Reference List in Business and Economics No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasrallah, Wahib, Comp.

    This selected, annotated list of business information and reference sources in the University of Cincinnati Libraries includes literature guides, bibliographies, indexing and abstracting services, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, biographical sources, directories, legislative and administrative regulation sources, financial sources, fact…

  12. Bringing science to business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Business Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for five courses for the secondary business technology programs in Mississippi: intensive business training; information processing; business computer applications; and computer programing technology (CPT) I and II. The 20 units of intensive business training include the following: keyboarding; operation of…

  14. Developing an effective business plan.

    PubMed

    Lehman, L B

    1996-06-01

    At some time, virtually all managed care executives, and most physician executives, will be asked to develop business plans. Business plans are thoughtful, comprehensive, and realistic descriptions of the many aspects of the formulation of a new business product or line for market. The author describes what goes into the writing of a business plan and how the physician executive should approach this task.

  15. Information Systems and Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Raymond W., Ed.; Williams, Alfred B., Ed.

    Intended to provide orientation about the integration of business communication, business systems, and the researching and teaching of business communication, this books offers articles on a variety of topics concerning business communication. Titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Office Technology: Voice Store-and-Forward"…

  16. Developing an effective business plan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E

    1990-01-01

    The cost-consciousness of today's health care industry demands that nurses function as business people as well as care givers. One critical business skill that nurses must develop is writing effective business plans. This article describes a framework for developing successful business plans for both beginning new services and expanding current nursing programs.

  17. Small Business Management. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide, which is designed to assist teachers in providing instruction and technical support to small business owners and managers, contains 17 competency-based units of instruction on the following areas that both small business instructors and small business owners have deemed critical to the success of any business:…

  18. Small Business Management. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide, which is designed to assist teachers in providing instruction and technical support to small business owners and managers, contains 17 competency-based units of instruction on the following areas that both small business instructors and small business owners have deemed critical to the success of any business:…

  19. Ten Most Searched Databases by a Business Generalist--Part 1 or A Day in the Life of....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Meri

    1986-01-01

    Describes databases frequently used in Business Information Center, Cummins Engine Company (Columbus, Indiana): Dun and Bradstreet Business Information Report System, Newsearch, Dun and Bradstreet Market Identifiers, Trade and Industry Index, PTS PROMT, Bureau of Labor Statistics files, ABI/INFORM, Magazine Index, NEXIS, Dow Jones News/Retrieval.…

  20. Third Party Services for Enabling Business-to-Business Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Santosh

    Business-to-business (B2B) interactions concerned with the fulfilment of a given business function (e.g., order processing) requires business partners to exchange electronic business documents and to act on them. This activity can be viewed as the business partners taking part in the execution of a shared business process, where each partner is responsible for performing their part in the process. Naturally, business process executions at each partner must be coordinated at run-time to ensure that the partners are performing mutually consistent actions (e.g., the seller is not hipping a product when the corresponding order has been cancelled by the buyer). A number of factors combine to make the task of business process coordination surprisingly hard:

  1. Automatic indexing of scanned documents: a layout-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Daniel; Schuster, Daniel; Muthmann, Klemens; Berger, Michael; Schill, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Archiving official written documents such as invoices, reminders and account statements in business and private area gets more and more important. Creating appropriate index entries for document archives like sender's name, creation date or document number is a tedious manual work. We present a novel approach to handle automatic indexing of documents based on generic positional extraction of index terms. For this purpose we apply the knowledge of document templates stored in a common full text search index to find index positions that were successfully extracted in the past.

  2. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  3. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  4. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  5. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  6. A pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Gunturi, Rahul; Sullivan, Donald

    2014-04-17

    To implement a pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles and assess students' perceived value. As part of a pharmacy management and administration course, students made various calculations and management decisions in the global categories of hours of operation, inventory, pricing, and personnel. The students entered the data into simulation software and a realistic community pharmacy marketplace was modeled. Course topics included accounting, economics, finance, human resources, management, marketing, and leadership. An 18-item posttest survey was administered. Students' slightly to moderately agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their knowledge and understanding, particularly of inventory management, cash flow statements, balance sheets, and income statements. Overall attitudes toward the pharmacy simulation program were also slightly positive and students also slightly agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their learning of pharmacy business management. Inventory management was the only area in which students felt they had at least "some" exposure to the assessed business management topics during IPPEs/internship, while all other areas of experience ranged from "not at all" to "a little." The pharmacy simulation program is an effective active-learning exercise and enhanced students' knowledge and understanding of the business management topics covered.

  7. A Pharmacy Business Management Simulation Exercise as a Practical Application of Business Management Material and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brent L.; Gunturi, Rahul; Sullivan, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement a pharmacy business management simulation exercise as a practical application of business management material and principles and assess students’ perceived value. Design. As part of a pharmacy management and administration course, students made various calculations and management decisions in the global categories of hours of operation, inventory, pricing, and personnel. The students entered the data into simulation software and a realistic community pharmacy marketplace was modeled. Course topics included accounting, economics, finance, human resources, management, marketing, and leadership. Assessment. An 18-item posttest survey was administered. Students’ slightly to moderately agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their knowledge and understanding, particularly of inventory management, cash flow statements, balance sheets, and income statements. Overall attitudes toward the pharmacy simulation program were also slightly positive and students also slightly agreed the pharmacy simulation program enhanced their learning of pharmacy business management. Inventory management was the only area in which students felt they had at least “some” exposure to the assessed business management topics during IPPEs/internship, while all other areas of experience ranged from “not at all” to “a little.” Conclusion. The pharmacy simulation program is an effective active-learning exercise and enhanced students’ knowledge and understanding of the business management topics covered. PMID:24761023

  8. ISEA2007 panel: Integration of better exposure characterizations into disaster preparedness for responders and the public

    PubMed Central

    Rodes, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Dellarco, Michael J.; Erickson, Mitchell D.; Vallero, Daniel A.; Reissman, Dori B.; Lioy, Paul J.; Lippmann, Morton; Burke, Thomas A.; Goldstein, Bernard D.

    2014-01-01

    An expert panel was convened in October 2007 at the International Society for Exposure Analysis Annual Meeting in Durham, NC, entitled “The Path Forward in Disaster Preparedness Since WTC—Exposure Characterization and Mitigation: Substantial Unfinished Business!” The panel prospectively discussed the critical exposure issues being overlooked during disaster responses and highlighted the needs for an optimal blending of exposure characterizations and hazard controls within disaster settings. The cases were made that effective and timely exposure characterizations must be applied during responses to any disaster, whether terrorist, manmade, or natural in origin. The consistent application of exposure sciences across acute and chronic disaster timelines will assure that the most effective strategies are applied to collect the needed information to guide risk characterization and management approaches. Exposure sciences must be effectively applied across all phases of a disaster (defined as rescue, reentry, recovery, and rehabitation—the four Rs) to appropriately characterize risks and guide risk-mitigation approaches. Failure to adequately characterize and control hazardous exposures increases the likelihood of excess morbidity and mortality. Advancing the infrastructure and the technologies to collect the right exposure information before, during, and immediately after disasters would advance our ability to define risks and protect responders and the public better. The panel provided conclusions, recommendations, and next steps toward effective and timely integration of better exposure science into disaster preparedness, including the need for a subsequent workshop to facilitate this integration. All panel presentations and a summary were uploaded to the ISES1 website (http://www.iseaweb.org/Disaster_Preparedness/index.php). PMID:18685563

  9. ISEA2007 panel: integration of better exposure characterizations into disaster preparedness for responders and the public.

    PubMed

    Rodes, Charles E; Pellizzari, Edo D; Dellarco, Michael J; Erickson, Mitchell D; Vallero, Daniel A; Reissman, Dori B; Lioy, Paul J; Lippmann, Morton; Burke, Thomas A; Goldstein, Bernard D

    2008-11-01

    An expert panel was convened in October 2007 at the International Society for Exposure Analysis Annual Meeting in Durham, NC, entitled "The Path Forward in Disaster Preparedness Since WTC-Exposure Characterization and Mitigation: Substantial Unfinished Business!" The panel prospectively discussed the critical exposure issues being overlooked during disaster responses and highlighted the needs for an optimal blending of exposure characterizations and hazard controls within disaster settings. The cases were made that effective and timely exposure characterizations must be applied during responses to any disaster, whether terrorist, manmade, or natural in origin. The consistent application of exposure sciences across acute and chronic disaster timelines will assure that the most effective strategies are applied to collect the needed information to guide risk characterization and management approaches. Exposure sciences must be effectively applied across all phases of a disaster (defined as rescue, reentry, recovery, and rehabitation-the four Rs) to appropriately characterize risks and guide risk-mitigation approaches. Failure to adequately characterize and control hazardous exposures increases the likelihood of excess morbidity and mortality. Advancing the infrastructure and the technologies to collect the right exposure information before, during, and immediately after disasters would advance our ability to define risks and protect responders and the public better. The panel provided conclusions, recommendations, and next steps toward effective and timely integration of better exposure science into disaster preparedness, including the need for a subsequent workshop to facilitate this integration. All panel presentations and a summary were uploaded to the ISES(1) website (http://www.iseaweb.org/Disaster_Preparedness/index.php).

  10. Minority Business Enterprises and Woman Business Enterprises Grant Utilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The policy goal of the MBE/WBE Programs is to assure that minority business enterprises and woman business enterprises are given the opportunity to participate in contract and procurement for supplies, construction, equipment & services under any EPA grant

  11. The Role of Communication in Global Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard David

    1994-01-01

    Argues that American business schools fail to emphasize business communication, despite research indicating its huge importance to qualitative improvement. Considers the importance of communication in business success. (HB)

  12. Providing Experiential Business and Management Training for Biomedical Research Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Kimberly A.; Carnahan, Robert H.; Brown, Abigail M.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical PhD trainees lack exposure to business principles, which limits their competitiveness and effectiveness in academic and industry careers. To fill this training gap, we developed Business and Management Principles for Scientists, a semester-long program that combined didactic exposure to business fundamentals with practical team-based projects aimed at solving real business problems encountered by institutional shared-­resource core facilities. The program also included a retreat featuring presentations by and networking with local life science entrepreneurs and final team presentations to expert judges. Quantitative and qualitative metrics were used to evaluate the program’s impact on trainees. A pretest–posttest approach was used to assess trainees’ baseline knowledge and mastery of module concepts, and each individual’s pretest and posttest responses were compared. The mean score improved by more than 17 percentage points. Trainees also took an online survey to provide feedback about the module. Nearly all participants agreed or strongly agreed that the module was a valuable use of their time and will help guide their career decisions and that project work helped drive home module concepts. More than 75% of trainees reported discussing the module with their research advisors, and all of these participants reported supportive or neutral responses. Collectively, the trainee feedback about the module, improvement in test scores, and trainee perception of advisor support suggest that this short module is an effective method of providing scientists with efficient and meaningful exposure to business concepts. PMID:28798213

  13. Do Business Schools Value the Competencies that Businesses Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven Eric; Karns, Lanny A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used survey research to determine the congruence among the competencies that businesses identify as being indicative of successful managers, the competencies that business schools identify as being indicative of successful graduates, and the competencies that are emphasized in business school curricula. The results show that although…

  14. The Great Divide between Business School Research and Business Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostaler, Isabelle; Tomberlin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In their 2005 "Harvard Business Review" article, Bennis and O'Toole described business schools as being "on the wrong track" as a result of their focus on so-called scientific research. Some commentators argue that business schools have slowly lost their relevance since the end of the 1950s when they undertook a major overhaul in response to the…

  15. The Teaching of Business Ethics: An Imperative at Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…

  16. Taking Care of Business: Equipping Students to Become Business Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannis, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…

  17. Our Business World, Business Education: 7711.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAskill, Ava

    This Quinmester pamphlet presents an overview of the business world and the American free enterprise system, delving into the concept of profit, satisfaction of wants and needs through production and distribution of goods and services, and primary forms of business organization, the effects of business activity on economic growth, and the use of…

  18. Business Office Clerical/Business Office Services. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide for business office clerical/business office services provides instructional materials for Texas business course instructors. The following sections are included: (1) introduction; (2) keyboarding--skills, proofreading, and word processing; (3) filing--alphabetic, numeric, and electronic; (4) operating office…

  19. Business and Technology Concepts--Business Computations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This Illinois State Board of Education teacher's guide on business computations is for students enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. The course provides a foundation in arithmetic skills and their applications to common business problems for the senior high school vocational business courses. The curriculum guide includes teacher and student…

  20. Business as a Vocation: Catholic Social Teaching and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkson, Peter K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…

  1. Incorporating Business Communication in an Integrative Business Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luse, Donna W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Integrative Business Seminar in the College of Business Administration at Northeast Louisiana University in which the principal courses in business communication, management, marketing, and finance as well as a segment in problem solving, are taught as one 15-credit hour block in which subject areas are treated as an integrated…

  2. Business Speech, Language Arts, Business English: 5128.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed as part of a high school quinmester unit on business speech, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a course designed to help people in the business world. The course covers the preparation and delivery of a speech and other business situations which require skill in speaking (sales techniques, committee and group…

  3. Taking Care of Business: Equipping Students to Become Business Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannis, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…

  4. Education Business Plan 2008-11: Ministry Business Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has identified one core business that is an ongoing key responsibility. It is called "Core Business One: Lead and Support the Education System So That All Students Are Successful at Learning." The core business includes three goals with specific outcomes that describe the end results the Ministry wants to…

  5. Business and Technology Concepts--Business Computations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This Illinois State Board of Education teacher's guide on business computations is for students enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. The course provides a foundation in arithmetic skills and their applications to common business problems for the senior high school vocational business courses. The curriculum guide includes teacher and student…

  6. Do Business Schools Value the Competencies that Businesses Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven Eric; Karns, Lanny A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used survey research to determine the congruence among the competencies that businesses identify as being indicative of successful managers, the competencies that business schools identify as being indicative of successful graduates, and the competencies that are emphasized in business school curricula. The results show that although…

  7. Business Education--Business Law: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Thirty-seven objectives and related test items for business law courses taught in grades 10 through 12 are organized into the following categories: (1) foundations of law; (2) law of contracts, property, and negotiable instruments; (3) business relations and business organizations; and (4) vocabulary. Each objective contains three elements: the…

  8. Business as a Vocation: Catholic Social Teaching and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkson, Peter K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…

  9. Common Core Units in Business Education: Preparing Simple Business Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellis, George P.

    This secondary unit of instruction on preparing simple business records is one of sixteen Common Core Units in Business Education (CCUBE). The units were designed for implementing the sixteen common core competencies identified in the California Business Education Program Guide for Office and Distributive Education. Each competency-based unit is…

  10. The English of Business Is the Business of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versluis, Edward B.

    Three arguments lead to the conclusion that the English of business is the business of English. First, reluctance to fully appreciate the English of Business stems in part from a serious misunderstanding about the development of written language in the Western tradition. While studying folktales and the origins of myths has made an awareness of…

  11. The Teaching of Business Ethics: An Imperative at Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…

  12. Introducing a New Business Course: "Global Business and Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, R. Scott; Harry, Sean P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--To outline the themes, topics and material used in a new course, Global business and sustainability, for business educators interested in integrating this emerging paradigm into their courses. Design/methodology/approach--The structure, design and reference materials for the Global business and sustainability course are reviewed. Specific…

  13. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  14. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  15. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  16. Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide gives information on the skills and knowledge that students should acquire in a secondary-level business education program. Section 1 introduces the competency-based curriculum and discusses curriculum delivery systems, the role of the teacher in curriculum development, and options for program development. Goals, competencies, and…

  17. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  18. Business in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Dennis M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with a theme article supplying teacher background material on the role of business in the community, this issue focuses on the profit motive, competition, and the use of resources. Four instructional units on this topic are included for young children. The pre-kindergarten unit, "Pancake Producers," has children observe workers cooking…

  19. A Business Plan Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    This document identifies the information that should be included in a business plan, and in what order, to make it an effective management tool and an effective tool to communicate a proposed or existing company's strengths and potential to potential financiers. Following an introduction, the document explains the following sections of a business…

  20. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  1. Dancing Partners: Schools & Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Business and education partnerships can be cornerstones of major school improvement efforts and meaningful corporate philanthropy. They also can be frustrating and wasteful if not planned and managed carefully. Partnerships, with their objectives, agreements, memorandums of understanding and budgets, may look like well-planned and carefully…

  2. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  3. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  4. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  5. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  6. Position Paper - Business Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    Cupps, Kim

    2011-09-27

    This “Business of File Systems and Archives” position paper will describe several LLNL best practices that help formulate and optimize the cost/benefit analysis all center’s face in their quest to provide an ongoing, exceptional computing environment within a finite budget.

  7. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  8. Business knowledge in surgeons.

    PubMed

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2004-07-01

    Surgeons and residents in training receive little, if any, formal education in the economic side of clinical practice during medical school or residency. As medical professionals face shrinking reimbursement, loss of control over health care decisions, and limited resources, surgical specialties must reevaluate the need to teach their members business survival skills. Before designing business related-teaching modules, educators must know the exact gaps in knowledge that exist among surgeons. This article reports a survey of 133 surgeons in the Midwest who were asked to rate their knowledge base in 11 business topics relevant to the practice of medicine. The survey showed that the average surgeon perceives himself or herself to be poorly equipped to understand basic financial accounting principles, financial markets, economics of health care, tools for evaluating purchases, marketing, budgets, antitrust and fraud and abuse regulations, and risk and return on investments. Armed with this data, teaching faculty, health care systems, and medical specialty societies should design business education seminars to better position surgical specialists and trainees to communicate with insurers, hospital administrators, health care organizations, and their own personal financial advisors.

  9. A Business Plan Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    This document identifies the information that should be included in a business plan, and in what order, to make it an effective management tool and an effective tool to communicate a proposed or existing company's strengths and potential to potential financiers. Following an introduction, the document explains the following sections of a business…

  10. Functional Business Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Defines computerized functional business games as those focusing on decision making and integration in the areas of accounting/finance, marketing, personnel/human resources, and production/operations. Nine currently available games are reviewed and evaluated in the context of a learning model. (Author/LRW)

  11. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  12. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  13. The Business of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Gelfman, Arnold; Knapp, Jolene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges that are taking a more business-like approach, trimming costs, improving efficiencies, and pursuing next-generation innovation--all while keeping the focus squarely where it should be: on learning. At Florida Keys Community College (FKCC), John Keho says his college is taking some strong--though…

  14. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  15. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  16. Business in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Dennis M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with a theme article supplying teacher background material on the role of business in the community, this issue focuses on the profit motive, competition, and the use of resources. Four instructional units on this topic are included for young children. The pre-kindergarten unit, "Pancake Producers," has children observe workers cooking…

  17. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  18. Women and Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda Keller

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the current research on women as managers in business, commerce, and industry. Examines the areas of career choice and availability of women for managerial positions, stereotypes of managerial characteristics, the behavioral consequences of stereotypes, intrapsychic and structural barriers to advancement, and characteristics of the…

  19. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  20. Finding Workable Business Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatto, Gloria M.

    1985-01-01

    The spirit of cooperation between business and higher education helps to strengthen America's private sector. Cooperative programs with Deere and Company and Rome Industries, with the fast food industry (Chick-fil-A), and with a development firm (Garden Lakes Company) are described. (MLW)

  1. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  2. Internet Business Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Mary J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of major information providers on the Internet that offer business resources focuses on U.S. government, United Nations, and European Community information and suggests sources for keeping current with new information offerings. Electronic bulletin boards, LC MARVEL, university Gophers, and TECnet are described; and access and subscription…

  3. The Business of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to John Silber's article, "Marketing Higher Education: The Survival Value of Integrity." Silber speaks to the very heart of the academy about its integrity and ethics, and does so in timeless fashion through the decades to the current era. In his introduction, he characterizes the "business of education" as inevitable…

  4. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  5. Minding the Academy's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2006-01-01

    As a teacher of educational leadership, the author of this article has observed that an alarming number of his doctoral students tend to view colleges and universities as little more than failed businesses. Students have witnessed a rising tide of corporate executives appointed to top academic posts, suggesting that boards of trustees see higher…

  6. Business Planning Core Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Itzkowitz, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    Thoughtful business planning is pivotal to the success of any business/operational venture. When planned in a thoughtful and detailed manner there are very few operational or financial surprises for an institution or facility (service center) to contend with. At Stony Brook Medicine we include SWOT analysis and a detailed Market Analysis as part of the process. This is bolstered by an initiative to ensure institutional policies are met so that facilities remain in compliance throughout their lifecycle. As we operate 14 facilities we have had the opportunity to become creative in our approach to coordinate activities, virtualize services, integrate new software business-to-business partners, and finally coordinate plans for phased consolidation instead of outright termination of services when required. As the Associate Dean for Scientific Operations and Research Facilities, the shared research facilities (cores) of the Medical School are in my direct line of sight. We understand their value to the meeting our overall research mission. We have found that an active process of monitoring to predict trouble as much as possible is the best approach for facilities. Some case analysis of this type of interaction will be presented as well.

  7. Koreans in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two questions about Koreans in business are left unanswered in this article. First, what will happen to Korean entrepreneurship if monopoly capitalism continues to extend its influence into all branches of the economy. The second question concerns the issue of race relations. (Author/AM)

  8. The Business of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Gelfman, Arnold; Knapp, Jolene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges that are taking a more business-like approach, trimming costs, improving efficiencies, and pursuing next-generation innovation--all while keeping the focus squarely where it should be: on learning. At Florida Keys Community College (FKCC), John Keho says his college is taking some strong--though…

  9. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A brochure that was designed to encourage contractors to do business with NASA is presented. The brochure is divided into six sections: (1) This is NASA; (2) The procurement process; (3) Marketing your capabilities; (4) Special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; and (6) Sources of additional help.

  10. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  11. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  12. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  13. What Is Business Communication? (Editorial).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsch, Lamar

    1991-01-01

    Offers an editorial, in an experimental spirit, that develops a narrow definition for communication, organization, manager, and business and narrow definitions for organizational communication, management communication, and business communication. (MG)

  14. Confidential Business Information under TSCA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This website informs businesses, policymakers, and the public about the confidential business information (CBI) provisions of § 14 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act.

  15. Business School Internships: Legal Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Cathy Owens; Kent, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Explores legal issues involved in business student internships for employers (compensation, workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, termination, equal-opportunities legislation, general liability) and for business schools (equal opportunities-legislation, general liability). (SK)

  16. What's a business for?

    PubMed

    Handy, Charles

    2002-12-01

    In the wake of the recent corporate scandals, it's time to reconsider the assumptions underlying American-style stock-market capitalism. That heady doctrine--in which the market is king, success is measured in terms of shareholder value, and profits are an end in themselves--enraptured America for a generation, spread to Britain during the 1980s, and recently began to gain acceptance in Continental Europe. But now, many wonder if the American model is corrupt. The American scandals are not just a matter of dubious personal ethics or of rogue companies fudging the odd billion. And the cure for the problems will not come solely from tougher regulations. We must also ask more fundamental questions: Whom and what is a business for? And are traditional ownership and governance structures suited to the knowledge economy? According to corporate law, a company's financiers are its owners, and employees are treated as property and recorded as costs. But while that may have been true in the early days of industry, it does not reflect today's reality. Now a company's assets are increasingly found in the employees who contribute their time and talents rather than in the stockholders who temporarily contribute their money. The language and measures of business must be reversed. In a knowledge economy, a good business is a community with a purpose, not a piece of property. If, like many European companies, a business considers itself a wealth-creating community consisting of members who have certain rights, those members will be more likely to treat one another as valued partners and take responsibility for telling the truth. Such a community can also help repair the image of business by insisting that its purpose is not just to make a profit but to make a profit in order to do something better.

  17. 76 FR 44351 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: 1090-0008, American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... satisfaction in the country, the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). This methodology combines survey... Satisfaction Index (ACSI) E-Government Website Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: National Business Center... is soliciting comments concerning the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) E-Government...

  18. Small business innovation, research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, small businesses have been the innovation engine of the United States (US). The author provides statistical data that indicates that small business is really big business in the U.S. Small businesses are responsible for much of the applied research necessary for new product development. The author examines productivity, academic research and teaming as a cost-effective and time effective way to develop new products and technologies.

  19. The business of perioperative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rock, P; Lubarsky, D A

    2000-09-01

    Medical centers should insist that their top officials have a firm grasp of contemporary business principles, use that skill set, and run the medical business like any other. This business imperative does not exclude a conscious decision to measure success by the amount of articles published or charity care given rather than the amount of profits. Physician leaders should insist that while they care for patients, someone cares for the business.

  20. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology... Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC 20416; or send an email to...

  1. 76 FR 46853 - International Business Machines Corporation, ITD Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, ITD Business Unit... States Reporting to Armonk, NY; International Business Machines Corporation, Web Strategy and Enablement..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), ITD Business Unit, Division 7,...

  2. Self-reported exposure to traffic pollution in relation to daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring: a questionnaire study in seven North-European cities.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Thorarinn; Bertelsen, Randi J; Real, Francisco Gomez; Sigsgaard, Torben; Franklin, Karl A; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Hellgren, Johan; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Forsberg, Bertil; Johannessen, Ane

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about associations between traffic exposure and sleep disturbances. We examined if self-reported exposure to traffic is associated with habitual snoring and daytime sleepiness in a general population. In the RHINE III study, 12184 adults answered questions on sleep disturbances and traffic exposure. We analysed bedrooms near roads with traffic, bedrooms with traffic noise, and travelling regularly along busy roads as proxies for traffic exposures, using logistic regression. Adjustment factors were study centre, gender, age, smoking habits, educational level, body mass index, physical activity, obstructive sleep apnoea, and sleep duration. One in ten lived near a busy road, 6% slept in a bedroom with traffic noise, and 11% travelled regularly along busy roads. Habitual snoring affected 25% and daytime sleepiness 21%. More men reported snoring and more women reported daytime sleepiness. Having a bedroom with traffic noise was associated with snoring (adjusted OR 1.29, [95% CI 1.12, 1.48]). For daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, bedroom with traffic noise and high exposure to traffic pollution have significant risk factors (adjusted ORs 1.46 [1.11, 1.92] and 1.65 [1.11, 2.45]). Results were consistent across study centres. Daytime sleepiness is associated with traffic pollution and traffic noise, while habitual snoring is only associated with traffic noise. Self-reported traffic exposure should be taken into account when diagnosing and planning treatment for patients with sleep disturbances, because reducing noise and pollution exposure in the bedroom may have a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Responsibility and "Mana" in International Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, John; Patterson, Glenys

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that exposure to indigenous philosophies and values such as those of the Maori of New Zealand can contribute to the education of international business majors. Uses as an example the Maori concept of "mana," or standing, which is directly linked to demonstration of social responsibility. (Author/DB)

  4. Business Meeting Training on Its Head: Inverted and Embedded Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Praet, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the value of using embedding to extend the notion of first exposure learning in flipped classroom practices. It describes a preclass assignment for a meeting and negotiation skills course, in which students are instructed to observe an authentic business meeting, interview participants of the meeting, photograph the…

  5. Double-Loop Learning and the Global Business Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ina; Knight, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In preparing students for employment in commerce, the student needs to be aware of many aspects not necessarily included in business programs. In recognizing students often have no or limited exposure to foreign environments, the authors developed an electronic exchange between students in Canada and Kazakhstan. In this exchange, students not only…

  6. Business Meeting Training on Its Head: Inverted and Embedded Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Praet, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the value of using embedding to extend the notion of first exposure learning in flipped classroom practices. It describes a preclass assignment for a meeting and negotiation skills course, in which students are instructed to observe an authentic business meeting, interview participants of the meeting, photograph the…

  7. A Rationale for Broadening the Perspectives of Business French Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, J. Sanford

    1984-01-01

    Links success of future international trade between U.S. and French-speaking world to a broader knowledge of economic systems and cultures of Quebec, Belgium, Switzerland, North and West Africa. More than just developing language competence, American students in business French need curriculum giving more exposure to diversity of cultures and…

  8. The Business Approach to Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Teresa; Green, Adrian

    This self-study book concentrates on enabling trainers to talk and think in a business-related way, use business concepts and terminology, and translate training and development ideas into a business setting. Each part contains activities to enable users to study their training and development function and organization and consider how to use the…

  9. The Business Approach to Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Teresa; Green, Adrian

    This self-study book concentrates on enabling trainers to talk and think in a business-related way, use business concepts and terminology, and translate training and development ideas into a business setting. Each part contains activities to enable users to study their training and development function and organization and consider how to use the…

  10. Classroom Management in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Eddie L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on classroom management in business education includes 17 chapters on such topics as combating teacher burnout, curriculum improvement, declining enrollments in business education, human relations in the classroom, team cohesiveness and the business department, communicating the essentials for the first week of class, and…

  11. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  12. Library Study Guide for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steidinger, Jana Reeg; Trzebiatowski, Elaine

    This library study guide was designed for business marketing students at the University of Wisconsin, Stout. The guide, and its accompanying exercises, were developed as an alternative to providing library instruction to approximately 150 business marketing students each semester. The guide introduces students to basic business reference sources…

  13. Measuring Entrepreneurship in Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeldine, Mary; Miles, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    The recent positions of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the European Foundation for Management Developments (EQUIS) on the value of entrepreneurship suggest a more entrepreneurial perspective in a business school's culture and strategic processes for obtaining and sustaining a business school's reputation. The…

  14. Intercultural Aspects of Multinational Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Patricia; Zumbar, Angela

    One of the major challenges facing most departments of business administration is international business, a field that warrants expansion because of the world economy and because it is of increasing importance to most countries. One of the goals of any international business curriculum must be to establish awareness and understanding of the…

  15. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  16. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  17. Measuring Entrepreneurship in Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeldine, Mary; Miles, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    The recent positions of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the European Foundation for Management Developments (EQUIS) on the value of entrepreneurship suggest a more entrepreneurial perspective in a business school's culture and strategic processes for obtaining and sustaining a business school's reputation. The…

  18. Simulation in JFL: Business Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a simulation wherein learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL) in a business writing course at an American university are assigned tasks to write a series of business letters based on situations that are likely to occur in actual business settings. After an overview of the theoretical background, this article…

  19. German as a Business Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Brian J.; Hahn, Martin

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the subject of Business German. Aspects covered include the rising general significance of business languages and concomitant increase in demand for Business German from employers, commerce-students and humanities students, the historical development of academic courses, integration of language skills with…

  20. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  1. Business Books: Best of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cords, Sarah Statz

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, as business increasingly became the news, business publishing showed a growing awareness of the big picture, putting out fewer personality-driven titles. In this list, one will see that business histories embrace recent technological innovation as much as longevity. The best management/HR books look at the big picture through pushing…

  2. Business Books: Best of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cords, Sarah Statz

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, as business increasingly became the news, business publishing showed a growing awareness of the big picture, putting out fewer personality-driven titles. In this list, one will see that business histories embrace recent technological innovation as much as longevity. The best management/HR books look at the big picture through pushing…

  3. Business and International Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  4. Simulation in JFL: Business Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a simulation wherein learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL) in a business writing course at an American university are assigned tasks to write a series of business letters based on situations that are likely to occur in actual business settings. After an overview of the theoretical background, this article…

  5. The Business End of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2005-01-01

    This article is a retrospective look at how the folks in business schools look at the case method for they have been at this business a long time and have produced beaucoup cases. The author features the books by the Canadian authors on case study teaching in business. The case method described by the authors is a discussion-based learning…

  6. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  7. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  8. Library Guides to Business Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jamie L., Comp.

    This collection of library guides is designed to introduce undergraduate students at Chicago State University to basic business reference sources. Annotated bibliographies cover the subject areas of business management, marketing, and finance. Guides in the collection include: (1) Researching the Company (Chicago and Illinois business and national…

  9. Hispanic Women Small Business Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Yolanda; Koberg, Christine

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 22 Hispanic women who owned small businesses in a western state found that most were located in metropolitan areas, were new to business ownership, had started the business themselves, engaged in "miscellaneous services," and generated lower than average revenues. Respondents were similar to nonminority owners in educational…

  10. New Directions for the Business Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Sid C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Restructuring, downsizing, small business growth, and changing employment opportunities necessitate reexamination of business curricula. A cross-functional curriculum should provide a general education foundation, a common body of business knowledge, and business specializations relevant to tomorrow's workplace. (SK)

  11. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small...

  12. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  13. Nucleic acid indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  14. Exposure Nomographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissell, Ronald E.

    Correct exposure times may be determined from nomographs relating signal-to-noise ratio, exposure time, color, seeing, and magnitude. The equations needed to construct the nomographs are developed. Calibration techniques are discussed.

  15. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  16. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  17. Designing the IDS business portfolio.

    PubMed

    Etchen, L L; Bouton, J L

    2000-01-01

    The business-value model is a strategic and business decision-making tool that can help integrated delivery systems (IDSs) evaluate the relative value that their individual businesses contribute to their overall systems. To use the model, IDSs first need to identify their individual business lines using criteria such as scope, size, marketability, operations, and competition. Businesses then are categorized as core, continuum, cash, or complementary based on four criteria: system purpose, size as reflected by annual revenue, competitive position, and level of profitability. Standards for these criteria should be set by the IDS in accordance with its market circumstances.

  18. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...This rule makes changes to the regulations governing the section 8(a) Business Development (8(a) BD) program, the U.S. Small Business Administration's (SBA or Agency) size regulations, and the regulations affecting Small Disadvantaged Businesses (SDBs). It is the first comprehensive revision to the 8(a) BD program in more than ten years. Some of the changes involve technical issues such as......

  19. Minority Ownership of Small Businesses: Instructional Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to provide supplementary instruction on basic business techniques for adult minority students in business education. Relevant information on how to start a business is provided by means of actual business situations and problems encountered in 30 recent minority business ventures. Focusing on business procedures and…

  20. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to SBA...

  1. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to SBA...

  2. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to SBA...

  3. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to SBA...

  4. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to SBA...

  5. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 3 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). NASA has selected a team of industry partners to help develop a 'highway in the sky' system, a key element of the government-industry effort to revitalize general aviation in the United States. The team will complete hardware and software development of a totally new concept for presenting critical flight path guidance information to the pilot. The cockpit display system will include a computer-drawn highway that the pilot follows to a pre-programmed destination. The highway will be drawn on a highly intuitive, low-cost flat panel display -- the primary flight display of the future -- that will displace decades-old 'steam gauge' instrumentation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  6. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  7. What the Index Medicus Indexes, and Why *

    PubMed Central

    Truelson, Stanley D.

    1966-01-01

    The main criterion for selecting journals for indexing in Index Medicus, and thereby largely in MEDLARS, is quality. Subject scope varies with the voiced needs of the biomedical community. The Index aims to cover the best journals in all relevant subject fields, but the percentage of journals on a subject indexed depends on the quality of each journal. Country and language coverage depends on quality, even in the case of the best journals of each, although American biases may affect such selection. While a number of guidelines exist for identifying quality journals, information necessary to apply them confidently is often difficult to obtain. The National Library of Medicine is advised by an Ad Hoc Panel on the Selection of Journals for Index Medicus, composed both of NLM officers and extramural members. Criticism has been voiced that too many titles are indexed, compared with titles actually used, but no meaningful statistics of use exist which can identify titles which should be excluded from indexing. Continuing suggestions from users regarding titles indexed would benefit everyone. PMID:5922258

  8. Defense Business Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Available at: EBSCO , accessed online: June 25, 2009. Carlson, C. David; Falvey, David J.; Huangfu, Austin T. 2008. The Case of the Business Systems...Review, July/August 1990, Volume 68, Issue 4, p104-112. Available at: EBSCO , accessed online: July 2, 2009. Hanks, Christopher. 2005. A Critical...November-December, 96-104. Available on EBSCO , accessed online: June 3, 2009. Office of Management and Budget. 2002. The President’s Management

  9. Business Opportunities Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Communications (C) systems necessary for tomorrow’s Air Foice can only be developed by a stronq’ESD/ industry team. Our first Business Opportunities Guide...contracted to produce prototypes, engineering models, or schedule estimates. The best of those proposals then advance to engineering development and award...DME source. The purpose of the Military MLS Avionics Program is to develop very high reliability MLS avionics for use by military aircraft of all the

  10. A people's business.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Sharon

    2003-11-05

    Sharon Blackburn needed all her pragmatism and passion when she joined the Elizabeth Finn Trust (EFT) as director of homes in 1999. Formerly known as the Distressed Gentlefolk's Aid Association, the charity gives financial assistance to people on low incomes so they can live independently at home or in one of the charity's 12 care homes. Ms Blackburn was appointed to introduce a business culture to the charity, while at the same time maintaining care standards and reducing staff turnover.

  11. Business Development Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-31

    entity’s real estate situation and condition for use by 17 customers including (but not limited to) the business entity. 18 Information is processed to...the score to provide a well- 3 rounded picture of a particular real estate situation. 4 Stratmann discloses a method for assisting an individual in...identify a potential 9 flaw in the opportunity analysis . These criteria include whether 10 the process is dealing with a real customer, if it is

  12. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  13. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  14. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of QASE RT is to enable system analysts and software engineers to evaluate performance and reliability implications of design alternatives. The program resulted from two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. After receiving a description of the system architecture and workload from the user, QASE RT translates the system description into simulation models and executes them. Simulation provides detailed performance evaluation. The results of the evaluations are service and response times, offered load and device utilizations and functional availability.

  15. National Small Business Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    Riley Valerie King Valerie King SAS Barry Alexia Nick Uros Gerri Whaley Shirley Patterson IIS John McDonald...Front Line of Innovation Department of Defense Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Strategic Plan Increase: 1. Number of SDVOSBs in Central ...c e - E x c e l l e n c e Changing Environment: Then, Now, and Tomorrow Strategy Peer Competitor? Middle East? Central Asia? WMD? Terror? Failed

  16. Business process optimization for RHIOs.

    PubMed

    Soti, Praveen; Pandey, Seema

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) network entails significant changes in the business processes of participating organizations. Business process management, increased automation, process optimization, user training and end-user adoption together form the keys to success with an EHR. Redesigned processes should be mapped to benefit lines and performance indicators, and monitored continuously to identify improvement opportunities. It is important the new business work flows should match, if not exceed, the existing benchmarks for performance. Business process redesign is all the more challenging in the context of regional health information organizations (RHIOs), as the business processes of the EHR network have to be aligned with existing process flows of several organizations, each with its own preferences and specific requirements. Even so, most of the discrete individual processes have to be converged, streamlined, assimilated and optimized in the redesigned business processes. This paper proposes a methodology for business process redesign and optimization for RHIOs.

  17. Writing a successful business plan.

    PubMed

    Haag, A B

    1997-01-01

    1. In creating and building a business, the entrepreneur assumes all the responsibilities for its development and management, as well as the risks and risks and rewards. Many businesses do not survive because business owners fail to develop an effective plan. 2. The business plan focuses on major areas of concern and their contribution to the success of a new business. The finished product communicates the product/service to others and provides the basis for the financial proposal. 3. Planning helps identify customers, market area, pricing strategy, and competitive conditions. It aids in decision making and is an essential guide for operating a business successfully and measuring progress. 4. The business plan not only serves as a mechanism for obtaining any needed financial resources, but also indicates the future direction of the company.

  18. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  19. Behavior of 157 nm excimer-laser-induced refractive index changes in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Charlene M.; Borrelli, Nicholas F.

    2006-09-15

    This study describes the observation of large induced refractive index changes produced by 157 nm excimer laser exposure in high-purity synthetic silica glasses. With 157 nm exposure, large induced changes are observed within a few hundred thousand pulses of exposure. Similar to 193 nm exposures, exposure with polarized 157 nm light yields polarization-induced birefringence (PIB). However, the 157 nm exposure also exhibits a behavior not observed with 193 nm exposures; namely, the initial response of the glass is a decrease in refractive index, followed by an increase with continued exposure. An explanation of the behaviors for both wavelength results is proposed where the induced refractive index is considered to arise from two different concurrent phenomena. One produces a decreased refractive index and also accounts for the PIB. The other, which accounts for the increased refractive index, is associated with an isotropic laser-induced volume change.

  20. Formation of bulk refractive index structures

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George; Potter, Kelly Simmons; Wheeler, David R.; Jamison, Gregory M.

    2003-07-15

    A method of making a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure in photosensitive materials using photo-patterning where first determined is the wavelength at which a photosensitive material film exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation, a portion of the surfaces of the photosensitive material film is optically irradiated, the film is marked to produce a registry mark. Multiple films are produced and aligned using the registry marks to form a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure.

  1. Business Training and Education Needs of Chiropractors

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Steve W; Pressley, Milton; Korfmann, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This report is an examination of the perceived need for business skills among chiropractors. Methods: An online survey was completed by 64 chiropractors. They assessed the need for business skills and current levels of business skills. Using this information, gaps in business skills are identified. Results: The need for business skills is broad, encompassing all major business functions. Existing business skills are well below needed levels. Conclusion: The chiropractic profession needs significantly greater business and practice management skills. The existing gap between needed business skills and existing skills suggests that current training and education programs are not providing adequate business skills training PMID:19043535

  2. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  3. Business owners' optimism and business performance after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James W; Faircloth, James B; Valentine, Sean R

    2006-12-01

    Previous work indicates that individuals' optimism is related to superior performance in adverse situations. This study examined correlations after flooding for measures of business recovery but found only weak support (very small common variance) for business owners' optimism scores and sales recovery. Using traditional measures of recovery, in this study was little empirical evidence that optimism would be of value in identifying businesses at risk after a natural disaster.

  4. Exposure Forecaster

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure predictions. The database currently includes biomonitoring exposure data from three studies: the American Healthy Homes Survey, the First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers and the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants study. Data include the amounts of chemicals found in food, drinking water, air, dust indoor surfaces and urine. The database will eventually include high-throughput exposure predictions for thousands of chemicals based on manufacture and use information. EPA researchers developed high-throughput exposure models to predict exposures for 1,763 chemicals using production volume, environmental fate and transport models, and a simple indicator of consumer product use.The model is being improved by adding more refined indoor and consumer use information since these are also large determinants of exposure. As these models are refined and more exposure data is collected, it will be added to ExpoCastDB.

  5. Beyond business process redesign: redefining Baxter's business network.

    PubMed

    Short, J E; Venkatraman, N

    1992-01-01

    Business process redesign has focused almost exclusively on improving the firm's internal operations. Although internal efficiency and effectiveness are important objectives, the authors argue that business network redesign--reconceptualizing the role of the firm and its key business processes in the larger business network--is of greater strategic importance. To support their argument, they analyze the evolution of Baxter's ASAP system, one of the most publicized but inadequately understood strategic information systems of the 1980s. They conclude by examining whether ASAP's early successes have positioned the firm well for the changing hospital supplies marketplace of the 1990s.

  6. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  7. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  8. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.

  9. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  10. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  11. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  12. The business of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Curley, Arthur

    2009-09-01

    There are many reasons why someone chooses to become a dentist: a family member was in the profession, they have a proclivity for the sciences of health care, or they like the autonomy of having their own practice. Mark Gonthier, assistant dean for admissions of Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, offered this description of the ideal dental school applicant, "We are looking for mature, well-rounded students capable of handling the rigor of the basic sciences curriculum and are equally adept and committed to providing quality comprehensive patient oral health care" Few dentists will report that they chose their profession because they wanted to run a small retail business.

  13. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, A. R.; Bodenreider, O.; Chang, H. F.; Humphrey, S. M.; Mork, J. G.; Nelson, S. J.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Wilbur, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future. PMID:11079836

  14. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  15. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  16. Military Exposures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (Agent Orange, contaminated water…) Radiation (nuclear weapons, X-rays…) Air Pollutants (burn pit smoke, dust…) Occupational Hazards (asbestos, lead…) Warfare Agents (chemical and biological weapons) Exposure ...

  17. Depth of Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the question of the optimal depth of indexing in order to design an effective document retrieval system is presented. It is shown that some more fundamental questions about indexing and retrieval rather than indexing depth are central to the issue. (Author/MBR)

  18. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  19. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  20. Indexing for the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbo, Helen R.

    1994-01-01

    Humanists use a wide variety of textual, graphic, and aural materials in their research, each of which presents indexing challenges. Research into the nature of these materials and humanists' information-seeking behaviors indicate that indexing models from the sciences are not adequate. New controlled vocabulary and indexing frameworks are needed.…

  1. Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  2. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  3. Developing "Green" Business Plans: Using Entrepreneurship to Teach Science to Business Administration Majors and Business to Biology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.

    2011-01-01

    Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…

  4. Developing "Green" Business Plans: Using Entrepreneurship to Teach Science to Business Administration Majors and Business to Biology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.

    2011-01-01

    Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…

  5. Biopharma business models in Canada.

    PubMed

    March-Chordà, I; Yagüe-Perales, R M

    2011-08-01

    This article provides new insights into the different strategy paths or business models currently being implemented by Canadian biopharma companies. Through a case-study methodology, seven biopharma companies pertaining to three business models were analyzed, leading to a broad set of results emerging from the following areas: activity, business model and strategy; management and human resources; and R&D, technology and innovation strategy. The three business models represented were: model 1 (conventional biotech oriented to new drug development, radical innovation and search for discoveries); model 2 (development of a technology platform, usually in proteomics and bioinformatics); and model 3 (incremental innovation, with shorter and less risky development timelines).

  6. Small Business at EPA Bulletin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A list of monthly bulletins that highlight information on Agency activities, rulemakings, and to share information about ongoing initiatives from the State Small Business Environmental Assistance Programs.

  7. Business is Beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Terabeam has developed a Fiberless Optical(TM) Network that transmits broadband data from office buildings to the nation's wide-area networks (WANs), without digging up the streets. A key component of Terabeam's Fiberless Network is Large Aperture Holographic Optic technology, developed by Ralcon Development Lab, of Paradise, Utah. Ralcon developed the Holographic Optical Element (HOE) technology with assistance from a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Terabeam further developed the HOE technology and incorporated it into its Fiberless Optical Network-sending an immeasurable amount of information soaring overhead. Terabeam developed its Fiberless Optical Network using a proprietary HOE to transmit data. The unit is mounted near an office window and has the ability to beam safe, low-power, invisible data through the air at gigabits-per-second speeds to anywhere in the service area. Gigabits-per-second speeds are thousands of times faster than the speeds of current broadband transmissions. This allows businesses to connect to local-area networks (LANs) as well as WANs, in a quick and affordable manner.

  8. Life-Course Body Mass Index Trajectories Are Predicted by Childhood Socioeconomic Status but Not Exposure to Improved Nutrition during the First 1000 Days after Conception in Guatemalan Adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nicole D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-11-01

    Latin America has experienced increases in obesity. Little is known about the role of early life factors on body mass index (BMI) gain over the life course. The objective of this research was to examine the role of early life factors [specifically, nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d (from conception to 2 y of age) and childhood household socioeconomic status (SES)] on the pattern of BMI gain from birth or early childhood through midadulthood by using latent class growth analysis. Study participants (711 women, 742 men) who were born in 4 villages in Guatemala (1962-1977) were followed prospectively since participating in a randomized nutrition supplementation trial as children. Sex-specific BMI latent class trajectories were derived from 22 possible measures of height and weight from 1969 to 2004. To characterize early life determinants of BMI latent class membership, we used logistic regression modeling and estimated the difference-in-difference (DD) effect of nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d. We identified 2 BMI latent classes in women [low (57%) and high (43%)] and 3 classes in men [low (38%), medium (47%), and high (15%)]. Nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d after conception was not associated with BMI latent class membership (DD test: P > 0.15 for men and women), whereas higher SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership in both men (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61) and women (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.45) for the highest relative to the lowest tertile. In a cohort of Guatemalan men and women, nutrition supplementation provided during the first 1000 d was not significantly associated with higher BMI trajectory. Higher childhood household SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership relative to the poorest households. The pathways through which this operates still need to be explored. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. An index for evaluating difficulty of Chewing Index for chewable tablets.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhay; Chidambaram, Nallaperumal; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-02-01

    Chewing difficulty index, a potential measure of difficulty in chewing the chewable tablets, has been described herein as the product of tablet thickness and tablet hardness measured under the diametral loading. The proposed index was evaluated by measuring the dimensions and mechanical strength of commercial and in-house prepared chewable tablets. Data collected on tablets with different thickness but same hardness or tensile strength suggests that the proposed index provides a good assessment of the force needed to chew the chewable tablets. Influence of brief exposure to salivary fluid during chewing on the mechanical strength of the chewable tablets was also evaluated. Thirty seconds exposure to the simulated salivary fluid was also found to significantly reduce (p < 0.05) the hardness and the chewing difficulty index of a number of evaluated chewable tablet drug products.

  10. Selecting a Business Major within the College of Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…

  11. Using Realistic Business Data in Teaching Business Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Describes a business data generator to assist instructors in generating realistic business data in great volume for teaching and learning activities. Illustrates how the software application allows instructors to manipulate parameters to customize the data to reflect problem situation. (Contains 40 references.) (JOW)

  12. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  13. Improving Business-IT Alignment through Business Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chingmei

    2010-01-01

    The business and Information Technology (IT) alignment issue has become one of the Top-10 IT management issues since 1980. IT has continually strived to achieve alignment with business goals and objectives. These IT efforts include ERP implementation to benefit from the best practices; data center consolidation and server virtualization to keep…

  14. The Use of Business Case Studies in Business German Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Lilith

    The use of business case studies, defined as sophisticated models that present practical business problems and theoretical guidelines that can be used to solve the problems, is discussed. It is suggested that the main advantages of case studies are that they are usually more interesting to read than theoretical materials and they encourage student…

  15. Small Business Marketing: A Workbook for Small Businesses in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Chris

    This workbook was prepared for those interested in starting their own business, as well as business owners with many years experience who have never developed an organized promotional program. Introductory sections explain how to use the workbook and stress the need for promotion. The next sections outline the steps and ask users to respond to…

  16. Using Student Managed Businesses to Integrate the Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massad, Victor J.; Tucker, Joanne M.

    2009-01-01

    To teach business today requires that we go beyond classroom learning and encourage real world, cross-functional experiences and applied management decision-making. This paper describes an innovative approach that requires students to apply their function-specific knowledge of business, integrated with other functional areas, to an authentic…

  17. Assessment of the Business Administration and Business Management Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestieri, Kathleen; Karlen, Janice; Coiro, Robert; Gabriel, Theodore; Leff, Elaine; Silverman, Barry; Wertheimer, David

    This document presents City University of New York LaGuardia Community College's Department of Accounting and Managerial Studies assessment of its business and administration and business management programs report, and includes the following items: (1) a description of the mission and goals of the Department of Accounting and Managerial Studies;…

  18. Developing E-Business Information without a Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Hema; Toot, Louisa; Smith, Caroline

    This paper describes the development of a Web site, popular instructional sessions, expanded reference and research services, the addition of more databases, and collection development designed by the California Institute of Technology Library to support an Internet Business class and other business-related ventures on campus. The first section…

  19. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  20. Basic Business 20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of basic business. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials…