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Sample records for buttercups

  1. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs.

  2. Cinnamic ester derivatives from Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup).

    PubMed

    DellaGreca, Marina; Previtera, Lucio; Purcaro, Raffaella; Zarrelli, Armando

    2007-10-01

    Seven new cinnamic ester derivatives ( 1- 7) were isolated from a methanol extract of the fresh leaves and twigs of Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup). The structures of these new compounds were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of compounds 1- 7 on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) were studied.

  3. Abortions in Thoroughbred mares associated with consumption of bulbosus buttercups (Ranunculus bulbosus L).

    PubMed

    Swerczek, Thomas W

    2016-03-15

    Unexplained clinical signs of weight loss and emaciation were reported in a herd of Thoroughbred horses grazing spring pastures on a central Kentucky farm, even though supplemental grain and hay were provided. A buttercup plant, Ranunculus bulbosus L, was abundantly present in all pastures and paddocks on the farm. All horses, especially lactating mares and their foals, had mild to severe weight loss as assessed by body condition. Seven mares on the farm had been confirmed pregnant between 30 and 45 days of gestation, but were later found to have aborted. Two 2-year-old fillies developed severe diarrhea, incoordination, recumbency, and paralysis and were euthanized. Necropsy of these horses revealed ulcers and erosions in the stomach and large intestine. The findings were considered consistent with buttercup toxicosis. The horses were moved from the buttercup-infested pastures to a farm free of the weed. All horses made an uneventful recovery, and clinical signs resolved after the horses were transferred to buttercup-free pastures. Mares that had aborted conceived successfully in the next breeding season. The buttercup plant is toxic for all classes of livestock. The clinical signs associated with buttercup toxicosis may mimic other disease syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. On-farm epidemiological investigations are an essential part of the diagnosis of this condition. Consumption of buttercups has previously been associated with abortions in cattle, but to the author's knowledge, this has not previously been described in horses.

  4. Ecological factors influencing tetraploid speciation in snow buttercups (Ranunculus Adoneus): niche differentiation and tetraploid establishment.

    PubMed

    Baack, Eric J; Stanton, Maureen L

    2005-09-01

    Chromosome doubling plays an important role in generating new species of flowering plants. However, reproductive incompatibilities between newly formed tetraploid plants and their diploid progenitors are expected to create a significant barrier to the persistence and establishment of neopolyploid populations. Ecological differentiation can reduce this barrier via prezygotic isolation arising from spatial separation. Alternatively, superior viability or fecundity of neotetraploid plants might compensate for the reproductive cost of incompatible pollen from diploid neighbors. The performance of plants of both cytotypes can be assessed in their respective habitats through reciprocal transplants, although such experiments have not been used previously in the study of tetraploid speciation. We used a series of seed and seedling transplant experiments to assess ecological differentiation and competitive ability during early establishment phases for tetraploid and diploid forms of the snow buttercup (Ranunculus adoneus). At two sites, seeds from diploids and tetraploids had similar germination probabilities. Tetraploid snow buttercup seedlings had a significant growth advantage in a controlled environment chamber experiment. However, in the field diploid and tetraploid buttercup seedlings did not differ consistently in survival or growth, nor did the two cytotypes show reciprocal advantages in performance, as expected if ecological differentiation has occurred. At the seed and seedling stages, neither niche differentiation nor tetraploid competitive superiority appears sufficient to explain neotetraploid success in the presence of their diploid progenitors.

  5. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and evaluation of its colloidal stability.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fang; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yin, Jinjin

    2012-08-01

    The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and their stability have been reported in this paper. The aqueous catclaw buttercup was used as mild reducing agent for gold nanoparticles synthesis from HAuCl4 solutions. The influence of reaction time, temperature and mass ratio of HAuCl4/catclaw buttercup were evaluated to investigate their effects on gold nanoparticles synthesis. Under the optimized reaction parameters, the gold nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), EDAX technique (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), FTIR spectrum, anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method, and plus Improved-Lowry Protein Assay Kit. The HRTEM images showed that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are mostly spherical with size range from 9-24 nm. Furthermore, it was found that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles possessed outstanding colloid stability in aqueous solutions as a function of category and concentration of monovalent salt and pH value of the solution when compared with chemosynthetic ones with the similar size. Anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method revealed that there is no sugar in the biosynthesized gold colloid. While Improved-Lowry tests results demonstrated that the existence of much protein in the biosynthesized gold colloid, which may played an important role in stabilization of it. Owing to their stability, biocompatibility, lower cost and so on, gold nanoparticles synthesized by this biosynthesis method show potential application prospect in optoelectronic and biomedicine.

  6. Directional scattering from the glossy flower of Ranunculus: how the buttercup lights up your chin.

    PubMed

    Vignolini, Silvia; Thomas, Meredith M; Kolle, Mathias; Wenzel, Tobias; Rowland, Alice; Rudall, Paula J; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2012-06-07

    The bright and glossy appearance of the flowers of Ranunculus repens was investigated spectroscopically and the optical results were correlated with the layered anatomy of the petal. The highly directional reflected light arises from the partially transparent, pigment-bearing epidermal layer, while a more diffused yellow colour is the result of scattering from the lower starch layer. This directionality of the light reflections causes the unusually intense gloss of the buttercup flower and the strong yellow reflection evident when holding the flower under the chin.

  7. Directional scattering from the glossy flower of Ranunculus: how the buttercup lights up your chin

    PubMed Central

    Vignolini, Silvia; Thomas, Meredith M.; Kolle, Mathias; Wenzel, Tobias; Rowland, Alice; Rudall, Paula J.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2012-01-01

    The bright and glossy appearance of the flowers of Ranunculus repens was investigated spectroscopically and the optical results were correlated with the layered anatomy of the petal. The highly directional reflected light arises from the partially transparent, pigment-bearing epidermal layer, while a more diffused yellow colour is the result of scattering from the lower starch layer. This directionality of the light reflections causes the unusually intense gloss of the buttercup flower and the strong yellow reflection evident when holding the flower under the chin. PMID:22171065

  8. Composition-volume changes during hydrothermal alteration of andesite at Buttercup Hill, Noranda District, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, C. M.; Gibson, H. L.; Campbell, I. H.

    1986-12-01

    Hydrothermally altered andesites in the upper member of the Amulet formation at Buttercup Hill, Noranda, Quebec represent part of the aquifer and cap of a self-sealing geothermal system that focussed the discharge of hydrothermal fluids during the formation of massive Cu-Zn sulfide deposits. Five alteration facies are recognized pervasive greenschist faciés regional metamorphism (least-altered andesite) epidotization-silicification albitization-silicification chloritization sericitization-silicification. Alteration is localized on permeable zones such as amygdules, fractures, flow tops, discordant breccia dikes, and conformable breccia horizons. Epidotized-silicified andesite is enriched in Ca-Sr-Eu and depleted in Mg and first transition series metals (FTSM) relative to least-altered andesite. Albitized-silicified andesite is significantly enriched in Na and depleted in most FTSM relative to least-altered andesite. The abundances and inter-element ratios of the rare-earth elements (REE) and most high field-strength elements (HFS: Y, Zr, Th, U, Hf, Ta) are similar in least-altered, epidotized-silicified and albitized-silicified andesites. The most silicified andesites are strongly enriched in Na-Si, strongly depleted in Mg and divalent FTSM and slightly but systematically depleted in REE and most HFS elements. Serialized andesites were previously silicified; they are very strongly enriched in K-Rb-Cs-Ba, very strongly depleted in Na-Ca-Sr-Eu and slightly depleted in light REE relative to silicified andesite. Chloritized andesitic rocks exhibit heavy REE and HFS element ratios similar to those of leastaltered andesite, but are relatively strongly enriched in Mg and divalent FTSM, strongly depleted in Si and large ion lithophile (LIL) elements and slightly depleted in light REE. The coupled behavior of the heavy REE and most HFS elements during epidotization, albitization, silicification, chloritization and serialization suggests that they were inert during

  9. Buttercup squash provides a marketable alternative to blue hubbard as a trap crop for control of striped cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Andrew F; Adler, Lynn S; Hazzard, Ruth V

    2010-12-01

    Winter squash is a vital agricultural commodity worldwide. In the Northeastern United States, the primary insect pest is the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F. Using a Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) perimeter trap crop system can reduce insecticide use by >90% in butternut squash (C. moschata Poir), the primary winter squash grown in this region. Despite the savings in insecticide costs, growers may be reluctant to give up field space for a perimeter crop of Blue Hubbard squash, which comprises only 5% of the winter squash market in New England as compared with 19% for buttercup squash. Finding a more marketable trap crop would lower the barrier for adoption of this system. We tested eight varieties of three species of cucurbits for attractiveness to beetles relative to Blue Hubbard and butternut squash, and chose buttercup squash as the most promising replacement. We compared the effect of a buttercup border, Blue Hubbard border, or control (no border) on beetle numbers, herbivory, insecticide use, pollination, and pollen limitation in the main crop. We found that buttercup squash performed equally well as Blue Hubbard as a trap crop, with 97% reduction in total insecticide use compared with control fields. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa Say) were the predominant pollinators, and border treatments did not affect visitation. Hand pollination did not increase reproduction or yield, indicating that natural pollination was sufficient for full yield. This study confirms the effectiveness of perimeter trap crop systems and offers growers a more marketable trap crop for managing cucumber beetle damage.

  10. Agrochemicals in field margins--assessing the impacts of herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizer on the common buttercup (Ranunculus acris).

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Juliane; Schäfer, Karoline; Brühl, Carsten A

    2013-04-01

    The effects of herbicide, insecticide, and fertilizer inputs on the common buttercup Ranunculus acris in field margins were studied in an experimental field study. The test design allowed us to investigate the single and combined effects of repeated herbicide, insecticide, and fertilizer applications in successive growing seasons. To assess the effects of the agrochemical applications on R. acris, plant community assessments were carried out and a photodocumentation of the flowering intensity was performed over two years. In addition, the authors conducted a monitoring survey of R. acris in field margins in the proximity of the study site. In the field experiment, R. acris plant density decreased significantly with treatments including fertilizer. The herbicide caused a sublethal effect by reducing flower intensity by 85%. In the long run, both effects will result in a decline of R. acris and lead to shifts in plant communities in field margins. This was confirmed by the monitoring survey, where R. acris could hardly be observed in field margins directly adjacent to cereal fields, whereas in margins next to meadows the species was recorded frequently. Besides the implications for the plants, the sublethal effects may also affect many flower-visiting insects. The results indicate that the current risk assessment for nontarget plants is insufficiently protective for wild plant species in field margins and that consideration of sublethal effects is crucial to preserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

  11. Too low to kill: concentration of the secondary metabolite ranunculin in buttercup pollen does not affect bee larval survival.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, Claudio; Piskorski, Rafal; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the freely accessible pollen of some plants is chemically protected against pollen-feeding flower visitors. For example, a diet of pollen from buttercup plants (Ranunculus) recently was shown to have a deleterious effect on developing larvae of several bee species not specialized on Ranunculus. Numerous Ranunculus species contain ranunculin, the glucosyl hydrate form of the highly reactive and toxic lactone protoanemonin, that causes the toxicity of these plants. We tested whether the presence of ranunculin is responsible for the lethal effects of R. acris pollen on the larvae of two bee species that are not Ranunculus specialists. To investigate the effect on bee larval development, we added ranunculin to the pollen provisions of the Campanula specialist bee Chelostoma rapunculi and the Asteraceae specialist bee Heriades truncorum, and allowed the larvae to feed on these provisions. We quantified ranunculin in pollen of R. acris and in brood cell provisions collected by the Ranunculus specialist bee Chelostoma florisomne. We demonstrated that although ranunculin was lethal to both tested bee species in high concentrations, the concentration in the pollen of R. acris was at least fourfold lower than that tolerated by the larvae of C. rapunculi and H. truncorum in the feeding experiments. Ranunculin concentration in the brood cells of C. florisomne was on average even twentyfold lower than that in Ranunculus pollen, suggesting that a mechanism different from ranunculin intoxication accounts for the larval mortality reported for bees not specialized on Ranunculus pollen.

  12. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows.

    PubMed

    Warren, John

    2009-09-01

    There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively.

  13. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. Methods A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Key Results Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. Conclusions The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively. PMID:19491088

  14. Sunny-side up: flower heliotropism as a source of parental environmental effects on pollen quality and performance in the snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Galen, Candace; Stanton, Maureen L

    2003-05-01

    Floral traits affect mating success via their influence on the microenvironment in which sexual reproduction occurs as well as their impact on pollinator attraction. Here we investigate the importance of flower heliotropism as a source of parental environmental effects on pollen quality and performance. Flowers of the snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus, closely track the sun's rays. We experimentally restrained flowers to test for effects of heliotropism on pollen quality and performance after pollination. When equivalent amounts of pollen were transferred to recipient pistils, pollen from solar-tracking donor flowers exhibited a 32% advantage in germination compared to pollen from stationary (tethered) donor flowers. By the end of anthesis, pistils of tracking flowers contained 40% more germinating pollen grains and 44% more pollen tubes midway down the style than pistils of stationary ones. Solar tracking had no direct effect on pollen tube growth. The greater amount of germinating pollen in tracking flowers accounted for the treatment effect on pollen tube density. A survey of pollen receipt and pollen germination in naturally tracking flowers indicated that solar tracking primarily affects pollen tube density by promoting pollen germination rather than pollen deposition. We conclude that flower heliotropism, by enhancing the paternal environment for pollen development and the maternal environment for pollen germination, represents a source of positive parental environmental effects on pollen performance in snow buttercups.

  15. Solar furnaces or swamp coolers: costs and benefits of water use by solar-tracking flowers of the alpine snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus.

    PubMed

    Galen, Candace

    2006-06-01

    Solar tracking or heliotropism simultaneously raises organ temperature and light interception. For leaves and flowers carbon gain is maximized at the expense of water loss. In this study I explore how costs and benefits associated with water use by solar-tracking flowers of the alpine snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus change with ambient temperature. First, I test whether heliotropism increases the water cost of reproduction in the snow buttercup under extant alpine conditions. I then explore whether water use for evaporative cooling in solar-tracking flowers reduces the risk of over-heating as temperatures increase. Solar tracking, by elevating floral temperature and irradiance causes a 29% increase in water uptake by flowers. Gas exchange measurements suggest that the extra water taken up by solar-tracking flowers is released through transpiration. Transpirational cooling in turn allows solar-tracking flowers to gain advantages of enhanced light interception and warmth while reducing the risk of over-heating. Transpiration reduces excess temperature in solar-tracking flowers, but at a water cost. Results show that even in cool alpine habitats, flower heliotropism has water costs to balance its reproductive advantages. Plants with solar-tracking flowers may tolerate hotter conditions if soil moisture is plentiful, but not under drought.

  16. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A.; Kramer, Elena M.; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect. PMID:23479615

  17. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  18. Eight microsatellite markers for the bulbous buttercup Ranunculus bulbosus (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Matter, Philippe; Pluess, Andrea R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Kettle, Chris J

    2012-10-01

    Pollen dispersal is a key biological process enabling plant populations to maintain genetic connectivity. Direct estimates of pollen dispersal using paternity assignment or correlated paternity estimates require highly variable genetic markers, of which microsatellites are the markers of choice. • Eight species-specific microsatellites have been developed for Ranunculus bulbosus, combining classical enrichment methods with 454 sequencing. These markers have been used in paternity analysis as well as in pollen-pool analyses and proven to be highly polymorphic (seven to 63 alleles in the largest population studied). An excess of homozygotes in six loci indicate the presence of null alleles. • These markers are the first microsatellites isolated and tested on R. bulbosus and provide a useful tool for population genetic studies in this common grassland herb.

  19. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Section 1. Region O - California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    P. minor L. Snowline shinleaf - P. secunda L. Sidebells shinleaf - Railiardella pringlei Greene Raillardella OBL Ranunculus acris L. Tall buttercup ...FACW S.P. aiismifolius Geyer ex Benth. Dwarf buttercup FACW F. aZveolatus Carter Carter’s buttercup OBL R. aquatilis L. Water buttercup OBL DRA R...artensis L. Corn buttercup R. buZbosus L. Bulbous buttercup F. caifornicus Benth. California buttercup FAC DRA F. canus Benth. Hoary buttercup R

  20. Survival of Ranunculus repens L. (creeping buttercup) in an amphibious habitat.

    PubMed

    Lynn, D E; Waldren, S

    2003-01-01

    The turlough form of Ranunculus repens is subjected to several months' complete inundation with hard groundwater. Experimental flooding to the level of the soil surface had no effect on turlough or ruderal populations relative to drained controls. Experimental submergence resulted in direct tissue death of the ruderal population but did not affect the turlough population relative to drained controls. There was no detectable difference in the proportion of aerenchyma in drained, flooded and submerged roots of plants from either population. The proportion of aerenchyma increased with root age in the ruderal population. Up to twice the proportion of aerenchyma occurred in the lower third of the root in the turlough population relative to the middle and upper thirds. Submergence in artificially hardened tap water increased the amount of tissue death in the ruderal population, whereas it appeared to enhance the growth of plants from the turlough population relative to that of plants submerged in tap water. Only the ruderal population demonstrated a depth accommodation response in submerged conditions. Root concentrations of ethanol-soluble carbohydrates were up to three times higher in a field- collected turlough population during winter and autumn months than those in a ruderal population. Low levels of ethanol-insoluble carbohydrates were present in the turlough population but were absent from the ruderal population. Starch concentrations fluctuated greatly in the turlough population and were generally higher than those in the ruderal population. These results, together with those from previous investigations, suggest that the turlough population survives prolonged submergence by maintaining low levels of submerged photosynthesis, which may circulate oxygen within the plant tissues, and by utilizing storage carbohydrates for maintenance respiration.

  1. Buttercups and Daisies: Building a Community of Practice amongst Teachers in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Nascimento Botelho, Marcel; Kowalski, Robert; Bartlett, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the promotion and adoption of action research as an instrument of institutional change by academic staff in a Brazilian rural university. The results of the research are presented showing the mobilisation of a group of volunteers, the implementation of their action research projects and the sustainability of the process.…

  2. [Kabikaj-(see symbol test) and the buttercup: Ranunculus asiaticus L].

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    In Islamic tradition, the talismanic inscription "Yâ Kebîkeç- O Kabikaj" was believed to protect manuscripts against insects. Also in medicinal manuscripts there are several passages referring to Kabikaj used as a drug. In this study, the use of Kabikaj in medicinal manuscripts is investigated. As a result, Kabikaj is stated to be a species of Ranunculaceae family: Ranunculus asiaticus L.

  3. NITROGEN UPTAKE DURING SNOWMELT BY THE SNOW BUTTERCUP, RANUNCULUS ADONEUS (R823442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Survival of Ranunculus repens L. (Creeping Buttercup) in an Amphibious Habitat

    PubMed Central

    LYNN, D. E.; WALDREN, S.

    2003-01-01

    The turlough form of Ranunculus repens is subjected to several months’ complete inundation with hard groundwater. Experimental flooding to the level of the soil surface had no effect on turlough or ruderal populations relative to drained controls. Experimental submergence resulted in direct tissue death of the ruderal population but did not affect the turlough population relative to drained controls. There was no detectable difference in the proportion of aerenchyma in drained, flooded and submerged roots of plants from either population. The proportion of aerenchyma increased with root age in the ruderal population. Up to twice the proportion of aerenchyma occurred in the lower third of the root in the turlough population relative to the middle and upper thirds. Submergence in artificially hardened tap water increased the amount of tissue death in the ruderal population, whereas it appeared to enhance the growth of plants from the turlough population relative to that of plants submerged in tap water. Only the ruderal population demonstrated a depth accommodation response in submerged conditions. Root concentrations of ethanol‐soluble carbohydrates were up to three times higher in a field‐ collected turlough population during winter and autumn months than those in a ruderal population. Low levels of ethanol‐insoluble carbohydrates were present in the turlough population but were absent from the ruderal population. Starch concentrations fluctuated greatly in the turlough population and were generally higher than those in the ruderal population. These results, together with those from previous investigations, suggest that the turlough population survives prolonged submergence by maintaining low levels of submerged photosynthesis, which may circulate oxygen within the plant tissues, and by utilizing storage carbohydrates for maintenance respiration. PMID:12495922

  5. Barney and Buttercup: The Big and Little Silent Hunters of the Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantert, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the owls of the Rotating School Zoo which travels to all the schools in Seattle (Washington) for lecture-demonstrations in wildlife conservation. Outlines the behavior and major characteristics of owls. (JR)

  6. Buttercups and Daisies: Building a Community of Practice amongst Teachers in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Nascimento Botelho, Marcel; Kowalski, Robert; Bartlett, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the promotion and adoption of action research as an instrument of institutional change by academic staff in a Brazilian rural university. The results of the research are presented showing the mobilisation of a group of volunteers, the implementation of their action research projects and the sustainability of the process.…

  7. NITROGEN UPTAKE DURING SNOWMELT BY THE SNOW BUTTERCUP, RANUNCULUS ADONEUS (R823442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Barney and Buttercup: The Big and Little Silent Hunters of the Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantert, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the owls of the Rotating School Zoo which travels to all the schools in Seattle (Washington) for lecture-demonstrations in wildlife conservation. Outlines the behavior and major characteristics of owls. (JR)

  9. Out of the Alps: colonization of Northern Europe by East Alpine populations of the Glacier Buttercup Ranunculus glacialis L. (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Schönswetter, P; Paun, O; Tribsch, A; Niklfeld, H

    2003-12-01

    Ranunculus glacialis ssp. glacialis is an arctic-alpine plant growing in central and southern European and Scandinavian mountain ranges and the European Arctic. In order to elucidate the taxon's migration history, we applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to populations from the Pyrenees, Tatra mountains and Northern Europe and included data from a previous study on Alpine accessions. Populations from the Alps and the Tatra mountains were genetically highly divergent and harboured many private AFLP fragments, indicating old vicariance. Whereas nearly all Alpine populations of R. glacialis were genetically highly variable, the Tatrean population showed only little variation. Our data suggest that the Pyrenees were colonized more recently than the separation of the Tatra from the Alps. Populations in Northern Europe, by contrast, were similar to those of the Eastern Alps but showed only little genetic variation. They harboured no private AFLP fragments and only a subset of East Alpine ones, and they exhibited no phylogeographical structure. It is very likely therefore that R. glacialis colonized Northern Europe in postglacial times from source populations in the Eastern Alps.

  10. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    Curly Dock Buttercup Bur Buttercup Figwort Paintbrush Creeping Penstemon Common Mullein x x y y / / y / / / I X y i i i i X y...Observed Appropriate Special Status Habitat Species Family: Scrophulariaceae (cont.) Figwort Verbascum vergatum Wand Mullein

  11. Physiological variation in populations of Ranunculus repens L. (creeping buttercup) from the temporary limestone lakes (turloughs) in the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Lynn, D E; Waldren, S

    2002-06-01

    A dissected-leaved form of Ranunculus repens L. occurs in the temporary limestone lakes (turloughs) across the west of Ireland. Turloughs fill with groundwater for up to 8 months of the year. Under experimental conditions, these turlough populations demonstrated a higher rate of aerial and submerged photosynthesis than populations of the more typical broad-leaved ruderal form. The turlough populations also had higher rates of stomatal conductance and exhibited a higher stomatal index on the upper leaf surface and a lower index on the lower leaf surface than the ruderal populations. Neither population could utilize bicarbonate to any great extent, with rates of photosynthesis under submerged conditions being only 5 % of aerial rates. Respiration under submerged conditions was significantly higher in the turlough populations than in ruderal populations, and it is hypothesized that the more dissected leaf shape of the turlough population may have a thinner boundary layer and thus enhance gas exchange in submerged conditions.

  12. Physiological Variation in Populations of Ranunculus repens L. (Creeping Buttercup) from the Temporary Limestone Lakes (Turloughs) in the West of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    LYNN, D. E.; WALDREN, S.

    2002-01-01

    A dissected‐leaved form of Ranunculus repens L. occurs in the temporary limestone lakes (turloughs) across the west of Ireland. Turloughs fill with groundwater for up to 8 months of the year. Under experimental conditions, these turlough populations demonstrated a higher rate of aerial and submerged photosynthesis than populations of the more typical broad‐leaved ruderal form. The turlough populations also had higher rates of stomatal conductance and exhibited a higher stomatal index on the upper leaf surface and a lower index on the lower leaf surface than the ruderal populations. Neither population could utilize bicarbonate to any great extent, with rates of photosynthesis under submerged conditions being only 5 % of aerial rates. Respiration under submerged conditions was significantly higher in the turlough populations than in ruderal populations, and it is hypothesized that the more dissected leaf shape of the turlough population may have a thinner boundary layer and thus enhance gas exchange in submerged conditions. PMID:12102526

  13. Invasion genetics of the Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae): complex intercontinental patterns of genetic diversity, polyploidy and heterostyly characterize both native and introduced populations.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Victoria; Barrett, Spencer C H; Castro, Sílvia; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Navarro, Luis; Loureiro, João; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Genetic diversity in populations of invasive species is influenced by a variety of factors including reproductive systems, ploidy level, stochastic forces associated with colonization and multiple introductions followed by admixture. Here, we compare genetic variation in native and introduced populations of the clonal plant Oxalis pes-caprae to investigate the influence of reproductive mode and ploidy on levels of diversity. This species is a tristylous geophyte native to South Africa. Invasive populations throughout much of the introduced range are composed of a sterile clonal pentaploid short-styled form. We examined morph ratios, ploidy level, reproductive mode and genetic diversity at nuclear microsatellite loci in 10 and 12 populations from South Africa and the Western Mediterranean region, respectively. Flow cytometry confirmed earlier reports of diploids and tetraploids in the native range, with a single population containing pentaploid individuals. Introduced populations were composed mainly of pentaploids, but sexual tetraploids were also found. There was clear genetic differentiation between ploidy levels, but sexual populations from both regions were not significantly different in levels of diversity. Invasive populations of the pentaploid exhibited dramatically reduced levels of diversity but were not genetically uniform. The occurrence of mixed ploidy levels and stylar polymorphism in the introduced range is consistent with multiple introductions to the Western Mediterranean. This inference was supported by variation patterns at microsatellite loci. Our study indicates that some invasive populations of Oxalis pes-caprae are not entirely clonal, as often assumed, and multiple introductions and recombination have the potential to increase genetic variation in the introduced range.

  14. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix E. Environment and Recreation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    gromwell, yellow goat’s beard, arrowleaf balsomroot, sagebrush buttercup , Holboell rockcress, littleflower collinsia, cheatgrass, willowweed, Nuttall’s...associations: Sandberg’s bluegrass; arrowleaf bal- somroot; sagebrush buttercup ; western yarrow; yellow goat’s beard; purple-eyed grass; low pussytoes...beard, sagebrush buttercup , low pussytoes and slender fringecup. The Rannuals in the abundant category are cheatgrass, collinsia, narrow- leaved montia

  15. Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, MT, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    buttercup (Ranunculus aquatilis). Plot 8 (Triclopyr and Endothall) Eurasian watermilfoil in plot 8 significantly declined by 7 WAT and control was...Illinois pondweed 0 3 0 Potamogeton richardsonii Clasping-leaved pondweed 13 22 24 Ranunculus aquatilis White water- buttercup 22 19 24 Stuckenia...Ranunculus aquatilis White water- buttercup 46 20 22 Stuckenia pectinata Sago pondweed 40 3* 19 Vallisneria americana Wildcelery 0 6 0 Species Richness

  16. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Degognia and Fountain Bluff Levee and Drainage District and Grand Tower Drainage and Levee District, Jackson County, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    orchids. Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 288 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1972. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Bromus to... Paspalum . Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 332 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1973. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Panicum to...75%. Manna grass (Glyceria striata) and yellow buttercup (Ranunculus septentrionalis) are most frequent, with a frequency of 67%. Next frequent, at 50

  17. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  18. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  19. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis): an annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    Mary L. Predny; James L. Chamberlain

    2005-01-01

    Goldenseal (Hydrastis Canadensis), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an herbaceous perennial found in rich hardwood forests throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada. Originally used by Native Americans as both a medicine and a dye, the herb was eventually adopted by the settlers and eclectic physicians in the 19th...

  20. What is Ranunculus gelidus?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A native North American buttercup is currently being called by three names in the literature: Ranunculus gelidus, R. karelinii, and R. grayi. Accurate communication of scientific work and other information about these plants requires a stable, well documented nomenclature, so the three names and th...

  1. Black cohosh Actaea racemosa: an annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    Mary L. Predny; Patricia De Angelis; James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America from Georgia to Ontario. Native Americans used black cohosh for a variety of ailments including rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications...

  2. Three-dimensional modeling of capsule implosions in OMEGA tetrahedral hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.

    2000-07-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums have been proposed as a means for achieving the highly uniform implosions needed for ignition with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) [J. D. Schnittman and R. S. Craxton, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786 (1996)]. Recent experiments on the OMEGA laser system have achieved good drive uniformity consistent with theoretical predictions [J. M. Wallace et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3807 (1999)]. To better understand these experiments and future investigations of high-convergence ICF implosions, the three-dimensional (3-D) view-factor code BUTTERCUP has been expanded to model the time-dependent radiation transport in the hohlraum and the hydrodynamic implosion of the capsule. Additionally, a 3-D postprocessor has been written to simulate x-ray images of the imploded core. Despite BUTTERCUP's relative simplicity, its predictions for radiation drive temperatures, fusion yields, and core deformation show close agreement with experiment. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of capsule implosions in OMEGA tetrahedral hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.

    2000-07-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums have been proposed as a means for achieving the highly uniform implosions needed for ignition with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) [J. D. Schnittman and R. S. Craxton, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786 (1996)]. Recent experiments on the OMEGA laser system have achieved good drive uniformity consistent with theoretical predictions [J. M. Wallace et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3807 (1999)]. To better understand these experiments and future investigations of high-convergence ICF implosions, the three-dimensional (3-D) view-factor code BUTTERCUP has been expanded to model the time-dependent radiation transport in the hohlraum and the hydrodynamic implosion of the capsule. Additionally, a 3-D postprocessor has been written to simulate x-ray images of the imploded core. Despite BUTTERCUP's relative simplicity, its predictions for radiation drive temperatures, fusion yields, and core deformation show close agreement with experiment.

  4. Choice of hunting site as a consequence of experience in late-instar crab spiders.

    PubMed

    Morse, Douglass H

    1999-08-01

    Earlier experiences may play an important role in the choice of hunting sites, but their effects on the foraging repertoire of most animals remain poorly understood. I tested the role of previous flower choices (hunting sites) by penultimate-instar female crab spiders Misumena vatia in making subsequent patch-choice decisions. M. vatia is a sit-and-wait predator, and the two flower species used, ox-eye daisy Chrysanthemum leucanthemum and common buttercup Ranunculus acris, are important hunting sites. Spiders with different immediate experience showed similar short-term (<1 day) giving-up times on the two flower species, independent of their previous substrate. However, four-fifths of the individuals that remained a day or longer tended to leave buttercups sooner than daisies, especially if they had previously occupied daisies. Thus they may directly assess the quality of a potential hunting site, perhaps in response to prey abundance, but previous experience may play a minor role as well. Of spiders that made several consecutive choices of hunting sites, those on daisies often confined these runs to daisies (one of two years); those on buttercups did not exhibit comparable fidelity. Spiders molting into the adult stage almost always subsequently chose the same flower species (either daisy or buttercup) as the one on which they molted. Thus, juvenile experiences may influence adults, the critical stage when virtually all of the spiders' reproductive resources are gathered, even if this resulted from imprinting on their molt sites rather than carrying information over the molt.

  5. Comparison of perimeter trap crop varieties: effects on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash.

    PubMed

    Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V

    2009-02-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators.

  6. Contrasting temperature responses of dissolved organic carbon and phenols leached from soils.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan S; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Abbott, Geoffrey D

    Plant-derived phenols are a major input to the terrestrial carbon cycle that might be expected to contribute substantially to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses from soils. This study investigated changes in DOC and phenols in leachates from soil treated with individual plant litter types under seasonal temperature change. Senescing grass, buttercup, ash and oak litters were applied to soil lysimeters. Leachates were collected over 22 months and analysed for DOC and phenols. Phenols in litter and DOC were analysed using on-line thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Mass loss differed between litter type (buttercup>ash>grass>oak). Phenol concentrations in the senescing litters (<2 % TOC) were small, resulting in minor losses to water. Seasonal soil temperature positively correlated with DOC loss from litter-free soils. An initial correlation between temperature change and total phenol concentration in grass and ash litter treatment leachates diminished with time. Dissolved phenol variety in all litter-amended soil leachates increased with time. Plant-derived phenols from senescing litter made a minor contribution to DOC loss from soils. The strength of the relationship between seasonal temperature change and phenol type and abundance in DOC changed with time and was influenced by litter type.

  7. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  8. A genomic duplication is associated with ectopic eomesodermin expression in the embryonic chicken comb and two duplex-comb phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Dorshorst, Ben; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Bagherpoor, Alireza Jian; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ashwell, Chris; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2015-03-01

    Duplex-comb (D) is one of three major loci affecting comb morphology in the domestic chicken. Here we show that the two Duplex-comb alleles, V-shaped (D*V) and Buttercup (D*C), are both associated with a 20 Kb tandem duplication containing several conserved putative regulatory elements located 200 Kb upstream of the eomesodermin gene (EOMES). EOMES is a T-box transcription factor that is involved in mesoderm specification during gastrulation. In D*V and D*C chicken embryos we find that EOMES is ectopically expressed in the ectoderm of the comb-developing region as compared to wild-type embryos. The confinement of the ectopic expression of EOMES to the ectoderm is in stark contrast to the causal mechanisms underlying the two other major comb loci in the chicken (Rose-comb and Pea-comb) in which the transcription factors MNR2 and SOX5 are ectopically expressed strictly in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the causal mutations of all three major comb loci in the chicken are now known to be composed of large-scale structural genomic variants that each result in ectopic expression of transcription factors. The Duplex-comb locus also illustrates the evolution of alleles in domestic animals, which means that alleles evolve by the accumulation of two or more consecutive mutations affecting the phenotype. We do not yet know whether the V-shaped or Buttercup allele correspond to the second mutation that occurred on the haplotype of the original duplication event.

  9. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature. PMID:21408003

  10. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M A; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butter (known also as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or Madhuca tree is scare. Few studies investigated mahua butter for its composition, nutritional value, biological activities and antioxidative properties. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the chemical composition, nutritional value and industrial applications of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance. This review summarizes recent knowledge on bioactive compounds, functional properties as well as food and non-food industrial applications of mahua butter. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  11. Genetic structure and evolution of Alpine polyploid complexes: Ranunculus kuepferi (Ranunculaceae) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Burnier, J; Buerki, S; Arrigo, N; Küpfer, P; Alvarez, N

    2009-09-01

    The alpine white-flowered buttercup, Ranunculus kuepferi Greuter & Burdet, is a polyploid complex with diploids endemic to the southwestern Alps and polyploids - which have been previously described as apomictic - widespread throughout European mountains. Due to the polymorphic status of both its ploidy level and its reproductive mode, R. kuepferi represents a key species for understanding the evolution of polyploid lineages in alpine habitats. To disentangle the phylogeography of this polyploid taxon, we used cpDNA sequences and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers in 33 populations of R. kuepferi representative of its ploidy level and distribution area. Polyploid individuals were shown to be the result of at least two polyploidization events that may have taken place in the southwestern Alps. From this region, one single main migration of tetraploids colonized the entire Alpine range, the Apennines and Corsica. Genetic recombination among tetraploids was also observed, revealing the facultative nature of the apomictic reproductive mode in R. kuepferi polyploids. Our study shows the contrasting role played by diploid lineages mostly restricted to persistent refugia and by tetraploids, whose dispersal abilities have permitted their range extension all over the previously glaciated Alpine area and throughout neighbouring mountain massifs.

  12. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Semur, Heybet; Kose, Ozkan; Ozhasenekler, Ayhan; Celiktas, Mustafa; Basbug, Murat; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2011-02-21

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature.

  13. Chemical and biological evaluation of Ranunculus muricatus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhat Ali; Zahoor, Muhammad; Khan, Ezzat

    2016-03-01

    Ranunculus muricatus is commonly known as spiny fruit buttercup and is used in the treatment of intermittent fevers, gout and asthma. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals of Ranunculus muricatus indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. Saponins were present in high amount as compared with other chemicals. Inorganic and heavy metals constituents were determined. Heavy metals estimation in the sample showed that iron was present in high amount followed by zinc even then the concentration of these metals is below acceptable limit. The physical parameters, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined. Acetone extract fraction showed optimal antioxidant activity as compared to ethanol and chloroform fractions of the candidate plant. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the crude extract and extract fractions were determined by well agar diffusion method. Highest zone of inhibitions were observed for crude extract followed by acetone extract fraction against Micrococcus luteus. Antifungal activities were high for crude extracts against Candida Albican. Findings of this study show that Ranunculus muricatus has a good medicinal impact.

  14. Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, J.D.; Craxton, R.S.

    1996-10-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums, by which are understood spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes (LEH{close_quote}s) placed at or near the vertices of a tetrahedron, are proposed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 3933 (1995)] and the upgraded OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly {ital et} {ital al}., Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 66}, 508 (1995)]. All but four of the 48 NIF beams can irradiate a tetrahedral hohlraum, assuming that 72 beam ports are provided to accommodate direct drive. On OMEGA, the target chamber provides an exact tetrahedral symmetry, permitting the irradiation of tetrahedral hohlraums with all 60 beams. Hohlraum designs are optimized using a new three-dimensional view-factor program called Buttercup, which traces all beam paths through the hohlraum and calculates the radiation flux on the capsule for different values of the albedo. Good irradiation uniformity ({approximately}2{percent} rms) can be obtained on the capsule at all times during the implosion, even with identical beam temporal histories, in contrast to the case of cylindrical hohlraums where {open_quote}{open_quote}beam phasing{close_quote}{close_quote} is needed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Capsule Implosion Symmetry in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.; Pollaine, S. M.; Turner, R. E.; Wallace, J. M.; Murphy, T. J.; Delamater, N. D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hauer, A. A.; Klare, K. A.

    1998-11-01

    The 3-D time-dependent capsule implosion symmetry has been calculated for spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes. The code BUTTERCUP calculates the locations of beam spots on the hohlraum wall and includes a model for the absorption and x-ray conversion of the laser energy. The gold wall is heated by 1-D radiation diffusion, and radiation transport is carried out with a 3-D view-factor algorithm. A simple hydrodynamic calculation of the imploding capsule gives the resulting 3-D time-dependent drive symmetry. The predicted radiation uniformity incident on the capsule is very good ( ~1% rms) throughout the laser pulse. Experimental images of the capsule show round implosions with convergence ratios of 10 for standard capsules,(T. J. Murphy, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42), 2008 (1997). in agreement with predictions. Radiation temperatures and capsule trajectories are calculated and show good agreement with experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  16. Indirect-drive radiation uniformity in tetrahedral hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.

    1996-10-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums, by which are understood spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes (LEH's) placed at or near the vertices of a tetrahedron, are proposed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] and the upgraded OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508 (1995)]. All but four of the 48 NIF beams can irradiate a tetrahedral hohlraum, assuming that 72 beam ports are provided to accommodate direct drive. On OMEGA, the target chamber provides an exact tetrahedral symmetry, permitting the irradiation of tetrahedral hohlraums with all 60 beams. Hohlraum designs are optimized using a new three-dimensional view-factor program called Buttercup, which traces all beam paths through the hohlraum and calculates the radiation flux on the capsule for different values of the albedo. Good irradiation uniformity (˜2% rms) can be obtained on the capsule at all times during the implosion, even with identical beam temporal histories, in contrast to the case of cylindrical hohlraums where ``beam phasing'' is needed.

  17. Permian Dollarhide formation, southern Smoky Mountains, south-central Idaho: depositional environment and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K.

    1986-08-01

    The Permian Dollarhide formation occurs as an allochthon west of the Big Wood River in the Smoky Mountains of south-central Idaho. It is part of the Idaho Black Shale belt described during pioneering studies by W.E. Hall. The formation contains carbonaceous limestones, fine-grained calcareous sandstones, and carbonaceous, siliceous, or calcareous siltites. The rocks contain high amounts of carbonaceous matter and local concentrations of syngenetic silver, zinc, and lead. The Dollarhide has been contact-metamorphosed by the Cretaceous Idaho batholith. The carbonaceous matter occurs as graphite. However, the possibility exists that unmetamorphosed Dollarhide with petroleum source rock potential occurs outside the Smoky Mountains. It is also possible that other allochthons within the Black Shale belt, if unmetamorphosed, could have petroleum source rock material. Near Willow Creek, SW 1/4 Buttercup Mountain Quadrangle, Blaine and Camas Counties, Idaho, the Dollarhide is 2100 m thick and was deposited in a submarine slope environment. Sandy graded beds with convolute bedding, cross-bedding, synsedimentary folds, and load casts are evidence of turbidite and debris flow deposition. Interbedded laminated and massive siltites, which are more abundant upward, represent pelagic deposition between times of turbidite activity. Stratigraphic marker horizons with anomalously high amounts of carbonaceous material and trace metals represent more euxinic conditions in the basin. These markers serve as valuable correlation lines in the dominantly unfossiliferous strata.

  18. Detection and molecular cloning of CYP74Q1 gene: identification of Ranunculus acris leaf divinyl ether synthase.

    PubMed

    Gorina, Svetlana S; Toporkova, Yana Y; Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Chechetkin, Ivan R; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Gogolev, Yuri V; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2014-09-01

    Enzymes of the CYP74 family, including the divinyl ether synthase (DES), play important roles in plant cell signalling and defence. The potent DES activities have been detected before in the leaves of the meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.) and few other Ranunculaceae species. The nature of these DESs and their genes remained unrevealed. The PCR with degenerate primers enabled to detect the transcript of unknown P450 gene assigned as CYP74Q1. Besides, two more CYP74Q1 isoforms with minimal sequence variations have been found. The full length recombinant CYP74Q1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The preferred substrates of this enzyme are the 13-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids, which are converted to the divinyl ether oxylipins (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z,3'Z)-hexadienyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, and (ω5Z)-etheroleic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z)-hexenyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, respectively, as revealed by the data of mass spectrometry, NMR and UV spectroscopy. Thus, CYP74Q1 protein was identified as the R. acris DES (RaDES), a novel DES type and the opening member of new CYP74Q subfamily.

  19. Uniformity in Tetrahedral Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craxton, R. S.; Schnittman, J. D.; Pollaine, S. M.

    1996-11-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums, i.e., spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes (LEH's), offer an alternative means of obtaining good time-independent capsule irradiation uniformity. Since the laser spots are spread fairly uniformly over the hohlraum wall, time-dependent uniformity swings are minimized. Using the 3-D view-factor code BUTTERCUP we have found, for both OMEGA and the NIF, that the uniformity is typically ~2% rms at all times, mainly in the Y_32 mode, but can be reduced to ~1% by independently varying the power in each beam. We have investigated the sensitivity of tetrahedral hohlraums to errors in beam-energy balance and pointing, and we have examined how large the LEH's must be to allow the beams to go through without refraction or absorption. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460. *Also Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  20. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms : a systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Carlos; Masri, Ghania; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2009-01-01

    Alternative medicine preparations represent a significant industry worldwide. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), a buttercup plant grown in North America, is one such popular preparation for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Because the proportion of women experiencing climacteric symptoms is high, black cohosh merits further study as to its efficacy and safety. Convincing evidence for its efficacy in this setting remains to be demonstrated. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the current literature on the benefits of black cohosh for women experiencing climacteric symptoms. To this end, a PubMed search was conducted on 1 November 2007 using the search terms 'black cohosh' AND 'menopause'. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials in the English language involving adults. Several additional reviews dealing with alternative therapies for menopause were included to capture additional older and non-English language literature. Ultimately, 16 studies eligible for review were identified. Many of the studies had conflicting results. Methodological flaws included lack of uniformity of the drug preparation used, variable outcome measures and lack of a placebo group. The benefits of black cohosh in the management of climacteric symptoms remain to be proven. Case studies suggest an additional unexplored area of adverse events that also needs to be addressed.

  1. Genetic variation of chicken MC1R gene in different plumage colour populations.

    PubMed

    Guo, X L; Li, X L; Li, Y; Gu, Z L; Zheng, C S; Wei, Z H; Wang, J S; Zhou, R Y; Li, L H; Zheng, H Q

    2010-12-01

    1. Genetic variation in the chicken MC1R gene was analysed through bioinformatic methods after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the coding region of MC1R gene from 5 different populations with 4 plumage colours (black, grey plumage with black spots, yellow plumage with black spots, red). 2. A total of 11 novel variations were detected in Hebei chickens, of which 8 were non-synonymous. Allele distribution analysis showed that the wild-type e(+) (Brown Leghorn) allele was mainly found in Hy-Line Brown and Lohmann Brown, the dominant Extended black E(AY220304) allele was mainly found in Hebei chicken with black plumage, whereas the Buttercup (e(bc)) allele was rare. 3. Nucleotide diversity (π) within each colour strain of Hebei chickens (0·0047-0·0052) was significantly greater than that of Hy-Line Brown (0·0024) or Lohmann Brown (0·0043). 4. The results indicate that there is abundant polymorphism in the MC1R gene, especially in Hebei chicken, which was associated with its rich plumage colour diversity.

  2. Larval Survival of Fuller's Rose Weevil, Naupactus cervinus, on Common Groundcover Species in Orchards of New Zealand Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Logan, David P.; Maher, Bridget J.; Dobson, Shirley S.; Connolly, Patrick G.

    2008-01-01

    Fuller's rose weevil, Naupactus cervinus (Boheman) (Curculionidae: Entiminae), is an important quarantine pest of New Zealand kiwifruit exported to Asian markets. Both adults and larvae are considered to be polyphagous. In this study, the survival of larval N. cervinus was estimated on common groundcover species of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) in the Bay of Plenty, the main region in New Zealand where kiwifruit is grown. The botanical composition of groundcover in commercial kiwifruit orchards, characterised by survey, was dominated by ryegrass (Lolium perenne), with white clover (Trifolium repens), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), wild strawberry (Duchesnea indica) and broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius) in lower abundance. Survival to mature larvae or adult was relatively low (·11%) for N. cervinus introduced as neonates to field plots or potted ryegrass, white clover and broadleaf dock. White clover was a more favourable host for survival to adults than ryegrass. This study suggests that increased survival of N. cervinus larvae may occur where white clover and large dock plants are abundant, but that survival is likely to be highly variable because of the heterogeneous availability of preferred host plants and host plant quality. These data suggest that larval polyphagy is a strategy that enables N. cervinus to persist at low densities in kiwifruit orchards despite variation in the quality and diversity of groundcover. PMID:20298112

  3. A statistical approach for distinguishing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2009-08-01

    The extent and evolutionary significance of hybridization is difficult to evaluate because of the difficulty in distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting. Here we present a novel parametric approach for statistically distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting based on minimum genetic distances of a nonrecombining locus. It is based on the idea that the expected minimum genetic distance between sequences from two species is smaller for some hybridization events than for incomplete lineage sorting scenarios. When applied to empirical data sets, distributions can be generated for the minimum interspecies distances expected under incomplete lineage sorting using coalescent simulations. If the observed distance between sequences from two species is smaller than its predicted distribution, incomplete lineage sorting can be rejected and hybridization inferred. We demonstrate the power of the method using simulations and illustrate its application on New Zealand alpine buttercups (Ranunculus). The method is robust and complements existing approaches. Thus it should allow biologists to assess with greater accuracy the importance of hybridization in evolution.

  4. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa del C.; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  5. Can artificial soil be used in the vegetative vigor test for U.S. pesticide registration?

    PubMed

    Bidelspach, Conor; Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Current testing guidelines for pesticide registration for the protection of nontarget plants calls for the use of sterilized, standardized soil consisting of primarily sandy loam, loamy sand, loamy clay, or clay loam that contains up to 3% organic matter. Low organic matter soils can be difficult to manage in a greenhouse setting because when soils dry, they contract, causing impeded water infiltration, or when overwatered, poor drainage increases the chances of anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the results for the vegetative vigor test differed when using either natural or artificial soils. The herbicide sulfometuron methyl was applied 14 d after emergence at 0.1 and 0.0032 of the suggested field application rate. Six plant species were tested, 4 of the common test species, Zea mays (corn), Glycine max (soybean), Avena sativa (oat), and Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and 2 native plants of the Willamette Valley, Oregon prairie, Bromus carinatus (California brome) and Ranunculus occidentalis (western buttercup). Herbicide application rate was the most significant factor in the experiment regardless of soil type. The different soils generally produced different results, even though the 2 native soils, one from Oregon and the other from Maryland, are both acceptable soils for the pesticide registration tests. The plants grown on artificial soil produced results generally between the Oregon and Maryland soil results. This study indicates that artificial soils may produce results similar to or more sensitive than soils currently used in the vegetative vigor test.

  6. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini): the first ground beetle from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Allan C; Erwin, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct Antarctotrechus balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with Antarctotrechus balli included Nothofagus (southern beech), Ranunculus (buttercup), moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that Antarctotrechus balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including Antarctotrechus balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. Antarctotrechus balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For Antarctotrechus balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma

  7. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    PubMed

    Cano, Liliana M; Raffaele, Sylvain; Haugen, Riston H; Saunders, Diane G O; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; MacLean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Kamoun, Sophien

    2013-01-01

    Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments) and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds) were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production) were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  8. Edaphic and Phytochemical Factors as Predictors of Equine Grass Sickness Cases in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sarah E.; Martz, Kathrin E.; Rogge, Anja; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Equine dysautonomia or equine grass sickness (EGS), as it is more commonly known, is a usually fatal disease of equids of uncertain etiology, although associated with grazing, that affects the autonomic and enteric nervous system. Lowered gastrointestinal motility, leading to paralysis of the gut, is one of the main symptoms of EGS. Previous studies have implicated anaerobic bacteria, notably Clostridium botulinum, but what triggers the severe bacterial infestations remains enigmatic. We hypothesized that a detailed comparison of soil mineral and botanical composition of EGS and control sites would yield new insights into the causation of the disease. Results: Between March 2007 and September 2008, soil, plant, and water samples from a total of 23 EGS sites and 11 control sites were studied. Metal and non-metal element levels of the soil and herbage samples were assessed. Significantly, EGS sites had higher levels of soil nitrogen, and significantly higher levels of iron, lead, arsenic, and chromium in the herbage. Toxic Ranunculus spp. (buttercups) were found in abundance at every EGS site, making ingestion plausible. Conversely, neurotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were not found in any of the water samples analyzed. Conclusions: The significantly higher levels of iron and heavy metals found in herbage growing in EGS sites, in addition to toxic Ranunculus species, suggest that previously unknown triggers are involved in a multi-factorial EGS etiology. Our results also show that cyanobacteria on the other hand, are unlikely to be a factor in EGS. Consequently, the concomitant presence of two (or more) factors could be the trigger for an outbreak of EGS. PMID:21833167

  9. A Survey on Chemical Constituents and Indications of Aromatic Waters Soft Drinks (Hydrosols) Used in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Neurological Disorders and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Pasdaran, Ardalan; Zebarjad, Zahra; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    In Persian nutrition culture, drinking aromatic waters (hydrosols, distillate) has a long history as functional beverages or therapeutic remedies. The co-distilled water with essential oils, which contains partial amounts of more water-soluble volatile compounds are diluted and used as beverages. Since the solubility of volatile components is different in water, the overall composition, and thus the biological activities of aromatic waters seem to be different from the essential oils they were co-distilled with. Despite the essential oils, chemical constituents of many aromatic waters have not been evaluated scientifically. This research investigated hydrosols used for mental and neurological health maintenance in Persian nutrition culture and their chemical constituents. Constitutions of these hydrosols were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cluster analysis was used to evaluate the relevance of these hydrosols chemical constituents. About 93 compounds were identified from 20 aromatic waters. the major or second major constituents were thymol (azarol howthorn, frankincense, lemon balm, valerian, shadab), phenethyl alcohol (damask rose, dog-rose, starflower), carvacrol (basil, creeping buttercup, lemon balm); eugenol (shadab, dog-rose, starflower, basil), camphor (yarrow and wormwood), carvone (oriental plane), caryophyllene (cuminum), cinnamaldehyde (Chinese cinnamon), p-cymen-7-ol (musk willow), limonene (lemon verbena), linalool and α-terpineol (bitter orange), menthol (date palm) and methyl 5-vinylnicotinate (olive). Although, these hydrosols prepared from plants belong to different genus and families, but cluster analysis showed obvious similarities between their chemical constituents. Results of this investigation showed in many cases that the constituents of aromatic waters are different from the pure essential oil.

  10. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini): the first ground beetle from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Allan C; Erwin, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct Antarctotrechus balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with Antarctotrechus balli included Nothofagus (southern beech), Ranunculus (buttercup), moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that Antarctotrechus balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with (40)Ar/(39)Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14-20 Ma. The tundra biome, including Antarctotrechus balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10-13 Ma. Antarctotrechus balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For Antarctotrechus balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma) and

  11. Major Transcriptome Reprogramming Underlies Floral Mimicry Induced by the Rust Fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Riston H.; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; MacLean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2013-01-01

    Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments) and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds) were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production) were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry. PMID:24069397

  12. Lutein in selected Canadian crops and agri-food processing by-products and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2006-04-21

    This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase solvent system consisting of hexane-ethanol-water (6:4.5:1.5, v/v/v) was developed for the purification of lutein from the saponification mixture of marigold flower extract. The purity of lutein prepared using this HSCCC method was 97%. Free lutein was found to be the predominant form in three squash varieties, and it was mostly found in the peel rather than the commonly consumed flesh. Sweet Mamma, Buttercup and Pepper squash varieties contained 25.4, 18.4 and 30.1mg/100g fresh weigh (FW) of lutein in the peels, respectively. These concentrations were significantly higher than that in spinach and kale (3.7 and 12.3 mg/100 g FW). beta-Carotene was found most in the peel of Sweet Mamma squash at 13.6 mg/100g FW, whereas it was below 2mg/100g FW in all other samples. Cooking increased extractable free lutein by 22-65% in squash peels. Lutein in Yukon Gold potato was at ca. 0.4 mg/100 g FW. Certain Yukon Gold was also found to contain violaxanthin (0.35 mg/100 g FW). Structures of lutein, beta-carotene and violaxanthin were identified by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS in positive ion mode, and by comparing the retention time and UV-vis spectral data with standards. Results from this study suggest the selected crops and agri-food industrial processing by-products of these can be a good source of free lutein.

  13. Tinkering with transcription factor networks for developmental robustness of Ranunculales flowers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background The flowers of core eudicots and monocots are generally determined by the number of floral organs they produce, and their developmental set-up tolerates little change from the bauplan once the floral primordium is initiated. Many species outside the core eudicots and monocots are more plastic in the number of floral organs they produce. For example, the Nymphaeales (water lilies), within the basal angiosperms, arrange their floral organs spirally and show smooth transitions between floral organs, and many Ranunculales (buttercups) produce variable numbers of stamens by adjusting the number of stamen whorls generated from a specialized ring meristem. However, the interactions of regulatory genes governing those processes are unknown. Scope and Conclusions This review provides an overview of the functional analyses of floral homeotic genes carried out in Ranunculales, summarizing knockdown and mutant phenotypes, and protein interactions to identify similarities and differences within the Ranunculales and in comparison with core eudicots. Floral gene regulatory networks in Ranunculales are identified showing intensive re-wiring amongst the floral homeotic genes to allow some degree of plasticity. The ‘fading-border’ model of floral organ identity evolution is extended by a hypothesis on how developmental plasticity can be achieved by interdependent regulation of floral homeotic genes. One aspect of floral plasticity may be achieved by regulation of the activity of a stamen-generating ring meristem and first ideas on its control are presented. While the amazing conservation of the major floral organ identity programme is being unravelled by analysing floral homeotic gene function and expression, we are only just beginning to understand the evolution of the gene network governing the organ identity genes, e.g. how plasticity can be achieved, and which aspects foster the robustness of the core eudicot floral bauplan. PMID:27091506

  14. Population Structure of Sclerotinia subarctica and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in England, Scotland and Norway

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, John P.; Warmington, Rachel J.; Walley, Peter G.; Denton-Giles, Matthew; Barbetti, Martin J.; Brodal, Guro; Nordskog, Berit

    2017-01-01

    Sclerotinia species are important fungal pathogens of a wide range of crops and wild host plants. While the biology and population structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been well-studied, little information is available for the related species S. subarctica. In this study, Sclerotinia isolates were collected from different crop plants and the wild host Ranuculus ficaria (meadow buttercup) in England, Scotland, and Norway to determine the incidence of Sclerotinia subarctica and examine the population structure of this pathogen for the first time. Incidence was very low in England, comprising only 4.3% of isolates while moderate and high incidence of S. subarctica was identified in Scotland and Norway, comprising 18.3 and 48.0% of isolates respectively. Characterization with eight microsatellite markers identified 75 haplotypes within a total of 157 isolates over the three countries with a few haplotypes in Scotland and Norway sampled at a higher frequency than the rest across multiple locations and host plants. In total, eight microsatellite haplotypes were shared between Scotland and Norway while none were shared with England. Bayesian and principal component analyses revealed common ancestry and clustering of Scottish and Norwegian S. subarctica isolates while English isolates were assigned to a separate population cluster and exhibited low diversity indicative of isolation. Population structure was also examined for S. sclerotiorum isolates from England, Scotland, Norway, and Australia using microsatellite data, including some from a previous study in England. In total, 484 haplotypes were identified within 800 S. sclerotiorum isolates with just 15 shared between England and Scotland and none shared between any other countries. Bayesian and principal component analyses revealed a common ancestry and clustering of the English and Scottish isolates while Norwegian and Australian isolates were assigned to separate clusters. Furthermore, sequencing part of the

  15. Miocene Antarctic Terrestrial Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an

  16. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.

  17. Antarctic Miocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Antarctic Miocene terrestrial deposits, coupled with stratigraphic, geochemical and paleontological data from marine boreholes, provide new insights into the climatic history of the continent. During the Miocene, ice caps coalesced to form ice sheets and vegetated surfaces gave way to barren expanses. The cryospheric changes especially have global climatic implications. The fossil data consists of diatoms, pollen and spores, and macroscopic remains of plants, ostracods, insects, molluscs and a fish. Plant fossils include wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), seeds of several vascular plants, including Ranunculus (buttercup), Hippuris (mare's-tail) and Myriophyllum (watermilfoil), megaspores of Isoetes (quillwort), and moss species. The insect chitin consists of larval head capsules of Chironomidae (midges) and exoskeletal parts of Coleoptera (beetles). The molluscs include freshwater gastropods and bivalves. The majority of these taxa are likely descendants of taxa that had survived on the continent from the Paleogene or earlier. Even though early Miocene glaciations may have been large, the climate was never cold enough to cause the extinction of the biota, which probably survived in coastal refugia. Early Miocene (c. 20 Ma) macrofossils from the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77°S) support palynological interpretations from the Cape Roberts and ANDRILL marine records that the upland vegetation was a shrub tundra. Mean summer temperature (MST) in the uplands was c. 6°C and possibly higher at the coast. The climate was wet, supporting mires and lakes. By the mid-Miocene, even though the climate continued to be wet. MST was c. 4°C which was too cold to support Nothofagus and most vascular plant species. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the time between the Early and Mid-Miocene was a time of repeated ice advances and retreats of small glaciers originating from ice caps. At c. 14 Ma there appears to have been a modal shift in climate to