Science.gov

Sample records for butyric acid bacteria

  1. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by a wide variety of butyric acid-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kenichi; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Okamoto, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Latently infected cells harbor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA copies integrated in heterochromatin, allowing persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses. It is widely accepted that hypoacetylation of histone proteins by histone deacetylases (HDACs) is involved in maintaining the HIV-1 latency by repressing viral transcription. HIV-1 replication can be induced from latently infected cells by environmental factors, such as inflammation and co-infection with other microbes. It is known that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid inhibits catalytic action of HDAC and induces transcription of silenced genes including HIV-1 provirus. There are a number of such bacteria in gut, vaginal, and oral cavities that produce butyric acid during their anaerobic glycolysis. Since these organs are known to be the major site of HIV-1 transmission and its replication, we explored a possibility that explosive viral replication in these organs could be ascribable to butyric acid produced from anaerobic resident bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that the culture supernatant of various bacteria producing butyric acid could greatly reactivate the latently-infected HIV-1. These bacteria include Fusobacterium nucleatum (commonly present in oral cavity, and gut), Clostridium cochlearium, Eubacterium multiforme (gut), and Anaerococcus tetradius (vagina). We also clarified that butyric acid in these culture supernatants could induce histone acetylation and HIV-1 replication by inhibiting HDAC. Our observations indicate that butyric acid-producing bacteria could be involved in AIDS progression by reactivating the latent HIV provirus and, subsequently, by eliminating such bacterial infection may contribute to the prevention of the AIDS development and transmission.

  2. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Butyric acid in functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Pituch, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation may be useful. So far, the use of butyric acid in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has been limited because of its specific characteristics such as its rancid smell and rapid absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the Polish market, sodium butyrate has been recently made available, produced by the modern technology of microencapsulation, which allows the active substance to reach the small and large intestines, where butyrate easily dissociates into butyric acid. This article presents the potential beneficial mechanisms of action of butyric acid in defecation disorders, which are primarily associated with reductions in pain during defecation and inflammation in the gut, among others.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Mixture of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Sodium Butyrate in Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong A; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Yu, Da Yoon; Kim, Sung Chan; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sang Suk; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2018-03-20

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Recently, probiotics have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms through immunomodulatory responses. In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate. Following sensitization with whey protein, the mice were challenged and divided into two groups: (1) mice administered with phosphate-buffered saline as a control and (2) mice administered with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate. Allergic symptoms were assessed by measuring ear thicknesses, serum histamine and IL-10 concentrations, and the quantities of leaked Evans blue. T cell differentiation was determined by analyzing the T cells groups in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and spleen. To examine changes in the total gut microbiota, total fecal microflora was isolated, species identification was performed by DNA sequencing using Illumina MiSeq, and changes in intestinal beneficial bacteria were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate reduced ear thicknesses, the quantity of leaked Evans blue, and serum histamine values, while increasing serum IL-10 values. In the mouse model, the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate increased Th1 and Treg cell differentiation in MLN and spleen tissues; the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, which is associated with reduction in allergic reactions; and microorganisms that lead to cell differentiation into Treg. These results suggest that the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate can prevent and alleviate allergic symptoms.

  5. Low permeability to oxygen of a new barrier film prevents butyric acid bacteria spore formation in farm corn silage.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2008-11-01

    The outgrowth of Clostridium spore-forming bacteria causes late blowing in cheeses. Recently, the role of air diffusion during storage and feed-out and the role of aerobic deterioration has been shown to indirectly favor butyric acid bacteria (BAB) growth and to determine the presence of high concentrations of BAB spores in farm tank milk. A new oxygen barrier (OB) film was tested and compared with conventional polyethylene (ST). The objective was to verify whether the OB film could prevent BAB spore formation in whole-crop corn silage during storage on 2 commercial farms with different potential silage spoilage risks. Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts along the length so that half the feed-out face would be covered with ST film and the other half with OB film. Plastic net bags with freshly chopped corn were buried in the upper layer and in the central part (CORE) of the bunkers. The silos were opened in summer and fed out at different removal rates (19 vs. 33 cm/d). Herbage at ensiling, silage at unloading, and silage after air exposure (6 and 15 d) were analyzed for pH, nitrate, BAB spores, yeasts, and molds. The BAB spores in herbages at ensiling were 2.84 log(10) most probable number (MPN)/g, with no differences between treatments or farms. Nitrate was below the detection limit on farm 1 and exceeded 2,300 mg/kg of fresh matter on farm 2. At unloading, the BAB spores in the ST silage on farm 1 were greater than 5 log(10) MPN/g, whereas in the CORE and the OB silages, they were approximately 2 log(10) MPN/g. The ST silage had the greatest pH (5.89), the greatest mold count (5.07 log(10) cfu/g), and the greatest difference between silage temperature and ambient temperature (dT(section-ambient)). On farm 2, the ST silage had the greatest concentration of BAB spores (2.19 log(10) MPN/g), the greatest pH (4.05), and the least nitrate concentration compared with the CORE and the OB silages. Pooled data on BAB spores collected from aerobically

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate by a butyrate-utilizing bacterium in coculture and triculture with methanogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was beta-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen.

  7. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Załęski, Andrzej; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS.

  9. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Park, Jae-Yeon; Mitchell, Robert J.; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches. PMID:22593687

  10. Biosynthesis of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Tang, Wan; Zhu, Shengquan; Du, Meini

    2018-05-28

    Butyric acid (C 3 H 7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid through large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production through genetic modification are discussed. Finally, bioreactor modifications (including fibrous bed bioreactor, inner disk-shaped matrix bioreactor, fibrous matrix packed in porous levitated sphere carriers), low-cost feedstocks, and special treatments (including continuous fermentation with cell recycling, extractive fermentation with solvent, using different artificial electron carriers) intended to improve the feasibility of commercial butyric acid bioproduction are summarized.

  11. Short chain fatty acids (butyric acid) and intestinal diseases

    PubMed

    Manrique Vergara, David; González Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2017-10-15

    Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies. The publications mainly deal with the use of oral butyric acid in pathologies involving inflammation and / or alterations of intestinal motility. Highlighting the clinical potential in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. The use of oral supplementation with butyric acid is a promising strategy in pathologies such as inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Bio-available butyric acid formulations with acceptable organoleptic characteristics are being advanced.

  12. Butyric acid stimulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Zhitao; Wang, Shuang; Sasaki, Yoko; Takai, Hideki; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2010-06-01

    Butyric acid (sodium butyrate; BA) is an extracellular metabolite secreted from periodontopathic bacteria present in subgingival plaque. BA induces apoptosis of T and B cells, and acts as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, and may be crucial for osteoblast differentiation, bone matrix mineralization and tumor metastasis. In the present study we investigated the regulation of BSP transcription by BA in rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. At 12 h, BA (10(-4) M) increased the level of BSP mRNA, and enhanced the luciferase activity of the construct pLUC3, which includes the promoter sequence between nucleotides -116 and +60. Transcriptional stimulation by BA was abrogated in the pLUC3 construct which containing a 2-bp mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE). Gel shift analyses showed that BA increased the binding of nuclear protein to FRE. These data suggest that BA increases the transcription of the BSP gene mediated through FRE in the rat BSP gene promoter, and induces osteoblast activity in the early stage of bone formation.

  13. Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Holtrop, Grietje; Lobley, Gerald E; Calder, A Graham; Stewart, Colin S; Flint, Harry J

    2004-06-01

    Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. [1-(13)C]Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown in the presence of 60 mm-acetate and 10 mm-glucose derived 85-90 % butyrate-C from external acetate. This was due to rapid interchange between extracellular acetate and intracellular acetyl-CoA, plus net acetate uptake. In contrast, a Coprococcus-related strain that is a net acetate producer derived only 28 % butyrate-C from external acetate. Different carbohydrate-derived energy sources affected butyrate formation by mixed human faecal bacteria growing in continuous or batch cultures. The ranking order of butyrate production rates was amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > inulin > pectin (continuous cultures), and inulin > amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > pectin (batch cultures). The contribution of external acetate to butyrate formation in these experiments ranged from 56 (pectin) to 90 % (xylan) in continuous cultures, and from 72 to 91 % in the batch cultures. This is consistent with a major role for bacteria related to F. prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. in butyrate formation from a range of substrates that are fermented in the large intestine. Variations in the dominant metabolic type of butyrate producer between individuals or with variations in diet are not ruled out, however, and could influence butyrate supply in the large intestine.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for butyric acid production with high butyric acid selectivity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Im, Jung Ae; Choi, So Young; Lee, Jung Im; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-05-01

    A typical characteristic of the butyric acid-producing Clostridium is coproduction of both butyric and acetic acids. Increasing the butyric acid selectivity important for economical butyric acid production has been rather difficult in clostridia due to their complex metabolic pathways. In this work, Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered for highly selective butyric acid production. For this purpose, the second butyrate kinase of C. acetobutylicum encoded by the bukII gene instead of butyrate kinase I encoded by the buk gene was employed. Furthermore, metabolic pathways were engineered to further enhance the NADH-driving force. Batch fermentation of the metabolically engineered C. acetobutylicum strain HCBEKW (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-) and adhE1(-)) at pH 6.0 resulted in the production of 32.5g/L of butyric acid with a butyric-to-acetic acid ratio (BA/AA ratio) of 31.3g/g from 83.3g/L of glucose. By further knocking out the hydA gene (encoding hydrogenase) in the HCBEKW strain, the butyric acid titer was not further improved in batch fermentation. However, the BA/AA ratio (28.5g/g) obtained with the HYCBEKW strain (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-), adhE1(-) and hydA(-)) was 1.6 times higher than that (18.2g/g) obtained with the HCBEKW strain at pH 5.0, while no improvement was observed at pH 6.0. These results suggested that the buk gene knockout was essential to get a high butyric acid selectivity to acetic acid in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Butyric acid – a well-known molecule revisited

    PubMed Central

    Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The properties of butyric acid, and the role it plays in the gastrointestinal tract, have been known for many years. However, the newest research shows that butyric acid still remains a molecule with a potential that has not as yet been fully exploited. The article provides an outline of relevant up-to-date knowledge about butyric acid, and presents the expert position on the clinical benefits of using butyric acid products in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:28702095

  16. Butyric acid - a well-known molecule revisited.

    PubMed

    Borycka-Kiciak, Katarzyna; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The properties of butyric acid, and the role it plays in the gastrointestinal tract, have been known for many years. However, the newest research shows that butyric acid still remains a molecule with a potential that has not as yet been fully exploited. The article provides an outline of relevant up-to-date knowledge about butyric acid, and presents the expert position on the clinical benefits of using butyric acid products in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production with high butyrate/acetate ratio.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Fu, Hongxin; Wang, Jufang

    2018-05-01

    Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration. Fed-batch fermentation of ATCC 25755/cat1 + crt resulted in increased butyrate/acetate ratio of 15.76 g/g, which was 2.24-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, in order to simultaneously increase the butyrate/acetate ratio, butyric acid concentration and productivity, the recombinant strain ATCC 25755/ppcc (co-expression of 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) gene, pyruvate kinase (pykA) gene, cat1, and crt) was constructed. Consequently, ATCC 25755/ppcc produced more butyric acid (46.8 vs. 35.0 g/L) with a higher productivity (0.83 vs. 0.49 g/L·h) and butyrate/acetate ratio (13.22 vs. 7.22 g/g) as compared with the wild-type strain in batch fermentation using high glucose concentration (120 g/L). This study demonstrates that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux is an effective way to reduce acetic acid production and increase butyrate/acetate ratio.

  18. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  19. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. © FEMS 2016.

  20. Re-discovering periodontal butyric acid: New insights on an old metabolite.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    The oral microbiome is composed of detrimental and beneficial microbial communities producing several microbial factors that could contribute to the development of the oral microbiome and, likewise, may lead to the development of host diseases. Metabolites, like short-chain fatty acids, are commonly produced by the oral microbiome and serve various functions. Among the periodontal short-chain fatty acids, butyric acid is mainly produced by periodontopathic bacteria and, attributable to the butyrate paradox, is postulated to exhibit a dual function depending on butyric acid concentration. A better understanding of the interconnecting networks that would influence butyric acid function in the oral cavity may shed a new light on the current existing knowledge and view regarding butyric acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of Sp1 in butyric acid-induced HIV-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kenichi; Okamoto, Takashi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1) to establish latent infection and its re-activation is considered critical for progression of HIV-1 infection. We previously reported that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid, acting as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), could lead to induction of HIV-1 transcription; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid on HIV-1 gene expression. Butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 gene expression was determined by luciferase assay and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Western blot analysis and ELISA were used for the detection of HIV-1. We found that Sp1 binding sites within the HIV-1 promoter are primarily involved in butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 activation. In fact, Sp1 knockdown by small interfering RNA and the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A abolished the effect of butyric acid. We also observed that cAMP response element-binding-binding protein (CBP) was required for butyric acid-induced HIV-1 activation. These results suggest that butyric acid stimulates HIV-1 promoter through inhibition of the Sp1-associated HDAC activity and recruitment of CBP to the HIV-1 LTR. Our findings suggest that Sp1 should be considered as one of therapeutic targets in anti-viral therapy against HIV-1 infection aggravated by butyric acid-producing bacteria. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Sonolytic degradation of butyric acid in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dükkancı, Meral; Gündüz, Gönül

    2013-11-15

    The sonolytic degradation of butyric acid was investigated in an ultrasonic reactor emitting waves at 850 kHz. The effects of the ultrasonic power, the initial concentration of butyric acid, and the addition of H2O2 were studied on the degradation of butyric acid. In the sonication of butyric acid, degradation degrees as high as 31.5% could be achieved at a power of 31 W, at an initial concentration of 2.8 mM butyric acid with the addition of 0.34 M H2O2 for a sonication time of 5 h. The degradation of butyric acid increased with irradiation time, indicating first order kinetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal human gingival fibroblasts undergo cytostasis and apoptosis after long-term exposure to butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Michihiro; Nishioka, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Nakaya, Takaaki; Kanamura, Narisato

    2017-01-22

    The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is a chronic condition in which periodontal tissue is exposed to virulence factors (such as butyric acid); however, no study has examined the effects of long-term exposure to butyric acid. The present study demonstrated that long-term exposure of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to butyric acid induced cytostasis and apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Butyric acid inhibited the division of HGFs by altering expression of mRNAs encoding cyclins. Butyric acid induced apoptosis in HGFs via the intrinsic pathway, followed by activation of caspase 9; there was no DNA damage or p53 activation. Butyric acid also upregulated expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein by HGFs. Furthermore TNF-α induced apoptosis by activating caspase 8 (the extrinsic pathway) and by inducing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, the results show that butyric acid induced cytostasis and apoptosis in HGFs, accompanied by production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It thus acts as a death ligand and plays a critical role as a prophlogistic substance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Butyric acid: what is the future for this old substance?

    PubMed

    Sossai, Paolo

    2012-06-06

    In this brief review, we present some data from the literature on butyric acid and some of its more interesting potential uses, especially in the field of gastroenterology. Due to its principal characteristics, butyric acid is primarily used for pathologies of the colon (functional, inflammatory). Although only preliminary data are available, butyric acid may also have interesting extraintestinal applications, such as in the treatment of haematological, metabolic, and neurological pathologies.

  5. Cross-feeding between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria explains bifdobacterial competitiveness, butyrate production, and gas production.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    Inulin-type fructans are not digested and reach the human colon intact, where they are selectively fermented by the colon microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria. As a result, they are converted, directly or indirectly, to short-chain fatty acids and other organic acids, as well as gases, and lead to both bifidogenic and butyrogenic health-promoting effects. Bifidobacteria display phenotypic variation on strain level as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans. Also, different chain lengths of inulin-type fructans may stimulate different subgroups within the bifidobacterial population. The end-metabolites of inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria reflect their growth rates on these polymers. Other colon bacteria are also able to degrade inulin-type fructans, as is the case for lactobacilli, Bacteroides, certain enterobacteria, and butyrate producers. Bacterial cross-feeding mechanisms in the colon lay at the basis of overall butyrate production, a functional characteristic of several colon bacteria that is always accompanied by gas production. Finally, specificity of polysaccharide use by the colon microbiota may determine diet-induced alterations in the microbiota and consequent metabolic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Butyric acid induces apoptosis via oxidative stress in Jurkat T-cells.

    PubMed

    Kurita-Ochiai, T; Ochiai, K

    2010-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for the induction of T-cell apoptosis by butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria. To determine the involvement of oxidative stress in apoptosis pathways, we investigated the contribution of ROS in mitochondrial signaling pathways, death-receptor-initiated signaling pathway, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in butyric-acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. N-acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) abrogated mitochondrial injury, cytochrome c, AIF, and Smac release, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL suppression and Bax and Bad activation induced by butyric acid. However, the decrease in cFLIP expression by butyric acid was not restored by treatment with NAC; increases in caspase-4 and -10 activities by butyric acid were completely abrogated by NAC. NAC also affected the elevation of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 expression by butyric acid. These results suggest that butyric acid is involved in mitochondrial-dysfunction- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human Jurkat T-cells via a ROS-dependent mechanism.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  8. Hepatic inflammation caused by dysregulated bile acid synthesis is reversible by butyrate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lili; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Hu, Ying; Liu, Hui-Xin; Nagar, Nidhi; Kalanetra, Karen M; French, Samuel William; French, Samuel Wheeler; Mills, David A; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated bile acid (BA) synthesis or reduced farnesoid X receptor (FXR) levels are found in patients having metabolic diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis or cancer. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between butyrate and dysregulated BA synthesis-induced hepatitis as well as the effect of butyrate in reversing the liver pathology. Wild-type (WT) and FXR knockout (KO) male mice were placed on a control (CD) or western diet (WD) for 15 months. In the presence or absence of butyrate supplementation, feces obtained from 15-month-old WD-fed FXR KO mice, which had severe hepatitis and liver tumors, were transplanted to 7-month-old WD-fed FXR KO for 3 months. Hepatic phenotypes, microbiota profile, and BA composition were analyzed. Butyrate-generating bacteria and colonic butyrate concentration were reduced due to FXR inactivation and further reduced by WD intake. In addition, WD-fed FXR KO male mice had the highest concentration of hepatic β-muricholic acid (β-MCA) and bacteria-generated deoxycholic acid (DCA) accompanied by serious hepatitis. Moreover, dysregulated BA and reduced SCFA signaling co-existed in both human liver cancers and WD-fed FXR KO mice. Microbiota transplantation using butyrate-deficient feces derived from 15-month-old WD-fed FXR KO mice increased hepatic lymphocyte numbers as well as hepatic β-MCA and DCA concentrations. Furthermore, butyrate supplementation reduced hepatic β-MCA as well as DCA and eliminated hepatic lymphocyte infiltration. In conclusion, reduced butyrate contributes to the development of hepatitis in the FXR KO mouse model. In addition, butyrate reverses dysregulated BA synthesis and its associated hepatitis. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Impact of butyric acid on butanol formation by Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Lars; Doerr, Eric Will; Staaden, Antje; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-11-01

    The butanol yield of the classic fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) process has been enhanced in the past decades through the development of better strains and advanced process design. Nevertheless, by-product formation and the incomplete conversion of intermediates still decrease the butanol yield. This study demonstrates the potential of increasing the butanol yield from glycerol though the addition of small amounts of butyric acid. The impact of butyric acid was investigated in a 7L stirred tank reactor. The results of this study show the positive impact of butyric acid on butanol yield under pH controlled conditions and the metabolic stages were monitored via online measurement of carbon dioxide formation, pH value and redox potential. Butyric acid could significantly increase the butanol yield at low pH values if sufficient quantities of primary carbon source (glycerol) were present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioaugmentation with Clostridium tyrobutyricum to improve butyric acid production through direct rice straw bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-02

    One-pot bioconversion is an economically attractive biorefinery strategy to reduce enzyme consumption. Direct conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for butyric acid production is still challenging because of competition among microorganisms. In a consolidated hydrolysis/fermentation bioprocessing (CBP) the microbial structure may eventually prefer the production of caproic acid rather than butyric acid production. This paper presents a new bioaugmentation approach for high butyric acid production from rice straw. By dosing 0.03 g/L of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 in the CBP, an increase of 226% higher butyric acid was yielded. The selectivity and concentration also increased to 60.7% and 18.05 g/L, respectively. DNA-sequencing confirmed the shift of bacterial community in the augmented CBP. Butyric acid producer was enriched in the bioaugmented bacterial community and the bacteria related to long chain acids production was degenerated. The findings may be useful in future research and process design to enhance productivity of desired bio-products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Butyric Acid-Induced T-Cell Apoptosis Is Mediated by Caspase-8 and -9 Activation in a Fas-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Fukushima, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat cells. In this study, we examined whether CD95 ligand-receptor interaction is involved in butyric acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that expression of Fas in Jurkat and T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected by butyric acid treatment. Furthermore, the expression of Fas and FasL protein in Western blotting was not affected by butyric acid treatment. Coincubation with blocking anti-Fas antibodies prevented Fas-induced apoptosis but not butyric acid-induced apoptosis. Anti-FasL antibodies also did not prevent butyric acid-induced apoptosis at any dose examined. Although cytotoxic anti-Fas antibody affected butyric acid-induced apoptosis, a synergistic effect was not seen. Time-dependent activation of caspase-8 and -9 was recognized in butyric acid- as well as Fas-mediated apoptosis. IETD-CHO and LEHD-CHO, specific inhibitors of caspase-8 and -9, respectively, completely blocked Fas-mediated apoptosis and partially prevented butyric acid-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the Fas-FasL interaction is not involved in butyric acid-induced apoptosis and that caspase-8 and -9-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in butyric acid-induced apoptosis, as well as Fas-induced apoptosis. PMID:11238216

  12. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and production by Class I heat shock protein-overproducing Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Luo, Sheng; Zhang, Yanan; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2017-08-01

    The response of Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid stress involves various stress-related genes, and therefore overexpression of stress-related genes can improve butyric acid tolerance and yield. Class I heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in the process of protecting bacteria from sudden changes of extracellular stress by assisting protein folding correctly. The results of quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the Class I HSGs grpE, dnaK, dnaJ, groEL, groES, and htpG were significantly upregulated under butyric acid stress, especially the dnaK and groE operons. Overexpression of groESL and htpG could significantly improve the tolerance of C. tyrobutyricum to butyric acid, while overexpression of dnaK and dnaJ showed negative effects on butyric acid tolerance. Acid production was also significantly promoted by increased GroESL expression levels; the final butyric acid and acetic acid concentrations were 28.2 and 38% higher for C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755/groESL than for the wild-type strain. In addition, when fed-batch fermentation was carried out using cell immobilization in a fibrous-bed bioreactor, the butyric acid yield produced by C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755/groESL reached 52.2 g/L, much higher than that for the control. The improved butyric acid yield is probably attributable to the high GroES and GroEL levels, which can stabilize the biosynthetic machinery of C. tyrobutyricum under extracellular butyric acid stress.

  13. Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Nakwon; Eom, Taekil; Gupta, Sachin K; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Jeong, Do-Youn; Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J; Unno, Tatsuya

    2017-11-28

    Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis. We investigated the influence of high-fat diets (HFD) and low-fiber diets (LFD), and loperamide (LPM) administration, on key bacteria and genes involved in reduction of butyrate synthesis in mice. MiSeq-based microbiota analysis and HiSeq-based differential gene analysis indicated that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in butyrate metabolism in each treatment. Dietary modulation depleted butyrate kinase and phosphate butyryl transferase by decreasing members of the Bacteroidales and Parabacteroides . The HFD also depleted genes involved in succinate synthesis by decreasing Lactobacillus . The LFD and LPM treatments depleted genes involved in crotonoyl-CoA synthesis by decreasing Roseburia and Oscilllibacter . Taken together, our results suggest that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in gut dysbiosis, and that selected treatments may be needed depending on the cause of gut dysfunction.

  14. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2009-05-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

  15. Acetate Utilization and Butyryl Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate-CoA Transferase in Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sylvia H.; Barcenilla, Adela; Stewart, Colin S.; Pryde, Susan E.; Flint, Harry J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven strains of Roseburia sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Coprococcus sp. from the human gut that produce high levels of butyric acid in vitro were studied with respect to key butyrate pathway enzymes and fermentation patterns. Strains of Roseburia sp. and F. prausnitzii possessed butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase and acetate kinase activities, but butyrate kinase activity was not detectable either in growing or in stationary-phase cultures. Although unable to use acetate as a sole source of energy, these strains showed net utilization of acetate during growth on glucose. In contrast, Coprococcus sp. strain L2-50 is a net producer of acetate and possessed detectable butyrate kinase, acetate kinase, and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase activities. These results demonstrate that different functionally distinct groups of butyrate-producing bacteria are present in the human large intestine. PMID:12324374

  16. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  17. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  18. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  19. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  20. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  1. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  2. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships of Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Barcenilla, Adela; Pryde, Susan E.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Stewart, Colin S.; Henderson, Colin; Flint, Harry J.

    2000-01-01

    Butyrate is a preferred energy source for colonic epithelial cells and is thought to play an important role in maintaining colonic health in humans. In order to investigate the diversity and stability of butyrate-producing organisms of the colonic flora, anaerobic butyrate-producing bacteria were isolated from freshly voided human fecal samples from three healthy individuals: an infant, an adult omnivore, and an adult vegetarian. A second isolation was performed on the same three individuals 1 year later. Of a total of 313 bacterial isolates, 74 produced more than 2 mM butyrate in vitro. Butyrate-producing isolates were grouped by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results indicate very little overlap between the predominant ribotypes of the three subjects; furthermore, the flora of each individual changed significantly between the two isolations. Complete sequences of 16S rDNAs were determined for 24 representative strains and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Eighty percent of the butyrate-producing isolates fell within the XIVa cluster of gram-positive bacteria as defined by M. D. Collins et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:812–826, 1994) and A. Willems et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:195–199, 1996), with the most abundant group (10 of 24 or 42%) clustering with Eubacterium rectale, Eubacterium ramulus, and Roseburia cecicola. Fifty percent of the butyrate-producing isolates were net acetate consumers during growth, suggesting that they employ the butyryl coenzyme A-acetyl coenzyme A transferase pathway for butyrate production. In contrast, only 1% of the 239 non-butyrate-producing isolates consumed acetate. PMID:10742256

  4. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  5. Butyric acid retention in gingival tissue induces oxidative stress in jugular blood mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Imai, Kenichi; Matsukawa, Noriko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-09-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a major extracellular metabolite produced by anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria and is commonly deposited in the gingival tissue. BA induces mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro; however, its effects in vivo were never elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of butyric acid retention in the gingival tissues on oxidative stress induction in the jugular blood mitochondria. We established that BA injected in the rat gingival tissue has prolonged retention in gingival tissues. Blood taken at 0, 60, and 180 min after BA injection was used for further analysis. We isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), heme, superoxide (SOD), and catalase (CAT) to determine BA effects. We found that H2O2, heme, SOD, and CAT levels all increased after BA injection. This would insinuate that mitochondrial oxidative stress was induced ascribable to BA.

  6. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  7. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Butyric acid production from red algae by a newly isolated Clostridium sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-09-01

    To produce butyric acid from red algae such as Gelidium amansii in which galactose is a main carbohydrate, microorganisms utilizing galactose and tolerating inhibitors in hydrolysis including levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are required. A newly isolated bacterium, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid not only from galactose as the sole carbon source but also from a mixture of galactose and glucose through simultaneous utilization. Notably, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid and a small amount of acetic acid with the butyrate:acetate ratio of 45.4:1 and it even converted acetate to butyric acid. Clostridium sp. S1 tolerated 0.5-2 g levulinic acid/l and recovered from HMF inhibition at 0.6-2.5 g/l, resulting in 85-92% butyric acid concentration of the control culture. When acid-pretreated G. amansii hydrolysate was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 4.83 g butyric acid/l from 10 g galactose/l and 1 g glucose/l. Clostridium sp. S1 produces butyric acid from red algae due to its characteristics in sugar utilization and tolerance to inhibitors, demonstrating its advantage as a red algae-utilizing microorganism.

  9. [Effect of Gram-negative bacteria on fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, N; Dupeyron, C; Leluan, G; Bory, J

    1981-01-01

    The gram-negative bacteria investigated exert various effects on fatty acids. P. aeruginosa and A. calcoaceticus catabolize any of the fatty acids tested. S. marcescens is effective upon all fatty acids excepting butyric acid. The long chain fatty acids only are degraded by E. coli, meanwhile the other fatty acids present a bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity on it. The authors propose a simple and original method for testing the capability of degradation of fatty acids by some bacterial species.

  10. Butyric acid stimulates bovine neutrophil functions and potentiates the effect of platelet activating factor.

    PubMed

    Carretta, M D; Hidalgo, A I; Burgos, J; Opazo, L; Castro, L; Hidalgo, M A; Figueroa, C D; Taubert, A; Hermosilla, C; Burgos, R A

    2016-08-01

    Increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production is associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and activation of inflammatory processes. In humans and rodents, SCFAs modulate inflammatory responses in the gut via free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2). In bovines, butyric acid is one of the most potent FFA2 agonists. Its expression in bovine neutrophils has recently been demonstrated, suggesting a role in innate immune response in cattle. This study aimed to evaluate if butyric acid modulates oxidative and non-oxidative functions or if it can potentiate other inflammatory mediators in bovine neutrophils. Our results showed that butyric acid can activate bovine neutrophils, inducing calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, two second messengers involved in FFA2 activation. Ca(2+) influx induced by butyric acid was dependent on the extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) source and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Butyric acid alone had no significant effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chemotaxis; however, a priming effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, was observed. Butyric acid increased CD63 expression and induced the release of neutrophil granule markers matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and lactoferrin. Finally, we observed that butyric acid induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation without affecting cellular viability. These findings suggest that butyric acid, a component of the ruminal fermentative process, can modulate the innate immune response of ruminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  13. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and bioproduction by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin; Yang, Shangtian; Li, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Repeated fed-batch fermentation of glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was successfully employed to produce butyric acid at a high final concentration as well as to adapt a butyric-acid-tolerant strain. At the end of the eighth fed-batch fermentation, the butyric acid concentration reached 86.9 ± 2.17 g/L, which to our knowledge is the highest butyric acid concentration ever produced in the traditional fermentation process. To understand the mechanism and factors contributing to the improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance, adapted strains were harvested from the FBB and characterized for their physiological properties, including specific growth rate, acid-forming enzymes, intracellular pH, membrane-bound ATPase and cell morphology. Compared with the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, the adapted culture showed significantly reduced inhibition effects of butyric acid on specific growth rate, cellular activities of butyric-acid-forming enzyme phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and ATPase, together with elevated intracellular pH, and elongated rod morphology. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In vitro intestinal bioaccessibility of alkylglycerols versus triacylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Martín, Diana; Morán-Valero, María I; Señoráns, Francisco J; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2011-03-01

    Butyric acid has been the subject of much attention last years due to its bioactivity. However, the potential advantages of butyrate are limited by the problem to reach enough plasma concentrations; therefore, pro-drugs have been proposed as an alternative to natural butyrate. A comparative study on in vitro intestinal digestion of 2,3-dibutyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (D-SCAKG) and tributyrin (TB), as potential pro-drugs of butyric acid, was performed. Aliquots were taken at different times of digestion for studying the extent and rate of hydrolysis of both substrates. The micellar phase (MP) and oily phase (OP) formed in the digestion media were separated and their composition in lipid products was analyzed. Initially, it was confirmed that the in vitro model reproduced physiological results by testing against olive oil as a standard lipid. The progress of in vitro intestinal digestion of D-SCAKG was slower than that of TB. TB hydrolyzed completely to butyric acid, whereas D-SCAKG mainly yielded 2-butyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (M-SCAKG), followed by butyric acid and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol (AKG). The MP from both substrates mainly consisted of butyric acid. Minor levels of M-SCAKG and AKG were also found in the MP after hydrolysis of D-SCAKG, the M-SCAKG being mainly distributed in the OP. Therefore, D-SCAKG produced a stable form of esterified butyric acid as M-SCAKG after in vitro intestinal digestion, unlike TB. Additionally, such a product would integrate both bioactive compounds, butyric acid and alkylglycerol, within the same molecule. Free butyric acid and AKG would be also released, which are lipid products of interest as well.

  17. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  18. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    PubMed Central

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB. PMID:16252341

  19. Bifidobacteria and Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria: Importance and Strategies for Their Stimulation in the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Audrey; Selak, Marija; Lantin, David; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system. During life, the numbers of bifidobacteria decrease from up to 90% of the total colon microbiota in vaginally delivered breast-fed infants to <5% in the colon of adults and they decrease even more in that of elderly as well as in patients with certain disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, allergies, and regressive autism. It has been suggested that the bifidogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of strain-specific yet complementary carbohydrate degradation mechanisms within cooperating bifidobacterial consortia. Except for a bifidogenic effect, ITF and AXOS also have shown to cause a butyrogenic effect in the human colon, i.e., an enhancement of colon butyrate production. Butyrate is an essential metabolite in the human colon, as it is the preferred energy source for the colon epithelial cells, contributes to the maintenance of the gut barrier functions, and has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the butyrogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (clostridial cluster IV

  20. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap <60 μmol/g was an independent risk factor for postoperative infectious complications with an odds ratio of 15.6; 95% confidence interval 1.8-384.1. The preoperative fecal organic acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Maximizing the production of butyric acid from food waste as a precursor for ABE-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ullrich Heinz; Wimmer, B; Ortner, M; Fuchs, W; Bochmann, G

    2017-11-15

    The current study reports on the maximization of butyric acid production from food waste using a mixed microbial fermentation. In semi-continuous fermentations the effect of three different pH values (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0), three different temperatures (37°C, 55°C and 70°C) and two levels of hydraulic retention time (HRT, 2days and 6days) on the formation of butyric acid as well as total volatile fatty acid production (tVFA) were investigated. Overall, pH5.5 provided the lowest butyric acid concentrations regardless of the temperature and the HRT. At mesophilic temperature (37°C) alkaline conditions (pH9.0) lead to a strong incline of tVFA as well as butyric acid concentration probably due to a decreased solubilization of the substrate. However, most efficient in terms of butyric acid production was the fermentation conducted at 55°C and pH7 where a butyric acid concentrations of 10.55g/L (HRT 2days) and 13.00g/L (HRT 6days) were achieved. Additional experiments at 70°C showed declining butyric acid production. Increase of the HRT from 2days to 6days provided an increment of butyric acid concentration throughout almost all experimental settings. However, regarding volumetric productivity the increase in concentration does not compensate for the bigger reactor volume required to establish a higher HRT. At pH7 and 55°C the resulting volumetric production rates were 5.27g/L∗d at a HRT 2days and only 2.17g/L∗d at a HRT of 6days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Butyrate-producing bacteria, including mucin degraders, from the swine intestinal tract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate-producing microbes promote gastrointestinal health in the human gut, and similar benefits are likely derived from butyrate-producing microbes in other animal hosts. Consequently, there is considerable potential for butyrate-producing microbes to be utilized in health-promoting application...

  4. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran.

    PubMed

    Vaseji, N; Mojgani, N; Amirinia, C; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-06-01

    Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method. Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4°C. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test. The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2%) than in 211 samples (0.17%). These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples. Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life.

  5. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vaseji, N; Mojgani, N; Amirinia, C; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method. Materials and Methods Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4°C. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test. Results The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2%) than in 211 samples (0.17%). These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples. Conclusions Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life. PMID:22973475

  6. Hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw by a novel consolidated bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Antwi, Philip

    2018-04-01

    A novel consolidated bioprocess for hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw without exogenous enzymes involved was developed by co-fermentation of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess was approved by batch fermentations, with the optimum pH of 6.5. Fed-batch fermentation with a constant pH of 6.5 at 55 °C could enhance the butyric acid yield to a remarkable 33.9 g/L with a selectivity as high as 78%. Metabolic analysis of the co-culture indicated that sugars liberated by C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 were effectively converted to butyric acid by C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Secondary metabolism of C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875 also contributed to the hyper-production of butyric acid, resulting in the re-assimilation of by-products such as acetic acid and ethanol. This work provides a more effective fermentation process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass for future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain.

    PubMed

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-09-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l(-1) of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v(-1) ) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60-80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g(-1) of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9-1.0 g g(-1) of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  9. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. PMID:27822203

  10. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  11. Production of butyric acid from acid hydrolysate of corn husk in fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum: kinetics and process economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiping; Cheng, Chu; Bao, Teng; Liu, Lujie; Wang, Bin; Tao, Wenjing; Pei, Xun; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Minqi

    2018-01-01

    Butyric acid is an important chemical currently produced from petrochemical feedstocks. Its production from renewable, low-cost biomass in fermentation has attracted large attention in recent years. In this study, the feasibility of corn husk, an abundant agricultural residue, for butyric acid production by using Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was evaluated. Hydrolysis of corn husk (10% solid loading) with 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 at 110 °C for 6 h resulted in a hydrolysate containing ~ 50 g/L total reducing sugars (glucose:xylose = 1.3:1.0). The hydrolysate was used for butyric acid fermentation by C. tyrobutyricum in a FBB, which gave 42.6 and 53.0% higher butyric acid production from glucose and xylose, respectively, compared to free-cell fermentations. Fermentation with glucose and xylose mixture (1:1) produced 50.37 ± 0.04 g L -1 butyric acid with a yield of 0.38 ± 0.02 g g -1 and productivity of 0.34 ± 0.03 g L -1  h -1 . Batch fermentation with corn husk hydrolysate produced 21.80 g L -1 butyric acid with a yield of 0.39 g g -1 , comparable to those from glucose. Repeated-batch fermentations consistently produced 20.75 ± 0.65 g L -1 butyric acid with an average yield of 0.39 ± 0.02 g g -1 in three consecutive batches. An extractive fermentation process can be used to produce, separate, and concentrate butyric acid to > 30% (w/v) sodium butyrate at an economically attractive cost for application as an animal feed supplement. A high concentration of total reducing sugars at ~ 50% (w/w) yield was obtained from corn husk after acid hydrolysis. Stable butyric acid production from corn husk hydrolysate was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with C. tyrobutyricum immobilized in a FBB, demonstrating that corn husk can be used as an economical substrate for butyric acid production.

  12. Efficient production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Cai, Jin; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Lei; Yang, Shang-Tian; Xu, Zhinan

    2011-02-01

    Butyric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide industrial applications. The feasible large-scale fermentation for the economical production of butyric acid requires low-cost substrate and efficient process. In the present study, butyric acid production by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully performed in a fibrous-bed bioreactor using Jerusalem artichoke as the substrate. Repeated-batch fermentation was carried out to produce butyric acid with a high butyrate yield (0.44 g/g), high productivity (2.75 g/L/h) and a butyrate concentration of 27.5 g/L. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using sulfuric acid pretreated Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate resulted in a high butyric acid concentration of 60.4 g/L, with the yield of 0.38 g/g and the selectivity of ∼ 85.1 (85.1g butyric acid/g acetic acid). Thus, the production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke on a commercial scale could be achieved based on the system developed in this work. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Woo, Hee Moon; Im, Jung Ae; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and CoA-transferase were knocked out, was assessed for its potential as a butyric acid producer in fermentations with four controlled pH values at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.4. Butyric acid could be best produced by fermentation of the CEKW at pH 6.0, resulting in the highest titer of 26.6 g/l, which is 6.4 times higher than that obtained with the wild type. However, due to the remaining solventogenic ability of the CEKW, 3.6 g/l solvents were also produced. Thus, the CEKW was further engineered by knocking out the adhE1-encoding aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent solvent production. Batch fermentation of the resulting C. acetobutylicum HCEKW at pH 6.0 showed increased butyric acid production to 30.8 g/l with a ratio of butyric-to-acetic acid (BA/AA) of 6.6 g/g and a productivity of 0.72 g/l/h from 86.9 g/l glucose, while negligible solvent (0.8 g/l ethanol only) was produced. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. These results suggested that the simultaneous deletion of the pta-ctfB-adhE1 in C. acetobutylicum resulted in metabolic switch from biphasic to acidogenic fermentation, which enhanced butyric acid production.

  14. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  15. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  16. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, David E.; Yang, Shang-Tian

    prices as a chemical are at $3.00 per gallon – wholesaling in 55 gallon drums for $6.80, with a worldwide market of 1.4 billion gallon per year. The market demand is expected to increase dramatically since butanol can now be produced economically from low-cost biomass. Butanol’s application as a replacement for gasoline will outpace ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen when its safety and simplicity of use are seen. Butanol’s application for the Department of Defense as a clean-safe replacement for batteries when used in conjunction with fuel cell technology is seen as an application for the future. Disposable canisters made of PLA that carry butanol to be reformed and used to generate electricity for computers, night vision and stealth equipment can be easily disposed of. In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic and acetic acids are produced first by C. acetobutylicum; the culture then undergoes a metabolic shift and solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) are formed (Fond et al., 1985). In conventional ABE fermentations, the butanol yield from glucose is low, typically at ~15% (w/w) and rarely exceeds 25% (0.77–1.3 gallons per bushel corn respectfully). The production of butanol is also limited by severe product inhibition. Butanol at a concentration of 10 g/L can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation. Consequently, butanol titers in conventional ABE fermentations are usually lower than 13 g/L. The low butanol yield and butanol concentration made butanol production from glucose by ABE fermentation uneconomical.« less

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923).

    PubMed

    Wasels, François; Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-03-03

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. Copyright © 2016 Wasels et al.

  18. Antiproliferative effect of alkylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid on colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Molina, S; Moran-Valero, M I; Martin, D; Vázquez, L; Vargas, T; Torres, C F; Ramirez de Molina, A; Reglero, G

    2013-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic activity of synthetic 1-O-octadecyl-2,3-dibutyroilglycerol (D-SCAKG) in tumor-cell line of colonocytes (SW620) was performed. The effect of the previously digested D-SCAKG under in vitro intestinal conditions was compared to the bioactivity of non-digested D-SCAKG. Antiproliferative activity of each individual product from digestion (1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol; 1-O-octadecyl glycerol; butyric acid) was also performed. The impact of solubilization of lipid products within micellar structures was also tested. The 1-O-octadecyl glycerol was the most active compound, followed by 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol, D-SCAKG and butyric acid. The 1-O-octadecyl glycerol and butyric acid were the only molecules that showed antiproliferative effect in absence of micelles. Digested D-SCAKG was 4-fold more effective than non-digested D-SCAKG. A synergism between 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol was evidenced. As summary, the synthetic D-SCAKG seems to be an interesting antitumoral lipid against colonocytes, especially after previous intestinal digestion, and mainly due to the synergism of the major products, namely 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol. At the same time, 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol would constitute a stable esterified form of butyric acid for its vehiculization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  20. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Xi-Hong; Li, Xue-Hu; Xin, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Jia-Rong; Zhao, Mei-Rong; Wang, Liang; Du, Wen-Yue; Liang, Jian-Ping

    2014-02-18

    Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as a first step in a combined

  1. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uptake and metabolism of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Stuart M; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as an energy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism (s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.

  3. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production from glucose and xylose.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongxin; Yu, Le; Lin, Meng; Wang, Jufang; Xiu, Zhilong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a promising microorganism for butyric acid production. However, its ability to utilize xylose, the second most abundant sugar found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, CCR in C. tyrobutyricum was eliminated by overexpressing three heterologous xylose catabolism genes (xylT, xylA and xlyB) cloned from C. acetobutylicum. Compared to the parental strain, the engineered strain Ct-pTBA produced more butyric acid (37.8g/L vs. 19.4g/L) from glucose and xylose simultaneously, at a higher xylose utilization rate (1.28g/L·h vs. 0.16g/L·h) and efficiency (94.3% vs. 13.8%), resulting in a higher butyrate productivity (0.53g/L·h vs. 0.26g/L·h) and yield (0.32g/g vs. 0.28g/g). When the initial total sugar concentration was ~120g/L, both glucose and xylose utilization rates increased with increasing their respective concentration or ratio in the co-substrates but the total sugar utilization rate remained almost unchanged in the fermentation at pH 6.0. Decreasing the pH to 5.0 significantly decreased sugar utilization rates and butyrate productivity, but the effect was more pronounced for xylose than glucose. The addition of benzyl viologen (BV) as an artificial electron carrier facilitated the re-assimilation of acetate and increased butyrate production to a final titer of 46.4g/L, yield of 0.43g/g sugar consumed, productivity of 0.87g/L·h, and acid purity of 98.3% in free-cell batch fermentation, which were the highest ever reported for butyric acid fermentation. The engineered strain with BV addition thus can provide an economical process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the most promising microorganism used for the bio-production of butyric acid is Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T; however, it is unable to use sucrose as a sole carbon source. Consequently, a newly isolated strain, Bacillus sp. SGP1, that was found to produce a levansucrase enzyme, which hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose, was used in a co-culture with this strain, permitting C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to ferment sucrose to butyric acid. Results B. sp. SGP1 alone did not show any butyric acid production and the main metabolite produced was lactic acid. This allowed C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to utilize the monosaccharides resulting from the activity of levansucrase together with the lactic acid produced by B. sp. SGP1 to generate butyric acid, which was the main fermentative product within the co-culture. Furthermore, the final acetic acid concentration in the co-culture was significantly lower when compared with pure C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T cultures grown on glucose. In fed-batch fermentations, the optimum conditions for the production of butyric acid were around pH 5.50 and a temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions, the final butyrate concentration was 34.2±1.8 g/L with yields of 0.35±0.03 g butyrate/g sucrose and maximum productivity of 0.3±0.04 g/L/h. Conclusions Using this co-culture, sucrose can be utilized as a carbon source for butyric acid production at a relatively high yield. In addition, this co-culture offers also the benefit of a greater selectivity, with butyric acid constituting 92.8% of the acids when the fermentation was terminated. PMID:23452443

  5. Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Kim, Seil; Jeon, Byoung Seung; Um, Youngsoon; Mitchell, Robert J; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-03-04

    Currently, the most promising microorganism used for the bio-production of butyric acid is Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T; however, it is unable to use sucrose as a sole carbon source. Consequently, a newly isolated strain, Bacillus sp. SGP1, that was found to produce a levansucrase enzyme, which hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose, was used in a co-culture with this strain, permitting C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to ferment sucrose to butyric acid. B. sp. SGP1 alone did not show any butyric acid production and the main metabolite produced was lactic acid. This allowed C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to utilize the monosaccharides resulting from the activity of levansucrase together with the lactic acid produced by B. sp. SGP1 to generate butyric acid, which was the main fermentative product within the co-culture. Furthermore, the final acetic acid concentration in the co-culture was significantly lower when compared with pure C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T cultures grown on glucose. In fed-batch fermentations, the optimum conditions for the production of butyric acid were around pH 5.50 and a temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions, the final butyrate concentration was 34.2±1.8 g/L with yields of 0.35±0.03 g butyrate/g sucrose and maximum productivity of 0.3±0.04 g/L/h. Using this co-culture, sucrose can be utilized as a carbon source for butyric acid production at a relatively high yield. In addition, this co-culture offers also the benefit of a greater selectivity, with butyric acid constituting 92.8% of the acids when the fermentation was terminated.

  6. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin), high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin), or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and community richness (Chao1) index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  7. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin), high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin), or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and community richness (Chao1) index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota. PMID:29036231

  8. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  9. Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    McNabney, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:29231905

  10. Evolution of butyric acid and the methanogenic microbial population in a thermophilic dry anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Montero, B; Garcia-Morales, J L; Sales, D; Solera, R

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between the evolution of butyric acid, the main precursor of methane, and the methanogenic microbial population, quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), is important for understating and controlling the anaerobic digestion of solid waste. In this study, a statistical analysis has been made of this relationship in a laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) without recycling of biomass. The CSTR has been operated at four organic loading rates (OLR) between 4.42 and 7.50 kg VS m(-3)day(-1), using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) as the substrate. During the start-up stage, the consumption of butyric acid is related to the population of H(2)-utilising methanogens (R(2)=0.774), whereas in the stabilization stage, it is related to that of acetoclastic methanogens (R(2)=0.716). Therefore, it can be concluded that the methanogenic population dynamics are closely correlated with the concentration of volatile fatty acids, and in particular, with that of butyric acid. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proboscis Conditioning Experiments with Honeybees, Apis Mellifera Caucasica, with Butyric Acid and DEET Mixture as Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T. Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L.; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee. PMID:20879917

  12. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  13. Modulation of fecal Clostridiales bacteria and butyrate by probiotic intervention with Lactobacillus paracasei DG varies among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Chiara; Taverniti, Valentina; Milani, Christian; Fiore, Walter; Laureati, Monica; De Noni, Ivano; Stuknyte, Milda; Chouaia, Bessem; Riso, Patrizia; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-11-01

    The modulation of gut microbiota is considered to be the first target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. This study was conducted to determine the impact of a probiotic on the intestinal microbial ecology of healthy volunteers. High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota in healthy adults (23-55 y old) of both sexes, before and after 4 wk of daily consumption of a capsule containing at least 24 billion viable Lactobacillus paracasei DG cells, according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled design. Probiotic intake induced an increase in Proteobacteria (P = 0.006) and in the Clostridiales genus Coprococcus (P = 0.009), whereas the Clostridiales genus Blautia (P = 0.036) was decreased; a trend of reduction was also observed for Anaerostipes (P = 0.05) and Clostridium (P = 0.06). We also found that the probiotic effect depended on the initial butyrate concentration. In fact, participants with butyrate >100 mmol/kg of wet feces had a mean butyrate reduction of 49 ± 21% and a concomitant decrease in the sum of 6 Clostridiales genera, namely Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Anaerostipes, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Clostridium, and Butyrivibrio (P = 0.021), after the probiotic intervention. In contrast, in participants with initial butyrate concentrations <25 mmol/kg of wet feces, the probiotic contributed to a 329 ± 255% (mean ± SD) increment in butyrate concomitantly with an ∼55% decrease in Ruminococcus (P = 0.016) and a 150% increase in an abundantly represented unclassified Bacteroidales genus (P = 0.05). The intake of L. paracasei DG increased the Blautia:Coprococcus ratio, which, according to the literature, can potentially confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic impact on the microbiota and on short-chain fatty acids, however, seems to strictly depend on the initial characteristics of the intestinal microbial ecosystem. In particular, fecal butyrate concentrations

  14. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rumberger, John M.; Arch, Jonathan R.S.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM) increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 µM) also stimulated lipolysis to a similar extent as did butyrate. Western blot data suggested that neither mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation nor perilipin down-regulation are necessary for SCFA-induced lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis with butyrate and trichostatin A was glucose-dependent. Changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation mediated by glucose were independent of changes in rates of lipolysis. The glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate prevented both butyrate- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-(TNF-α) mediated increases in rates of lipolysis indicating glucose metabolism is required. However, unlike TNF-α– , butyrate-stimulated lipolysis was not associated with increased lactate release or inhibited by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) with dichloroacetate. These data demonstrate an important relationship between lipolytic activity and reported HDAC inhibitory activity of butyrate, other short-chain fatty acids and trichostatin A. Given that HDAC inhibitors are presently being evaluated for the treatment of diabetes and other disorders, more work will be essential to determine if these effects on lipolysis are due to inhibition of HDAC. PMID:25320679

  16. Control of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broilers by target-released butyric acid, fatty acids and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Timbermont, L; Lanckriet, A; Dewulf, J; Nollet, N; Schwarzer, K; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of target-released butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids (C(6) to C(12) but mainly lauric acid) and essential oils (thymol, cinnamaldehyde, essential oil of eucalyptus) micro-encapsulated in a poly-sugar matrix to control necrotic enteritis was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the different additives were determined in vitro, showing that lauric acid, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde are very effective in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium perfringens. The in vivo effects were studied in two trials in an experimental necrotic enteritis model in broiler chickens. In the first trial, four groups of chickens were fed a diet supplemented with butyric acid, with essential oils, with butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids, or with butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids and essential oils. In all groups except for the group receiving only butyric acid, a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions was found compared with the infected, untreated control group. In the second trial the same products were tested but at a higher concentration. An additional group was fed a diet supplemented with only medium-chain fatty acids. In all groups except for that receiving butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids and essential oils, a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions was found compared with the infected, untreated control group. These results suggest that butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids and/or essential oils may contribute to the prevention of necrotic enteritis in broilers.

  17. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have “anti-obesity properties” by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26167409

  18. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have "anti-obesity properties" by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Butyric acid attenuates intestinal inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis model via milk fat globule-EGF factor 8.

    PubMed

    Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Otani, Aya; Ansary, Md Mesbah Uddin; Tongu, Miki; Harashima, Nanae; Yamada, Takaya; Sato, Shuichi; Amano, Yuji; Itoh, Kazuhito; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid and one of the main metabolites of intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been shown to have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, while it also has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms underlying those effects have not been fully identified. We exposed colonic epithelial cells to butyric acid, then extracted total RNA samples, and subsequently hybridized them to microarray chips. Among the upregulated genes, milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) was elevated by approximately fivefold. We previously reported that the potential therapeutic benefits of MFG-E8 in intestinal tissue injury were dependent not only on enhanced clearance of apoptotic cells but also required diverse cellular events for maintaining epithelial integrity. The influence of butyric acid on cell function is often attributed to its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). We found that acetylation on histone 3 lysine 9 (acetyl-H3K9) around the MFG-E8 promoter was significantly increased with butyric acid exposure. Experimental colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in C57BL/6N (MFG-E8+/+) and MFG-E8-/- mice. Although the colonic bacterial compositions in wild-type (WT) and MFG-E8-/- mice were not significantly different, intrarectal administration of butyric acid during an acute phase of colitis attenuated intestinal inflammatory parameters and inhibited body weight loss in the WT mice. Our novel findings suggest that butyric acid has significant anti-inflammatory effects partly via MFG-E8 on DSS-induced murine experimental colitis.

  20. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  1. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates oxidative stress and protects human gingival fibroblasts against cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide and butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Zgorzynska, Emilia; Wierzbicka-Ferszt, Anita; Dziedzic, Barbara; Witusik-Perkowska, Monika; Zwolinska, Anna; Janas, Anna; Walczewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative burst of the host cells associated with bacterial pathogen infection contributes to the destruction of periodontal tissue. The present study investigates the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) viability and ROS generation. The cell viability by MTT assay, ROS level using H2DCF-DA probe, and protein thiol content were measured in HGFs after 24h preincubation with different concentrations of DHA followed by treatment with H2O2. The cell death rate was determined by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was examined by MitoTracker Red probe in H2O2- and butyric acid-treated HGFs. The fatty acid composition of plasma membranes after incubation with DHA was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. DHA preincubation in a dose-dependent manner increased the viability of HGFs exposed to H2O2 and decreased ROS generation compared to the control cells. In HGFs preincubated with 30μM DHA, the ΔΨm significantly increased in both H2O2- and butyric acid-treated cells. Moreover, incubation with DHA preserved the protein thiol level as effectively as N-acetylcysteine. Application of 50μM DHA increased the quantity of viable cells, decreased the number of necrotic cells after H2O2 treatment, and protected HGFs from apoptosis induced by butyric acid. DHA in the plasma membranes of these HGFs represented about 6% of the total amount of fatty acids. These results demonstrate that enrichment of HGFs with DHA reduces ROS generation and enhances the mitochondrial membrane potential protecting the fibroblasts against cytotoxic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of C/N ratio for butyric acid production from textile wastewater sludge by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Jinfeng; Wang, Jin; Liu, He

    2012-01-01

    Increasing textile wastewaters and their biotreatment byproduct-waste activated sludge are serious pollution problems. Butyric acid production from textile wastewater sludge by anaerobic digestion at different C/N ratios was investigated. Adding starch to textile wastewater sludge with a C/N ratio of 30 increased the butyric acid concentration and percentage accounting for total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) to 21.42 g/L and 81.5%, respectively, as compared with 21.42 g/L and 10.6% of textile wastewater sludge alone. The maximum butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g VS), conversion rate (0.74 g/g VS(digest)) and production rate (2.25 g/L d) was achieved at a C/N ratio of 30. The biological toxicity of textile wastewater sludge also significantly decreased after the anaerobic digestion. The study indicated that the anaerobic co-digestion of textile wastewater sludge and carbohydrate-rich waste with appropriate C/N ratio is possible for butyric acid production.

  4. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  5. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  8. Genetic analysis of indole-3-butyric acid responses in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals four mutant classes.

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, B K; Yoder, A; Bartel, B

    2000-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is widely used in agriculture because it induces rooting. To better understand the in vivo role of this endogenous auxin, we have identified 14 Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to the inhibitory effects of IBA on root elongation, but that remain sensitive to the more abundant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). These mutants have defects in various IBA-mediated responses, which allowed us to group them into four phenotypic classes. Developmental defects in the absence of exogenous sucrose suggest that some of these mutants are impaired in peroxisomal fatty acid chain shortening, implying that the conversion of IBA to IAA is also disrupted. Other mutants appear to have normal peroxisomal function; some of these may be defective in IBA transport, signaling, or response. Recombination mapping indicates that these mutants represent at least nine novel loci in Arabidopsis. The gene defective in one of the mutants was identified using a positional approach and encodes PEX5, which acts in the import of most peroxisomal matrix proteins. These results indicate that in Arabidopsis thaliana, IBA acts, at least in part, via its conversion to IAA. PMID:11063705

  9. Phosphatidic Acid Synthesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane phospholipid synthesis is a vital facet of bacterial physiology. Although the spectrum of phospholipid headgroup structures produced by bacteria is large, the key precursor to all of these molecules is phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Glycerol-3-phosphate derived from the glycolysis via glycerol-phosphate synthase is the universal source for the glycerol backbone of PtdOH. There are two distinct families of enzymes responsible for the acylation of the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate. The PlsB acyltransferase was discovered in Escherichia coli, and homologs are present in many eukaryotes. This protein family primarily uses acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) endproducts of fatty acid synthesis as acyl donors, but may also use acyl-CoA derived from exogenous fatty acids. The second protein family, PlsY, is more widely distributed in bacteria and utilizes the unique acyl donor, acyl-phosphate, which is produced from acyl-ACP by the enzyme PlsX. The acylation of the 2-position is carried out by members of the PlsC protein family. All PlsCs use acyl-ACP as the acyl donor, although the PlsCs of the γ-proteobacteria also may use acyl-CoA. Phospholipid headgroups are precursors in the biosynthesis of other membrane-associated molecules and the diacylglycerol product of these reactions is converted to PtdOH by one of two distinct families of lipid kinases. The central importance of the de novo and recycling pathways to PtdOH in cell physiology suggest these enzymes are suitable targets for the development of antibacterial therapeutics in Gram-positive pathogens. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22981714

  10. Enhanced extraction of butyric acid under high-pressure CO2 conditions to integrate chemical catalysis for value-added chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jaesung; Choi, Okkyoung; Sang, Byoung-In

    2018-01-01

    Extractive fermentation with the removal of carboxylic acid requires low pH conditions because acids are better partitioned into the solvent phase at low pH values. However, this requirement conflicts with the optimal near-neutral pH conditions for microbial growth. CO 2 pressurization was used, instead of the addition of chemicals, to decrease pH for the extraction of butyric acid, a fermentation product of Clostridium tyrobutyricum , and butyl butyrate was selected as an extractant. CO 2 pressurization (50 bar) improved the extraction efficiency of butyric acid from a solution at pH 6, yielding a distribution coefficient ( D ) 0.42. In situ removal of butyric acid during fermentation increased the production of butyric acid by up to 4.10 g/L h, an almost twofold increase over control without the use of an extraction process. In situ extraction of butyric acid using temporal CO 2 pressurization may be applied to an integrated downstream catalytic process for upgrading butyric acid to value-added chemicals in an organic solvent.

  11. Elevated propionate and butyrate in fecal ferments of hydrolysates generated by oxalic acid treatment of corn bran arabinoxylan.

    PubMed

    Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Reuhs, Brad L; Cantu-Jungles, Thaisa M; Kaur, Amandeep; Patterson, John A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2016-12-07

    Previous work in our laboratory showed that alkali-solubilized corn arabinoxylan (CAX) has a slow initial, but later complete, in vitro human fecal fermentation. CAX and a moderately high molecular weight hydrolysate (CH) were propiogenic, and produced low levels of butyrate. Here, we show that oxalic acid-generated hydrolysates from CAX, which include a large xylooligosaccharide, and free arabinose fractions, increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, which included relatively high levels of both propionate and butyrate, an unusual SCFA combination. Hydrolytic degradation of CAX by acid hydrolysis (0.05 M oxalic acid at 100 °C for 2 h) and subsequent graded ethanol precipitations were used to obtain mixtures with different molecular weight ranges. Ethanol-precipitated fractions (F 0-65%, F 65-75%, F 75-85%) were mostly lower than 100 kDa and F > 85% was composed of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides of DP 2-8. Oxalic acid treatment caused the removal of all single arabinose unit branch chains and some di/trisaccharide branch chains, producing lightly substituted xylan backbone fragments, most of which were in the oligosaccharide (DP < 10) size range. In vitro human fecal fermentation analyses showed all oxalic acid-hydrolysate fractions were slower fermenting than fructooligosaccharides (FOS), but produced similar or higher amounts of total SCFAs. Butyrate production in two hydrolyzate fractions was double that of CH, while propionate levels remained relatively high.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity. PMID:26770185

  14. Butyric acid released during milk lipolysis triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Pasvolsky, Ronit; Zakin, Varda; Ostrova, Ievgeniia; Shemesh, Moshe

    2014-07-02

    Bacillus species form biofilms within milking pipelines and on surfaces of equipment in the dairy industry which represent a continuous hygiene problem and can lead to serious economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. Although much is known about the mechanism by which the model organism Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in laboratory mediums in vitro, little is known of how these biofilms are formed in natural environments such as milk. Besides, little is known of the signaling pathways leading to biofilm formation in other Bacillus species, such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis, both of which are known to contaminate milk. In this study, we report that milk triggers the formation of biofilm-related structures, termed bundles. We show this to be a conserved phenomenon among all Bacillus members tested. Moreover, we demonstrate that the tasA gene, which encodes a major portion of the matrix which holds the biofilm together, is vital for this process. Furthermore, we show that the free fatty acid (FFA) - butyric acid (BA), which is released during lipolysis of milk fat and demonstrates antimicrobial activity, is the potent trigger for biofilm bundle formation. We finally show that BA-triggered biofilm bundle formation is mediated by the histidine kinase, KinD. Taken together, these observations indicate that BA, which is a major FFA within milk triggers biofilm formation in a conserved mechanism among members of the Bacillus genus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r 2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  16. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  17. Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-07-25

    The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; themore » reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.« less

  18. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  19. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  20. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  1. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  2. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  3. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in butanol production, we investigated the correlation between undissociated butyric acid concentration and specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum by comparing three pH control approaches: NaOH neutralization (at 12, 24 or 36 h), CaCO3 supplementation (2, 5, or 8 g/l) and NaOAc buffering (pH 4.6, 5.0 or 5.6). By neutralizing the fermentation pH to ~5.0 at different time, we observed that neutralization should take place at the beginning of exponential phase (12 h), and otherwise resulting in lower concentrations of undissociated butyric acid, cell biomass and final butanol. CaCO3 supplementation extended cell growth to 36 h and resulted in higher butyrate yield under 8 g/L of CaCO3. In the NaOAc buffering, the highest specific butanol rate (0.58 h−1) was associated with the highest undissociated butyric acid (1.92 g/L). The linear correlation of the undissociated butyric acid with the specific butanol production rates suggested the undissociated butyric acid could be the major driving force for butanol production. PMID:23294525

  5. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuepeng; Tu, Maobing; Xie, Rui; Adhikari, Sushil; Tong, Zhaohui

    2013-01-07

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in butanol production, we investigated the correlation between undissociated butyric acid concentration and specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum by comparing three pH control approaches: NaOH neutralization (at 12, 24 or 36 h), CaCO3 supplementation (2, 5, or 8 g/l) and NaOAc buffering (pH 4.6, 5.0 or 5.6). By neutralizing the fermentation pH to ~5.0 at different time, we observed that neutralization should take place at the beginning of exponential phase (12 h), and otherwise resulting in lower concentrations of undissociated butyric acid, cell biomass and final butanol. CaCO3 supplementation extended cell growth to 36 h and resulted in higher butyrate yield under 8 g/L of CaCO3. In the NaOAc buffering, the highest specific butanol rate (0.58 h-1) was associated with the highest undissociated butyric acid (1.92 g/L). The linear correlation of the undissociated butyric acid with the specific butanol production rates suggested the undissociated butyric acid could be the major driving force for butanol production.

  6. Butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum overexpressing Class I heat shock protein GroESL.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Fu, Hongxin; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2018-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and renewable substrate for biological fermentation, but the inhibitors present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates could severely inhibit the cell growth and productivity of industrial strains. This study confirmed that overexpressing of native groESL in Clostridium tyrobutyricum could significantly improve its tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors, especially for phenolic compounds. Consequently, ATCC 25755/groESL showed a better performance in butyric acid fermentation with hydrolysates of corn cob, corn straw, rice straw, wheat straw, soybean hull and soybean straw, respectively. When corn straw and rice straw hydrolysates, which showed strong toxicity to C. tyrobutyricum, were used as the substrates, 29.6 g/L and 30.1 g/L butyric acid were obtained in batch fermentation, increased by 26.5% and 19.4% as compared with the wild-type strain, respectively. And more importantly, the butyric acid productivity reached 0.31 g/L·h (vs. 0.20-0.21 g/L·h for the wild-type strain) due to the shortened lag phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence and in Vivo Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Corn (Zea mays L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Epstein, Ephraim

    1991-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was identified as an endogenous compound in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) var Inrakorn by thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its presence was also confirmed in the variety Hazera 224. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was metabolized to IBA in vivo by seedlings of the two maize varieties. The reaction product was identified by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after incubating the corn seedlings with [14C]IAA and [13C6]IAA. The in vivo conversion of IAA to IBA and the characteristics of IBA formation in two different maize varieties of Zea mays L. (Hazera 224 and Inrakorn) were investigated. IBA-forming activity was examined in the roots, leaves, and coleoptiles of both maize varieties. Whereas in the variety Hazera 224, IBA was formed mostly in the leaves, in the variety Inrakorn, IBA synthesis was detected in the roots as well as in the leaves. A time course study of IBA formation showed that maximum activity was reached in Inrakorn after 1 hour and in Hazera after 2 hours. The pH optimum for the uptake of IAA was 6.0, and that for IBA formation was 7.0. The Km value for IBA formation was 17 micromolar for Inrakorn and 25 micromolar for Hazera 224. The results are discussed with respect to the possible functions of IBA in the plant. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:16668464

  8. γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) level as an overall survival risk factor in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Anna; Burdan, Franciszek; Duma, Dariusz; Solski, Janusz; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2017-09-21

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important role in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of GABA in breast cancer, in relation to clinical and epidemiological data. The study was conducted on 89 patients with breast cancer in stage I-II. GABA level was assessed using spectrofluorometric method in tumour homogenates. Immunoexpression of E-cadherin was evaluated histologically on paraffin fixed specimens. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed for a 15-year interval period. Median overall survival was significantly longer (127.2 months) in patients with a high level of GABA (>89.3 μg/1), compared with a group with a low level of the amino acid (106.4 months). Disease-free survival was insignificantly different - 99 and 109 months, respectively. A significantly longer overall survival (131.2 months) was seen among patients with a high level of GABA and positive E-cadherin immunoexpression, compared with a group characterized by a low level of GABA and lack of E-cadherin immunorectivity (98.1 months). The co-existence of negative immunoexpression of E-cadherin and low GABA concentration resulted in a six-fold increase in the risk of death (HR=6.03). GABA has a significant prognostic value in breast cancer. Co-existence of a low level of GABA and loss of E-cadherin immune-expression seems to be a new, independent, and negative prognostic marker of the neoplasm.

  9. Effects of butyric acid and arsenic on isolated pancreatic islets and liver mitochondria of male mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Rezae, Mohsen; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Alboghobeish, Soheila; Zeinvand, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different doses of Butyric acid (BA) and Arsenic (As) in liver mitochondria oxidative stress and pancreatic islet insulin secretion of male mouse. Background: BA is found in many foods and As as a toxic metal is present in drinking water. They can induce oxidative stress in tissues. Methods: In this experimental study, Liver mitochondria were isolated by administration of the different centrifugation method and pancreatic islets were isolated by collagenase method. Mitochondria were incubated by BA (35, 75, 150, 300 μM) and As (20, 50, 100, 200 μM) as the islets were incubated by BA (250, 500, 1000, 1500 μM) and As (50, 100, 200 μM) for 1 hour. At the end of the experiment, mitochondrial viability and membrane potential, ROS, MDA, GSH and islets insulin secretion were measured by their specific methods. Results: BA and As administration increased mitochondrial levels of ROS, MDA and decreased GSH and pancreatic islet insulin secretion in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05). The doses of BA 75μM and As 100μM have been revealed the most mitochondria toxic concentrations. Also, the doses of 1000μM for BA and 100μM for As were considered as reducing concentrations for islets insulin secretion. Additionally, co administration of them intensified more these effects Conclusion: Alone or in combination administration of BA and As induced oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and decreased insulin secretion of pancreatic islets. PMID:28331564

  10. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO 2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C 2–C 4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO 2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO 2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au 2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO 2.more » Infrared measurements of Au 2C=C=O formation as a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.« less

  11. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO 2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    DOE PAGES

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; ...

    2014-12-12

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C 2–C 4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO 2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO 2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au 2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO 2.more » Infrared measurements of Au 2C=C=O formation as a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.« less

  12. Butyrate influences intracellular levels of adenine and adenine derivatives in the fungus Penicillium restrictum.

    PubMed

    Zutz, Christoph; Chiang, Yi Ming; Faehnrich, Bettina; Bacher, Markus; Hellinger, Roland; Kluger, Bernhard; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Butyrate, a small fatty acid, has an important role in the colon of ruminants and mammalians including the inhibition of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation. There is also growing evidence that butyrate is influencing the histone structure in mammalian cells by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Butyrate shows furthermore an antimicrobial activity against fungi, yeast and bacteria, which is linked to its toxicity at a high concentration. In fungi there are indications that butyrate induces the production of secondary metabolites potentially via inhibition of histone deacetylases. However, information about the influence of butyrate on growth, primary metabolite production and metabolism, besides lipid catabolism, in fungi is scarce. We have identified the filamentous fungus Penicillium (P.) restrictum as a susceptible target for butyrate treatment in an antimicrobial activity screen. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in the mycelium of the butyrate treated culture. We investigated the effect of butyrate ranging from low (0.001mM) to high (30mM), potentially toxic, concentrations on biomass and antimicrobial activity. Butyrate at high concentrations (3 and 30mM) significantly reduced the fungal biomass. In contrast P. restrictum treated with 0.03mM of butyrate showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We isolated three antimicrobial active compounds, active against Staphylococcus aureus, from P. restrictum cellular extracts treated with butyrate: adenine, its derivate hypoxanthine and the nucleoside derivate adenosine. Production of all three compounds was increased at low butyrate concentrations. Furthermore we found that butyrate influences the intracellular level of the adenine nucleoside derivate cAMP, an important signalling molecule in fungi and various organisms. In conclusion butyrate treatment increases the intracellular levels of adenine and its respective derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  14. Indole-3-butyric acid induces lateral root formation via peroxisome-derived indole-3-acetic acid and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Markus; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Burbach, Christian; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    2013-10-01

    Controlled plant growth requires regulation through a variety of signaling molecules, including steroids, peptides, radicals of oxygen and nitrogen, as well as the 'classical' phytohormone groups. Auxin is critical for the control of plant growth and also orchestrates many developmental processes, such as the formation of new roots. It modulates root architecture both slowly, through actions at the transcriptional level and, more rapidly, by mechanisms targeting primarily plasma membrane sensory systems and intracellular signaling pathways. The latter reactions use several second messengers, including Ca(2+) , nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the different roles of two auxins, the major auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and another endogenous auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in the lateral root formation process of Arabidopsis and maize. This was mainly analyzed by different types of fluorescence microscopy and inhibitors of NO production. This study revealed that peroxisomal IBA to IAA conversion is followed by peroxisomal NO, which is important for IBA-induced lateral root formation. We conclude that peroxisomal NO emerges as a new player in auxin-induced root organogenesis. In particular, the spatially and temporally coordinated release of NO and IAA from peroxisomes is behind the strong promotion of lateral root formation via IBA. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. Propionic and butyric acids, formed in the caecum of rats fed highly fermentable dietary fibre, are reflected in portal and aortic serum.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Jädert, Cecilia; Holm, Lena; Nyman, Margareta E

    2013-11-14

    SCFA are important end products formed during colonic fermentation of dietary fibre (DF). It has been suggested that propionic and butyric acids affect metabolic parameters, low-grade systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the various SCFA profiles observed after fermentation in the caecum of rats fed pectin, guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were also represented in hepatic portal and aortic serum. The SCFA in serum were extracted using hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane extraction before GLC analysis. The concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in caecal content correlated well with those in portal serum (P< 0·001) for all the three diets. A weaker correlation was found for propionic and butyric acids between the caecal content and aortic serum (P< 0·05). Butyric acid concentration in caecal content was also reflected in the aortic serum (P= 0·019) of rats fed FOS. FOS gave rather low amounts of the SCFA, especially butyric acid, but caecal tissue weight was higher with FOS than with the other two diets. This may be explained by rapid fermentation and quick utilisation/absorption of the SCFA. The present study also showed that propionic acid was metabolised/utilised to a higher extent than butyric acid by colonocytes before reaching the liver. We conclude that the formation of propionic and butyric acids in the caecum is reflected by increased concentrations in the aortic blood. This approach may therefore simplify the evaluation and study of SCFA from DF in human subjects.

  17. Butyric Acid- and Dimethyl Disulfide-Assimilating Microorganisms in a Biofilter Treating Air Emissions from a Livestock Facility▿

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from “heavy” DNA from [13C4]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments. PMID:22003018

  18. Butyric acid- and dimethyl disulfide-assimilating microorganisms in a biofilter treating air emissions from a livestock facility.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H; Neufeld, Josh D; Nielsen, Jeppe L

    2011-12-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from "heavy" DNA from [(13)C(4)]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments.

  19. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive genemore » loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.« less

  1. Electronic properties of electron-doped [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and silylmethylfullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, Sho; Okada, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    Electronic properties of electron-doped chemically decorated C60 fullerenes, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and silylmethylfullerene (SIMEF), by a planar electrode were studied using density functional theory combined with the effective screening medium method to simulate the heterointerface between the chemically decorated C60 and cationic counter materials. We find that the distribution of accumulated electrons and induced electric field depend on the molecular arrangement with respect to the external electric field of the electrode. We also show that the quantum capacitance of the molecule is sensitive to molecular arrangement owing to the asymmetric distribution of the accumulated electrons.

  2. A survey on anticancer effects of artemisinin, iron, miconazole, and butyric acid on 5637 (bladder cancer) and 4T1 (Breast cancer) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Zare, Payman; Ranjbaran, Mehrdad; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Fakhri, Omid; Farshi, Yashar; Shadi, Sahar; Khoshkerdar, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties of artemisinin and its derivatives have been shown in many experiments. Addition of butyric acid, miconazole, and iron to this traditional drug has been done in order to enhance its anticancer potency. Cell lines 5637 and 4T1, were cultivated and classified into 13 groups of three each. Different doses of artemisinin with constant doses of iron, miconazole and butyric acid, were added to the cultures. At the end of exposure pathological and enzymatic studies were performed. In four groups treated with different doses of artemisinin and iron, dose-dependent changes were observed. These changes included apoptosis and necrosis with dominance of apoptosis. The supernatant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no significant increase in the cell fraction of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) or LDH. In four other groups, which received miconazole, butyric acid and iron in addition to different doses of artemisinin, necrosis was more prominent than apoptosis, and the MDA level did not show any significant change, but LDH was increased. The groups treated with miconazole showed identical changes, with less severity compared to combination therapy groups. In butyric acid-treated groups, the only detectable changes were, mild cell swelling, few apoptosis, and rare necrosis. A combination therapy with artemisinin can be more effective against cancer cells than monotherapy with that. Butyric acid was not effective on cancer cells. Miconazole deviated the nature of cell death from apoptosis to necrosis and it must be used under caution.

  3. Comparison of the effects of high energy carbon heavy ion irradiation and Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. on biosynthesis butyric acid efficiency in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Shu-Yang; Lu, Xi-Hong; Liang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of butyric acid. In this work, using high-energy carbon heavy ion irradiated C. tyrobutyricum, then butyric acid fermentation using glucose or alkali and acid pretreatments of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. as a carbon source was carried out. Initially, the modes at pH 5.7-6.5 and 37°C were compared using a model medium containing glucose as a carbon source. When the 72gL(-1) glucose concentration was found to be the highest yield, the maximum butyric acid production from glucose increased significantly, from 24gL(-1) for the wild type strains to 37gL(-1) for the strain irradiated at 126AMeV and a dose of 35Gy and a 10(7)ions/pulse. By feeding 100gL(-1) acid pretreatments of E. ulmoides Oliv. into the fermentations, butyrate yields (5.8gL(-1)) and butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio (4.32) were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Destructive effects of butyrate on the cell envelope of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Zaman, Cynthia; Woo, Timothy Derk Hoong; Takahashi, Motomichi; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can be found in the oral cavity and is mostly detected by the use of PCR techniques. Growth of H. pylori is influenced by various factors in the mouth, such as the oral microflora, saliva and other antimicrobial substances, all of which make colonization of the oral cavity by H. pylori difficult. In the present study, we analysed the effect of the cell supernatant of a representative periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis on H. pylori and found that the cell supernatant destroyed the H. pylori cell envelope. As P. gingivalis produces butyric acid, we focused our research on the effects of butyrate and found that it significantly inhibited the growth of H. pylori. H. pylori cytoplasmic proteins and DNA were detected in the extracellular environment after treatment with butyrate, suggesting that the integrity of the cell envelope was compromised and indicating that butyrate has a bactericidal effect on H. pylori. In addition, levels of extracellular H. pylori DNA increased following treatment with the cell supernatant of butyric acid-producing bacteria, indicating that the cell supernatant also has a bactericidal effect and that this may be due to its butyric acid content. In conclusion, butyric acid-producing bacteria may play a role in affecting H. pylori colonization of the oral cavity.

  5. Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Ronèl; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Bezuidenhout, Johannes J.; Kotzé, Johannes M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from plant surfaces and plant-associated products, were found to be antagonistic to test strains of the phytopathogens Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. Effective “in vitro” inhibition was found both on agar plates and in broth cultures. In pot trials, treatment of bean plants with a Lactobacillus plantarum strain before inoculation with P. syringae caused a significant reduction of the disease incidence. Images PMID:16347150

  6. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  7. The interaction of propionic and butyric acids with ice and HNO₃-doped ice surfaces at 195-212 K.

    PubMed

    Romanias, Manolis N; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos

    2014-12-04

    The interaction of propionic and butyric acids on ice and HNO3-doped ice were studied between 195 and 212 K and low concentrations, using a Knudsen flow reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial uptake coefficients (γ0) of propionic and butyric acids on ice as a function of temperature are given by the expressions: γ0(T) = (7.30 ± 1.0) × 10(-10) exp[(3216 ± 478)/T] and γ0(T) = (6.36 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) exp[(3810 ± 434)/T], respectively; the quoted error limits are at 95% level of confidence. Similarly, γ0 of propionic acid on 1.96 wt % (A) and 7.69 wt % (B) HNO3-doped ice with temperature are given as γ(0,A)(T) = (2.89 ± 0.26) × 10(-8) exp[(2517 ± 266)/T] and γ(0,B)(T) = (2.77 ± 0.29) × 10(-7) exp[(2126 ± 206)/T], respectively. The results show that γ0 of C1 to C4 n-carboxylic acids on ice increase with the alkyl-group length, due to lateral interactions between alkyl-groups that favor a more perpendicular orientation and well packing of H-bonded monomers on ice. The high uptakes (>10(15) molecules cm(-2)) and long recovery signals indicate efficient growth of random multilayers above the first monolayer driven by significant van der Waals interactions. The heterogeneous loss of both acids on ice and HNO3-doped ice particles in dense cirrus clouds is estimated to take a few minutes, signifying rapid local heterogeneous removal by dense cirrus clouds.

  8. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High butyric acid amounts induce oxidative stress, alter calcium homeostasis, and cause neurite retraction in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Kamio, Noriaki; Seki, Keisuke; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-07-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite by-product produced by oral pathogenic bacteria and is detected in high amounts in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontal disease. Previous works have demonstrated that BA can cause oxidative stress in various cell types; however, this was never explored using neuronal cells. Here, we exposed nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC1(2) cells to varying BA concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM). We measured total heme, H(2)O(2), catalase, and calcium levels through biochemical assays and visualized the neurite outgrowth after BA treatment. Similarly, we determined the effects of other common periodontal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on neurite outgrowth for comparison. We found that high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA concentrations induced oxidative stress and altered calcium homeostasis, whereas low (0.5 mM) BA concentration had no significant effect. Moreover, compared to other SCFAs, we established that only BA was able to induce neurite retraction.

  10. Erythroid differentiation ability of butyric acid analogues: identification of basal chemical structures of new inducers of foetal haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Amari, Gabriele; Delcanale, Maurizio; Chiavilli, Francesco; Prus, Eugenia; Fibach, Eitan; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-04-05

    Several investigations have demonstrated a mild clinical status in patients with β-globin disorders and congenital high persistence of foetal haemoglobin. This can be mimicked by a pharmacological increase of foetal γ-globin genes expression and foetal haemoglobin production. Our goal was to apply a multistep assay including few screening methods (benzidine staining, RT-PCR and HPLC analyses) and erythroid cellular model systems (the K562 cell line and erythroid precursors collected from peripheral blood) to select erythroid differentiation agents with foetal haemoglobin inducing potential. With this methodology, we have identified a butyric acid derivative, namely the 4174 cyclopropanecarboxylic acid compound, able to induce erythroid differentiation without antiproliferative effect in K562 cells and increase of γ-globin gene expression in erythroid precursor cells. The results are relevant for pharmacological treatments of haemoglobinopathies, including β-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase diagrams for the system water/butyric acid/propylene carbonate at T = 293.2-313.2 K and p = 101.3 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarsaraee, Sina; Nahzomi, Hossein Taherpour; Nasiri-Touli, Elham

    2017-11-01

    Phase diagrams for the system water/butyric acid/propylene carbonate were plotted at T = 293.2, 303.2, 313.2 K and p = 101.3 kPa. Acidimetric titration and refractive index methods were used to determine tie-line data. Solubility data revealed that the studied system exhibits type-1 behavior of liquid-liquid equilibrium. The experimental data were regressed and acceptably correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. As a result, propylene carbonate is a suitable separating agent for aqueous mixture of butyric acid.

  12. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid amounts locally administered in the rat gingival mucosa induce ER stress in the systemic blood.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Saito, Yuko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    Periodontal diseases have long been postulated to contribute to systemic diseases and, likewise, it has been proposed that periodontal disease treatment may ameliorate certain systemic diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are major secondary metabolites produced by oral anaerobic bacteria and, among the SCFAs, butyric acid (BA) in high amounts contribute to periodontal disease development. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid (PDL-BA) is found among patients suffering from periodontal disease and has previously shown to induce oxidative stress, whereas, oxidative stress is correlated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This would imply that PDL-BA may likewise stimulate ER stress, however, this was never elucidated. A better understanding of the correlation between PDL-BA and systemic ER stress stimulation could shed light on the possible systemic effects of PDL-BA-related periodontal diseases. Here, PDL-BA was injected into the gingival mucosa and the systemic blood obtained from the rat jugular was collected at 0, 15, 60, and 180 min post-injection. Collected blood samples were purified and only the blood cytosol was used throughout this study. Subsequently, we measured blood cytosolic GADD153, Ca(2+), representative apoptotic and inflammatory caspases, and NF-κB amounts. We found that PDL-BA presence increased blood cytosolic GADD153 and Ca(2+) amounts. Moreover, we observed that blood cytosolic caspases and NF-κB were activated only at 60 and 180 min post-injection in the rat gingival mucosa. This suggests that PDL-BA administered through the gingival mucosa may influence the systemic blood via ER stress stimulation and, moreover, prolonged PDL-BA retention in the gingival mucosa may play a significant role in ER stress-related caspase and NF-κB activation. In a periodontal disease scenario, we propose that PDL-BA-related ER stress stimulation leading to the simultaneous activation of apoptosis and inflammation may contribute to periodontal disease

  13. Comparative In silico Analysis of Butyrate Production Pathways in Gut Commensals and Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Anand, Swadha; Kaur, Harrisham; Mande, Sharmila S

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals. The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine) which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria ( Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio , and commensal species of Clostridia etc) ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate) and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens ( Porphyromonas and Filifactor ) which showed presence of pyruvate as well as

  14. Hyper-thermal acid hydrolysis and adsorption treatment of red seaweed, Gelidium amansii for butyric acid production with pH control.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2017-03-01

    Optimal hyper-thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis conditions for Gelidium amansii were determined to be 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content and 144 mM H 2 SO 4 at 150 °C for 10 min. HT acid hydrolysis-treated G. amansii hydrolysates produced low concentrations of inhibitory compounds and adsorption treatment using 3% activated carbon. An adsorption time of 5 min was subsequently used to remove the inhibitory 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the medium. A final maximum monosaccharide concentration of 44.6 g/L and 79.1% conversion from 56.4 g/L total fermentable monosaccharides with 120 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained from HT acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification, and adsorption treatment. This study demonstrates the potential for butyric acid production from G. amansii hydrolysates under non-pH-controlled as well as pH-controlled fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum KCTC 1790. The activated carbon treatment and pH-controlled fermentation showed synergistic effects and produced butyric acid at a concentration of 11.2 g/L after 9 days of fermentation.

  15. Bioprotective carnitinoids: lipoic acid, butyrate, and mitochondria-targeting to treat radiation injury: mitochondrial drugs come of age.

    PubMed

    Steliou, Kosta; Faller, Douglas V; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Moos, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical Research Given nuclear-power-plant incidents such as the 2011 Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi disaster, an urgent need for effective medicines to protect against and treat the harmful biological effects of radiation is evident. To address such a challenge, we describe potential strategies herein including mitochondrial and epigenetic-driven methods using lipoic and butyric acid ester conjugates of carnitine. The antioxidant and other therapeutically beneficial properties of this class of agents may protect against ionizing radiation and resultant mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies of the compounds described herein reveal the potential-although further research and development is required to prove the effectiveness of this approach-to provide field-ready radiation-protective drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Photophysics and morphology of poly (3-dodecylthienylenevinylene)-[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lafalce, E.; Toglia, P.; Jiang, X.

    2012-05-21

    A series of low band gap poly(3-dodecylthienylenevinylene) (PTV) with controlled morphological order have been synthesized and blended with the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) for organic photovoltaic devices. Two polymers with the most and least side chain regioregularity were chosen in this work, namely the PTV010 and PTV55, respectively. Using photoluminescence, photo-induced absorption spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, we find no direct evidence of photoinduced charge transfer between the two constituents, independent of the bulk-heterojunction morphology of the film, although the possibility of formation of P{sup +}/C{sub 60}{sup -} charge transfer complex was not completely ruled out.more » The large exciton binding energy (E{sub b} = 0.6 eV) in PTV inhibits the photoinduced electron transfer from PTV to PCBM. In addition, excitons formed on polymer chains suffer ultrafast (« less

  17. Optical properties of conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenylC61-butyric acid methyl ester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioudakis, Emmanouil; Othonos, Andreas; Alexandrou, Ioannis; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2007-10-01

    In this work, we present the evolution of optical constants as a function of [6,6]-phenylC61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) concentration for conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenylC61-butyric acid methyl ester composites. The PCBM concentration of the utilized samples varies from 1to50wt%. The dielectric functions for all these composites reveal electronic structural changes as a result of the addition of PCBM. We have deconvoluted the contribution of the substrate using a two-layer Fabry-Pérot structural model. The extracted optical properties contain crucial absorption peaks of singlet exciton states and vibronic sidebands for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) conjugated polymer as well as two PCBM-related states at higher energies. With the addition of PCBM, we have observed a limit of 20wt% PCBM beyond which two discrete energy levels (3.64 and 4.67eV) appear in the spectrum. For the highest concentration composite, the results suggest that the interchain interactions provide a small excitonic contribution in the absorption spectrum at energies where the conjugated polymer absorbs (1.85-2.7eV) and a strong rise of PCBM states (3.64 and 4.67eV) which are responsible for the subsequent exciton dissociation. In addition, the energy gap between the higher occupied molecular orbitals and the lower unoccupied molecular orbitals of the highest concentration composite (50wt%) is 1.85eV. The tuning of the optical properties of P3HT with the addition of PCBM shows that ellipsometry can be used to monitor layer concentration toward optimization of plastic solar cells.

  18. Precision genome engineering in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Innovative new genome engineering technologies for manipulating chromosomes have appeared in the last decade. One of these technologies, recombination mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) allows for precision DNA engineering of chromosomes and plasmids in Escherichia coli. Single-stranded DNA recombineering (SSDR) allows for the generation of subtle mutations without the need for selection and without leaving behind any foreign DNA. In this review we discuss the application of SSDR technology in lactic acid bacteria, with an emphasis on key factors that were critical to move this technology from E. coli into Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis. We also provide a blueprint for how to proceed if one is attempting to establish SSDR technology in a lactic acid bacterium. The emergence of CRISPR-Cas technology in genome engineering and its potential application to enhancing SSDR in lactic acid bacteria is discussed. The ability to perform precision genome engineering in medically and industrially important lactic acid bacteria will allow for the genetic improvement of strains without compromising safety. PMID:25185700

  19. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid putatively contributes to the ageing blood: A proposed link between periodontal diseases and the ageing process.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Seki, Keisuke; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Imai, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    Periodontal diseases are partly attributable to periodontopathic bacteria found in the host, whereas, butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite produced by periodontopathic bacterial pathogens. BA has been linked to oxidative stress induction while oxidative stress has long been associated with the ageing process. However, the possible link between BA-induced oxidative stress and the ageing process has never been elucidated. Here, we attempted to show the possible role of periodontal diseaselevel-BA (PDL-BA) in influencing the rat blood ageing process. We injected PDL-BA into the young rat gingiva and, after 24h, heart blood extraction was performed. Blood obtained from PDL-BA-treated young rats was compared to untreated young and middle-aged rats. We found that cytosolic, but not mitochondrial, heme was affected 24h post-injection. In addition, we observed that PDL-BA treatment altered blood NOX activation, NADPH-related oxidative stress components (H 2 O 2 and GR), calcium homeostasis, cell death signals (CASP3 and CASP1), and age-related markers (SIRT1 and mTOR) in young rats, with some components more closely mimicking levels found in middle-aged rats. In this regard, we propose that PDL-BA may play a role in contributing to the rat blood ageing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

  1. Demonstration of in situ product recovery of butyric acid via CO2 -facilitated pH swings and medium development in two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Production of organic acids in solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) is challenging, and highly pH-dependent, as cell growth occurs near neutral pH, while acid sorption occurs only at low pH conditions. CO2 sparging was used to achieve acidic pH swings, facilitating undissociated organic acid uptake without generating osmotic stress inherent in traditional acid/base pH control. A modified cultivation medium was formulated to permit greater pH reduction by CO2 sparging (pH 4.8) compared to typical media (pH 5.3), while still possessing adequate nutrients for extensive cell growth. In situ product recovery (ISPR) of butyric acid (pKa = 4.8) produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was achieved through intermittent CO2 sparging while recycling reactor contents through a column packed with absorptive polymer Hytrel® 3078. This polymer was selected on the basis of its composition as a polyether copolymer, and the use of solubility parameters for predicting solute polymer affinity, and was found to have a partition coefficient for butyric acid of 3. Total polymeric extraction of 3.2 g butyric acid with no CO2 mediated pH swings was increased to 4.5 g via CO2 -facilitated pH shifting, despite the buffering capacity of butyric acid, which resists pH shifting. This work shows that CO2 -mediated pH swings have an observable positive effect on organic acid extraction, with improvements well over 150% under optimal conditions in early stage fermentation compared to CO2 -free controls, and this technique can be applied other organic acid fermentations to achieve or improve ISPR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  3. Characterization and application of lactic acid bacteria for tropical silage preparation.

    PubMed

    Pholsen, Suradej; Khota, Waroon; Pang, Huili; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-10-01

    Strains TH 14, TH 21 and TH 64 were isolated from tropical silages, namely corn stover, sugar cane top and rice straw, respectively, prepared in Thailand. These strains were selected by low pH growth range and high lactic acid-producing ability, similar to some commercial inoculants. Based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain TH 14 was identified as Lactobacillus casei, and strains TH 21 and TH 64 were identified as L. plantarum. Strains TH 14, TH 21, TH 64 and two commercial inoculants, CH (L. plantarum) and SN (L. rhamnosus), were used as additives to fresh and wilted purple Guinea and sorghum silages prepared using a small-scale fermentation method. The number of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the forages before ensilage was relatively low but the numbers of coliform and aerobic bacteria were higher. Sorghum silages at 30 days of fermentation were all well preserved with low pH (3.56) and high lactic acid production (72.86 g/kg dry matter). Purple Guinea silage inoculated with LAB exhibited reduced count levels of aerobic and coliform bacteria, lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen and increased lactic acid concentration, compared with the control. Strain TH 14 more effectively improved lactic acid production compared with inoculants and other strains. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Otto, Nicola; Win, Khaing; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Reid, Alicia E.; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profile. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11CO2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [11C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity was the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low (<0.006%ID/cc, BA>VPA>PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [11C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [11C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [11C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects. PMID:23906667

  5. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M; Otto, Nicola; Win, Khaing; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Carter, Pauline; King, Payton; Reid, Alicia E; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2013-10-01

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profiles. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using (11)CO2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [(11)C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity were the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low (<0.006%ID/cc, BA>VPA>PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [(11)C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [(11)C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [(11)C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects. © 2013.

  6. Butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum overexpressing xylose catabolism genes for glucose and xylose co-utilization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongxin; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Minqi; Wang, Jufang; Tang, I-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum can utilize glucose and xylose as carbon source for butyric acid production. However, xylose catabolism is inhibited by glucose, hampering butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates containing both glucose and xylose. In this study, an engineered strain of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA overexpressing heterologous xylose catabolism genes (xylT, xylA, and xylB) was investigated for co-utilizing glucose and xylose present in hydrolysates of plant biomass, including soybean hull, corn fiber, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse. Compared to the wild-type strain, Ct-pTBA showed higher xylose utilization without significant glucose catabolite repression, achieving near 100% utilization of glucose and xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates in bioreactor at pH 6. About 42.6g/L butyrate at a productivity of 0.56g/L·h and yield of 0.36g/g was obtained in batch fermentation, demonstrating the potential of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Citric acid metabolism in hetero- and homofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Drinan, D F; Robin, S; Cogan, T M

    1976-01-01

    The effect of citrate on production of diacetyl and acetoin by four strains each of heterofermentative and homofermentative lactic acid bacteria capable of utilizing citrate was studied. Acetoin was quantitatively the more important compound. The heterofermentative bacteria produced no acetoin or diacetyl in the absence of citrate, and two strains produced traces of acetoin in its presence. Citrate stimulated the growth rate of the heterofermentative lactobacilli. Acidification of all heterofermentative cultures with citric acid resulted in acetoin production. Destruction of accumulated acetoin appeared to coincide with the disappearance of citrate. All homofermentative bacteria produced more acetoin and diacetyl in the presence of citrate than in its absence. Citrate utilization was begun immediately by the streptococci but was delayed until at least the middle of the exponential phase in the case of the lactobacilli. PMID:5054

  8. Toxins, Butyric Acid, and Other Short-Chain Fatty Acids Are Coordinately Expressed and Down-Regulated by Cysteine in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Sture; Lindberg, Anette; Norin, Elisabeth; Burman, Lars G.; Åkerlund, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    It was recently found that a mixture of nine amino acids down-regulate Clostridium difficile toxin production when added to peptone yeast extract (PY) cultures of strain VPI 10463 (S. Karlsson, L. G. Burman, and T. Åkerlund, Microbiology 145:1683–1693, 1999). In the present study, seven of these amino acids were found to exhibit a moderate suppression of toxin production, whereas proline and particularly cysteine had the greatest impact, on both reference strains (n = 6) and clinical isolates (n = 28) of C. difficile (>99% suppression by cysteine in the highest toxin-producing strain). Also, cysteine derivatives such as acetylcysteine, glutathione, and cystine effectively down-regulated toxin expression. An impact of both cysteine and cystine but not of thioglycolate on toxin yield indicated that toxin expression was not regulated by the oxidation-reduction potential. Several metabolic pathways, including butyric acid and butanol production, were coinduced with the toxins in PY and down-regulated by cysteine. The enzyme 3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum, was among the most up-regulated proteins during high toxin production. The addition of butyric acid to various growth media induced toxin production, whereas the addition of butanol had the opposite effect. The results indicate a coupling between specific metabolic processes and toxin expression in C. difficile and that certain amino acids can alter these pathways coordinately. We speculate that down-regulation of toxin production by the administration of such amino acids to the colon may become a novel approach to prophylaxis and therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhea. PMID:10992498

  9. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other

  10. THE PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY BACTERIA OF THE DYSENTERY GROUP

    PubMed Central

    Zoller, Harper F.; Clark, W. Mansfield

    1921-01-01

    These studies show: 1. A close agreement exists among all the organisms studied in the total quantity of volatile fatty acids produced and in the ratio of formic to acetic, under aerobic conditions, and in the presence of 1 per cent of glucose. 2. When grown upon peptone alone, with free access of air to the cultures, volatile fatty acids are produced in appreciable quantities, although the reaction of the solution has gone more alkaline as shown by colorimetric pH tests. Formic acid is not found, but in its place we obtain propionic acid. 3. Upon exhaustion of air from the non-sugar medium the bacteria again produce formic acid, and in addition some butyric. This is true for both Shiga and non-Shiga cultures. The reaction is distinctly more acid. 4. The presence of glucose in the medium from which the air has been pumped furnishes a condition which provokes about the same type and degree of fermentation that operates in the glucose medium bathed in air at atmospheric pressure. 5. The enormous quantity of formic acid produced by these bacteria may play a significant part in the digestive disturbances and toxic symptoms accompanying their infection of the human intestinal tract. PMID:19871867

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Phenolic Lipid for Use as Potential Lipophilic Antioxidant and as a Prodrug of Butyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid was modified to produce a novel phenolipid containing butyl chains. Ferulic acid was esterified with butanol to produce butyl ferulate which was further dihydroxylated followed by esterification with butyric anhydride to produce the phenolipid containing butyric acid. IR, NMR and MS techniques confirmed the structure of the synthesized structured lipophilic phenolic compound. The synthesized compound was tested for in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The produced phenolipid showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay but in linoleic acid oxidation method, it exhibited good activity compared with the parent compound and the reference compounds. The prepared derivative could find applications as antioxidant in lipophilic systems and also as a potential prodrug of butyric acid. It also showed antibacterial effect against the four bacterial strains studied. The drug-likeness properties of the prepared molecule calculated were in the acceptable ranges according to Lipinski's rule of 5 and suggest that it has potential to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  12. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  13. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) release in the ciliated protozoon Paramecium occurs by neuronal-like exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ramoino, P; Milanese, M; Candiani, S; Diaspro, A; Fato, M; Usai, C; Bonanno, G

    2010-04-01

    Paramecium primaurelia expresses a significant amount of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Paramecia possess both glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-like and vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT)-like proteins, indicating the ability to synthesize GABA from glutamate and to transport GABA into vesicles. Using antibodies raised against mammalian GAD and vGAT, bands with an apparent molecular weight of about 67 kDa and 57 kDa were detected. The presence of these bands indicated a similarity between the proteins in Paramecium and in mammals. VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP, putative proteins of the release machinery that form the so-called SNARE complex, are present in Paramecium. Most VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP fluorescence is localized in spots that vary in size and density and are primarily distributed near the plasma membrane. Antibodies raised against mammal VAMP-3, sintaxin-1 or SNAP-25 revealed protein immunoblot bands having molecular weights consistent with those observed in mammals. Moreover, P. primaurelia spontaneously releases GABA into the environment, and this neurotransmitter release significantly increases after membrane depolarization. The depolarization-induced GABA release was strongly reduced not only in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) but also by pre-incubation with bafilomycin A1 or with botulinum toxin C1 serotype. It can be concluded that GABA occurs in Paramecium, where it is probably stored in vesicles capable of fusion with the cell membrane; accordingly, GABA can be released from Paramecium by stimulus-induced, neuronal-like exocytotic mechanisms.

  14. Dorso-lateral prefrontal γ-amino butyric acid in men predicts individual differences in rash impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Frederic; Evans, C. John; Edden, Richard A. E.; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Singh, Krish D.; Husain, Masud; Sumner, Petroc

    2011-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is a multifaceted personality construct associated with numerous psychiatric disorders. Recent research has characterized four facets of impulsivity: ‘urgency’ (the tendency to act rashly especially in the context of distress or cravings); ‘lack of premeditation’ (not envisaging the consequences of actions); ‘lack of perseverance’ (not staying focused on a task); ‘sensation seeking’ (engaging in exciting activities). Urgency is particularly associated with clinical populations and problematic disinhibited behaviour. Methods We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in two cohorts of 12 and 13 participants. Results We find that variation in trait urgency in healthy men correlates with GABA concentration in the dlPFC. The result was replicated in an independent cohort. More GABA predicted lower urgency scores, consistent with a role in self-control for GABA-mediated inhibitory mechanisms in dlPFC. Conclusions These findings help account for individual differences in self-control, and thus clarify the relationship between GABA and a wide range of psychiatric disorders associated with impaired self-control. PMID:21757187

  15. Effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid on high glucose-induced alterations in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dilip; Singh, Jitendra Narain; Sharma, Shyam S

    2016-12-02

    Mechanisms and pathways involving in diabetic neuropathy are still not fully understood but can be unified by the process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, downstream intracellular signaling pathways and their modulation. Susceptibility of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to internal/external hyperglycemic environment stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic neuropathy. ER stress leads to abnormal ion channel function, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and protein folding. 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) is a potent and selective chemical chaperone; which may inhibit ER stress. It may be hypothesized that 4-PBA could attenuate via channels in DRG in diabetic neuropathy. Effects of 4-PBA were determined by applying different parameters of oxidative stress, cell viability, apoptosis assays and channel expression in cultured DRG neurons. Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in the DRG neuron was inhibited by 4-PBA. Cell viability of DRG neurons was not altered by 4-PBA. Oxidative stress was significantly blocked by the 4-PBA. Sodium channel expression was not altered by the 4-PBA. Our data provide evidence that the hyperglycemia-induced alteration may be reduced by the 4-PBA without altering the sodium channel expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth inhibitory effect of 4-phenyl butyric acid on human gastric cancer cells is associated with cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Zhu; Deng, Hong-Xia; Lou, Wen-Zhu; Sun, Xue-Yan; Song, Meng-Wan; Tao, Jing; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2012-01-07

    To investigate the growth effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) on human gastric carcinoma cells and their mechanisms. Moderately-differentiated human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 and lowly-differentiated MGC-803 cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/L PBA for 1-4 d. Cell proliferation was detected using the MTT colorimetric assay. Cell cycle distributions were examined using flow cytometry. The proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells was inhibited by PBA in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Flow cytometry showed that SGC-7901 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G₀/G₁ phase, whereas cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G₂/M phase. Although MGC-803 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were also arrested at the G₀/ G₁ phase, cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the S phase. The growth inhibitory effect of PBA on gastric cancer cells is associated with alteration of the cell cycle. For moderately-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G₀ /G₁ and G₂/M phases. For lowly-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G₀/G₁ and S phases.

  17. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

    2014-10-01

    Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Optimization of γ-amino butyric acid production in a newly isolated Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Binh, Tran Thi Thanh; Ju, Wan-Taek; Jung, Woo-Jin; Park, Ro-Dong

    2014-01-01

    An isolate from kimchi, identified as Lactobacillus brevis, accumulated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the culture medium. Optimal culture conditions for growth of L. brevis and production of GABA were 6 % (w/v) l-glutamic acid, 4 % (w/v) maltose, 2 % (w/v) yeast extract, 1 % (w/v) NaCl, 1 % (w/v) CaCl2, 2 g Tween 80/l, and 0.02 mM pyridoxal 5′-phosphate at initial pH 5.25 and 37 °C. GABA reached 44.4 g/l after 72 h cultivation with a conversion rate 99.7 %, based on the amount (6 %) of l-glutamic acid added. GABA was purified using ion exchange column chromatography with 70 % recovery and 97 % purity.

  19. The use of high pressure CO2 -facilitated pH swings to enhance in situ product recovery of butyric acid in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    Through the use of high partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2 ) to facilitate temporary pH reductions in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs), improved pH dependent partitioning of butyric acid was observed which achieved in situ product recovery (ISPR), alleviating end-product inhibition (EPI) during the production of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum (ATCC 25755). Through high pressure pCO2 studies, media buffering effects were shown to be substantially overcome at 60 bar pCO2 , resulting in effective extraction of the organic acid by the absorptive polymer Pebax® 2533, yielding a distribution coefficient (D) of 2.4 ± 0.1 after 1 h of contact at this pressure. Importantly, it was also found that C. tyrobutyricum cultures were able to withstand 60 bar pCO2 for 1 h with no decrease in growth ability when returned to atmospheric pressure in batch reactors after several extraction cycles. A fed-batch reactor with cyclic high pCO2 polymer extraction recovered 92 g of butyric acid to produce a total of 213 g compared to 121 g generated in a control reactor. This recovery reduced EPI in the TPPB, resulting in both higher productivity (0.65 vs. 0.33 g L(-1)  h(-1) ) and yield (0.54 vs. 0.40). Fortuitously, it was also found that repeated high pCO2 -facilitated polymer extractions of butyric acid during batch growth of C. tyrobutyricum lessened the need for pH control, and reduced base requirements by approximately 50%. Thus, high pCO2 -mediated absorptive polymer extraction presents a novel method for improving process performance in butyric acid fermentation, and this technique could be applied to the bioproduction of other organic acids as well. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exercise and Prebiotics Produce Stress Resistance: Converging Impacts on Stress-Protective and Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mika, A; Rumian, N; Loughridge, A B; Fleshner, M

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbial ecosystem can mediate the negative health impacts of stress on the host. Stressor-induced disruptions in microbial ecology (dysbiosis) can lead to maladaptive health effects, while certain probiotic organisms and their metabolites can protect against these negative impacts. Prebiotic diets and exercise are feasible and cost-effective strategies that can increase stress-protective bacteria and produce resistance against the detrimental behavioral and neurobiological impacts of stress. The goal of this review is to describe research demonstrating that both prebiotic diets and exercise produce adaptations in gut ecology and the brain that arm the organism against inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness. The results of this research support the novel hypothesis that some of the stress-protective effects of prebiotics and exercise are due to increases in stress-protective gut microbial species and their metabolites. In addition, new evidence also suggests that prebiotic diet or exercise interventions are most effective if given early in life (juvenile-adolescence) when both the gut microbial ecosystem and the brain are plastic. Based on our new understanding of the mechanistic convergence of these interventions, it is feasible to propose that in adults, both interventions delivered in combination may elevate their efficacy to promote a stress-resistant phenotype. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P<0.001), BW gain (P=0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P=0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P<0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science

  2. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Qaisrani, S. N.; van Krimpen, M. M.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P = 0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P > 0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. PMID:26175052

  3. Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov., a butyric-acid-producing organism isolated from high-moisture grass silage.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hisami; Nakasato, Takuya; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohtani, Yoshihisa; Terada, Fuminori; Sakai, Ken; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tohno, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    A Gram-stain-variable, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated MJC39 T , was isolated from grass silage preserved in Hokkaido, Japan. Growth occurred at 20-42 °C, pH 5.0-7.0 and NaCl concentrations up to 2 % (w/v). The isolated strain MJC39 T produced butyric acid in peptone yeast extract medium with glucose. The DNA G+C content of strain MJC39 T was 34.4±0.2 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (including C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c). No respiratory quinones were detected. The polar lipids of strain MJC39 T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified lipid, one unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified glycolipids, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminoglycolipid and one unidentified phosphoaminoglycolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJC39 T was a member of the genus Clostridium and is closely related to Clostridium tyrobutyricum JCM 11008 T (95.8 % similarity) and Clostridium algifaecis MB9-7 T (95.5 % similarity). Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain MJC39 T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJC39 T (=JCM 31506 T =DSM 103944 T ).

  4. Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyungjin; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Matsuura, Atsushi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2018-04-30

    L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD + , (ii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida . In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that NAD + is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into NAD + at a late stage of the reaction.

  5. Revealing charge carrier dynamics in squaraine:[6, 6]-phenyl-C 71-butyric acid methyl ester based organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Aniket; Sharma, Chhavi; Prabhu, Deepak D.; Kumar, Mahesh; Karuvath, Yoosaf; Das, Suresh; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics as well as the generation of polaron pair in squaraine (SQ) and squaraine:[6,6]-phenyl-C 71-butyric acid methyl ester (SQ:PCBM71) have been studied using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (UTAS). The current study reveals that the pure SQ exhibits the creation of singlet and triplet states; however, incorporation of PCBM71 in SQ results in the formation of polaron pairs with ˜550ps lifetime, which in turn leads to the creation of free electrons in the device. We show that the considerable increment in monomolecular and bimolecular recombination in SQ:PCBM71 compared to pure SQ which describes the interfacial compatibility of SQ and PCBMC71 molecules. The present work not only provides the information about the carrier generation in SQ and SQ:PCBM71 but also gives the facts relating to the effect of PCBM71 mixing into the SQ which is very significant because the SQ has donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structure and mixing one more acceptor can introduce more complex recombinations in the blend. These findings have been complimented by the charge transport study in the device using impedance spectroscopy. The various important transport parameters are transit time (τt), diffusion constant (Dn), global mobility (μ) and carrier lifetime (τr). The values of these parameters are 26.38 μs, 4.64x10-6 cm2s-1, 6.12x10-6 cm2V-1s-1 and 399 μs, respectively. To the best of our knowledge such study related to SQ is not present in the literature comprehensively.

  6. Effect of γ-amino butyric acid on limpet populations: towards the future management and conservation of endangered patellid species.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Espinosa, F; García-Gómez, J C

    2011-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, such as γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), can act as chemical cues influencing settlement and metamorphosis in benthic marine invertebrates. This effect has been described especially in mollusks, such as mussels, clams, or haliotids. This study describes the first record of the effect of GABA on patellogastropod populations. Special attention was paid to the effect of the compound on recruitment processes. The experiment was carried out using 10 × 10 cm artificial limestone plates that were drilled into intertidal rocks at different inclinations, and periodically treated with a 1 mM GABA solution. A total of five limpet species was considered (four patellid limpet species and the pulmonate Siphonaria pectinata). Each individual recorded on the plates as well as within a 20 × 20 cm quadrant was measured, identified to species level, and its straight-line distance to the application point was registered. Treated surfaces were the first to possess both adults and recruits. Individuals also were found in a higher number around GABA-treated plates than around controls. The results indicated that the compound may not only enhance recruitment, but also might accelerate it. Recruits were located at higher distances from GABA treated plates than from control surfaces. This supports the hypothesis that this is the life history stage most sensitive to the compound. The behavior shown by the individuals belonging to the two endangered patellid species present in the study area (Patella ferruginea and Cymbula nigra) also were analyzed. For the former, the results indicated that the use of GABA may have similar effects on recruitment similar to the presence of adult conspecifics. This is the first report of the effect of GABA on patellid limpet recruitment and population dynamics. Conservational implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Negative polarity of phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, Olivia J.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez

    2015-01-19

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the V{sub oc}, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor andmore » acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased V{sub oc}, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions.« less

  8. Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C(61) butyric acid methyl ester: morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies.

    PubMed

    Baral, Jayanta K; Majumdar, Himadri S; Laiho, Ari; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko I; Ras, Robin H A; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Osterbacka, Ronald

    2008-01-23

    We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C(61) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (<10 wt%) of PCBM in PS. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the device cross-sections indicated that the thermal evaporation of the Al electrodes did not lead to the inclusion of Al metal nanoparticles into the active PCBM:PS film. Above a threshold voltage of <3 V, independent of thickness, a consistent negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in devices in the thickness range from 200 to 350 nm made from solutions with 4-10 wt% of PCBM in PS. We found that the threshold voltage (V(th)) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (V(max)) and the voltage at minimum current density (V(min)) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at V(max) and V(min) is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K.

  9. Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-11-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Owen, David R; Wood, David M; Archer, John R H; Dargan, Paul I

    2016-09-01

    There has been a global increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) over the last decade. Phenibut (β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid) is a GABAB agonist that is used as an NPS. Here, we bring together published scientific and grey information sources to further understand the prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity of phenibut. Using European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Internet snapshot methodology, we undertook an English language Internet snapshot survey in May 2015 to gather information on the availability and price of phenibut from Internet NPS retailers. To gather information on prevalence of use, desired effects and/or adverse effects, we searched grey literature (online drug discussion forums) and medical literature (PubMed and abstracts from selected International Toxicology conferences). We found 48 unrelated Internet suppliers selling phenibut in amounts ranging from 5 g (US$1.60, £1.01/g) to 1000 kg (US$0.23, £0.14/g). Capsules containing 200-500 mg of phenibut were available in packs of between 6 (US$4.45, £2.80/g) and 360 (US$0.43, £0.27/g). According to the grey literature, phenibut is taken for its anxiolytic and euphoric properties, with tolerance and withdrawal syndromes commonly reported adverse effects. Phenibut is taken orally at an average dose of 2.4 g. Case reports in the medical literature feature users who present to emergency departments heavily sedated or experiencing withdrawal. There have been no reported deaths relating to phenibut use. Phenibut is readily available in the UK from Internet sites selling NPS. Its desired and adverse effects appear similar to other gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists. [Owen DR, Wood DM, Archer JRH, Dargan PI. Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:591-596]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Enhanced productivity of gamma-amino butyric acid by cascade modifications of a whole-cell biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinwei; Ke, Chongrong; Zhu, Jiangming; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Wenchao; Huang, Jianzhong

    2018-04-01

    We previously developed a gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing strain of Escherichia coli, leading to production of 614.15 g/L GABA at 45 °C from L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) with a productivity of 40.94 g/L/h by three successive whole-cell conversion cycles. However, the increase in pH caused by the accumulation of GABA resulted in inactivation of the biocatalyst and consequently led to relatively lower productivity. In this study, by overcoming the major problem associated with the increase in pH during the production process, a more efficient biocatalyst was obtained through cascade modifications of the previously reported E. coli strain. First, we introduced four amino acid mutations to the codon-optimized GadB protein from Lactococcus lactis to shift its decarboxylation activity toward a neutral pH, resulting in 306.65 g/L of GABA with 99.14 mol% conversion yield and 69.8% increase in GABA productivity. Second, we promoted transportation of L-Glu and GABA by removing the genomic region encoding the C-plug of GadC (a glutamate/GABA antiporter) to allow its transport path to remain open at a neutral pH, which improved the GABA productivity by 16.8% with 99.3 mol% conversion of 3 M L-Glu. Third, we enhanced the expression of soluble GadB by introducing the GroESL molecular chaperones, leading to 20.2% improvement in GABA productivity, with 307.40 g/L of GABA and a 61.48 g/L/h productivity obtained in one cycle. Finally, we inhibited the degradation of GABA by inactivation of gadA and gadB from the E. coli genome, which resulted in almost no GABA degradation after 40 h. After the cascade system modifications, the engineered recombinant E. coli strain achieved a 44.04 g/L/h productivity with a 99.6 mol% conversion of 3 M L-Glu in a 5-L bioreactor, about twofold increase in productivity compared to the starting strain. This increase represents the highest GABA productivity by whole-cell bioconversion using L-Glu as a substrate in one cycle observed

  12. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; van Sambeek, D M; Gabler, N K; Kerr, B J; Moreland, S; Johal, S; Edmonds, M S

    2014-09-01

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat-protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in young pigs. An experiment was conducted using 448 crossbred weanling pigs, which were stratified by gender and BW and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of control and MFG with or without BA. The pigs were housed at a density of 8 pigs/pen and with 14 pens/dietary treatment. Growth performance and feed intake were assessed for 35 d. To assess the inflammation-related properties of MFG and BA, on d 36 a subset of 48 pigs from each treatment was intramuscular injected with either sterile saline or Escherichia coli LPS (20 μg/kg BW; E. coli serotype O55:B5) for 4 h in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (± LPS, ± MFG and ± BA; n = 6 pigs/treatment group) to assess their febrile response as well as serum, liver, and muscle cytokine responses. Results from this study showed that neither BA nor MFG alone or in combination altered pig ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Moreover, in the presence of LPS, the combination of MFG and BA resulted in a 62% decrease (P = 0.08) in serum cortisol compared to when neither compound was added to the diet. In contrast, serum IGF-I was increased (P < 0.01) by 59% from the use of both MFG and BA, as opposed to when neither was added, with pigs subjected to LPS. However, both MFG and BA inclusion appear to have a complex role in modulating different aspects of the immune response to LPS, particularly when both are fed in combination. Humic acid also appeared to play a role in decreasing oxidative stress.

  13. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  14. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A; Linares, Daniel M; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kok, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the "stressome" of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Egan, A F

    1983-09-01

    When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When these organisms spoil meats it is generally by causing souring, however other specific types of spoilage do occur. Some strains cause slime formation and greening of cured meats, and others may produce hydrogen sulphide during growth on vacuum-packaged beef. The safety and stability of fermented sausages depends upon fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria. Overall the presence on meats of lactic acid bacteria is more desirable than that of the types of bacteria they have replaced.

  16. In vitro effects of hydrochloric acid and various concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, or valeric acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Frank M; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Smith, Sionagh H; Elliott, Sarah B; Saxton, Arnold M

    2006-11-01

    To compare the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and various concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on tissue bioelectric properties of equine stomach nonglandular (NG) mucosa. Gastric tissues obtained from 48 adult horses. NG gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured and electrical resistance (R) and conductance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs (5, 10, 20, and 40 mM) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH of 1.5 and, to a lesser extent, 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc, PD, and R, whereas tissues exposed to acetic acid at a pH of < 4.0, propionic and butyric acids at a pH of acid at a pH of acid at a pH of acid, in the presence of HCl at a pH of

  17. Malt in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases concentrations of butyric acid in the distal colon and serum in rats compared with other barley products but decreases viable counts of cecal bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bränning, Camilla E; Nyman, Margareta E

    2011-01-01

    Several substances, including glutamine and propionic acid but in particular butyric acid, have been proposed to be important for colonic health. β-Glucans lead to the formation of comparatively high amounts of butyric acid, and germinated barley foodstuff obtained from brewer's spent grain (BSG), containing high amounts of β-glucans and glutamine, has been reported to reduce the inflammatory response in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects. Amino acids in plasma and the cecal composition of the microbiota were also analyzed. The butyric acid concentration in the distal colon and serum was higher in the malt groups than in the other groups as was the serum concentration of propionic acid. The concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were higher in the cecum and serum of rats given L. rhamnosus than in those not given this strain. The proportion of plasma glutamine and the cecal number of bifidobacteria were lower in the malt groups than in the other groups. L. rhamnosus decreased the number of cecal bifidobacteria, whereas plasma glutamine was unaffected. We conclude that malt together with L. rhamnosus 271 had greater effects on propionic and butyric acid concentrations in rats than the other barley products. This is interesting when developing food with effects on colonic health.

  18. Butyric acid regulates progesterone and estradiol secretion via cAMP signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naisheng; Li, Mengjiao; Lei, Hulong; Jiang, Xueyuan; Tu, Weilong; Lu, Yang; Xia, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Butyric acid (BA), one of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), has positive actions on the metabolism, inflammation, etc. However, whether it influences the reproductive physiology and if so the detail mechanism involved has not yet been determined. In this study, the porcine granulosa cells (PGCs) were treated with gradient concentrations of BA. After 24h culture, 0.05mM BA significantly stimulated the progesterone (P 4 ) secretion (P<0.05), 5mM and 10mM BA significantly inhibited the P 4 secretion (P<0.05). Simultaneously, BA up-regulated the estradiol (E 2 ) secretion in a dose dependent manner, 5mM and 10mM BA significantly promoted the E 2 level (P<0.05). In addition, 10mM BA significantly promoted the G-protein-coupled receptor 41/43 mRNA (P<0.05). Interestingly, 5mM BA treatment significantly down-regulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content (P<0.05), steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), P450scc in the mRNA and/or protein level (P<0.05), and these actions were reversed by cAMP activator forskolin (FK). Moreover, the co-treatment of 5mM BA and bupivacaine (BPC, the cAMP inhibitor) significantly accumulated the inhibition action of BPC on cAMP, the secretion of P 4 , and the abundance of StAR mRNA (P<0.05), inhibited the up-regulation of 5mM BA on the E 2 secretion (P<0.05). Further, the Global Proteome and KEGG pathway analysis found that 5mM BA significantly up-regulated the I3LM80 proteins (P<0.05), which is involved in the steroid biosynthesis signaling pathway. 5mM BA significantly decreased the F2Z5G3 protein level (P<0.05), and the cAMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, present findings for the first time demonstrated that BA could regulate the P 4 and E 2 hormone synthesis in PGCs via the cAMP signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic expression of UGT84A2 delayed flowering by indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6 and ARF8 genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Li, Pan; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development. UGT84A2 could catalyze the glycosylation of IBA, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). UGT84A2 transcription expression was clearly induced by IBA. When ectopically expressing in Arabidopsis, UGT84A2 caused obvious delay in flowering. Correspondingly, the increase of IBA level, the down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, and the down-regulation of flowering-related genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1(SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1), and LEAFY(LFY) were observed in transgenic plants. When exogenously applying IBA to wild-type plants, the late flowering phenotype, the down-regulation of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes recurred. We examined the arf6arf8 double mutants and found that the expression of flowering-related genes was also substantially decreased in these mutants. Together, our results suggest that glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 may be involved in flowering regulation through indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6, ARF8 and downstream flowering pathway genes.

  20. Steering Endogenous Butyrate Production in the Intestinal Tract of Broilers as a Tool to Improve Gut Health

    PubMed Central

    Onrust, Lonneke; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Driessche, Karolien; De Maesschalck, Celine; Vermeulen, Karen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that are sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate-producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate, which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies. PMID:26734618

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.15 acyl acid amido synthetase has a highly specific substrate preference for the auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Sherp, Ashley M; Westfall, Corey S; Alvarez, Sophie; Jez, Joseph M

    2018-03-23

    Various phytohormones control plant growth and development and mediate biotic and abiotic stress responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases are plant enzymes that typically conjugate amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or jasmonic acid (JA) to inactivate or activate these phytohormones, respectively; however, the physiological and biological roles of many of these enzymes remain unclear. Using a biochemical approach, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.15 (AtGH3.15) preferentially uses indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and glutamine as substrates. The X-ray crystal structure of the AtGH3.15·AMP complex, modeling of IBA in the active site, and biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants provide insight on active site features that lead to AtGH3.15's preference for IBA. Assay-based in planta analysis of AtGH3.15-overexpressing lines indicated that their root elongation and lateral root density were resistant to IBA treatment but not to treatment with either IAA or JA. These findings suggest that AtGH3.15 may play a role in auxin homeostasis by modulating the levels of IBA for peroxisomal conversion to IAA. Analysis of AtGH3.15 promoter-driven yellow fluorescent protein reporter lines revealed that AtGH3.15 is expressed at significant levels in seedlings, roots, and parts of the siliques. We conclude that AtGH3.15 is unique in the GH3 protein family for its role in modifying IBA in auxin homeostasis and that it is the first GH3 protein shown to primarily modify a plant growth regulator other than IAA and JA. © 2018 Sherp et al.

  2. Verification of γ-Amino-Butyric Acid (GABA) Signaling System Components in Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Konermann, Anna; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Wilbert, Steven; Van Dyke, Thomas; Jäger, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    CNS key neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and its signaling components are likewise detectable in non-neuronal tissues displaying inter alia immunomodulatory functions. This study aimed at identifying potential glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GABA receptor expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vivo and in vitro, with particular regard to inflammation and mechanical loading. Gene expression was analyzed in human PDL cells at rest or in response to IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) or TNFα (5 ng/ml) challenge via qRT-PCR. Western blot determined constitutive receptor expression, and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy visualized expression changes induced by inflammation. ELISA quantified GAD65 release. Immunocytochemistry was performed for GABA component detection in vitro on mechanically loaded PDL cells, and in vivo on rat upper jaw biopsies with mechanically induced root resorptions. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. GABA B1 , GABA B2 , GABA A1 , and GABA A3 were ubiquitously expressed both on gene and protein level. GABA A2 and GAD65 were undetectable in resting cells, but induced by inflammation. GABA B1 exhibited the highest basal gene expression (6.97 % ± 0.16). IL-1ß markedly increased GABA B2 on a transcriptional (57.28-fold ± 12.40) and protein level seen via fluorescence microscopy. TNFα-stimulated PDL cells released GAD65 (3.68 pg/ml ± 0.17 after 24 h, 5.77 pg/ml ± 0.65 after 48 h). Immunocytochemistry revealed GAD65 expression in mechanically loaded PDL cells. In vivo, GABA components were varyingly expressed in an inflammatory periodontal environment. PDL cells differentially express GABA signaling components and secrete GAD65. Inflammation and mechanical loading regulate these neurotransmitter molecules, which are also detectable in vivo and are potentially involved in periodontal pathophysiology.

  3. In vitro fermentation of nuts results in the formation of butyrate and c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid as chemopreventive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Schlörmann, W; Birringer, M; Lochner, A; Lorkowski, S; Richter, I; Rohrer, C; Glei, M

    2016-09-01

    The consumption of foods rich in dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as nuts can contribute to a healthy diet. Therefore, the formation of fermentation end-products which might exert chemopreventive effects regarding colon cancer was investigated after an in vitro simulated digestion and fermentation of nuts using human fecal microbiota. Fermentation supernatants (FS) and pellets (FP) were obtained after an in vitro fermentation of hazelnuts, almonds, macadamia, pistachios and walnuts. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bile acids (BA) in FS as well as fatty acids in FP were analyzed via gas chromatography. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in FS were determined photometrically. Fermentation of nuts resulted in 1.9- to 2.8-fold higher concentrations of SCFA compared to the control and a shift of molar ratios toward butyrate production. In vitro fermentation resulted in the formation of vaccenic acid (C18:1t11, 32.1 ± 3.2 % FAME; fatty acid methyl ester) and conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA, 2.4 ± 0.7 % FAME) exclusively in fermented walnut samples. Concentrations of secondary BA deoxycholic-/iso-deoxycholic acid (6.8-24.1-fold/4.9-10.9-fold, respectively) and levels of MDA (1.3-fold) were significantly reduced in fermented nut samples compared to the control. This is the first study that demonstrates the ability of the human fecal microbiota to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids from walnuts to c9,t11 CLA as a potential chemopreventive metabolite. In addition, the production of butyrate and reduction in potential carcinogens such as secondary BA and lipid peroxidation products might contribute to the protective effects of nuts regarding colon cancer development.

  4. Effect of feeding an encapsulated source of butyric acid (ButiPEARL) on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age.

    PubMed

    Levy, April Waguespack; Kessler, James W; Fuller, Lorraine; Williams, Susan; Mathis, Greg F; Lumpkins, Brett; Valdez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of an encapsulated butyric acid (ButiPEARL) based on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age and to investigate its effects on intestinal morphology. Experiment 1 ( EXP 1: ) consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replicate pens that contained 45 broilers, and Experiment 2 ( EXP 2: ) consisted of 6 treatments with 8 replicate pens that contained 50 broilers. Birds were weighed by pen on d 0, 21, 35, and 42. In EXP 1, the treatments were as follows: 1) control ( C: ); 2) C + 100 g ButiPEARL/ton; 3) C + 200 g ButiPEARL/ton; and 4) C + 300 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 2, the treatments were identical to EXP 1, with 2 additional treatments: 5) C + 400 g ButiPEARL/ton and 6) C + 500 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 1, two 42-d-old broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal and jejunal tissue collection. Only the samples from the broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments were analyzed for histology in EXP 1. For EXP 2, on d 21 and 35, two broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissue collection. For EXP 1 and 2, BW gain increased linearly with increasing butyric acid levels (P < 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively). For EXP 1 and 2, feed conversion linearly improved with increasing butyric acid from 0 to 42 d (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In EXP 1, there were no differences in any intestinal morphology at 42 d between broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments. In EXP 2, there were no differences in villus height at 21 or 35 d of age with any level of butyric acid. Based on the results of this research related to BW gain and feed conversion, the recommended optimum dosage level for ButiPEARL in broilers reared to 42 d of age is up to 500 g/ton. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Multispectroscopic investigation of the interaction of BSA and DNA with the anticancer drug, N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajina, S. R.; Sudhi, Geethu; Austin, P.; Praveen, S. G.; Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Binoy, J.

    2018-05-01

    The interaction of a drug with DNA and BSA play a great role in studying anti cancer activity and drug transport properties, which can be effectively, investigated using vibrational spectroscopy, UV visible spectroscopy and Fluorescence spectroscopy. The present work reports the structural features of N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid Methyl ester (FNGABME) based on FTIR and FTRaman spectroscopy. The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to study the efficiency of the interaction of the compound FNGABME with BSA and DNA and also molecular docking were performed computationally to validate the results which shows that the title compound may exhibit inhibitory activity against the cancer cells.

  6. Influence of resistant starch on the SCFA production and cell counts of butyrate-producing Eubacterium spp. in the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Schwiertz, A; Lehmann, U; Jacobasch, G; Blaut, M

    2002-01-01

    The genus Eubacterium, which is the second most common genus in the human intestine, includes several known butyrate producers. We hypothesized that Eubacterium species play a role in the intestinal butyrate production and are inducible by resistant starch. In a human pilot study species-specific and group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labelled oligonucleotide probes were used to quantify butyrogenic species of the genera Eubacterium, Clostridium and Ruminococcus. Following the intake of RS type III a significant increase in faecal butyrate but not in total SCFA was observed. However, increase in butyrate was not accompanied by a proliferation in the targeted bacteria. The tested Eubacterium species have the capacity to produce butyrate but do not appear to play a major role for butyric acid production in the human intestine. In view of the fact that the bacteria responsible for butyrate production are largely unknown, it is still difficult to devise a dietary intervention to stimulate butyrogenic bacteria in a targeted way.

  7. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  8. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  9. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  11. Transcriptome characterization by deep-RNA-sequencing underlies the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate), especially butyrate, alter cell differentiation, proliferation, motility, and in particular, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition activity. Butyrate is a great inducer of ...

  12. Unravelling the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria to cocoa fermentation using inoculated organisms.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Fleet, Graham H; Zhao, Jian

    2018-08-20

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of the bean pulp by microorganisms is essential for developing the precursors of chocolate flavour. Currently, the cocoa fermentation is still conducted by an uncontrolled traditional process via a consortium of indigenous species of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Although the essential contribution of yeasts to the production of good quality beans and, typical chocolate character is generally agreed, the roles of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria are less certain. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of LAB and AAB in cocoa bean fermentation by conducting small scale laboratory fermentations under aseptic conditions, inoculated with different groups of microorganisms previously isolated from spontaneous cocoa fermentations. The inoculation protocols were: (1) four yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (2) four yeasts plus the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum; (3) four yeasts plus the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateuri and (4) four yeasts plus two lactic acid bacteria and two acetic acid bacteria. Only the inoculated species were detected in the microbiota of their respective fermentations. Beans from the inoculated fermentations showed no significant differences in colour, shell weights and concentrations of residual sugars, alcohols and esters (p>0.05), but they were slightly different in contents of lactic acid and acetic acid (p<0.05). All beans were fully brown and free of mould. Residual sugar levels were less than 2.6 mg/g while the shell contents and ethanol were in the range of 11-13.4% and 4.8-7 mg/g, respectively. Beans fermented in the presence of LAB contained higher levels of lactic acid (0.6-1.2 mg/g) whereas higher concentrations of acetic acid

  13. Bi-functional prodrugs of 5-aminolevulinic acid and butyric acid increase erythropoiesis in anemic mice in an erythropoietin-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Rephaeli, Ada; Tarasenko, Nataly; Fibach, Eitan; Rozic, Gabriela; Lubin, Ido; Lipovetsky, Julia; Furman, Svetlana; Malik, Zvi; Nudelman, Abraham

    2016-08-25

    Anemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide resulting from a wide variety of pathological conditions. In severe cases it is treated by blood transfusions or injection of erythroid stimulating agents, e.g., erythropoietin (Epo), which can be associated with serious adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop new treatment modalities. We recently reported that treatment of erythroleukemic cells with the novel the bi-functional prodrugs of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and butyric acid (BA), AN233 and AN908, enhanced hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis to a substantially higher level than did ALA and BA individually or their mixture. Herein, we describe that these prodrugs when given orally to mice induced histone deacetylase inhibition in the kidneys, bone marrow and spleen, thus, indicating good penetrability to the tissues. In mice where anemia was chemically induced, treatment with the prodrugs increased the Hb, the number of red blood cells (RBCs) and the percentage of reticulocytes to normal levels. The prodrugs had no adverse effects even after repeated treatment at 100-200mg/kg for 50days. The lack of increased levels of Epo in the blood of mice that were treated with the prodrugs suggests that AN233 and AN908 affected the Hb and RBC levels in an Epo-independent manner. Taken together with our previous studies, we propose that the prodrugs increase globin expression by BA inhibition of histone deacetylase and elevation heme synthesis by ALA. These results support an Epo-independent approach for treating anemia with these prodrugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Humic Acid Reduction by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Other Fermenting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Marcus; Schink, Bernhard; Brune, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria have been reported to reduce humic acids and low-molecular-weight quinones with electrons from acetate or hydrogen oxidation. Due to the rapid chemical reaction of amorphous ferric iron with the reduced reaction products, humic acids and low-molecular-weight redox mediators may play an important role in biological iron reduction. Since many anaerobic bacteria that are not able to reduce amorphous ferric iron directly are known to transfer electrons to other external acceptors, such as ferricyanide, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), or molecular oxygen, we tested several physiologically different species of fermenting bacteria to determine their abilities to reduce humic acids. Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus cecorum all shifted their fermentation patterns towards more oxidized products when humic acids were present; P. freudenreichii even oxidized propionate to acetate under these conditions. When amorphous ferric iron was added to reoxidize the electron acceptor, humic acids were found to be equally effective when they were added in substoichiometric amounts. These findings indicate that in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, fermenting bacteria are also capable of channeling electrons from anaerobic oxidations via humic acids towards iron reduction. This information needs to be considered in future studies of electron flow in soils and sediments. PMID:9797315

  15. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  16. Evaluation of Petrifilm Lactic Acid Bacteria Plates for Counting Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Satomi; Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Burenqiqige; Kikuchi, Misato; Sato, Fumina; Nakamura, Ayaka; Mohamed, Shimaa M; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2018-06-01

    Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used widely as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods, they are also responsible for food decay and deterioration. The undesirable growth of LAB in food causes spoilage, discoloration, and slime formation. Because of these adverse effects, food companies test for the presence of LAB in production areas and processed foods and consistently monitor the behavior of these bacteria. The 3M Petrifilm LAB Count Plates have recently been launched as a time-saving and simple-to-use plate designed for detecting and quantifying LAB. This study compares the abilities of Petrifilm LAB Count Plates and the de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar medium to determine the LAB count in a variety of foods and swab samples collected from a food production area. Bacterial strains isolated from Petrifilm LAB Count Plates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis to confirm the specificity of these plates for LAB. The results showed no significant difference in bacterial counts measured by using Petrifilm LAB Count Plates and MRS medium. Furthermore, all colonies growing on Petrifilm LAB Count Plates were confirmed to be LAB, while yeast colonies also formed in MRS medium. Petrifilm LAB Count Plates eliminated the plate preparation and plate inoculation steps, and the cultures could be started as soon as a diluted food sample was available. Food companies are required to establish quality controls and perform tests to check the quality of food products; the use of Petrifilm LAB Count Plates can simplify this testing process for food companies.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria found in fermented fish in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Okada, Sanae; Komagata, Kazuo

    1998-06-01

    Forty-seven strains of homofermentative rod-shaped and 5 heterofermentative sphere-shaped lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 4 kinds of fermented fish (pla-ra, pla-chom, kung-chom, and hoi-dong) in Thailand. These bacteria were separated into four groups by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, including fluorometric DNA-DNA hybridization. Five strains (Group I) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. Four strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus, and one strain was L. plantarum. Tested strains of this group produced DL-lactic acid. The rest of the rod-shaped bacteria, 23 strains (Group II) and 19 strains (Group III), lacked meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and were identified as L. farciminis and Lactobacillus species, respectively. The tested strains of these groups produced L-lactic acid. The amount of cellular fatty acids of C16:0 and C18:1, and the DNA base compositions were significant for differentiating the strains in Groups II and III. Five strains of cocci in chains (Group IV) produced gas from glucose. The tested strains of this group produced d-lactic acid. They were identified as a Leuconostoc species. The distribution of these bacteria in fermented fish in Thailand is discussed.

  18. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  19. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health.

  20. Comparative Genomics of Syntrophic Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Nobu, Masaru K.; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    The syntrophic degradation of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) such as 2-methylbutyrate and isobutyrate is an essential step in the production of methane from proteins/amino acids in anaerobic ecosystems. While a few syntrophic BCFA-degrading bacteria have been isolated, their metabolic pathways in BCFA and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation as well as energy conservation systems remain unclear. In an attempt to identify these pathways, we herein performed comparative genomics of three syntrophic bacteria: 2-methylbutyrate-degrading “Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. methylbutyratica” strain JCM 14075T (=4J5T), isobutyrate-degrading Syntrophothermus lipocalidus strain TGB-C1T, and non-BCFA-metabolizing S. wolfei subsp. wolfei strain GöttingenT. We demonstrated that 4J5 and TGB-C1 both encode multiple genes/gene clusters involved in β-oxidation, as observed in the Göttingen genome, which has multiple copies of genes associated with butyrate degradation. The 4J5 genome possesses phylogenetically distinct β-oxidation genes, which may be involved in 2-methylbutyrate degradation. In addition, these Syntrophomonadaceae strains harbor various hydrogen/formate generation systems (i.e., electron-bifurcating hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, and membrane-bound hydrogenase) and energy-conserving electron transport systems, including electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ETF-linked iron-sulfur binding reductase, ETF dehydrogenase (FixABCX), and flavin oxidoreductase-heterodisulfide reductase (Flox-Hdr). Unexpectedly, the TGB-C1 genome encodes a nitrogenase complex, which may function as an alternative H2 generation mechanism. These results suggest that the BCFA-degrading syntrophic strains 4J5 and TGB-C1 possess specific β-oxidation-related enzymes for BCFA oxidation as well as appropriate energy conservation systems to perform thermodynamically unfavorable syntrophic metabolism. PMID:27431485

  1. Indole-3-butyric acid promotes adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, L; Veloccia, A; Della Rovere, F; D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2017-07-11

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), control adventitious root (AR) formation in planta. Adventitious roots are also crucial for propagation via cuttings. However, IBA role(s) is/are still far to be elucidated. In Arabidopsis thaliana stem cuttings, 10 μM IBA is more AR-inductive than 10 μM IAA, and, in thin cell layers (TCLs), IBA induces ARs when combined with 0.1 μM kinetin (Kin). It is unknown whether arabidopsis TCLs produce ARs under IBA alone (10 μM) or IAA alone (10 μM), and whether they contain endogenous IAA/IBA at culture onset, possibly interfering with the exogenous IBA/IAA input. Moreover, it is unknown whether an IBA-to-IAA conversion is active in TCLs, and positively affects AR formation, possibly through the activity of the nitric oxide (NO) deriving from the conversion process. Revealed undetectable levels of both auxins at culture onset, showing that arabidopsis TCLs were optimal for investigating AR-formation under the total control of exogenous auxins. The AR-response of TCLs from various ecotypes, transgenic lines and knockout mutants was analyzed under different treatments. It was shown that ARs are better induced by IBA than IAA and IBA + Kin. IBA induced IAA-efflux (PIN1) and IAA-influx (AUX1/LAX3) genes, IAA-influx carriers activities, and expression of ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -alpha1 (ASA1), a gene involved in IAA-biosynthesis. ASA1 and ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -beta1 (ASB1), the other subunit of the same enzyme, positively affected AR-formation in the presence of exogenous IBA, because the AR-response in the TCLs of their mutant wei2wei7 was highly reduced. The AR-response of IBA-treated TCLs from ech2ibr10 mutant, blocked into IBA-to-IAA-conversion, was also strongly reduced. Nitric oxide, an IAA downstream signal and a by-product of IBA-to-IAA conversion, was early detected in IAA- and IBA-treated TCLs, but at higher levels in the latter explants. Altogether, results showed that IBA induced

  2. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  3. Broadband gain in poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester photodetectors enabled by a semicontinuous gold interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, Justin M.; Živanović, Sandra R., E-mail: sz@latech.edu

    2014-10-20

    Substantial broadband photoconductive gain has been realized for organic, thin-film photodetectors with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (P3HT:PCBM) active layer at low bias voltages. External quantum efficiencies upwards of 1500% were achieved when a semicontinuous gold layer was introduced at the anode interface. Significant gain was also observed in the sub-band gap, near infrared region where the external quantum efficiency approached 100% despite the lack of a sensitizer. The gain response was highly dependent on the thickness of the active layer of the photodetector with the best results achieved with the thinnest devices. The gain is the result of the injection ofmore » secondary electrons due to hole charge trapping at the semicontinuous gold layer.« less

  4. Anthocyanins in black rice, soybean and purple corn increase fecal butyric acid and prevent liver inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Xueqi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Lu; Liu, Rui; Yin, Jinjin

    2017-09-20

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that anthocyanin consumption reduces the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether black rice anthocyanin (BRA), black soybean anthocyanin (BSA), and purple corn anthocyanin (PCA) could mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation associated obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed with a high-fat diet. BRA, BSA, or PCA was administered at doses of 200 mg kg -1 throughout the 12-week experiment and reduced the bodyweight by 9.6%, 13.3%, or 16.6%, respectively. Furthermore, BRA, BSA or PCA administration could effectively increase fecal butyric acid levels, elevate hepatic SOD and GPx activities, decrease lipid peroxidation, and downregulate the gene expression levels of TNFα, IL-6, iNOS, and NF-κB. Hence, BRA, BSA, or PCA might ameliorate diet-induced obesity by alleviating both oxidative stress and inflammation.

  5. Impact of pH and butyric acid on butanol production during batch fermentation using a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    PubMed

    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-02-01

    The effect of pH and butyric acid supplementation on the production of butanol by a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 during batch culture fermentation was investigated. The results showed that pH had a significant effect on bacterial growth and butanol yield and productivity. The optimal initial pH that maximized butanol production was pH 6.0 ± 0.2. Controlled pH was found to be unsuitable for butanol production in strain YM1, while the uncontrolled pH condition with an initial pH of 6.0 ± 0.2 was suitable for bacterial growth, butanol yield and productivity. The maximum butanol concentration of 13.5 ± 1.42 g/L was obtained from cultures grown under the uncontrolled pH condition, resulting in a butanol yield ( Y P / S ) and productivity of 0.27 g/g and 0.188 g/L h, respectively. Supplementation of the pH-controlled cultures with 4.0 g/L butyric acid did not improve butanol production; however, supplementation of the uncontrolled pH cultures resulted in high butanol concentrations, yield and productivity (16.50 ± 0.8 g/L, 0.345 g/g and 0.163 g/L h, respectively). pH influenced the activity of NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase, with the highest activity obtained under the uncontrolled pH condition. This study revealed that pH is a very important factor in butanol fermentation by C. acetobutylicum YM1.

  6. Molecular Pathways: Gene-environment interactions regulating dietary fiber induction of proliferation and apoptosis via butyrate for cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bultman, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions are so numerous and biologically complicated that it can be challenging to understand their role in cancer. However, dietary fiber and colorectal cancer prevention may represent a tractable model system. Fiber is fermented by colonic bacteria into short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. One molecular pathway that has emerged involves butyrate having differential effects depending on its concentration and the metabolic state of the cell. Low-moderate concentrations, which are present near the base of colonic crypts, are readily metabolized in the mitochondria to stimulate cell proliferation via energetics. Higher concentrations, which are present near the lumen, exceed the metabolic capacity of the colonocyte. Unmetabolized butyrate enters the nucleus and functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that epigenetically regulates gene expression to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis as the colonocytes exfoliate into the lumen. Butyrate may therefore play a role in normal homeostasis by promoting turnover of the colonic epithelium. Because cancerous colonocytes undergo the Warburg effect, their preferred energy source is glucose instead of butyrate. Consequently, even moderate concentrations of butyrate accumulate in cancerous colonocytes and function as HDAC inhibitors to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. These findings implicate a bacterial metabolite with metaboloepigenetic properties in tumor suppression. PMID:24270685

  7. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  8. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrimination of wine lactic acid bacteria by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Susan B; Thornton, Mark A; Thornton, Roy J

    2017-08-01

    Species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Oenococcus, and Leuconostoc play an important role in winemaking, as either inoculants or contaminants. The metabolic products of these lactic acid bacteria have considerable effects on the flavor, aroma, and texture of a wine. However, analysis of a wine's microflora, especially the bacteria, is rarely done unless spoilage becomes evident, and identification at the species or strain level is uncommon as the methods required are technically difficult and expensive. In this work, we used Raman spectral fingerprints to discriminate 19 strains of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Oenococcus. Species of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus and strains of O. oeni and P. damnosus were classified with high sensitivity: 86-90 and 84-85%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that a simple, inexpensive method utilizing Raman spectroscopy can be used to accurately identify lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows

    PubMed Central

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as

  11. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  12. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  13. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. Conclusion We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species. PMID:19480672

  14. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-05-29

    For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species.

  15. Impact of mash feeding versus pellets on propionic/butyric acid levels and on total load in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Longpré, J; Fairbrother, J M; Fravalo, P; Arsenault, J; LeBel, P; Laplante, B; Surprenant, C; Massé, D; Letellier, A

    2016-03-01

    Feed characteristics may influence the bacterial community composition and metabolic activities in the pig gastrointestinal tract, known to be associated with positive effects on the gut. Use of mash feed is associated with reduced excretion, but little is known of its effect on the population or of the mechanism of action. Our objectives were to assess the effect of feed texture combined with feed particle size on VFA profiles and levels, total count, and the presence of genes encoding virulence factors of pathogenic strains in the digestive tract along with their impact on pig performance of fattening pigs. Pigs ( = 840) on a commercial farm received mash or pellet diets of different particle sizes during the fattening period. Caecal and colon contents from 164 pigs were sampled at the slaughterhouse for enumeration of by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and for VFA quantification by capillary gas chromatography. The gene was used to enumerate total . Improved pig performances associated with pellet texture and a 500-μm size were observed. Caecal ( = 0.02) and colon ( < 0.01) propionic acid concentrations were lower for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed. Similarly, caecal ( = 0.01) and colon ( < 0.001) butyric acid concentrations were also lower for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed, as determined by capillary gas chromatography. Moreover, caecal ( = 0.03) and colon ( < 0.001) butyric acid concentrations were higher for pigs receiving a feed with a 1,250-μm particle size rather than a 500-μm particle size. On the other hand, total caecal and colon levels were higher for pigs receiving pellet feed than for those receiving mash feed. For total enumeration, caecal ( < 0.01) and colon ( < 0.01) gene copies were higher for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed. No effect of particle size on fatty acid concentrations or on numbers was observed. Virulence gene quantification revealed no trend. Taken together, results showed that mash feed is

  16. Selective oxidation of trimethylolpropane to 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid using growing cells of Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 21245.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mahmoud; Dishisha, Tarek; Sayed, Waiel F; Salem, Wesam M; Temerk, Hanan A; Pyo, Sang-Hyun

    2016-03-10

    Multifunctional chemicals including hydroxycarboxylic acids are gaining increasing interest due to their growing applications in the polymer industry. One approach for their production is a biological selective oxidation of polyols, which is difficult to achieve by conventional chemical catalysis. In the present study, trimethylolpropane (TMP), a trihydric alcohol, was subjected to selective oxidation using growing cells of Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 21245 as a biocatalyst and yielding the dihydroxy-monocarboxylic acid, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid (BHMB). The study revealed that co-substrates are crucial for this reaction. Among the different evaluated co-substrates, a mixture of glucose, xylose and acetate at a ratio of 5:5:2 was found optimum. The optimal conditions for biotransformation were pH 8, 1v/v/m airflow and 500rpm stirring speed. In batch mode of operation, 70.6% of 5g/l TMP was converted to BHMB in 10 days. For recovery of the product the adsorption pattern of BHMB to the anion exchange resin, Ambersep(®) 900 (OH(-)), was investigated in batch and column experiments giving maximum static and dynamic binding capacities of 135 and 144mg/g resin, respectively. BHMB was separated with 89.7% of recovery yield from the fermentation broth. The approach is applicable for selective oxidation of other highly branched polyols by biotransformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Co-Drug of Butyric Acid Derived from Fermentation Metabolites of the Human Skin Microbiome Stimulates Adipogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Implications in Tissue Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhang, Lingjuan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Wang, Zhenping; Chun, Kimberly Ann; Lee, Tammy Ling; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We show that Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, produces short-chain fatty acids by glycerol fermentation that can induce adipogenesis. Although the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of short-chain fatty acids have been previously well characterized, little is known about the contribution of short-chain fatty acids to the adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We show that ADSCs differentiated into adipocytes and accumulated lipids in the cytoplasm when cultured with butyric acid, a principal short-chain fatty acid in the fermentation metabolites of S. epidermidis. Additionally, a co-drug, butyric acid 2-(2-butyryloxyethoxy) ethyl ester (BA-DEG-BA), released active butyric acid when it was intradermally injected into mouse ears and induced ADSC differentiation, characterized by an increased expression of cytoplasmic lipids and perilipin A. The BA-DEG-BA-induced adipogenic differentiation was mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Furthermore, intradermal injection of ADSCs along with BA-DEG-BA into mouse ears markedly enhanced the adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, leading to dermal augmentation. Our study introduces BA-DEG-BA as an enhancer of ADSC adipogenesis and suggests an integral interaction between the human skin microbiome and ADSCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thongsanit, Jaruwan; Okada, Sanae; Komagata, Kazuo

    2002-08-01

    Fourteen sphere-shaped and 30 rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria were isolated from soy sauce mash of two factories in Thailand. These strains were separated into two groups, Group A and Group B, by cell shape and DNA-DNA similarity. Group A contained 14 tetrad-forming strains, and these strains were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus by DNA similarity. Group B contained 30 rod-shaped bacteria, and they were further divided into four Subgroups, B1, B2, B3, and B4, and three ungrouped strains by phenotypic characteristics and DNA similarity. Subgroup B1 contained 16 strains, and these strains were identified as Lactobacillus acidipiscis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B2 included two strains, and the strains were identified as Lactobacillus farciminis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B3 contained five strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus by DNA similarity. The strains tested produced DL-lactic acid from D-glucose. Subgroup B4 contained four strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by DNA similarity. Two ungrouped strains were homofermentative, and one was heterofermentative. They showed a low degree of DNA similarity with the type strains tested, and were left unnamed. The distribution of lactic acid bacteria in soy sauce mash in Thailand is discussed.

  19. Review - Lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mariya; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Ijaz, Hira; Tulain, Ume Ruqia; Ashraf, Muhammad Adnan; Fayyaz, Ahad; Abadeen, Zainul; Kamran, Qindeel

    2017-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play vital roles in various fermented foods in Asia. This paper reviews many types of the world's lactic acid fermented foods and discusses the beneficial effects of lactic acid fermentation of food. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in many fermentation processes of Asian traditional foods, demonstrating their profound effects on improving food quality and food safety. During the past few decades' interest has arisen in the use of the varied antagonistic activities of LAB to extent the shelf-life of protein-rich products such as meats and fish. This review article outlines the main types of LAB fermentation as well as their typical fermented foods such as idli, kishk, sauerkraut, koumiss, Suan-tsai, stinky tofu, Chinese sausage and kefir. The roles of LAB and the reasons for their common presence are also discussed.

  20. Relation between chemotaxis and consumption of amino acids in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yiling; M. Pollard, Abiola; Höfler, Carolin; Poschet, Gernot; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chemotaxis enables bacteria to navigate chemical gradients in their environment, accumulating toward high concentrations of attractants and avoiding high concentrations of repellents. Although finding nutrients is likely to be an important function of bacterial chemotaxis, not all characterized attractants are nutrients. Moreover, even for potential nutrients, the exact relation between the metabolic value of chemicals and their efficiency as chemoattractants has not been systematically explored. Here we compare the chemotactic response of amino acids with their use by bacteria for two well‐established models of chemotactic behavior, E scherichia coli and B acillus subtilis. We demonstrate that in E . coli chemotaxis toward amino acids indeed strongly correlates with their utilization. However, no such correlation is observed for B . subtilis, suggesting that in this case, the amino acids are not followed because of their nutritional value but rather as environmental cues. PMID:25807888

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria – Friend or Foe? Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Production of Polysaccharides and Fuel Ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in the production of fermented foods and as probiotics. Alternan is a glucan with a distinctive backbone structure of alternating a-(1,6) and a-(1,3) linkages produced by the LAB Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In recent years, we have developed improved...

  2. Generation of volatile fatty acids by axillary bacteria.

    PubMed

    James, A G; Hyliands, D; Johnston, H

    2004-06-01

    It is generally accepted that short-chain (C(2)-C(5)) volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are among the causal molecules of axillary malodour. It is also widely acknowledged that malodour generation is attributable to the biotransformation of odourless natural secretions, into volatile odorous products, by axillary bacteria. However, little information is available on the biochemical origins of VFAs on axillary skin. In these studies, assay systems were developed to investigate the generation of VFAs from substrates readily available to the bacteria resident on axillary skin. Propionibacteria and staphylococci were shown to ferment glycerol and lactic acid to the short-chain (C(2)-C(3)) VFAs, acetic and propionic acid. Furthermore, staphylococci are capable of converting branched aliphatic amino acids, such as leucine, to highly odorous short-chain (C(4)-C(5)) methyl-branched VFAs, such as isovaleric acid, which are traditionally associated with the acidic note of axillary malodour. However, in vitro kinetic data indicates that these pathways contribute less to axillary VFA levels, than fatty acid biotransformations by a recently defined sub-group of the Corynebacterium genus, corynebacteria (A). The results of these studies provide new understanding on the biochemical origins of VFA-based axillary malodour which, in turn, should lead to the development of novel deodorant systems.

  3. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Kannan; Perumal, Perumal; Sundarabaalaji, Narayanan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid (AMSB) was synthesized in good yield. AMSB was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H and 13C) and Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay of AMSB was assessed using 1-1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and was found to be 44.1, 34.71 and 41.7 μg/ml respectively. The compound showed effective inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. AMSB was identified to be a reversible mixed noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The molecular docking study was carried out to evaluate the specific groove binding properties and affords valuable information of AMSB binding mode in the active site of α-glucosidase the study may lead to the which leads to the rational design of new class of antidiabetic drugs targeting α-glucosidase based on AMSB in near future.

  4. Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin by Propionic and Butyric Acid Derivatives: Correlations between Chemical Structure and Potency of Hb F Induction1

    PubMed Central

    Liakopoulou, Effie; Li, Qiliang; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (C2-C9) induce fetal hemoglobin synthesis in primary cell cultures, primates, and patients. We carried out experiments to test whether relationships exist between chemical structure and the Hb F-inducing potential of several short-chain fatty acid derivatives. BFUe cultures were performed in the presence of propionic and butyric congeners, covering the full spectrum of substitutions of these molecules, including polar and non-polar groups, esters, and double bonds. We found that the fetal hemoglobin inducibility is related to the chemical structure of the inducing compound. This structure–activity relation depends on the length of carbon chain, the nature of the substitutions, and the position of more potent substitutions on the carbon chain. It appears that substitutions enhancing the inducibility of these compounds are (with decreasing potency): methyl > phenyl > hydroxy ≫ amino groups. Placement of these substitutions at a position distal to the carboxyl group enhances γ-globin inducibility. Presence of the carboxyl group is prerequisite for γ-globin inducibility. PMID:12482403

  5. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    PubMed

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The gas-liquid chromatography of carboxylic acid esters of the urinary 11-deoxy-17-oxo steroids. Determination as n-butyrates.

    PubMed

    Sadler, P A; Kellie, A E

    1967-06-01

    1. The gas-liquid-chromatographic separations of the acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters of androsterone, aetiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone were studied on a 1% neopentyl glycol sebacate column. The n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters were well resolved. 2. The three steroids derived from hydrolysed urinary 17-oxo steroid conjugate extracts were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography after conversion into their n-butyrate esters. The results were compared with independent determinations involving chromatography on alumina.

  7. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  8. The Efficient Clade: Lactic Acid Bacteria for Industrial Chemical Production.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Russmayer, Hannes; Grabherr, Reingard; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Marx, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources. High carbon uptake rates with low biomass formation combined with strictly regulated simple metabolic pathways, leading to a limited number of metabolites, are among the key factors defining their success in both nature and industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. (GTG)5-PCR reference framework for acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-11-01

    One hundred and fifty-eight strains of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were subjected to (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting to construct a reference framework for their rapid classification and identification. Most of them clustered according to their respective taxonomic designation; others had to be reclassified based on polyphasic data. This study shows the usefulness of the method to determine the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among AAB and to study the AAB diversity of complex ecosystems.

  10. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Ann-Caroline; Jacobs, Fernando Alvarado; Eliasson, Lennart

    1991-01-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  11. Electrical and optical modeling of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester P3HT-PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioua, Fathi; Remram, Mohamed; Nechache, Riad; Bourouina, Hicham

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we investigate a two-dimensional theoretical model for the photon conversion through an integration of the optical and electrical part of multilayer system in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. The optical properties of the studied structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al, such as the exciton generation rate and the electrical field distribution, are predicted at vicinity of the active layer and have been used to solve Poisson and continuity, drift-diffusion equations of the electrical model which characterize the electrical behavior of semiconductor device using finite element method (FEM). The electrical parameters such as power conversion efficiency (PCE), open voltage circuit ( V oc), short-circuit current density ( J sc) and fill factor (FF) are extracted from the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics under illumination and in dark conditions. Highest external quantum efficiency (IPCE), up to 60%, is obtained around 520 nm, while a power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 3.62% is found to be in good agreement with the literature results. Integration of such theoretical approach into technological applications dealing with optoelectrical material performance will rapidly provide to the user accurate data outputs required for efficient validation of proof-of-concepts.

  12. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie; Yacoot, Andrew; Cacialli, Franco

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of "molecular terraces" whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  13. Enhancement of memory margins in the polymer composite of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanmei; Lu, Junguo; Ai, Chunpeng; Wen, Dianzhong; Bai, Xuduo

    2016-11-09

    Memory devices based on composites of polystyrene (PS) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated with bistable resistive switching behavior. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/PS + PCBM/Al devices with 33 wt% PCBM showed non-volatile, rewritable, flash memory properties with a maximum ON/OFF current ratio of 1 × 10 4 , which was 100 times larger than the ON/OFF ratio of the device with 5 wt% PCBM. For ITO/PS + PCBM/Al devices with 33 wt% PCBM, the write-read-erase-read test cycles demonstrated the bistable devices with ON and OFF states at the same voltage. The programmable ON and OFF states endured up to 10 4 read pulses and possessed a retention time of over 10 5 s, indicative of the memory stability of the device. In the OFF state, the I-V curve at lower voltages up to 0.45 V was attributed to the thermionic emission mechanism, and the I-V characteristics in the applied voltage above 0.5 V dominantly followed the space-charge-limited-current behaviors. In the ON state, the curve in the applied voltage range was related to an Ohmic mechanism.

  14. Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L

    2009-09-01

    The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development.

  15. Inhibition of Zero Drift in Perovskite-Based Photodetector Devices via [6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester Doping.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yintao; Jia, Renxu; Wang, Yucheng; Hu, Ziyang; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Zhu, Yuejin; Luan, Suzhen

    2017-05-10

    Zero drift can severely deteriorate the stability of the light-dark current ratio, detectivity, and responsivity of photodetectors. In this paper, the effects of a [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-doped perovskite-based photodetector device on the inhibition of zero drift under dark state are discussed. Two kinds of photodetectors (Au/CH 3 NH 3 PbI x Cl 3-x /Au and Au/CH 3 NH 3 PbI x Cl 3-x :PCBM/Au) were prepared, and the materials and photodetector devices were measured by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, ultraviolet absorption spectra, and current-voltage and current-time measurements. It was found that similar merit parameters, including light-dark current ratio (∼10 2 ), detectivity (∼10 11 Jones), and responsivity were obtained for these two kinds of photodetectors. However, the drift of Au/CH 3 NH 3 PbI x Cl 3-x :PCBM/Au devices is negligible, while a drift of ∼0.2 V exists in Au/CH 3 NH 3 PbI x Cl 3-x /Au devices. A new model is proposed based on the hindering theory of ion (vacancy) migration, and it is believed that the dopant PCBM can hinder the ion (vacancy) migration of perovskite materials to suppress the phenomenon of zero drift in perovskite-based photodetectors.

  16. Investigations of vibrational spectra and bioactivity of novel anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhi, Geethu; Rajina, S. R.; Praveen, S. G.; Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Jaiswal-Nagar, D.; Binoy, J.

    2017-10-01

    The bioactivity of compounds is mainly dependent on molecular structure and the present work aims to explore the bonding features responsible for biological activity of novel anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid ethyl ester (FNGABEE). In the present study, we investigate the molecular structural properties of newly synthesized title compound through experimental and quantum chemical studies. The detailed vibrational analysis has been performed using FT IR and FT Raman spectrum, aided by DFT computed geometry, vibrational spectrum, Eigen vector distribution and PED, at B3LYP/6-311 ++G(d,p) level. The resonance structure of naphthalene, different from that of benzene, revealed by molecular structure has been investigated using Csbnd C and Cdbnd C stretching modes. The proton transfer in amide has been analyzed to obtain spectral distinction between different carbonyl and Csbnd N groups which point to the reactive sites responsible for binding with DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The spectral distinction between eclipsed and staggered form of ferrocene has been analyzed. The molecular docking of FNGABEE with BSA and DNA has been performed to find the strength of binding and the moieties responsible for the interactions. The experimental binding studies of FNGABEE with BSA and DNA has been performed using UV absorption spectroscopy and fluorometric assay, to find the nature and strength of binding.

  17. Electrolyte-gated transistors based on phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) films: bridging redox properties, charge carrier transport and device performance.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Soavi, Francesca; Marcaccio, Massimo; Brunner, Pierre-Louis; Sayago, Jonathan; Santato, Clara

    2018-05-24

    The n-type organic semiconductor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), a soluble fullerene derivative well investigated for organic solar cells and transistors, can undergo several successive reversible, diffusion-controlled, one-electron reduction processes. We exploited such processes to shed light on the correlation between electron transfer properties, ionic and electronic transport as well as device performance in ionic liquid (IL)-gated transistors. Two ILs were considered, based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [TFSI] as the anion and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [EMIM] or 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium [PYR14] as the cation. The aromatic structure of [EMIM] and its lower steric hindrance with respect to [PYR14] favor a 3D (bulk) electrochemical doping. As opposed to this, for [PYR14] the doping seems to be 2D (surface-confined). If the n-doping of the PCBM is pursued beyond the first electrochemical process, the transistor current vs. gate-source voltage plots in [PYR14][TFSI] feature a maximum that points to the presence of finite windows of high conductivity in IL-gated PCBM transistors.

  18. On the inapplicability of electron-hopping models for the organic semiconductor Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdos, Fruzsina; Oberhofer, Harald; Dupuis, Michel

    2013-03-21

    Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) is one of the most popular semiconductors in organic photovoltaic cells, but the electron transport mechanism in the microcrystalline domains of this material as well as its preferred packing structure remains unclear. Here we use density functional theory to calculate electronic coupling matrix elements, reorganization energies and activation energies for available experimental and model crystal structures. We find that the picture of an excess electron hopping from one fullerene to another does not apply for any of the crystalline phases, rendering traditional rate equations inappropriate. We also find that the cohesive energy increases in themore » order body-centred-cubic < hexagonal < simple cubic < monoclinic < triclinic, independently on the type of dispersion correction used. Our results indicate that the electron-ion dynamics needs to be solved explicitly in order to obtain a realistic description of charge transfer in this material. M.D. was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.« less

  19. A Simple and Selective Fluorescent Sensor Chip for Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Mung Bean Sprouts Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiahua; Bahethan, Bota; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Abbas, Mamatimin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer coatings on quartz chips for selective solid-phase microextraction and fluorescence sensing of the auxin, indole-3-butyric acid. The multiple copolymerization method was used to prepare polymer coatings on silylated quartz chips. The polymer preparation conditions (e.g., the solvent, monomer, and cross-linker) were investigated systemically to enhance the binding performance of the imprinted coatings. Direct solid-phase fluorescence measurements on the chips facilitated monitoring changes in coating performance. The average binding capacity of an imprinted polymer coated chip was approximately 152.9 µg, which was higher than that of a non-imprinted polymer coated chip (60.8 µg); the imprinted coatings showed the highest binding to IBA among the structural analogues, indicating that the coatings possess high selectivity toward the template molecule. The developed method was used for the determination of the auxin in mung bean extraction, and the recovery was found to be in the range of 91.5% to 97.5%, with an RSD (n = 3) of less than 7.4%. Thus, the present study provides a simple method for fabricating a fluorescent sensor chip for selective analysis. PMID:28837081

  20. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surfacemore » topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.« less

  1. Purification of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Lucila; Castellano, Patricia; Sesma, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial substances of a proteinaceous nature that are produced by different bacterial species. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce biologically active peptides or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action almost exclusively toward Gram-positive bacteria and particularly toward closely related species. Generally they are active against food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. There is an increased tendency to use natural occurring metabolites to prevent the growth of undesirable flora in foodstuffs. These metabolites could replace the use of chemical additives such as sorbic acid, sulfur dioxide, nitrite, nitrate, and others. For instance, bacteriocins produced by LAB may be promising for use as bio-preservaties. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria are typically cationic, hydrophobic peptides and differ widely in many characteristics including molecular weight, presence of particular groups of amino acids, pI, net positive charge, and post-translational modifications of certain amino acids. This heterogeneity within the LAB bacteriocins may explain the different procedures for isolation and purification developed so far. The methods most frequently used for isolation, concentration, and purification involve salt precipitation of bacteriocins from culture supernatants, followed by various combinations of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In this chapter, a protocol is described that combines several methods used in our laboratory for the purification of two cationic bacteriocins, Lactocin 705AL and Enterocin CRL10, produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL705 and Enterococcus mundtii CRL10, respectively.

  2. Fabrication of One-Dimensional Zigzag [6,6]-PhenylC61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Nanoribbons from Two-Dimensional Nanosheets (Open Access: Author’s Final)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    a derivative is the [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), a C60 fullerene with a chemically bonded functional group. The addition of the...functional group, on the other hand, decreases the fullerene symmetry and conse- quently affects its crystallization.8 Although growth of crystalline C60...possibility to tune the grown structures to different morphologies.8 One-dimensional fullerene (C60) struc- tures, namely, nanorods and nanoribbons, are of

  3. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent Developments for Remediating Acidic Mine Waters Using Sulfidogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, José A. P.; Sahoo, Prafulla K.; Alves, Joner Oliveira; Siqueira, José O.

    2017-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) is regarded as a pollutant and considered as potential source of valuable metals. With diminishing metal resources and ever-increasing demand on industry, recovering AMD metals is a sustainable initiative, despite facing major challenges. AMD refers to effluents draining from abandoned mines and mine wastes usually highly acidic that contain a variety of dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in much greater concentration than what is found in natural water bodies. There are numerous remediation treatments including chemical (lime treatment) or biological methods (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors) used for metal precipitation and removal from AMD. However, controlled biomineralization and selective recovering of metals using sulfidogenic bacteria are advantageous, reducing costs and environmental risks of sludge disposal. The increased understanding of the microbiology of acid-tolerant sulfidogenic bacteria will lead to the development of novel approaches to AMD treatment. We present and discuss several important recent approaches using low sulfidogenic bioreactors to both remediate and selectively recover metal sulfides from AMD. This work also highlights the efficiency and drawbacks of these types of treatments for metal recovery and points to future research for enhancing the use of novel acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfidogenic microorganisms in AMD treatment. PMID:29119111

  6. Biohydrogenation of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sakurama, Haruko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Mihara, Kousuke; Ando, Akinori; Kita, Keiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The PUFAs include many bioactive lipids. The microbial metabolism of C18 PUFAs is known to produce their bioactive isomers, such as conjugated FAs and hydroxy FAs, but there is little information on that of C20 PUFAs. In this study, we aimed to obtain anaerobic bacteria with the ability to produce novel PUFAs from C20 PUFAs. Through the screening of ∼100 strains of anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium bifermentans JCM 1386 was selected as a strain with the ability to saturate PUFAs during anaerobic cultivation. This strain converted arachidonic acid (cis-5,cis-8,cis-11,cis-14-eicosatetraenoic acid) and EPA (cis-5,cis-8,cis-11,cis-14,cis-17-EPA) into cis-5,cis-8,trans-13-eicosatrienoic acid and cis-5,cis-8,trans-13,cis-17-eicosatetraenoic acid, giving yields of 57% and 67% against the added PUFAs, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of a bacterium transforming C20 PUFAs into corresponding non-methylene-interrupted FAs. We further investigated the substrate specificity of the biohydrogenation by this strain and revealed that it can convert two cis double bonds at the ω6 and ω9 positions in various C18 and C20 PUFAs into a trans double bond at the ω7 position. This study should serve to open up the development of novel potentially bioactive PUFAs. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Genomes of rumen bacteria encode atypical pathways for fermenting hexoses to short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, Timothy J; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Tao, Junyi

    2017-11-01

    Bacteria have been thought to follow only a few well-recognized biochemical pathways when fermenting glucose or other hexoses. These pathways have been chiseled in the stone of textbooks for decades, with most sources rendering them as they appear in the classic 1986 text by Gottschalk. Still, it is unclear how broadly these pathways apply, given that they were established and delineated biochemically with only a few model organisms. Here, we show that well-recognized pathways often cannot explain fermentation products formed by bacteria. In the most extensive analysis of its kind, we reconstructed pathways for glucose fermentation from genomes of 48 species and subspecies of bacteria from one environment (the rumen). In total, 44% of these bacteria had atypical pathways, including several that are completely unprecedented for bacteria or any organism. In detail, 8% of bacteria had an atypical pathway for acetate formation; 21% of bacteria had an atypical pathway for propionate or succinate formation; 6% of bacteria had an atypical pathway for butyrate formation and 33% of bacteria had an atypical or incomplete Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. This study shows that reconstruction of metabolic pathways - a common goal of omics studies - could be incorrect if well-recognized pathways are used for reference. Furthermore, it calls for renewed efforts to delineate fermentation pathways biochemically. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Affinity sensor using 3-aminophenylboronic acid for bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Wannapob, Rodtichoti; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Numnuam, Apon; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2010-10-15

    Boronic acid that can reversibly bind to diols was used to detect bacteria through its affinity binding reaction with diol-groups on bacterial cell walls. 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) was immobilized on a gold electrode via a self-assembled monolayer. The change in capacitance of the sensing surface caused by the binding between 3-APBA and bacteria in a flow system was detected by a potentiostatic step method. Under optimal conditions the linear range of 1.5×10(2)-1.5×10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the detection limit of 1.0×10(2) CFU ml(-1) was obtained. The sensing surface can be regenerated and reused up to 58 times. The method was used for the analysis of bacteria in several types of water, i.e., bottled, well, tap, reservoir and wastewater. Compared with the standard plate count method, the results were within one standard deviation of each other. The proposed method can save both time and cost of analysis. The electrode modified with 3-APBA would also be applicable to the detection of other cis-diol-containing analytes. The concept could be extended to other chemoselective ligands, offering less expensive and more robust affinity sensors for a wide range of compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Free lactic acid production under acidic conditions by lactic acid bacteria strains: challenges and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2018-05-26

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important platform chemical due to its significant applications in various fields and its use as a monomer for the production of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Free LA production is required to get rid of CaSO 4 , a waste material produced during fermentation at neutral pH which will lead to easy purification of LA required for the production of biodegradable PLA. Additionally, there is no need to use corrosive acids to release free LA from the calcium lactate produced during neutral fermentation. To date, several attempts have been made to improve the acid tolerance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by using both genome-shuffling approaches and rational design based on known mechanisms of LA tolerance and gene deletion in yeast strains. However, the lack of knowledge and the complexity of acid-tolerance mechanisms have made it challenging to generate LA-tolerant strains by simply modifying few target genes. Currently, adaptive evolution has proven an efficient strategy to improve the LA tolerance of individual/engineered strains. The main objectives of this article are to summarize the conventional biotechnological LA fermentation processes to date, assess their overall economic and environmental cost, and to introduce modern LA fermentation strategies for free LA production. In this review, we provide a broad overview of free LA fermentation processes using robust LAB that can ferment in acidic environments, the obstacles to these processes and their possible solutions, and the impact on future development of free LA fermentation processes commercially.

  10. Indole-3-butyric acid mediates antioxidative defense systems to promote adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings under cadmium and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Weng; Zeng, Xiao-Ying; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Kang, Xiao-Hu

    2018-06-08

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine whether auxin can mediate the formation of adventitious roots in response to heavy metal and drought stresses using a model rooting plant, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The treatments with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings. In contrast, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), IBA considerably cancelled the inhibition of adventitious rooting by stresses. Treatment with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly increased the soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. CdCl 2 and mannitol stress each induced differentially significant changes in the activities of antioxidative enzyme and antioxidant levels during adventitious rooting. Notably, both CdCl 2 and mannitol stress strongly reduced the peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and phenols levels. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were enhanced by CdCl 2 but reduced by mannitol. CdCl 2 increased the ascorbate acid (ASA) level, which was decreased by mannitol. Furthermore, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with IBA, IBA counteracted the CdCl 2 - or mannitol-induced increase or decrease in certain antioxidants, MDA, and antioxidative enzymes. These results suggest that Cd and mannitol stress inhibition of adventitious rooting is associated with the regulation of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants in cells to defense the oxidative stress. Moreover, IBA alleviates the effects of Cd and mannitol stress on the rooting process partially through the regulation of antioxidative defense systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved in vivo antitumor effect of a daunorubicin - GnRH-III bioconjugate modified by apoptosis inducing agent butyric acid on colorectal carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kapuvári, Bence; Hegedüs, Rózsa; Schulcz, Ákos; Manea, Marilena; Tóvári, József; Gacs, Alexandra; Vincze, Borbála; Mező, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Compared to classical chemotherapy, peptide-based drug targeting is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer, which can provide increased selectivity and decreased side effects to anticancer drugs. Among various homing devices, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) peptide represents a suitable targeting moiety, in particular in the treatment of hormone independent tumors that highly express GnRH receptors (e.g. colon carcinoma). We have previously shown that GnRH-III[(4)Lys(Ac),(8)Lys(Dau = Aoa)] bioconjugate, in which daunorubicin was attached via oxime linkage to the (8)Lys of a GnRH-III derivative, exerted significant in vivo antitumor effect on subcutaneously developed HT-29 colon tumor. In contrast, results of the study reported here indicated that this compound was not active on an orthotopically developed tumor. However, if Lys in position 4 was acylated with butyric acid instead of acetic acid, the resulting bioconjugate GnRH-III[(4)Lys(Bu),(8)Lys(Dau = Aoa)] had significant tumor growth inhibitory effect. Furthermore, it prevented tumor neovascularization, without detectable side effects. Nevertheless, the development of metastases could not be inhibited by the bioconjugate; therefore, its application in combination with a metastasis preventive agent might be necessary in order to achieve complete tumor remission. In spite of this result, the treatment with GnRH-III[(4)Lys(Bu),(8)Lys(Dau = Aoa)] bioconjugate proved to have significant benefits over the administration of free daunorubicin, which was used at the maximum tolerated dose.

  12. Butyrate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Human Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutvin, Steven A. L. W.; Troost, Freddy J.; Hamer, Henrike M.; Lindsey, Patrick J.; Koek, Ger H.; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Kodde, Andrea; Venema, Koen; Brummer, Robert J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate). Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on the transcriptional regulation of human colonic mucosa in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Five hundred genes were found to be differentially expressed after a two week daily butyrate administration with enemas. Pathway analysis showed that the butyrate intervention mainly resulted in an increased transcriptional regulation of the pathways representing fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and oxidative stress. In addition, several genes associated with epithelial integrity and apoptosis, were found to be differentially expressed after the butyrate intervention. Conclusions/Significance Colonic administration of butyrate in concentrations that can be achieved by consumption of a high-fiber diet enhances the maintenance of colonic homeostasis in healthy subjects, by regulating fatty acid metabolism, electron transport and oxidative stress pathways on the transcriptional level and provide for the first time, detailed molecular insight in the transcriptional response of gut mucosa to butyrate. PMID:19707587

  13. Bioconversion Using Lactic Acid Bacteria: Ginsenosides, GABA, and Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-05-28

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as fermentation starters in vegetable and dairy products and influence the pH and flavors of foods. For many centuries, LAB have been used to manufacture fermented foods; therefore, they are generally regarded as safe. LAB produce various substances, such as lactic acid, β-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase, making them useful as fermentation starters. Existing functional substances have been assessed as fermentation substrates for better component bioavailability or other functions. Representative materials that were bioconverted using LAB have been reported and include minor ginsenosides, γ-aminobutyric acid, equol, aglycones, bioactive isoflavones, genistein, and daidzein, among others. Fermentation mainly involves polyphenol and polysaccharide substrates and is conducted using bacterial strains such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium sp. In this review, we summarize recent studies of bioconversion using LAB and discuss future directions for this field.

  14. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering.

  15. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  16. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  17. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  18. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterialmore » populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.« less

  19. Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Magala, Michal; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana

    2013-01-01

    Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefits like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability). Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt) led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid). Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

  20. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  1. [Design of primers to DNA of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Lashchevskiĭ, V V; Kovalenko, N K

    2003-01-01

    Primers LP1-LP2 to the gene 16S rRNA have been developed, which permit to differentiate lactic acid bacteria: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. The strain-specific and species-specific differentiations are possible under different annealing temperature. Additional fragments, which are synthesized outside the framework of gene 16S rRNA reading, provide for the strain-specific type of differentiation, and the fragment F864 read in the gene 16S rRNA permits identifying L. plantarum.

  2. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term competition between sulfate reducing and methanogenic bacteria in UASB reactors treating volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Omil, F; Lens, P; Visser, A; Hulshoff Pol, L W; Lettinga, G

    1998-03-20

    The competition between acetate utilizing methane-producing bacteria (MB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied in mesophilic (30 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors (upward velocity 1 m h-1; pH 8) treating volatile fatty acids and sulfate. The UASB reactors treated a VFA mixture (with an acetate:propionate:butyrate ratio of 5:3:2 on COD basis) or acetate as the sole substrate at different COD:sulfate ratios. The outcome of the competition was evaluated in terms of conversion rates and specific methanogenic and sulfidogenic activities. The COD:sulfate ratio was a key factor in the partitioning of acetate utilization between MB and SRB. In excess of sulfate (COD:sulfate ratio lower than 0.67), SRB became predominant over MB after prolonged reactor operation: 250 and 400 days were required to increase the amount of acetate used by SRB from 50 to 90% in the reactor treating, respectively, the VFA mixture or acetate as the sole substrate. The competition for acetate was further studied by dynamic simulations using a mathematical model based on the Monod kinetic parameters of acetate utilizing SRB and MB. The simulations confirmed the long term nature of the competition between these acetotrophs. A high reactor pH (+/-8), a short solid retention time (<150 days), and the presence of a substantial SRB population in the inoculum may considerably reduce the time required for acetate-utilising SRB to outcompete MB. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  5. 2-keto-4-(methylthio)butyric acid (keto analog of methionine) is a safe and efficacious precursor of L-methionine in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Ryan N; Kobler, Christoph; Weckbecker, Christoph; Hoehler, Dirk; Baker, David H

    2007-08-01

    Relative bioefficacy and toxicity of Met precursor compounds were investigated in young chicks. The effectiveness of DL-Met and 2-keto-4-(methylthio)butyric acid (Keto-Met) to serve as L-Met precursors was quantified using Met-deficient diets of differing composition. Efficacy was based on slope-ratio and standard-curve methodology. Using L-Met as a standard Met source added to a purified diet, DL-Met and Keto-Met were assigned relative bioefficacy values of 98.5 and 92.5%, respectively, based on weight gain. Relative bioefficacy values of 98.5 and 89.3% were assigned to DL-Met and Keto-Met, respectively, when chicks were fed a Met-deficient, corn-soybean meal-peanut meal diet. Thus, both DL-Met and Keto-Met are effective Met precursor compounds in chicks. Additionally, growth-depressing effects of L-Met, DL-Met, and Keto-Met were compared using a nutritionally adequate corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 15 or 30 g/kg of each compound. Similar reductions in weight gain, food intake, and gain:food ratio were observed for each compound. Subjective spleen color scores, indicative of splenic hemosiderosis, increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing intakes of each compound, suggesting a similarity in overall toxicity among these compounds. Because conversion of Keto-Met to L-Met in vivo merely requires transamination, Keto-Met may prove to be a useful supplement not only in food animal production, but also as a component of enteral and parenteral formulas for humans suffering from renal insufficiency.

  6. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  7. Production of pyroglutamic acid by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in hard-cooked mini-cheeses.

    PubMed

    Mucchetti, G; Locci, F; Massara, P; Vitale, R; Neviani, E

    2002-10-01

    Pyroglutamic acid is present in high amounts (0.5g/ 100g) in many cheese varieties-and particularly in extensively ripened Italian cheeses such as Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano. An in vivo model system for cooked mini-cheese production and ripening acceleration was set up to demonstrate the ability of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, used as a starter, to produce pyroglutamic acid (pGlu). In mini-cheeses stored at 38 and 30 degrees C for up to 45 d, all starters tested produced different amounts of pGlu. In descending order of pGlu production, the bacteria analyzed were: Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis. Evidence for the presence of glutamine to pGlu cyclase activity in lactic acid bacteria was provided. Cell lysates obtained from cultures of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus showed the ability to cyclize glutamine to pGlu, resulting in processing yields from 1.4 to 30.3%, depending on the subspecies. Formation of pGlu from free glutamine appeared to be similar to that observed using a glutamine-glutamine dipeptide substrate. Under the experimental conditions applied, pGlu aminopeptidase activity was only detected in L. helveticus. Thus, pGlu formation in long-ripened cooked cheese may depend on the activity of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria.

  8. Detoxification of cancerogenic compounds by lactic acid bacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Lili, Zhao; Junyan, Wei; Hongfei, Zhao; Baoqing, Zhu; Bolin, Zhang

    2017-10-20

    Carcinogens in food are an important issue that threat people's health right now. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains as well-known probiotics have shown numerous perspectives in being used as a good food additive to confront cancerogenic compounds in recent years. Some LAB strains can remove cancerogenic compounds from medium environment via direct physical binding and avoid re-pollution of poisonous secondary metabolites which are generated from degradation of cancerogenic compounds. This article presents a whole overview of the physical-binding of LAB strains to such common cancerogenic compounds existed in food and feed environments as mycotoxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic amines (HAs) and pthalic acid esters (PAEs).In most cases, summaries of these published researches show that the binding of LAB strains to cancerogenic compounds is a physical process. Binding sites generally take place in cell wall, and peptidoglycan from LAB cells is the chief binding site. The adsorption of lactic acid bacteria to cancerogenic compounds is strain-specific. Specially, the strains from the two genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium show a better potential in binding cancerogenic compounds. Moreover, we firstly used molecular dynamic computer model as a highly potential tool to simulate the binding behavior of peptidoglycan from Lactobacillus acidophilus to DBP, one of pthalic acid esters with genetic toxicity. It was seen that the theoretical data were quite consistent with the experimental results in terms of the ability of this bacterium to bind DBP. Also, the toxicity reduction of cancerogenic compounds by LAB strains could be achieved either in gastrointestinal model or animal tests and clinical researches as well. In conclusion, carefully selected LAB strains should be a good solution as one of safety strategies to reduce potential risk of cancerogenic compounds from food-based products.

  9. Hydrolytic breakdown of lactoferricin by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Somkuti, George A

    2010-02-01

    Lactoferricin is a 25-amino acid antimicrobial peptide fragment that is liberated by pepsin digestion of lactoferrin present in bovine milk. Along with its antibacterial properties, lactoferricin has also been reported to have immunostimulatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic effects. These attributes provide lactoferricin and other natural bioactive peptides with the potential to be functional food ingredients that can be used by the food industry in a variety of applications. At present, commercial uses of these types of compounds are limited by the scarcity of information on their ability to survive food processing environments. We have monitored the degradation of lactoferricin during its incubation with two types of lactic acid bacteria used in the yogurt-making industry, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, with the aim of assessing the stability of this milk protein-derived peptide under simulated yogurt-making conditions. Analysis of the hydrolysis products isolated from these experiments indicates degradation of this peptide near neutral pH by lactic acid bacteria-associated peptidases, the extent of which was influenced by the bacterial strain used. However, the data also showed that compared to other milk-derived bioactive peptides that undergo complete degradation under these conditions, the 25-amino acid lactoferricin is apparently more resistant, with approximately 50% of the starting material remaining after 4 h of incubation. These findings imply that lactoferricin, as a natural milk protein-derived peptide, has potential applications in the commercial production of yogurt-like fermented dairy products as a multi-functional food ingredient.

  10. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  11. The use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce mercury bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Jadán-Piedra, C; Alcántara, C; Monedero, V; Zúñiga, M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2017-08-01

    Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH 3 Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion. All of the strains assayed reduce the soluble fraction from standards of mercury species under gastrointestinal digestion conditions (72-98%). However their effectiveness is lower in food, and reductions in bioaccessibility are only observed with mushrooms (⩽68%). It is hypothesized that bioaccessible mercury in seafood forms part of complexes that do not interact with lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic position of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stackebrandt, E; Teuber, M

    1988-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, important in food technology, are Gram-positive organisms exhibiting a DNA G + C content of less than 50 mol%. Phylogenetically they are members of the Clostridium-Bacillus subdivision of Gram-positive eubacteria. Lactobacillus and streptococci together with related facultatively anaerobic taxa evolved as individual lines of descent about 1.5-2 billion years ago when the earth passed from an anaerobic to an aerobic environment. In contrast to the traditional, morphology-based classification, the genus Lactobacillus is intermixed with strains of Pediococcus and Leuconostoc. Similarly, the physiology-based clustering of lactobacilli into Thermo-, Strepto- and Betabacterium does not agree with their phylogenetic relationships. On the other hand, the phenotypically defined genus Streptococcus is not a phylogenetic coherent genus but its members fall into at least 3 moderately related genera, i.e. Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus. The genus Bifidobacterium, frequently grouped with the lactobacilli, is the most ancient group of the second, the Actinomycetes subdivision of the Gram-positive eubacteria. In addition, propionibacteria, microbacteria and brevibacteria belong to this subdivision but the latter organisms appear as offshoots of non-lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Comparative Studies of Class IIa Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Skeie, Marianne; Middelhoven, P. Hans; Brurberg, May Bente; Nes, Ingolf F.

    1998-01-01

    Four class IIa bacteriocins (pediocin PA-1, enterocin A, sakacin P, and curvacin A) were purified to homogeneity and tested for activity toward a variety of indicator strains. Pediocin PA-1 and enterocin A inhibited more strains and had generally lower MICs than sakacin P and curvacin A. The antagonistic activity of pediocin-PA1 and enterocin A was much more sensitive to reduction of disulfide bonds than the antagonistic activity of sakacin P and curvacin A, suggesting that an extra disulfide bond that is present in the former two may contribute to their high levels of activity. The food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was among the most sensitive indicator strains for all four bacteriocins. Enterocin A was most effective in inhibiting Listeria, having MICs in the range of 0.1 to 1 ng/ml. Sakacin P had the interesting property of being very active toward Listeria but not having concomitant high levels of activity toward lactic acid bacteria. Strains producing class IIa bacteriocins displayed various degrees of resistance toward noncognate class IIa bacteriocins; for the sakacin P producer, it was shown that this resistance is correlated with the expression of immunity genes. It is hypothesized that variation in the presence and/or expression of such immunity genes accounts in part for the remarkably large variation in bacteriocin sensitivity displayed by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:9726871

  14. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ołdak, Aleksandra; Zielińska, Dorota

    2017-05-05

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized, proteinaceous substances that inhibit the growth of closely related species through numerous mechanisms. The classification system used in this review divided bacteriocins into four sub-groups based on their size. Currently, there is extensive research focused on bacteriocins and their usage as a food preservative. The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens is one of the most pressing medical problems in recent years. Recently, the potential clinical application of LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria) bacteriocin has been the subject of investigations by many scientists. Bacteriocins can be considered in a sense as antibiotic, although they differ from conventional antibiotics in numerous aspects. The gene-encoded nature of bacteriocins makes them easily amenable through bioengineering to either increase their activity or specify target microorganism. Owing to this feature of bacteriocins, antibiotic therapy would become less damaging to the natural gut microflora, which is a common drawback of conventional antibiotic use. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represent one of the most studied microbial defense systems and the idea of subjecting them to bioengineering to either increase antimicrobial activity or further specify their target microorganism is now a rapidly expanding field. This review aimed to present bacteriocins as a possible alternative to conventional antibiotics basic on latest scientific data.

  15. Quantitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of rearing environment, tilapia and common carp cultured in earthen ponds and inhibitory activity of its lactic acid bacteria on fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Ngoufack Zambou, François; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bacterial load of water, Nile Tilapia and common Carp intestines from earthen ponds, isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and assess their antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Following enumeration and isolation of microorganisms the antimicrobial activity of the LAB isolates was evaluated. Taxonomic identification of selected antagonistic LAB strains was assessed, followed by partial characterisation of their antimicrobial metabolites. Results showed that high counts (>4 log c.f.u ml -1 or 8 log c.f.u g -1 ) of total aerobic bacteria were recorded in pond waters and fish intestines. The microbiota were also found to be dominated by Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. LAB isolates (5.60%) exhibited potent direct and extracellular antimicrobial activity against the host-derived and non host-derived spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic isolates were identified and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was found as the predominant (42.85%) specie. The strains displayed the ability to produce lactic, acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative (Vibrio spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were produced by three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains. In this study, the LAB from the microbiota of fish and pond water showed potent antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage or pathogenic bacteria from the same host or ecological niche. The studied Cameroonian aquatic niche is an ideal source of antagonistic LAB that could be appropriate as new fish biopreservatives or disease control agents in aquaculture under tropical conditions in particular or worldwide in general.

  16. [Isolation and identification of a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium and its primary metabolic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wei-yun; Yao, Wen; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2007-06-01

    The distal mammalian gut harbors prodigiously abundant microbes, which provide unique metabolic traits to host. A lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain LB01, was isolated from adult swine feces by utilizing modified Hungate technique with rumen liquid-independent YCFA medium supplemented with lactate as the single carbon source. It was an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium, and could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose and lactate with a large amount of gas products. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it had the high similarity with members of the genus Megasphaera. The metabolic characteristics of strain LB01 was investigated by using in vitro fermentation system. Lactate at the concentration of 65 mmol/L in YCFA medium was rapidly consumed within 9 hours and was mainly converted to propionate and butyrate after 24h. As the level of acetate declined, the concentration of butyrate rose only in the presence of glucose, suggesting that butyrate could possibly be synthesized by the acetyl CoA: butyryl CoA transferase. When co-cultured with lactic acid bacteria strain K9, strain LB01 evidently reduced the concentration of lactate produced by strain K9 and decelerated the rapid pH drop, finally producing 12.11 mmol/L butyrate and 4.06 mmol/L propionate. The metabolic characteristics that strain LB01 efficiently converts toxic lactate and excessive acetate to butyrate can prevent lactate and acetate accumulation in the large intestine and maintain the slightly acidic environment of the large intestine, consequently revealing that stain LB01 could act as a potential probiotics.

  17. Determination of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in mung bean sprouts using high performance liquid chromatography with immobilized Ru(bpy)3(2+)-KMnO4 chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhijun; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua; Shi, Zuolong; Tian, Wei

    2009-07-15

    A novel method for determination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in an extract from mung bean sprouts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection is described. The method is based on the CL reaction of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid) with acidic potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II), which was immobilized on the cationic ion-exchange resin. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Nucleosil RP-C18 column (i.d.: 250 mm x 4.6 mm, particle size: 5 microm, pore size: 100) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:1, v/v/v). At a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), the total run time was 20 min. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were 5.0x10(-8) to 5.0x10(-6)g mL(-1) and 5.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-5)g mL(-1) for IAA and IBA, respectively. The detection limits were 2.0x10(-8)g mL(-1) and 2.0x10(-7)g mL(-1) for IAA and IBA, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day were 3.1% and 2.3% (n=11) for 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IAA and 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IBA; The relative standard deviations of inter-day precision were 6.9% and 4.9% for 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IAA and 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IBA. The proposed method had been successfully applied to the determination of auxin in mung bean sprouts.

  18. γ-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit and transporter expression in the gonad and liver of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Biggs, Katie; Seidel, Jason S; Wilson, Alex; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    γ-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. GABA receptors and synthesizing enzymes have also been localized to peripheral tissues including the liver, oviduct, uterus and ovary of mammals but the distribution and role of GABA in peripheral tissues of fish has not been fully investigated. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if mRNA encoding GABA synthesizing enzymes (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67; gad65 and gad67), GABA transporters, and GABAA receptor subunits are localized to liver and gonad of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (FHM) (2) investigate the effects of GABA on ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and (3) measure transcript responses in the ovary after in vitro incubation to GABA. Real-time PCR assays were developed for gad65, gad67, vesicular GABA transporter (vgat) and GABA transporter 1 (gat1), and select GABAA receptor subunits (gabra1, gabra5, gabrb1, gabrb2, gabrg1, gabrg2). All transcripts were localized to the brain as expected; however transcripts were also detected in the liver, ovary, and testis of FHMs. In the female liver, gad65 mRNA was significantly higher in expression compared to the male liver. Transcripts for gad67 were the highest in the brain>gonad>liver and in the gonads, gad67 was significantly higher in expression than gad65 mRNA. In the liver and gonad, the relative abundance of the subunits followed a general trend of gabrb1>gabrb2=gabrg1=gabrg2>gabra1=gabra5. To explore the effects of GABA in the ovary, tissue explants from reproductive female FHMs were treated with GABA (10(-10), 10(-8) and 10(-6)M) for 12h. GABA had no significant effect on 17β-estradiol production or on mRNA abundance for genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis (e.g., 11βhsd, cyp17, cyp19a). There was a significant decrease in estrogen receptor 2a (esr2a) mRNA with 10(-10)M GABA. This study begins to investigate the GABA system in non-neural tissues of

  19. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

    The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

  20. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B.; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Halim, Murni

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery. PMID:29209295

  1. Extractive Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultivation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Halim, Murni

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery.

  2. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives

    PubMed Central

    Rokop, Z. P.; Horton, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific “core” members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of “noncore” and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  3. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    PubMed

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria as oral delivery systems for biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Berlec, A; Ravnikar, M; Strukelj, B

    2012-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have become increasingly studied over the last two decades as potential delivery systems for various biological molecules to the gastrointestinal tract. This article presents an overview of characteristics of LAB as delivery systems and of the applications which have already been developed. The majority of LAB strains are able to survive the intestinal passage and some are also able to persist and colonize the intestine. Several strains were in fact described as members of the human commensal flora. They can interact with their host and are able to deliver large molecular weight biomolecules across the epithelium via M-cells or dendritic cells. The most widely applied LAB species has been Lactococcus lactis; however species from genus Lactobacillus are gaining popularity and the first examples from genus Bifidobacterium are starting to emerge. Bacteria are mostly applied live and enable continuous delivery of the biomolecules. However, killed bacteria (e.g. gram-positive enhancer matrix), with bound biomolecules or as adjuvants, are also being developed. The techniques for genetic modification of LAB are well known. This review focuses on the delivery of recombinant proteins and DNA, which can cause either local or systemic effects. We divide recombinant proteins into antigens and therapeutic proteins. Delivery of antigens for the purpose of vaccination represents the most abundant application with numerous successful demonstrations of the efficacy on the animal model. Therapeutic proteins have mostly been developed for the treatment of the inflammatory bowel disease, by the delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokines, or downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Delivery of allergens for the modulation of allergic disorders represents the second most popular application of therapeutic proteins. The delivery of DNA by LAB was demonstrated and offers exciting opportunities, especially as a vaccine. New discoveries may eventually lead to the

  5. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  6. Microbial Transformation of Dicarboxylic Acids by Airborne Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, V.; Ariya, P.

    2004-05-01

    Organic aerosols are assumed to be key players in driving climatic changes and can cause health problems for human. Dicarboxylic acids (DCA) include a large fraction of identified important class of organic aerosols. In addition to direct sources, DCA are partly formed as the result of ozonolysis of terpenes and cyclic alkenes. Previous works in our laboratory show that airborne fungi collected from urban and suburban air play an important role in the transformation of severals organic aerosols such as DCA. Our present study focuses on understanding the potential chemical transformation induced by airborne bacteria and on identification of the transformation products. Airborne bacteria have been collected using a biosampler and cultivated on a solid media. Each bacterial colony is being tested by HPLC for their ability to transform DCA in liquid cultures. Also, GC-MS, SPME and NMR are being used to identify the metabolites generated from the transformation. We will present our preliminary results and we will discuss the application of bacterial activities on the chemical transformation of organics in atmosphere.

  7. Genomics of lactic acid bacteria: Current status and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of foods and feed raw materials where they contribute to flavor and texture of the fermented products. In addition, specific LAB strains are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effects in consumers. Recently, the genome sequencing of LAB is booming and the increased amount of published genomics data brings unprecedented opportunity for us to reveal the important traits of LAB. This review describes the recent progress on LAB genomics and special emphasis is placed on understanding the industry-related physiological features based on genomics analysis. Moreover, strategies to engineer metabolic capacity and stress tolerance of LAB with improved industrial performance are also discussed.

  8. Engineering lactic acid bacteria for increased industrial functionality.

    PubMed

    Bron, Peter A; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    Based on their spoilage-preventing and flavor-contributing characteristics, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed as starter cultures for the fermentation of foods and feeds. In addition, several specific LAB strains are marketed on basis of their beneficial effects on the consumer's health, representing an explosively growing market for the products containing these so-called probiotics. Due to this extensive industrial use there is a strong interest in unraveling the molecular mechanisms involved in industrial robustness, cognate stress resistance, and health-promoting phenotypes of these LAB that may vary drastically between different starter and probiotic strains currently marketed. This review describes some of the post-genomic tools developed, as well as their employment for the identification of bacterial effector molecules involved in the aforementioned industrially relevant phenotypes. Furthermore, it addresses possible strategies to exploit such knowledge into the rational design of LAB strains with increased industrial functionality.

  9. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kye Man; Math, Reukaradhya K; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lim, Woo Jin; Hong, Su Young; Kim, Jong Min; Yun, Myoung Geun; Cho, Ji Joong; Yun, Han Dae

    2009-03-11

    We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CP) during kimchi fermentation. During the fermentation of kimchi, 30 mg L(-1) of CP was added and its stability assayed during fermentation. CP was degraded rapidly until day 3 (83.3%) and degraded completely by day 9. Four CP-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from kimchi fermentation in the presence of 200 mg L(-1) CP and were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides WCP907, Lactobacillus brevis WCP902, Lactobacillus plantarum WCP931, and Lactobacillus sakei WCP904. CP could be utilized by these four strains as the sole source of carbon and phosphorus. Coumaphos (CM), diazinon (DZ), parathion (PT), and methylparathion (MPT) were also degraded by WCP907, WCP902, WCP931, and WCP904 when provided as sole sources of carbon and phosphorus.

  10. Indole-3-Butyric Acid Induces Ectopic Formation of Metaxylem in the Hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana without Conversion into Indole-3-Acetic Acid and with a Positive Interaction with Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Laura; Della Rovere, Federica; Andreini, Eleonora; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2017-11-21

    The role of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and of the auxin-interacting phytohormone ethylene, on the ectopic formation of primary xylem (xylogenesis in planta) is still little known. In particular, auxin/ethylene-target tissue(s), modality of the xylary process (trans-differentiation vs. de novo formation), and the kind of ectopic elements formed (metaxylem vs. protoxylem) are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether IBA may act on the process independently of conversion into IAA. To investigate these topics, histological analyses were carried out in the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis wild type seedlings and ech2ibr10 and ein3eil1 mutants, which are blocked in IBA-to-IAA conversion and ethylene signalling, respectively. The seedlings were grown under darkness with either IAA or IBA, combined or not with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Adventitious root formation was also investigated because this process may compete with xylogenesis. Our results show that ectopic formation of protoxylem and metaxylem occurred as an indirect process starting from the pericycle periclinal derivatives of the hypocotyl basal part. IAA favoured protoxylem formation, whereas IBA induced ectopic metaxylem with ethylene cooperation through the EIN3EIL1 network. Ectopic metaxylem differentiation occurred independently of IBA-to-IAA conversion as mediated by ECH2 and IBR10, and in the place of IBA-induced adventitious root formation.

  11. [Clinical application of testing methods on acid-fast bacteria].

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

    2005-02-01

    Clinical bacteriology pertaining to acid-fast bacteria has made marked advances over the past decade, initiated by the development of a DNA probe kit for identification of acid-fast bacteria. Wide-spread use of nucleic acid amplification for rapid detection of tubercle bacillus contributed more greatly than any other factor to such advances in this field. At present, 90% of all kits used for nucleic acid amplification in the world are consumed in Japan. Unfortunately, not a few clinicians in Japan have a false idea that the smear method and nucleic acid amplification are necessary but culture is not. In any event nucleic acid amplification has exerted significant impacts on the routine works at bacteriology laboratories. Among others, collecting bacteria by pretreatment with NALC-NaOH has simplified the introduction of the collective mode smear method and liquid media. Furthermore, as clinicians have become increasingly more experienced with various methods of molecular biology, it now seems possible to apply these techniques for detection of genes encoding drug resistance and for utilization of molecular epidemiology in routine laboratory works. Meanwhile, attempts to diagnose acid-fast bacteriosis by checking blood for antibody have also been made, primarily in Japan. At present, two kits for detecting antibodies to glycolipids (LAM, TDM, etc.) are covered by national health insurance in Japan. We have an impression that in Japan clinicians do not have adequate knowledge and skill to make full use of these new testing methods clinically. We, as the chairmen of this symposium, hope that this symposium will help clinicians increase their skill related to new testing methods, eventually leading to stimulation of advances in clinical practices related to acid-fast bacteria in Japan. 1. Smear microscopy by concentration method and broth culture system: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) Smear

  12. The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Produced by Anaerobic Bacteria, in the Cystic Fibrosis Airway

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Michelle A.; Lavelle, Gillian M.; Molloy, Kevin; Azim, Ahmed Abdul; Gunaratnam, Cedric; Healy, Fiona; Slattery, Dubhfeasa; McNally, Paul; Hatch, Joe; Wolfgang, Matthew; Tunney, Michael M.; Muhlebach, Marianne S.; Devery, Rosaleen; Greene, Catherine M.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Anaerobic bacteria are present in large numbers in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF). In the gut, anaerobes produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that modulate immune and inflammatory processes. Objectives: To investigate the capacity of anaerobes to contribute to cystic fibrosis (CF) airway pathogenesis via SCFAs. Methods: Samples of 109 PWCF were processed using anaerobic microbiological culture with bacteria present identified by 16S RNA sequencing. SCFA levels in anaerobic supernatants and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were determined by gas chromatography. The mRNA and/or protein expression of two SCFA receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, in CF and non-CF bronchial brushings and 16HBE14o− and CFBE41o− cells were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, laser scanning cytometry, and confocal microscopy. SCFA-induced IL-8 secretion was monitored by ELISA. Measurements and Main Results: Fifty-seven (52.3%) of 109 PWCF were anaerobe positive. Prevalence increased with age, from 33.3% to 57.7% in PWCF younger (n = 24) and older (n = 85) than 6 years of age. All evaluated anaerobes produced millimolar concentrations of SCFAs, including acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. SCFA levels were higher in BAL samples of adults than in those of children. GPR41 levels were elevated in CFBE41o− versus 16HBE14o− cells; CF versus non-CF bronchial brushings; and 16HBE14o− cells after treatment with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172, CF BAL, or inducers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. SCFAs induced a dose-dependent and pertussis toxin–sensitive IL-8 response in bronchial epithelial cells, with a higher production of IL-8 in CFBE41o− than in 16HBE14o− cells. Conclusions: This study illustrates that SCFAs contribute to excessive production of IL-8 in CF airways colonized with anaerobes via up-regulated GPR41. PMID:26266556

  13. The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Produced by Anaerobic Bacteria, in the Cystic Fibrosis Airway.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Bojana; Murray, Michelle A; Lavelle, Gillian M; Molloy, Kevin; Azim, Ahmed Abdul; Gunaratnam, Cedric; Healy, Fiona; Slattery, Dubhfeasa; McNally, Paul; Hatch, Joe; Wolfgang, Matthew; Tunney, Michael M; Muhlebach, Marianne S; Devery, Rosaleen; Greene, Catherine M; McElvaney, Noel G

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are present in large numbers in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF). In the gut, anaerobes produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that modulate immune and inflammatory processes. To investigate the capacity of anaerobes to contribute to cystic fibrosis (CF) airway pathogenesis via SCFAs. Samples of 109 PWCF were processed using anaerobic microbiological culture with bacteria present identified by 16S RNA sequencing. SCFA levels in anaerobic supernatants and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were determined by gas chromatography. The mRNA and/or protein expression of two SCFA receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, in CF and non-CF bronchial brushings and 16HBE14o(-) and CFBE41o(-) cells were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, laser scanning cytometry, and confocal microscopy. SCFA-induced IL-8 secretion was monitored by ELISA. Fifty-seven (52.3%) of 109 PWCF were anaerobe positive. Prevalence increased with age, from 33.3% to 57.7% in PWCF younger (n = 24) and older (n = 85) than 6 years of age. All evaluated anaerobes produced millimolar concentrations of SCFAs, including acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. SCFA levels were higher in BAL samples of adults than in those of children. GPR41 levels were elevated in CFBE41o(-) versus 16HBE14o(-) cells; CF versus non-CF bronchial brushings; and 16HBE14o(-) cells after treatment with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172, CF BAL, or inducers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. SCFAs induced a dose-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive IL-8 response in bronchial epithelial cells, with a higher production of IL-8 in CFBE41o(-) than in 16HBE14o(-) cells. This study illustrates that SCFAs contribute to excessive production of IL-8 in CF airways colonized with anaerobes via up-regulated GPR41.

  14. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: production, purification, and food applications.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through mathematical modeling and positive predictive microbiology. Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in sourdough (to increase competitiveness), in fermented sausage (anti-listerial effect), and in cheese (anti-listerial and anti-clostridial effects), have been studied during in vitro laboratory fermentations as well as on pilot-scale level. The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety. In addition, antimicrobial production by probiotic LAB might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.

  15. [Cloning and gene expression in lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Beliavskaia, V A

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of using the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus as vector representatives is widely discussed at present. The prospects of the construction of recombinant bacteria are closely connected with the solution of a number of problems: the level of the transcription of cloned genes, the effectiveness of the translation of heterologous mRNA, the stability of protein with respect to bacterial intracellular proteases, the method by protein molecules leave the cell (by secretion or as the result of lysis). To prevent segregation instability, the construction of vector molecules on the basis of stable cryptic plasmids found in wild strains of lactic acid bacteria was proposed. High copying plasmids with low molecular weight were detected in L. plantarum and L. pentosus strains. Several plasmids with molecular weights of 1.7, 1.8 and 2.3 kb were isolated from bacterial cells to be used as the basis for the construction of vector molecules. Genes of chloramphenicol- and erythromycin-resistance from Staphylococcus aureus plasmids were used as marker genes ensuring cell transformation. The vector plasmids thus constructed exhibited high transformation activity in the electroporation of different strains, including L. casei, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum and L. brevis which could be classified with the replicons of a wide circle of hosts. But the use of these plasmids was limited due to the risk of the uncontrolled dissemination of recombinant plasmids. L. acidophilus were also found to have strictly specific plasmids with good prospects of being used as the basis for the creation of vectors, incapable of dissemination. In addition to the search of strain-specific plasmids, incapable of uncontrolled gene transmission, the use of chromosome-integrated heterologous genes is recommended in cloning to ensure the maximum safety.

  16. Acid and bile tolerance of spore-forming lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hyronimus, B; Le Marrec, C; Sassi, A H; Deschamps, A

    2000-11-01

    Criteria for screening probiotics such as bile tolerance and resistance to acids were studied with 13 spore-forming lactic acid producing bacteria. Different strains of Sporolactobacillus, Bacillus laevolacticus, Bacillus racemilacticus and Bacillus coagulans grown in MRS broth were subjected to low pH conditions (2, 2.5 and 3) and increasing bile concentrations. Among these microorganisms, Bacillus laevolacticus DSM 6475 and all Sporolactobacillus strains tested except Sporolactobacillus racemicus IAM 12395, were resistant to pH 3. Only Bacillus racemilacticus and Bacillus coagulans strains were tolerant to bile concentrations over 0.3% (w/v).

  17. Human milk is a source of lactic acid bacteria for the infant gut.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rocío; Langa, Susana; Reviriego, Carlota; Jimínez, Esther; Marín, María L; Xaus, Jordi; Fernández, Leonides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate whether human breast milk contains potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria, and therefore, whether it can be considered a synbiotic food. Study design Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from milk, mammary areola, and breast skin of eight healthy mothers and oral swabs and feces of their respective breast-fed infants. Some isolates (178 from each mother and newborn pair) were randomly selected and submitted to randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction analysis, and those that displayed identical RAPD patterns were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Within each mother and newborn pair, some rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria isolated from mammary areola, breast milk, and infant oral swabs and feces displayed identical RAPD profiles. All of them, independently from the mother and child pair, were identified as Lactobacillus gasseri. Similarly, among coccoid lactic acid bacteria from these different sources, some shared an identical RAPD pattern and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. In contrast, none of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from breast skin shared RAPD profiles with lactic acid bacteria of the other sources. Breast-feeding can be a significant source of lactic acid bacteria to the infant gut. Lactic acid bacteria present in milk may have an endogenous origin and may not be the result of contamination from the surrounding breast skin.

  18. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria - walking on crutches is part of their lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Brooijmans, Rob; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lactic acid bacteria contain rudimentary electron transport chains that can be reconstituted by the addition of heme and menaquinone to the growth medium. These activated electron transport chains lead to higher biomass production and increased robustness, which is beneficial for industrial applications, but a major concern when dealing with pathogenic lactic acid bacteria. PMID:20948651

  19. Barley malt increases hindgut and portal butyric acid, modulates gene expression of gut tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors in rats fed high-fat diets, but high advanced glycation end-products partially attenuate the effects.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yadong; Teixeira, Cristina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Sae-Lim, Watina; Tareke, Eden; Andersson, Roger; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE.

  20. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, F K; Dahl, S; Carballo, F J; Malcata, F X

    2002-10-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180-d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts were made in both situations to correlate the rates of free amino acid uptake with the numbers of viable cells. When incubated individually, leucine, valine, glycine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, lysine, glutamic acid, and alanine were degraded by all strains considered; arginine tended to build up, probably because of transamination of other amino acids. When incubated together, the degradation of free amino acids by each strain was dependent on pH (with an optimum pH around 6.0). The volatiles detected in ripened Serra da Estrela cheese originated mainly from leucine, phenylalanine, alanine, and valine, whereas in vitro they originated mainly from valine, phenylalanine, serine, leucine, alanine, and threonine. The wild strains tested offer a great potential for flavor generation, which might justify their inclusion in a tentative starter/nonstarter culture for that and similar cheeses.

  1. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Animal Rennets as Sources of Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L.; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

  3. Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats.

    PubMed

    Banjoko, Immaculata Oyeyemi; Adeyanju, Muinat Moronke; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo; Adebawo, Olugbenga Obajimi; Olalere, Rahman Abiodun; Kolawole, Martin Oluseye; Adegbola, Ibrahim Akorede; Adesanmi, Tope Adebusola; Oladunjoye, Tosin Oluyinka; Ogunnowo, Adeyemi Adeola; Shorinola, Ahmeed Adekola; Daropale, Oluwasetemi; Babatope, Esther Bunmi; Osibogun, Adeboye Olufemi; Ogunfowokan, Deborah Tolulope; Jentegbe, Temitope Adeola; Apelehin, Tinuola Gbemi; Ogunnowo, Oluwaseyi; Olokodana, Oluwanifemi; Fetuga, Falilat Yetunde; Omitola, Morenike; Okafor, Linda Adugo; Ebohon, Catherine Lohi; Ita, James Oluwafemi; Disu, Kazeem Ayoola; Ogherebe, Omokaro; Eriobu, Stella Uche; Bakare, Anthony Alaba

    2012-12-11

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into 'ogi' of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP

  4. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    PubMed

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  5. In vitro and in vivo study of transcriptome alternation induced by butyrate in cattle using deep RNA-seq

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs,), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Furthermore, butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells a...

  6. Resident lactic acid bacteria in raw milk Canestrato Pugliese cheese.

    PubMed

    Aquilanti, L; Dell'Aquila, L; Zannini, E; Zocchetti, A; Clementi, F

    2006-08-01

    Investigation of the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population of the raw milk protected designation of origin Canestrato Pugliese cheese using phenotypic and genotypic methodologies. Thirty phenotypic assays and three molecular techniques (restriction fragment length polymorphism, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and recA multiplex PCR assay) were applied to the identification of 304 isolates from raw milk Canestrato Pugliese cheese. As a result, 168 of 207 isolates identified were ascribed to genus Enterococcus, 25 to Lactobacillus, 13 to Lactococcus and one to Leuconostoc. More in details among the lactobacilli, the species Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum were predominant, including 13 and 10 isolates respectively, whereas among the lactococci, Lactococcus lactis subsp.cremoris [corrected] was the species more frequently detected (seven isolates). Except for the enterococci, phenotypic tests were not reliable enough for the identification of the isolates, if not combined to the genotype-based molecular techniques. The polyphasic approach utilized allowed 10 different LAB species to be detected; thus suggesting the appreciable LAB diversity of the autochthonous microbial population of the Canestrato Pugliese cheese. A comprehensive study of the resident raw milk Canestrato Pugliese cheese microbial population has been undertaken.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria in dried vegetables and spices.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Lassila, Elisa; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Spices and dried vegetable seasonings are potential sources of bacterial contamination for foods. However, little is known about lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spices and dried vegetables, even though certain LAB may cause food spoilage. In this study, we enumerated LAB in 104 spices and dried vegetables products aimed for the food manufacturing industry. The products were obtained from a spice wholesaler operating in Finland, and were sampled during a one-year period. We picked isolates (n = 343) for species identification based on numerical analysis of their ribotyping patterns and comparing them with the corresponding patterns of LAB type strains. We found LAB at levels >2 log CFU/g in 68 (65%) of the samples, with the highest counts detected from dried onion products and garlic powder with counts ranging from 4.24 to 6.64 log CFU/g. The LAB identified were predominantly Weissella spp. (61%) and Pediococcus spp. (15%) with Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Weissella paramesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus being the species identified. Other species identified belonged to the genera of Enterococcus spp. (8%), Leuconostoc spp. (6%) and Lactobacillus spp. (2%). Among the LAB identified, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and W. confusa have been associated with food spoilage. Our findings suggest that spices and dried vegetables are potential sources of LAB contamination in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, Jacqueline M.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Clark, Ryan L.

    Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria. Yet, the genetics and structure of LA catabolism have remained unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterizationmore » of a seven-gene operon that enables LA catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. When the pathway was reconstituted with purified proteins, we observed the formation of four acyl-CoA intermediates, including a unique 4-phosphovaleryl-CoA and the previously observed 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA product. Using adaptive evolution, we obtained a mutant of Escherichia coli LS5218 with functional deletions of fadE and atoC that was capable of robust growth on LA when it expressed the five enzymes from the P. putida operon. Here, this discovery will enable more efficient use of biomass hydrolysates and metabolic engineering to develop bioconversions using LA as a feedstock.« less

  9. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Rand, Jacqueline M.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Clark, Ryan L.; ...

    2017-09-25

    Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria. Yet, the genetics and structure of LA catabolism have remained unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterizationmore » of a seven-gene operon that enables LA catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. When the pathway was reconstituted with purified proteins, we observed the formation of four acyl-CoA intermediates, including a unique 4-phosphovaleryl-CoA and the previously observed 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA product. Using adaptive evolution, we obtained a mutant of Escherichia coli LS5218 with functional deletions of fadE and atoC that was capable of robust growth on LA when it expressed the five enzymes from the P. putida operon. Here, this discovery will enable more efficient use of biomass hydrolysates and metabolic engineering to develop bioconversions using LA as a feedstock.« less

  10. Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

  11. Co-culture-inducible bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chanos, Panagiotis; Mygind, Tina

    2016-05-01

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms have capabilities, like the production of antimicrobial compounds, which do not normally appear in ideal laboratory conditions. Common antimicrobial discovery techniques require the isolation of monocultures and their individual screening against target microorganisms. One strategy to achieve expression of otherwise hidden antimicrobials is induction by co-cultures. In the area of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria, there has been some research focusing into the characteristics of co-culture-inducible bacteriocin production and particularly the molecular mechanism(s) of such interactions. No clear relationship has been seen between bacteriocin-inducing and bacteriocin-producing microorganisms. The three-component regulatory system seems to be playing a central role in the induction, but inducing compounds have not been identified or characterized. However, the presence of the universal messenger molecule autoinducer-2 has been associated in some cases with the co-culture-inducible bacteriocin phenotype and it may play the role in the additional regulation of the three-component regulatory system. Understanding the mechanisms of induction would facilitate the development of strategies for screening and development of co-culture bacteriocin-producing systems and novel products as well as the perseverance of such systems in food and down to the intestinal tract, possibly conferring a probiotic effect on the host.

  12. Development of a HPLC-UV method for the quantitative determination of four short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria during in vitro fermentation.

    PubMed

    De Baere, S; Eeckhaut, V; Steppe, M; De Maesschalck, C; De Backer, P; Van Immerseel, F; Croubels, S

    2013-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC-UV method for the quantitative determination of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactic acid (LA) produced during in vitro fermentation is presented. Extraction of SCFAs from supernatants of bacterial cultures is aggravated due to their polarity and volatility. Detection can only be performed at a short, non-selective UV wavelength (210nm), due to the lack of any significant chromophore. Therefore special attention was paid to the optimization of the sample preparation procedure and the HPLC-UV conditions. The final extraction procedure consisted of a liquid-liquid back extraction using diethylether. Prior to HPLC-UV analysis the samples were acidified (pH<2) in order to improve retention of the SCFA's and LA on the Hypersil Gold aQ column. Matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared for all analytes of interest (range 0.5-50mM) and correlation and goodness-of-fit coefficients were between 0.9951-0.9993 and 3.88-8.27%, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.13 to 0.33mM and 0.5 to 1.0mM, respectively. The results for the within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell within the ranges specified. The reported validated method has been successfully used for the in vitro screening of supernatants of bacterial cultures for the presence of butyric acid, aiming to select for butyric acid-producing bacteria. In addition, the method has been used to determine the production pattern of selected fatty acids by bacterial species isolated from human feces and chicken caeca. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  14. Stimulation of Lactic Acid Bacteria by a Micrococcus Isolate: Evidence for Multiple Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nath, K. R.; Wagner, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Growth of, and rate of acid production by, six cultures of lactic acid bacteria were increased in the presence of Micrococcus isolate F4 or a preparation of its capsular material. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide found in pure cultures of the lactic acid bacteria were not detectable, or were greatly reduced, in mixed culture with Micrococcus isolate F4. The capsular material was not as effective as whole cells in preventing accumulation of H2O2. Catalase stimulated growth of, and the rate of acid production by, the lactic acid bacteria, but not to the same extent as Micrococcus isolate F4 in some cultures. The existence of two mechanisms for micrococcal stimulation of the lactic acid bacteria is postulated. One mechanism involves removal of H2O2; the other has not been characterized. PMID:4199337

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Lipids and Fatty Acids of Green Bacteria and Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Christine N.; Gray, Alane M.

    1974-01-01

    The complex lipids and fatty acids of the seven type species of green bacteria and three strains of Chloroflexus aurantiacus were analyzed. The green bacteria contained lipids that behaved as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol on thin-layer chromatography. They did not contain phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. Similarly, Chloroflexus contained lipids that behaved as phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol on thin-layer chromatography and did not contain phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. The green bacteria contained glycolipids I and II of Constantopoulos and Bloch (monogalactosyldiglyceride and a galactose- and rhamnose-containing diglyceride). Chloroflexus exhibited galactose-containing glycolipids that behaved identically with the mono- and digalactosyldiglycerides of spinach on thin-layer chromatography, and each contained galactose as well as at least one other sugar. The fatty acids of both groups of bacteria consisted entirely of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. In the green bacteria, myristic, palmitic, and hexadecenoic acids predominated. In Chloroflexus, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids predominated. The positions of the double bonds in the monounsaturated fatty acids of Chloroflexus indicated synthesis by the anaerobic pathway. The lipid analyses suggest a close relationship between the green bacteria and Chloroflexus and further suggest that these groups of photosynthetic bacteria are more closely related to the blue-green algae than are the purple bacteria. Images PMID:4421249

  16. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  17. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

  18. Systems biology of lactic acid bacteria: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the properties of a system as emerging from the interaction of well described parts is the most important goal of Systems Biology. Although in the practice of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) physiology we most often think of the parts as the proteins and metabolites, a wider interpretation of what a part is can be useful. For example, different strains or species can be the parts of a community, or we could study only the chemical reactions as the parts of metabolism (and forgetting about the enzymes that catalyze them), as is done in flux balance analysis. As long as we have some understanding of the properties of these parts, we can investigate whether their interaction leads to novel or unanticipated behaviour of the system that they constitute. There has been a tendency in the Systems Biology community to think that the collection and integration of data should continue ad infinitum, or that we will otherwise not be able to understand the systems that we study in their details. However, it may sometimes be useful to take a step back and consider whether the knowledge that we already have may not explain the system behaviour that we find so intriguing. Reasoning about systems can be difficult, and may require the application of mathematical techniques. The reward is sometimes the realization of unexpected conclusions, or in the worst case, that we still do not know enough details of the parts, or of the interactions between them. We will discuss a number of cases, with a focus on LAB-related work, where a typical systems approach has brought new knowledge or perspective, often counterintuitive, and clashing with conclusions from simpler approaches. Also novel types of testable hypotheses may be generated by the systems approach, which we will illustrate. Finally we will give an outlook on the fields of research where the systems approach may point the way for the near future. PMID:21995498

  19. Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol

  20. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from local cow´s milk kefir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, YS; Yulvizar, C.; Mazhitov, B.

    2018-03-01

    One of products from milk fermentation is kefir. It is made by adding kefir grains which are composed of lactic acid bacteria and yeast into milk. The lactic acid bacteria are a group of bacteria that produce antimicrobial substances and able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. In this research, the lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Aceh local cow`s milk kefir to determine the genus of the isolates. The methods used in the characterization of lactic acid bacteria are colony morphology, cell morphology, and biochemical tests which includes a catalase test; 5%, 6.5%, and 10% salt endurance tests; 37°C and 14°C temperature endurance tests, SIM test, TSIA test, MR-VP test, and O/F test. Of the four isolates found from the cow’s milk kefir, two isolates were confirmed as lactic acid bacteria (isolates SK-1 and SK-4). Both isolates are Gram positive bacteria, and have negative catalase activity. From the observations of colony morphology, cell morphology, and biochemical tests, it was found that the genus of SK-1 is Lactobacillus and the genus of SK-4 is Enterococcus.

  1. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of natural grasses treated with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in meadow steppe and typical steppe

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Meiling; Gentu, Ge; Liu, Tingyu; Jia, Yushan; Cai, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Objective In order to improve fermentation quality of natural grasses, their silage preparation and fermentation quality in meadow steppe (MS) and typical steppe (TS) were studied. Methods The small-scale silages and round bale silages of mixed natural grasses in both steppes were prepared using the commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and cellulase enzyme (AC, Acremonium cellulase) as additives. Results MS and TS contained 33 and 9 species of natural grasses, respectively. Stipa baicalensis in MS and Stipa grandi in TS were the dominant grasses with the highest dry matter (DM) yield. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber and water-soluble carbohydrate of the mixed natural grasses in both steppes were 8.02% to 9.03%, 66.75% to 69.47%, and 2.02% to 2.20% on a DM basis, respectively. All silages treated with LAB and cellulase were well preserved with lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N content, and higher lactic acid and CP content than those of control in four kinds of silages. Compared with CH- or AC-treated silages, the CH+ AC-treated silages had higher lactic acid content. Conclusion The results confirmed that combination with LAB and cellulase may result in beneficial effects by improving the natural grass silage fermentation in both grasslands. PMID:27703133

  2. Effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, selected gene expression in the duodenum epithelium, and nutrient digestion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Śliwiński, B; Flaga, J; Wieczorek, J; Godlewski, M M; Wierzchoś, E; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, expression of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporters (monocarboxylate transporter-1, -2, and -4) and receptors (G protein coupled receptor-41 and -43) in the duodenal epithelium and nutrient digestion in sheep. Eight wethers (39.0 ± 3.00 kg; mean ± SD) with ruminal and T-shape duodenal cannulas were allocated to 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design with each experimental period lasting for 21 d (12 d of adaptation and 9 d for data and sample collection). Experimental treatments were: 1) distilled water infusion into the rumen (CONT); 2) 15 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT15); 3) 30 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT30); and 4) 45 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT45). The daily dose of butyrate was infused into the rumen via the rumen cannula, with 200 mL of solution of butyric acid and distilled water, at a constant rate (0.1389 mL/min) throughout the day using a peristaltic pump. Correspondingly, 200 mL/d of distilled water was infused into the rumen of CONT. The wethers were fed daily 900 g of chopped meadow hay and 200 g of concentrate in two equal meals at 0600 and 1800 h. Butyrate infusion into the rumen did not affect total SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid ( > 0.11). Molar proportion of butyrate in total SCFA linearly increased, and molar proportion of acetate and isovalerate linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.02) with an increasing amount of butyrate infused into the rumen. The molar proportion of butyrate in total SCFA in the duodenal digesta linearly increased ( < 0.01), and butyrate flow to duodenum tended to linearly increase ( = 0.06) with an increasing dose of exogenous butyrate delivered to the rumen. Butyrate infusion into the rumen did not affect ( ≥ 0.14) the mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporter-2 and -4 and G protein coupled receptor-43 in the duodenal epithelium. The G

  3. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

  4. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

  5. Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takuya; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Nakagaki, Takenori; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2018-03-27

    The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis , Lactococcus . lactis subsp. Cremoris , Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei . In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and colorectal tumor HCT116 cells. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression and secretion of IFN-γ (interferon gamma) increased in KHYG-1 cells that had been treated with the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir. The results suggest that the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir has strong effects on natural immunity and tumor cell cytotoxicity.

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takuya; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Nakagaki, Takenori; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2018-01-01

    The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and colorectal tumor HCT116 cells. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression and secretion of IFN-γ (interferon gamma) increased in KHYG-1 cells that had been treated with the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir. The results suggest that the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir has strong effects on natural immunity and tumor cell cytotoxicity. PMID:29584690

  7. Estimation of dark and active dielectric constants in the sub-THz frequency domain of an optically tunable organic semiconductor blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andy, Andre S.; Kneller, James W. E.; Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Parini, Clive; Scott, Ken; Kreouzis, Theo; Donnan, Robert S.

    2018-06-01

    The dielectric properties of a 95% poly(3-hexylthiophene):5% phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend are measured in the dark and under white light illumination by quasi-optical transmissometry and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The real part of the dielectric constant varies monotonically between 2.75 and 3.50, in agreement with the literature, and displays a reversible photoinduced drop of 0.05–0.55 at sub-THz. The imaginary part fluctuates between 0.1 and 1.5 in the dark and displays a reversible increase upon illumination of 0.10–0.52 at sub-THz. The corresponding charge carrier concentration under illumination (using transient and steady-state photoconduction) is 1014 to 1015 cm‑3.

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of multifunctional alginate microspheres via the in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots and the graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid to sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guilin; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Yingying; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor-loaded fluorescent alginate microspheres, which can realise sustained growth factor release and fluorescence imaging, were synthesised by in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and covalent graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid (PBA). BSA was chosen as a growth factor model protein to study the release kinetic of growth factors from alginate microspheres. The microsphere size and fluorescent properties were also investigated. Investigations of cell culture were used for evaluating biocompatibility of BSA-loaded fluorescent microspheres and fluorescence imaging property of ZnO QDs and PBA-grafted sodium alginate from the microspheres. The results show that they have good fluorescent property either to microspheres or to cells and fluorescent microspheres have good biocompatibility and property in sustained release of growth factors. The obtained microspheres will be expected to realise the imaging of cells and materials and also the release of growth factor in tissue engineering or in cell culture.

  9. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltagemore » but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.« less

  10. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  11. Impact of gut colonization with butyrate producing microbiota on respiratory viral infection following allo-HCT.

    PubMed

    Haak, Bastiaan W; Littmann, Eric R; Chaubard, Jean-Luc; Pickard, Amanda J; Fontana, Emily; Adhi, Fatima; Gyaltshen, Yangtsho; Ling, Lilan; Morjaria, Sejal M; Peled, Jonathan U; van den Brink, Marcel R; Geyer, Alexander I; Cross, Justin R; Pamer, Eric G; Taur, Ying

    2018-04-19

    Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT. Fecal samples from 360 allo-HSCT patients were collected at the time of stem cell engraftment and subjected to deep, 16S rRNA sequencing to determine microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid levels were determined in a nested subset of fecal samples. The development of respiratory viral infections and LRTI was determined for 180 days following allo-HCT. Clinical and microbiota risk factors for LRTI were subsequently evaluated using survival analysis. Respiratory viral infection occurred in 149 (41.4%) patients. Of those, 47 (31.5%) developed LRTI. Patients with higher abundances of butyrate producing bacteria were a five-fold less likely to develop viral LRTI, independent of other factors (adjusted HR=0.22, 95% CI 0.04 - 0.69). Higher representation of butyrate-producing bacteria in the fecal microbiota is associated with increased resistance against respiratory viral infection with LRTI in allo-HCT patients. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  12. Combined effects of starvation and butyrate on autophagy-dependent gingival epithelial cell death.

    PubMed

    Evans, M; Murofushi, T; Tsuda, H; Mikami, Y; Zhao, N; Ochiai, K; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Yamamoto, M; Otsuka, K; Suzuki, N

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria in the dental biofilm surrounding marginal gingival grooves cause periodontal diseases. Numerous bacteria within the biofilm consume nutrients from the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, some gram-negative bacteria in mature dental biofilms produce butyrate. Thus, gingival epithelial cells in close proximity to mature dental biofilms are at risk of both starvation and exposure to butyrate. In the present study, we determined the combined effects of starvation and butyrate exposure on gingival epithelial cell death and the underlying mechanisms. The Ca9-22 cell line was used as an in vitro counterpart of gingival epithelial cells. Cell death was measured as the amount of total DNA in the dead cells using SYTOX Green dye, which penetrates through membranes of dead cells and emits fluorescence when it intercalates into double-stranded DNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, the amount of autophagy, and acetylation of histone H3 were determined using western blot. Gene expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b (lc3b) were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Butyrate-induced cell death occurred in a dose-dependent manner whether cells were starved or fed. However, the induction of cell death was two to four times higher when cells were placed under starvation conditions compared to when they were fed. Moreover, both starvation and butyrate exposure induced AMPK activity and autophagy. While AMPK inactivation resulted in decreased autophagy and butyrate-induced cell death under conditions of starvation, AMPK activation resulted in butyrate-induced cell death when cells were fed. Combined with the results of our previous report, which demonstrated butyrate-induced autophagy-dependent cell death, the results of this study suggest that the combination of starvation and butyrate exposure activates AMPK inducing autophagy and subsequent cell death. Notably, this combination markedly

  13. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  14. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with potential protective culture characteristics from fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Nurul Huda; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are also known as beneficial microorganisms abundantly found in fermented food products. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fresh cut fruits obtained from local markets. Throughout the isolation process from 11 samples of fruits, 225 presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated on MRS agar medium. After catalase and oxidase tests, 149 resulted to fit the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria. Further identification using Gram staining was conducted to identify the Gram positive bacteria. After this confirmation, the fermentation characteristics of these isolates were identified. It was found that 87 (58.4%) isolates were heterofermentative, while the rest of 62 (41.6%) are homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Later, all these isolates were investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus using agar spot assay method. Seven (4.7%) isolates showed strong antagonistic capacity, while 127 (85.2%) and 8 (5.4%) isolates have medium and weak antagonistic capacity, respectively. The other 7 (4.7%) isolates indicated to have no antagonistic effect on S. aureus. Results support the potential of LAB isolated in this study which showed strong antagonistic activity against S. aureus may be manipulated to become protective cultures in food products. While the homofermentative or heterofermentative LAB can be utilized in fermentation of food and non-food products depending on the by-products required during the fermentation.

  15. Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  17. Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine.

    PubMed

    Lonvaud-Funel, A

    1999-01-01

    The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic acid bacteria species can be identified. They belong to the Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus genera. Throughout alcoholic fermentation, a natural selection occurs and finally the dominant species is O. oeni, due to interactions between yeasts and bacteria and between bacteria themselves. After bacterial growth, when the population is over 10(6) CFU/ml, malolactic transformation is the obvious change in wine composition. However, many other substrates can be metabolized. Some like remaining sugars and citric acid are always assimilated by lactic acid bacteria, thus providing them with energy and carbon. Other substrates such as some amino acids may be used following pathways restricted to strains carrying the adequate enzymes. Some strains can also produce exopolysaccharides. All these transformations greatly influence the sensory and hygienic quality of wine. Malic acid transformation is encouraged because it induces deacidification. Diacetyl produced from citric acid is also helpful to some extent. Sensory analyses show that many other reactions change the aromas and make malolactic fermentation beneficial, but they are as yet unknown. On the contrary, an excess of acetic acid, the synthesis of glucane, biogenic amines and precursors of ethylcarbamate are undesirable. Fortunately, lactic acid bacteria normally multiply in dry wines; moreover some of these activities are not widespread. Moreover, the most striking trait of wine lactic acid bacteria is their capacity to adapt to a hostile environment. The mechanisms for this are not yet completely elucidated

  18. Use of Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate for Reduction of Nitrate and Sulfate and Methanogenesis in Microcosms and Bioreactors Simulating an Oil Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yin; An, Dongshan; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acetate, propionate, and butyrate (volatile fatty acids [VFA]) occur in oil field waters and are frequently used for microbial growth of oil field consortia. We determined the kinetics of use of these VFA components (3 mM each) by an anaerobic oil field consortium in microcosms containing 2 mM sulfate and 0, 4, 6, 8, or 13 mM nitrate. Nitrate was reduced first, with a preference for acetate and propionate. Sulfate reduction then proceeded with propionate (but not butyrate) as the electron donor, whereas the fermentation of butyrate (but not propionate) was associated with methanogenesis. Microbial community analyses indicated that Paracoccus and Thauera (Paracoccus-Thauera), Desulfobulbus, and Syntrophomonas-Methanobacterium were the dominant taxa whose members catalyzed these three processes. Most-probable-number assays showed the presence of up to 107/ml of propionate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in waters from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field. Bioreactors with the same concentrations of sulfate and VFA responded similarly to increasing concentrations of injected nitrate as observed in the microcosms: sulfide formation was prevented by adding approximately 80% of the nitrate dose needed to completely oxidize VFA to CO2 in both. Thus, this work has demonstrated that simple time-dependent observations of the use of acetate, propionate, and butyrate for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis in microcosms are a good proxy for these processes in bioreactors, monitoring of which is more complex. IMPORTANCE Oil field volatile fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were specifically used for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenic fermentation. Time-dependent analyses of microcosms served as a good proxy for these processes in a bioreactor, mimicking a sulfide-producing (souring) oil reservoir: 80% of the nitrate dose required to oxidize volatile fatty acids to CO2 was needed to prevent souring in both

  19. Use of Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate for Reduction of Nitrate and Sulfate and Methanogenesis in Microcosms and Bioreactors Simulating an Oil Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Shen, Yin; An, Dongshan; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate (volatile fatty acids [VFA]) occur in oil field waters and are frequently used for microbial growth of oil field consortia. We determined the kinetics of use of these VFA components (3 mM each) by an anaerobic oil field consortium in microcosms containing 2 mM sulfate and 0, 4, 6, 8, or 13 mM nitrate. Nitrate was reduced first, with a preference for acetate and propionate. Sulfate reduction then proceeded with propionate (but not butyrate) as the electron donor, whereas the fermentation of butyrate (but not propionate) was associated with methanogenesis. Microbial community analyses indicated that Paracoccus and Thauera ( Paracoccus - Thauera ), Desulfobulbus , and Syntrophomonas - Methanobacterium were the dominant taxa whose members catalyzed these three processes. Most-probable-number assays showed the presence of up to 10 7 /ml of propionate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in waters from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field. Bioreactors with the same concentrations of sulfate and VFA responded similarly to increasing concentrations of injected nitrate as observed in the microcosms: sulfide formation was prevented by adding approximately 80% of the nitrate dose needed to completely oxidize VFA to CO 2 in both. Thus, this work has demonstrated that simple time-dependent observations of the use of acetate, propionate, and butyrate for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis in microcosms are a good proxy for these processes in bioreactors, monitoring of which is more complex. IMPORTANCE Oil field volatile fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were specifically used for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenic fermentation. Time-dependent analyses of microcosms served as a good proxy for these processes in a bioreactor, mimicking a sulfide-producing (souring) oil reservoir: 80% of the nitrate dose required to oxidize volatile fatty acids to CO 2 was needed to prevent souring in both

  20. Antagonistic activity of isolated lactic acid bacteria from Pliek U against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiti, A. A.; Jamilah, I.; Rusmarilin, H.

    2017-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one group of microbes that has many benefits, notably in food and health industries sector. LAB plays an important role in food fermentation and it has bacteriostatic effect against the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The research related LAB continued to be done to increase the diversity of potential isolates derived from nature which is indigenous bacteria for biotechnological purposes. This study was aimed to isolate and characterize LAB derived from pliek u sample and to examine the potency to inhibits Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 bacteria growth. A total of 5 isolates were isolated and based on morphological and physiological characteristics of the fifth bacteria, they are allegedly belonging to the genus Bacillus. Result of antagonistic test showed that the five isolates could inhibits the growth of E. coli ATCC 25922. The highest inhibition zone is 8.5 mm was shown by isolates NQ2, while the lowest inhibition is 1.5 mm was shown by isolates NQ3.

  1. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  2. Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

  3. Butyrate Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Energy Expenditure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhanguo; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Ward, Robert E.; Martin, Roy J.; Lefevre, Michael; Cefalu, William T.; Ye, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the role of butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid formed by fermentation in the large intestine, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In dietary-obese C57BL/6J mice, sodium butyrate was administrated through diet supplementation at 5% wt/wt in the high-fat diet. Insulin sensitivity was examined with insulin tolerance testing and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Energy metabolism was monitored in a metabolic chamber. Mitochondrial function was investigated in brown adipocytes and skeletal muscle in the mice. RESULTS On the high-fat diet, supplementation of butyrate prevented development of insulin resistance and obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin tolerance were all preserved in the treated mice. Body fat content was maintained at 10% without a reduction in food intake. Adaptive thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were enhanced. An increase in mitochondrial function and biogenesis was observed in skeletal muscle and brown fat. The type I fiber was enriched in skeletal muscle. Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression was elevated at mRNA and protein levels. AMP kinase and p38 activities were elevated. In the obese mice, supplementation of butyrate led to an increase in insulin sensitivity and a reduction in adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Dietary supplementation of butyrate can prevent and treat diet-induced insulin resistance in mouse. The mechanism of butyrate action is related to promotion of energy expenditure and induction of mitochondria function. PMID:19366864

  4. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjun; Zhou, Zichao; Dong, Jiachen; Zhang, Jichun; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are two major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we evaluated the potential antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of DHA and EPA against two periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum). MTT assay showed that DHA and EPA still exhibited no cytotoxicity to human oral tissue cells when the concentration came to 100 μM and 200 μM, respectively. Against P. gingivalis, DHA and EPA showed the same minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μM, and a respective minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5 μM and 25 μM. However, the MIC and MBC values of DHA or EPA against F. nucleatum were both greater than 100 μM. For early-stage bacteria, DHA or EPA displayed complete inhibition on the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis from the lowest concentration of 12.5 μM. And the planktonic growth of F. nucleatum was slightly but not completely inhibited by DHA or EPA even at the concentration of 100 μM, however, the biofilm formation of F. nucleatum at 24 h was significantly restrained by 100 μM EPA. For exponential-phase bacteria, 100 μM DHA or EPA completely killed P. gingivalis and significantly decreased the viable counts of F. nucleatum. Meanwhile, the morphology of P. gingivalis was apparently damaged, and the virulence factor gene expression of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum was strongly downregulated. Besides, the viability and the thickness of mature P. gingivalis biofilm, together with the viability of mature F. nucleatum biofilm were both significantly decreased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. In conclusion, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm forms of periodontal pathogens, which suggested that DHA and EPA might be potentially supplementary therapeutic agents for prevention

  5. Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana▿

    PubMed Central

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and

  6. Uptake of free amino acids by bacteria-free larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus.

    PubMed

    Davis, J P; Stephens, G C

    1984-10-01

    Larvae of Dendraster excentricus were produced by collecting gametes and carrying out fertilization under aseptic conditions. Since gametes are free of bacteria in the gonad, bacteria-free (axenic) suspensions of larvae result. Net rates of entry of 14 amino acids and the rate of production of ammonia were simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The net rates of uptake of neutral amino acids were an order of magnitude greater than rates for basic and acidic amino acids. Influx of 14C-labeled leucine, arginine, and glutamate accurately reflects the net entry rate of these substrates. Uptake of amino acids by axenic suspensions of larvae was compared with uptake by suspensions prepared without aseptic precautions. There was no significant difference in net uptake of the 14 amino acids or in the pattern of oxidation and assimilation of [14C]leucine during short-term experiments of 4-h duration or less.

  7. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Katiraei, Saeed; Kooijman, Sander; Zhou, Enchen; Chung, Chih Kit; Gao, Yuanqing; van den Heuvel, José K; Meijer, Onno C; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Heijink, Marieke; Giera, Martin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Groen, Albert K; Rensen, Patrick C N; Wang, Yanan

    2017-11-03

    Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included. Mechanistic involvement of the gut-brain neural circuit was investigated in vagotomised mice. Acute oral, but not intravenous, butyrate administration decreased food intake, suppressed the activity of orexigenic neurons that express neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus, and decreased neuronal activity within the nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal complex in the brainstem. Chronic butyrate supplementation prevented diet-induced obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis, largely attributed to a reduction in food intake. Butyrate also modestly promoted fat oxidation and activated brown adipose tissue (BAT), evident from increased utilisation of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. This effect was not due to the reduced food intake, but explained by an increased sympathetic outflow to BAT. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished the effects of butyrate on food intake as well as the stimulation of metabolic activity in BAT. Butyrate acts on the gut-brain neural circuit to improve energy metabolism via reducing energy intake and enhancing fat oxidation by activating BAT. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Glucose and D-Allulose contained medium to support the growth of lactic acid bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Pramono, Y. B.; Sari, D. I.; Pangestika, W.

    2018-01-01

    Monosaccharide has been known as support agent for the growth of lactic acid bacteria. However the combination among monosaccharides for supporting the living of bacteria has not been understood well. This research was done for analyzing the combination glucose and D-allulose for the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The NaCl medium containing glucose and D-allulose was used to analyse the growth of bacteria. The study showed that glucose and D-allulose have been detected as supportive agent to L. acidophilus and S. thermophillus specifically. As conclusion, glucose and D-allulose supported the growth of lactic acid bacteria equally. This finding might provide the beneficial information for industry to utilize D-allulose as well as glucose.

  9. HYDROLYTIC BREAKDOWN OF LACTOFERRICIN BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferricin is a 25 amino acid antimicrobial peptide domain that is liberated by pepsin digestion of lactoferrin in bovine milk. Along with its antibacterial properties, lactoferricin has also been reported to have immunostimulatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic effects. There is substantial ...

  10. Bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on milk fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Every biotechnology process that relies on the use of bacteria to make a product or to overproduce a molecule may, at some time, struggle with the presence of virulent phages. For example, phages are the primary cause of fermentation failure in the milk transformation industry. This review focuses on the recent scientific advances in the field of lactic acid bacteria phage research. Three specific topics, namely, the sources of contamination, the detection methods and the control procedures will be discussed. PMID:21995802

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides in Foods and Beverages: Isolation, Properties, Characterization, and Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kieran M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-25

    Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides produced by many species. They vary widely in their molecular, compositional, and structural characteristics, including mechanisms of synthesis. The physiochemical properties of these polymers mean that they can be exploited for the sensorial and textural enhancement of a variety of food and beverage products. Traditionally, lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides have an important role in fermented dairy products and more recently are being applied for the improvement of bakery products. The health benefits that are continually being associated with these polysaccharides enable the development of dual function, added-value, and clean-label products. To fully exploit and understand the functionality of these exopolysaccharides, their isolation, purification, and thorough characterization are of great importance. This review considers each of the above factors and presents the current knowledge on the importance of lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides in the food and beverage industry.

  12. Large Plasmids from Soil Bacteria Enriched on Halogenated Alkanoic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, David J.; Gowland, Peter C.; Slater, J. Howard

    1986-01-01

    Four Pseudomonas species and two Alcaligenes species were isolated from soil with a capacity to grow on halogenated alkanoic acids. They were shown to contain one of five large plasmids. The plasmids had molecular weights ranging from 98,800 to 190,000. They were associated with the ability to utilize the halogenated substrates 2-monochloropropionic acid and 2-monochloroacetic acid and with resistance towards one or more of the heavy metals mercury, selenium, and tellurium. The largest plasmid, pUU204, was shown to be unstable in continuous-flow culture when the organism was supplied with succinate as the sole carbon source. The dehalogenase gene associated with pUU204 appeared to be readily transferred to an incP group plasmid, R68-45. PMID:16346975

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that the animals' environment plays a role in the balance between the dominance of L. lactis and enterococci in raw goats' milk. The separation between the milking parlor and the goat shed (vs no separation) and only straw in the bedding (vs straw and hay) seems to promote L. lactis in the milk (vs enterococci). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-04

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  16. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Salmonella species in meat and fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine of influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 7 Salmonella spp. strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ripened fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus spp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella strains studied was, depending on the alternate, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The investigations also covered the water activity (a(w)) and pH of the tested products. The results obtained are shown in 12 figures and suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups showed antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella spp. strains. However, these abilities were not observed with respect to some lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. The temperature and length of the incubation period of sausages, but not a(w) and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria.

  17. [Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Xia, Kai; Liang, Xin-le; Li, Yu-dong

    2015-12-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a widespread adaptive immunity system that exists in most archaea and many bacteria against foreign DNA, such as phages, viruses and plasmids. In general, CRISPR system consists of direct repeat, leader, spacer and CRISPR-associated sequences. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role in industrial fermentation of vinegar and bioelectrochemistry. To investigate the polymorphism and evolution pattern of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria, bioinformatic analyses were performed on 48 species from three main genera (Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter) with whole genome sequences available from the NCBI database. The results showed that the CRISPR system existed in 32 species of the 48 strains studied. Most of the CRISPR-Cas system in AAB belonged to type I CRISPR-Cas system (subtype E and C), but type II CRISPR-Cas system which contain cas9 gene was only found in the genus Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The repeat sequences of some CRISPR were highly conserved among species from different genera, and the leader sequences of some CRISPR possessed conservative motif, which was associated with regulated promoters. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of cas1 demonstrated that they were suitable for classification of species. The conservation of cas1 genes was associated with that of repeat sequences among different strains, suggesting they were subjected to similar functional constraints. Moreover, the number of spacer was positively correlated with the number of prophages and insertion sequences, indicating the acetic acid bacteria were continually invaded by new foreign DNA. The comparative analysis of CRISR loci in acetic acid bacteria provided the basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of different acetic acid tolerance and genome stability in acetic acid bacteria.

  18. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tgoto@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University; Kim, Young-Il

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increasedmore » adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.« less

  19. Butyrate decreases its own oxidation in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; Ahmed, Bettaieb; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2018-06-05

    Colorectal cancer is characterized by an increase in the utilization of glucose and a diminishment in the oxidation of butyrate, which is a short chain fatty acid. In colorectal cancer cells, butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases to increase the expression of genes that slow the cell cycle and induce apoptosis. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the metabolic shift away from butyrate oxidation in cancer cells is important in in understanding the beneficial effects of the molecule toward colorectal cancer. Here, we demonstrate that butyrate decreased its own oxidation in cancerous colonocytes. Butyrate lowered the expression of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates the oxidation of short-chain fatty acids. Butyrate does not alter short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase levels in non-cancerous colonocytes. Trichostatin A, a structurally unrelated inhibitor of histone deacetylases, and propionate also decreased the level of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which alluded to inhibition of histone deacetylases as a part of the mechanism. Knockdown of histone deacetylase isoform 1, but not isoform 2 or 3, inhibited the ability of butyrate to decrease short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase expression. This work identifies a mechanism by which butyrate selective targets colorectal cancer cells to reduce its own metabolism.

  20. Characterization of airag collected in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia with emphasis on isolated lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Airag, alcoholic sour-tasting beverage, has been traditionally prepared by Mongolian nomads who naturally ferment fresh mares' milk. Biochemical and microbiological compositions of airag samples collected in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and physiological characteristics of isolated lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Protein composition and biochemical composition were determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria were identified based on nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Carbohydrate fermentation, acid survival, bile resistance and acid production in skim milk culture were determined. Equine whey proteins were present in airag samples more than caseins. The airag samples contained 0.10-3.36 % lactose, 1.44-2.33 % ethyl alcohol, 1.08-1.62 % lactic acid and 0.12-0.22 % acetic acid. Lactobacillus (L.) helveticus were major lactic acid bacteria consisting of 9 isolates among total 18 isolates of lactic acid bacteria. L. helveticus survived strongly in PBS, pH 3.0 but did not grow in MRS broth containing 0.1 % oxgall. A couple of L. helveticus isolates lowered pH of skim milk culture to less than 4.0 and produced acid up to more than 1.0 %. Highly variable biochemical compositions of the airag samples indicated inconsistent quality due to natural fermentation. Airag with low lactose content should be favorable for nutrition, considering that mares' milk with high lactose content has strong laxative effect. The isolates of L. helveticus which produced acid actively in skim milk culture might have a major role in production of airag.

  1. [Metabolic pattern of pig hindgut bacteria on aromatic amino acids by an in vitro fermentation method].

    PubMed

    Ma, Meilei; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-11-04

    This experiment was conducted to study different metabolic patterns of pig hindgut bacteria on aromatic amino acids by an in vitro fermentation method. Ileum, cecum and colon chyme in Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire goods hybridization pigs were taken as inoculum. The single aromatic amino acid concentration was kept 10 mmol/L in fermentation flask. Then the fermentation flask was incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Gas production was measured at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h, and samples of fermentation collected at 0 h and 24 h were used to measure ammonia nitrogen NH3-N and microbial crude protein (MCP). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR were used to monitor and quantify the development of bacteria community in zymotic fluid.[ The concentrations of NH3-N and MCP were significantly affected by aromatic amino acids and intestinal segments (P<0.01). Intestinal segments also affected gas production (GP) significantly (P0.01). NH3-N, MCP and GP were affected by interaction of aromatic amino acids and intestinal segments. DGGE analysis showed bacteria of aromatic amino acids shared amount of bands together, especially similarity analysis of DGGE profile of Phe and Tyr in ileum, Tyr and Trp in colon were 87.9% and 80.5% separately. Shannon diversity indices analysis revealed that aromatic amino acids in cecum and colon varied significantly (P<0.05). Real-time PCR results showed that the quantity of total bacteria were affected by aromatic amino acids and intestinal segments significantly (P<0.05). The potential as proportion of different aromatic amino acids are different. Compared with Trp and Phe, the diversity of bacteria utilizing Tyr in cecum or colon is low; compared with Tyr and Trp, a large number of Phe participated in synthesizing bacteria.The fermentation pattern of specific aromatic amino acids in different intestinal segment was unique. Compared with ileum and cecum, much more aromatic amino acids participated in the synthesis of bacteria in

  2. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage at three high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gulfam, Ali; Guo, Gang; Tajebe, Seare; Chen, Lei; Liu, Qinhua; Yuan, Xianjun; Bai, Yunfeng; Saho, Tao

    2017-04-01

    The poor fermentation quality of silage is an important issue for silage production during the high temperatures of summer. Pediococcus acidilactici GG13 (GG13) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG26 (GG26) isolated from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were characterised by morphological and physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and their effects, along with those of a commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (CB), on the fermentation quality of facultative halophyte Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) ensiled at 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C were studied, respectively. The strains GG13 and GG26 grew well at 50 °C and pH 3.5, and were tolerant to 6.5% NaCl. After ensiling for 50 days, the strains GG13 and GG26 and the CB decreased (P < 0.001) the pH and acetic acid and ammonia-N contents and increased (P < 0.001) the lactic acid contents at 30 °C, and decreased (P < 0.001) the ammonia-N contents at 40 °C in Napier grass. CB did not affect the fermentation quality at 50 °C, whereas both isolated strains improved the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage as indicated by the lower (P < 0.001) pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N contents and higher (P < 0.001) lactic acid contents. The strain GG13 is better than GG26 with regard to improvement in fermentation quality of Napier grass silage. The results of this study suggested that strain GG13 is a good LAB inoculant for producing well-fermented silages during the high temperatures of summer times. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Dong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids are widely distributed in different sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as self-replicating extrachromosomal genetic materials, and have received considerable attention due to their close relationship with many important functions as well as some industrially relevant characteristics of the LAB species. They are interesting with regard to the development of food-grade cloning vectors. This review summarizes new developments in the area of lactic acid bacteria plasmids and aims to provide up to date information that can be used in related future research. PMID:26068451

  4. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

  5. In Silico Evidence for the Horizontal Transfer of gsiB, a σΒ-Regulated Gene in Gram-Positive Bacteria, to Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Asteri, Ioanna-Areti; Boutou, Effrossyni; Anastasiou, Rania; Pot, Bruno; Vorgias, Constantinos E.; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    gsiB, coding for glucose starvation-inducible protein B, is a characteristic member of the σΒ stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis and several other Gram-positive bacteria. Here we provide in silico evidence for the horizontal transfer of gsiB in lactic acid bacteria that are devoid of the σΒ factor. PMID:21421783

  6. Lactic Acid Bateria - Friend or Foe? Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Production of Polysaccharides and Fuel Ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in the production of fermented foods and as probiotics. Alternan is a glucan with a distinctive backbone structure of alternating alpha-(1,6) and alpha-(1,3) linkages produced by the LAB Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In recent years, improved strains f...

  7. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  9. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  10. Microalgae-bacteria biofilms: a sustainable synergistic approach in remediation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Abinandan, Sudharsanam; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae and bacteria offer a huge potential in delving interest to study and explore various mechanisms under extreme environments. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one such environment which is extremely acidic containing copious amounts of heavy metals and poses a major threat to the ecosystem. Despite its extreme conditions, AMD is the habitat for several microbes and their activities. The use of various chemicals in prevention of AMD formation and conventional treatment in a larger scale is not feasible under different geological conditions. It implies that microbe-mediated approach is a viable and sustainable alternative technology for AMD remediation. Microalgae in biofilms play a pivotal role in such bioremediation as they maintain mutualism with heterotrophic bacteria. Synergistic approach of using microalgae-bacteria biofilms provides supportive metabolites from algal biomass for growth of bacteria and mediates remediation of AMD. However, by virtue of their physiology and capabilities of metal removal, non-acidophilic microalgae can be acclimated for use in AMD remediation. A combination of selective acidophilic and non-acidophilic microalgae together with bacteria, all in the form of biofilms, may be very effective for bioremediation of metal-contaminated waters. The present review critically examines the nature of mutualistic interactions established between microalgae and bacteria in biofilms and their role in removal of metals from AMDs, and consequent biomass production for the yield of biofuel. Integration of microalgal-bacterial consortia in fuel cells would be an attractive emerging approach of microbial biotechnology for AMD remediation.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine bacteria and strategies to enhance their production.

    PubMed

    Moi, Ibrahim Musa; Leow, Adam Thean Chor; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Sabri, Suriana

    2018-05-10

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in human diet. Despite the wide-ranging importance and benefits from heart health to brain functions, humans and mammals cannot synthesize PUFAs de novo. The primary sources of PUFA are fish and plants. Due to the increasing concerns associated with food security as well as issues of environmental contaminants in fish oil, there has been considerable interest in the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids from alternative resources which are more sustainable, safer, and economical. For instance, marine bacteria, particularly the genus of Shewanella, Photobacterium, Colwellia, Moritella, Psychromonas, Vibrio, and Alteromonas, are found to be one among the major microbial producers of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine bacteria as well as the metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of PUFA production are discussed.

  12. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA) production in vitro and in vivo. Methods In the first part (A), suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v) were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25). LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B), subjects (n=18) were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Results Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p<0.05). Fructose gave higher LA concentrations than xylitol. In part B, there were no significant differences in LA production between baseline and follow up in any of the groups and no differences between test and placebo were displayed. The salivary MS counts were not significantly altered during the intervention but the lactobacilli counts increased significantly in the test group (p<0.05). Conclusion Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112). Trial registration NCT01700712

  13. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keller, Mette K; Twetman, Svante

    2012-10-24

    The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA) production in vitro and in vivo. In the first part (A), suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v) were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25). LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B), subjects (n=18) were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p<0.05). Fructose gave higher LA concentrations than xylitol. In part B, there were no significant differences in LA production between baseline and follow up in any of the groups and no differences between test and placebo were displayed. The salivary MS counts were not significantly altered during the intervention but the lactobacilli counts increased significantly in the test group (p<0.05). Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112). NCT01700712.

  14. Acrylic acid removal by acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin manufactured wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Lee, C M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system. The bacteria should have the ability to remove acrylic acid and tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity. The aim is also to understand the performance of isolated pure strain for treating different initial acrylic acid concentrations from synthetic wastewater. The results are: twenty strains were isolated from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system and twelve of them could utilize 600 mg/l acrylic acid for growth. Seven of twelve strains could tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity, when the concentration was below 300 mg/l. Bacillus thuringiensis was one of the seven strains and the optimum growth temperature was 32 degrees C. Bacillus thuringiensis could utilize acrylic acid for growth, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 1,690.4 mg/l. Besides this, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 606.8 mg/l, the acrylic acid removal efficiency exceeded 96.3%. Bacillus thuringiensis could tolerate 295.7 mg/l acrylamide and 198.4 mg/l acrylonitrile toxicity but could not tolerate 297.3 mg/l epsilon-caprolactam.

  15. Heterologous surface display on lactic acid bacteria: non-GMO alternative?

    PubMed Central

    Zadravec, Petra; Štrukelj, Borut; Berlec, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are food-grade hosts for surface display with potential applications in food and therapy. Alternative approaches to surface display on LAB would avoid the use of recombinant DNA technology and genetically-modified organism (GMO)-related regulatory requirements. Non-covalent surface display of proteins can be achieved by fusing them to various cell-wall binding domains, of which the Lysine motif domain (LysM) is particularly well studied. Fusion proteins have been isolated from recombinant bacteria or from their growth medium and displayed on unmodified bacteria, enabling heterologous surface display. This was demonstrated on non-viable cells devoid of protein content, termed bacteria-like particles, and on various species of genus Lactobacillus. Of the latter, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741 was recently shown to be particularly amenable for LysM-mediated display. Possible regulatory implications of heterologous surface display are discussed, particularly those relevant for the European Union. PMID:25880164

  16. Heterologous surface display on lactic acid bacteria: non-GMO alternative?

    PubMed

    Zadravec, Petra; Štrukelj, Borut; Berlec, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are food-grade hosts for surface display with potential applications in food and therapy. Alternative approaches to surface display on LAB would avoid the use of recombinant DNA technology and genetically-modified organism (GMO)-related regulatory requirements. Non-covalent surface display of proteins can be achieved by fusing them to various cell-wall binding domains, of which the Lysine motif domain (LysM) is particularly well studied. Fusion proteins have been isolated from recombinant bacteria or from their growth medium and displayed on unmodified bacteria, enabling heterologous surface display. This was demonstrated on non-viable cells devoid of protein content, termed bacteria-like particles, and on various species of genus Lactobacillus. Of the latter, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741 was recently shown to be particularly amenable for LysM-mediated display. Possible regulatory implications of heterologous surface display are discussed, particularly those relevant for the European Union.

  17. The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzia, Vivi; Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics; Umar, Akrajas Ali

    2010-10-24

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured bymore » current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.« less

  18. Extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of C60, C70, and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester in synthetic and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Dermont; Ma, Xin

    2008-09-05

    Studies have shown that C(60) fullerene can form stable colloidal suspensions in water that result in C(60) aqueous concentrations many orders of magnitude above C(60)'s aqueous solubility; however, quantitative methods for the analysis of C(60) and other fullerenes in environmental media are scarce. Using a 80/20v/v toluene-acetonitrile mobile phase and a 4.6 mm x 150 mm Cosmosil 5micron PYE column, C(60), C(70), and PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester) were fully resolved. Selectivity factors (alpha) for C(60) relative to PCBM and C(70) relative to C(60) were 3.18 and 2.19, respectively. The best analytical wavelengths for the fullerenes were determined to be 330, 333, and 333 nm with log molar absorption coefficients (log epsilon) of 4.63, 4.82, and 4.60 for PCBM, C(60), C(70), respectively. Extraction and quantitation of all three fullerenes in aqueous suspensions over a range of pH (4-10) and ionic strengths were very good. Whole-method quantification limits for ground and surface suspensions were 2.87, 2.48, and 6.54 microg/L for PCBM, C(60), and C(70), respectively.

  19. The efficient n-doping of [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester by leuco-crystal violet to enhance the performance of inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Wei; Cao, Huan; Shi, Zhihua; Zhang, Jidong; Qin, Dashan

    2018-02-01

    Inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) have been fabricated using the photoactive blend thin films based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and leuco-crystal violet (LCV). It was found that the LCV as an efficient n-dopant could significantly increase intrinsic electron concentration of PCBM zone. The electron mobility of P3HT:PCBM:LCV blend thin film was measured 1.75 times as high as that of P3HT:PCBM blend thin film, as a result of LCV-induced trap filling in the bandgap of PCBM. The power conversion efficiency for the inverted device using the photoactive layer of P3HT:PCBM:LCV could be 1.22 times as high as that for the inverted device using the conventional photoactive layer of P3HT:PCBM, mostly because (1) the higher electron mobility could enhance the exciton dissociation and thereby short-circuit current density in the former relative to the latter; (2) the increase in the electron concentration of PCBM zone in P3HT:PCBM:LCV blend thin film may help blocking holes diffusion towards cathode, improving the hole collection efficiency and thereby fill factor of device. We provide a new insight on optimizing the electron-conducting property of bulk-heterojunction photoactive thin film, useful for pushing forward inverted OSCs towards the cost-effective commercialization.

  20. Selection of bacteriocin producer strains of lactic acid bacteria from a dairy environment.

    PubMed

    Lasagno, M; Beoleito, V; Sesma, F; Raya, R; Font de Valdez, G; Eraso, A

    2002-01-01

    Two strains showing bacteriocin production were selected from a total of 206 lactic acid bacteria isolated from samples of milk, milk serum, whey and homemade cheeses in Southern Cordoba, Argentina. This property was detected by means of well diffusion assays. The strains were identified as Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus durans. The protein nature of those substances was proved by showing their sensitivity to type IV and XXV proteases, papaine, trypsin, pepsin and K proteinase. The bacteriocins inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringes and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, an A-enterotoxin and a B-enterotoxin producers. All of these bacteria are common pathogens usually associated with food borne diseases (ETA). These lactic acid bacteria or their bacteriocins could be suitable candidates for food preservation and specially useful in the our regional dairy industry.

  1. Characterization of probiotic bacteria involved in fermented milk processing enriched with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Wu, Jing; Cao, Pei; Jin, Yifeng; Pan, Daodong; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Guo, Yuxing

    2017-06-01

    Yogurt products fermented with probiotic bacteria are a consumer trend and a challenge for functional food development. So far, limited research has focused on the behavior of the various probiotic strains used in milk fermentation. In the present study, we characterized folic acid production and the sensory and textural characteristics of yogurt products fermented with probiotic bacteria. Yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum had improved nutrient content and sensory and textural characteristics, but the presence of L. plantarum significantly impaired the growth and survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage. Overall, L. plantarum was a good candidate for probiotic yogurt fermentation; further studies are needed to understand the major metabolite path of lactic acid bacteria in complex fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Racemization in reverse: evidence that D-amino acid toxicity on Earth is controlled by bacteria with racemases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosen; Sun, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    D-amino acids are toxic for life on Earth. Yet, they form constantly due to geochemical racemization and bacterial growth (the cell walls of which contain D-amino acids), raising the fundamental question of how they ultimately are recycled. This study provides evidence that bacteria use D-amino acids as a source of nitrogen by running enzymatic racemization in reverse. Consequently, when soils are inundated with racemic amino acids, resident bacteria consume D- as well as L-enantiomers, either simultaneously or sequentially depending on the level of their racemase activity. Bacteria thus protect life on Earth by keeping environments D-amino acid free.

  4. Racemization in Reverse: Evidence that D-Amino Acid Toxicity on Earth Is Controlled by Bacteria with Racemases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaosen; Sun, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    D-amino acids are toxic for life on Earth. Yet, they form constantly due to geochemical racemization and bacterial growth (the cell walls of which contain D-amino acids), raising the fundamental question of how they ultimately are recycled. This study provides evidence that bacteria use D-amino acids as a source of nitrogen by running enzymatic racemization in reverse. Consequently, when soils are inundated with racemic amino acids, resident bacteria consume D- as well as L-enantiomers, either simultaneously or sequentially depending on the level of their racemase activity. Bacteria thus protect life on Earth by keeping environments D-amino acid free. PMID:24647559

  5. Survival and growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in refrigerated pickle products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined 10 lactic acid bacteria that have been previously characterized for commercial use as probiotic cultures, mostly for dairy products, including 1 Pediococcus and 9 Lactobacilli. Our objectives were to develop a rapid procedure for determining the long-term survivability of these cultures ...

  6. Ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in some bacteria, after treatment with Lubrol W1.

    PubMed

    Cherepova, N; Spasova, D

    1996-01-01

    The ultracytochemical localization of acid phosphatase from some bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas pseudomallei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was dependent on the changes in the lipoprotein content of the membranes as a result of the action of the Lubrol W1.

  7. Bacteria and Archaea in acidic environments and a key to morphological identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    2000-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic acidic environments are dominated by bacteria and Archaea. As many as 86 genera or species have been identified or isolated from pH <4.5 environments. This paper reviews the worldwide literature and provide tables of morphological characteristics, habitat information and a key for light microscope identification for the non-microbiologist.

  8. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  9. Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria which produce water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dextrans and related glucans produced from sucrose by lactic acid bacteria have been studied for many years and are used in numerous commercial applications and products. Most of these glucans are water-soluble, except for a few notable exceptions from cariogenic Streptococcus spp. and a very small ...

  10. Metabolism of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxyacetic Acid by Soil Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bollag, J.-M.; Helling, C. S.; Alexander, M.

    1967-01-01

    A microorganism capable of degrading 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) was isolated from soil and identified as Flavobacterium peregrinum. All of the chlorine of MCPA was released as chloride, and the carboxyl-carbon was converted to volatile products by growing cultures of the bacterium, but a phenol accumulated in the medium. The phenol was identified as 4-chloro-2-methylphenol on the basis of its gas chromatographic and infrared characteristics. Extracts of cells of F. peregrinum and of a phenoxyacetate-metabolizing Arthrobacter sp. dehalogenated MCPA and several catechols but not 4-chloro-2-methylanisole. The Arthrobacter sp. cell extract was fractionated, and an enzyme preparation was obtained which catalyzed the conversion of MCPA to 4-chloro-2-methylphenol. The latter compound was not metabolized unless reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was added to the fractionated extract. The phenol in turn was apparently oxidized to a catechol by components of the enzyme preparation. PMID:16349751

  11. Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles inhibit adhesion of human neutrophils to endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Cavalli, Roberta; Zara, Gian Paolo; Gallicchio, Margherita; Lombardi, Grazia; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) to vascular endothelial cells (EC) is a critical step in recruitment and infiltration of leukocytes into tissues during inflammation. High doses of butyric acid have been shown to ameliorate inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Cholesteryl-butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles (chol-but SLN) as prodrug are a possible delivery system for butyric acid. Sodium butyrate or chol-but SLN were coincubated with human PMNs and human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC); adhesion was quantified by computerized microimaging fluorescence analysis. Both chol-but SLN and sodium butyrate displayed antiadhesive effects on FMLP- and IL-1β-stimulated cells in a concentration–response curve (10−8–10−5 M), but chol-but SLN were in all cases more active. Moreover, chol-but SLN inhibited FMLP-induced adhesion of PMNs to FCS-coated plastic wells, thus showing a direct effect on PMNs, while sodium butyrate had little effect. Confocal microscopy showed that fluorescent SLN entered PMNs and HUVEC after 10 min incubation. Chol-but SLN acted either on activated PMN or HUVEC. Chol-but SLN inhibited O2−· production and myeloperoxidase release by PMNs evoked by FMLP, in a dose-dependent, but not time-dependent, manner and were more active than sodium butyrate. In conclusion, in all tests chol-but SLN were more active than sodium butyrate. Thus, chol-but SLN might be a valid alternative to sodium butyrate in the anti-inflammatory therapy of ulcerative colitis, avoiding complications related to the administration of sodium butyrate. PMID:16702992

  12. Metabolism of the 18O-methoxy substituent of 3-methoxybenzoic acid and other unlabeled methoxybenzoic acids by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    DeWeerd, K A; Saxena, A; Nagle, D P; Suflita, J M

    1988-01-01

    O-methyl substituents of aromatic compounds can provide C1 growth substrates for facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria isolated from diverse environments. The mechanism of the bioconversion of methoxylated benzoic acids to the hydroxylated derivatives was investigated with a model substrate and cultures of one anaerobic consortium, eight strict anaerobic bacteria, and one facultative anaerobic microorganism. Using high-pressure liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectral analysis, we found that a haloaromatic dehalogenating consortium, a dehalogenating isolate from that consortium, Eubacterium limosum, and a strain of Acetobacterium woodii metabolized 3-[methoxy-18O]methoxybenzoic acid (3-anisic acid) to 3-[hydroxy-18O]hydroxybenzoic acid stoichiometrically at rates of 1.5, 3.2, 52.4, and 36.7 nmol/min per mg of protein, respectively. A different strain of Acetobacterium and strains of Syntrophococcus, Clostridium, Desulfotomaculum, Enterobacter, and an anaerobic bacterium, strain TH-001, were unable to transform this compound. The O-demethylating ability of E. limosum was induced only with appropriate methoxylated benzoates but not with D-glucose, lactate, isoleucine, or methanol. Cross-acclimation and growth experiments with E. limosum showed a rate of metabolism that was an order of magnitude slower and showed no growth with either 4-methoxysalicylic acid (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid) or 4-anisic acid (4-methoxybenzoic acid) when adapted to 3-anisic acid. However, A. woodii NZva-16 showed slower rates and no growth with 3- or 4-methoxysalicylic acid when adapted to 3-anisic acid in similar experiments. The results clearly indicate a methyl rather than methoxy group removal mechanism for such reactions. PMID:3389815

  13. Antigenotoxic properties of lactic acid bacteria in the S. typhimurium mutagenicity assay.

    PubMed

    Pool-Zobel, B L; Münzner, R; Holzapfel, W H

    1993-01-01

    A high percentage of human tumors is reported to be related to dietary habits. One way to improve the nutritional impact is to increase the intake of protective factors, such as inhibitors of DNA damage and other types of anticarcinogens. Specific strains of lactic acid bacteria used to ferment milk are promising candidates that may be antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic. We have studied the antimutagenicity of 10 isolated strains of beneficial lactic acid bacteria. Four types of fermented milk products were also studied for their protective properties. The effect of these bacteria on the yield of revertants induced by nitrosated beef extract was investigated in the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. Eight of 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains reduced the yield of his+ revertants almost back to the levels of the untreated controls. Different fermented fresh yogurts containing viable bacteria (probably Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria) showed protective effects as well. The degree of suppressing revertants was independent of the yogurt's fat content. In contrast, yogurt products that had been heat treated were not inhibitory. The other fresh fermented milk products (e.g., buttermilk, kefir, and "Dickmilch") were not antimutagenic in this study. The results imply that some bacteria used in milk processing have an antimutagenic potential and that this property is specific for the bacterial strain.

  14. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from Indonesian shrimp paste (terasi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, U.; Sumardianto; Agustini, T. W.

    2018-02-01

    Shrimp paste was one of fermented products, popular as a taste enhancer in many dishes. The processing of shrimp paste was natural fermentation, depends on shrimp it self and the presence of salt. The salt inhibits the growth of undesirable microorganism and allows the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to ferment the protein source to lactic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize LAB isolated from Indonesian shrimp paste or "Terasi" with different times of fermentation (30, 60 and 90 days). Vitech analysis showed that there were four strains of the microorganism referred to as lactic acid bacteria (named: LABS1, LABS2, LABS3 and LABS4) with 95% sequence similarity. On the basis of biochemical, four isolates represented Lactobacillus, which the name Lactobacillus plantarum is proposed. L.plantarum was play role in resulting secondary metabolites, which gave umami flavor in shrimp paste.

  15. Ligand design, synthesis and biological anti-HCV evaluations for genotypes 1b and 4a of certain 4-(3- & 4-[3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propylamino]phenyl) butyric acids and 3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propylamino-acetamidobenzoic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed Abdel Hamid; Abouzid, Khaled A M; Mohamed, Nasser Saad; Dokla, Eman Mahmoud Elawady

    2013-12-01

    4-(4-[N-1-carboxy-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxo-propylamino]phenyl)-4-oxo-butyric acid (V), 4-(3- & 4-[N-1-carboxy-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxo-propylaminophenyl]-2-aryl-4-oxo-butyric acids (Xa-e) and 4-(2-alkyl-2-[N-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-carboxy-3-oxo-propylamino]acetamido) benzoate esters (XVa-e) were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated as anti-HCV for genotypes 1b and 4a. The design was based on their docking scores with HCV NS3/4A protease-binding site of the genotype 1b (1W3C), which is conserved in the genotype 4a structure. The docking scores predicted that most of these molecules have higher affinity to the HCV NS3/4A enzyme more than Indoline lead. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their cytopathic inhibitory activity against RAW HCV cell cultures of genotype 4a and also examined against Huh 5-2 HCV cell culture of genotype 1b, utilizing Luciferase and MTS assays. Compounds Xa and Xb have 95 and 80% of the activity of Ribavirin against genotype 4a and compounds XVa, XVb and XVd exerted high percentage inhibitory activity against genotype 1b equal 87.7, 84.3 and 82.8%, respectively, with low EC50 doses.

  16. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Joseph F; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (∼ 11A/m(2)) and Coulombic efficiency (∼ 70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ∼ 80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed microbial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with cocoa fermentation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kostinek, Melanie; Ban-Koffi, Louis; Ottah-Atikpo, Margaret; Teniola, David; Schillinger, Ulrich; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2008-04-01

    The fermentation of cocoa relies on a complex succession of bacteria and filamentous fungi, all of which can have an impact on cocoa flavor. So far, few investigations have focused on the diversity of lactic acid bacteria involved in cocoa fermentation, and many earlier investigations did not rely on polyphasic taxonomical approaches, which take both phenotypic and genotypic characterization techniques into account. In our study, we characterized predominant lactic acid bacteria from cocoa fermentations in Nigeria, using a combination of phenotypic tests, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative strains for accurate species identification. Thus, of a total of 193 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from common media used to cultivate LAB, 40 (20.7%) were heterofermentative and consisted of either L. brevis or L. fermentum strains. The majority of the isolates were homofermentative rods (110 strains; 57% of isolates) which were characterized as L. plantarum strains. The homofermentative cocci consisted predominantly of 35 (18.1% of isolates) Pediococcus acidilactici strains. Thus, the LAB populations derived from these media in this study were accurately described. This can contribute to the further assessment of the effect of common LAB strains on the flavor characteristics of fermenting cocoa in further studies.

  18. Cotransport of bacteria with hematite in porous media: Effects of ion valence and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiyan; Ge, Zhi; Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping; Ni, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of multiple colloids (hematite and humic acid) on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media in both NaCl (5 mM) and CaCl2 (1 mM) solutions at pH 6. Due to the alteration of cell physicochemical properties, the presence of hematite and humic acid in cell suspensions significantly affected bacterial transport and deposition in quartz sand. Specifically, the presence of hematite (5 mg/L) decreased cell transport (increased cell deposition) in quartz sand in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which could be attributed to the less negative overall zeta potentials of bacteria induced by the adsorption of positively charged hematite onto cell surfaces. The presence of a low concentration (0.1 mg/L) of humic acid in bacteria and hematite mixed suspensions reduced the adsorption of hematite onto cell surfaces, leading to increased cell transport in quartz sand in NaCl solutions, whereas, in CaCl2 solutions, the presence of 0.1 mg/L humic acid increased the formation of hematite-cell aggregates and thus decreased cell transport in quartz sand. When the concentration of humic acid was increased to 1 mg/L, enhanced cell transport was observed in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. The decreased adsorption of hematite onto cell surfaces as well as the competition of deposition sites on quartz sand with bacteria by the suspended humic acid contributed to the increased cell transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium butyrate attenuates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice by improving gut microbiota and gastrointestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da; Pan, Qin; Xin, Feng-Zhi; Zhang, Rui-Nan; He, Chong-Xin; Chen, Guang-Yu; Liu, Chang; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-07

    To investigate whether gut microbiota metabolite sodium butyrate (NaB) is an effective substance for attenuating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the internal mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups, normal control were fed standard chow and model group were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk, the intervention group were fed HFD for 16 wk and treated with NaB for 8 wk. Gut microbiota from each group were detected at baseline and at 16 wk, liver histology were evaluated and gastrointestinal barrier indicator such as zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry and realtime-PCR, further serum or liver endotoxin were determined by ELISA and inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes were quantified by real-time PCR. NaB corrected the HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalance in mice, while it considerably elevated the abundances of the beneficial bacteria Christensenellaceae , Blautia and Lactobacillus . These bacteria can produce butyric acid in what seems like a virtuous circle. And butyrate restored HFD induced intestinal mucosa damage, increased the expression of ZO-1 in small intestine, further decreased the levels of gut endotoxin in serum and liver compared with HF group. Endotoxin-associated genes such as TLR4 and Myd88, pro-inflammation genes such as MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in liver or epididymal fat were obviously downregulated after NaB intervention. Liver inflammation and fat accumulation were ameliorated, the levels of TG and cholesterol in liver were decreased after NaB intervention, NAS score was significantly decreased, metabolic indices such as FBG and HOMA-IR and liver function indicators ALT and AST were improved compared with HF group. NaB may restore the dysbiosis of gut microbiota to attenuate steatohepatitis, which is suggested to be a potential gut microbiota modulator and therapeutic substance for NAFLD.

  20. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after 32 days of bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations with natural seawater (sampled from water masses originating from the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean) and artificial seawater indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural (representing marine semi-labile and refractory DOM) and artificial (representing bacterially produced DOM) seawater samples, suggests that microbes transform bioavailable neutral sugars and amino acids into a common, more persistent form.

  1. A gene-targeted approach to investigate the intestinal butyrate-producing bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butyrate, which is produced by the human microbiome, is essential for a well-functioning colon. Bacteria that produce butyrate are phylogenetically diverse, which hinders their accurate detection based on conventional phylogenetic markers. As a result, reliable information on this important bacterial group is often lacking in microbiome research. Results In this study we describe a gene-targeted approach for 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the final genes in the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). We monitored the establishment and early succession of butyrate-producing communities in four patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent a colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and compared it with three control samples from healthy colons. All patients established an abundant butyrate-producing community (approximately 5% to 26% of the total community) in the pouch within the 2-month study, but patterns were distinctive among individuals. Only one patient harbored a community profile similar to the healthy controls, in which there was a predominance of but genes that are similar to reference genes from Acidaminococcus sp., Eubacterium sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia sp., and an almost complete absence of buk genes. Two patients were greatly enriched in buk genes similar to those of Clostridium butyricum and C. perfringens, whereas a fourth patient displayed abundant communities containing both genes. Most butyrate producers identified in previous studies were detected and the general patterns of taxa found were supported by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis, but the gene-targeted approach provided more detail about the potential butyrate-producing members of the community. Conclusions The presented approach provides quantitative and genotypic insights into butyrate-producing communities and facilitates a more specific

  2. Effects of butyrate on active sodium and chloride transport in rat and rabbit distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, S; Ramakrishna, B S

    2002-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, stimulate electroneutral NaCl absorption from the colon. Their effect in colonic epithelia lacking basal electroneutral NaCl absorption is unknown. Butyrate is also reported to inhibit active Cl− secretion in the colon. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the inter-relationships between the effects of butyrate on active Na+ and Cl− transport in the colon. Studies were carried out in rabbit distal colon (known to have predominant electrogenic Na+ absorption), rat distal colon (characterised by electroneutral Na+ absorption), and hyperaldosteronaemic rat distal colon (characterised by electrogenic Na+ absorption). The effect of cholera toxin (CT) was also noted. Potential difference, short-circuit current (ISC) and fluxes of Na+ and Cl− were measured in stripped mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Butyrate stimulated electroneutral Na+ and Cl− absorption in distal colon of normal and salt-depleted rats, and stimulated Na+ absorption in rabbit distal colon. Amiloride (10−4m) or CT did not inhibit this process. In rabbit distal colon, stimulation of Na+ absorption by butyrate was not dependent on the presence of Cl− in the medium. Butyrate significantly decreased conductance, decreased flux of sodium from serosa to mucosa (particularly in rabbit distal colon), and decreased ISC. Net Cl− secretion, induced by CT, was completely inhibited by butyrate. Stimulation of Na+ absorption was independent of exposure to CT. Bumetanide reversed net Cl− secretion to net absorption, but did not alter Na+ or Cl− fluxes in tissues exposed to butyrate. Thus butyrate stimulates active Na+ absorption in colonic epithelia, with or without expression of basal Na+-H+ exchange. Independently, butyrate inhibits active Cl− secretion induced by cAMP in these epithelia. PMID:11850510

  3. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin) and genetic (si

  4. Assessment of active bacteria metabolizing phenolic acids in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinguang; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhang, Taolin; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids can enhance the mycotoxin production and activities of hydrolytic enzymes related to pathogenicity of soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum. However, characteristics of phenolic acid-degrading bacteria have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize bacteria capable of growth on benzoic and vanillic acids as the sole carbon source in the peanut rhizosphere. Twenty-four bacteria were isolated, and the identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that pre-exposure to phenolic acids before sowing shifted the dominant culturable bacterial degraders from Arthrobacter to Burkholderia stabilis-like isolates. Both Arthrobacter and B. stabilis-like isolates catalysed the aromatic ring cleavage via the ortho pathway, and Arthrobacter isolates did not exhibit higher C12O enzyme activity than B. stabilis-like isolates. The culture filtrate of Fusarium sp. ACCC36194 caused a strong inhibition of Arthrobacter growth but not B. stabilis-like isolates. Additionally, Arthrobacter isolates responded differently to the culture filtrates of B. stabilis-like isolates. The Arthrobacter isolates produced higher indole acetic acid (IAA) levels than B. stabilis-like isolates, but B. stabilis-like isolates were also able to produce siderophores, solubilize mineral phosphate, and exert an antagonistic activity against peanut root rot pathogen Fusarium sp. ACCC36194. Results indicate that phenolic acids can shift their dominant culturable bacterial degraders from Arthrobacter to Burkholderia species in the peanut rhizosphere, and microbial interactions might lead to the reduction of culturable Arthrobacter. Furthermore, increasing bacterial populations metabolizing phenolic acids in monoculture fields might be a control strategy for soilborne diseases caused by Fusarium spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Butyrate production in phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes isolated from the chicken caecum

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska; De Baere, Siegrid; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Louis, Petra; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sixteen butyrate‐producing bacteria were isolated from the caecal content of chickens and analysed phylogenetically. They did not represent a coherent phylogenetic group, but were allied to four different lineages in the Firmicutes phylum. Fourteen strains appeared to represent novel species, based on a level of ≤ 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards their nearest validly named neighbours. The highest butyrate concentrations were produced by the strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, clusters which are predominant in the chicken caecal microbiota. In only one of the 16 strains tested, the butyrate kinase operon could be amplified, while the butyryl‐CoA : acetate CoA‐transferase gene was detected in eight strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV, XIVa and XIVb. None of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates carried this gene based on degenerate PCR analyses. However, another CoA‐transferase gene more similar to propionate CoA‐transferase was detected in the majority of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates. Since this gene is located directly downstream of the remaining butyrate pathway genes in several human cluster XVI bacteria, it may be involved in butyrate formation in these bacteria. The present study indicates that butyrate producers related to cluster XVI may play a more important role in the chicken gut than in the human gut. PMID:21375722

  6. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    PubMed

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  8. Developmental outcome of levetiracetam, its major metabolite in humans, 2-pyrrolidinone N-butyric acid, and its enantiomer (R)-alpha-ethyl-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide in a mouse model of teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Isoherranen, Nina; Spiegelstein, Ofer; Bialer, Meir; Zhang, Jing; Merriweather, Michelle; Yagen, Boris; Roeder, Michael; Triplett, Aleata A; Schurig, Volker; Finnell, Richard H

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the teratogenic potential of the antiepileptic drug (AED) levetiracetam (LEV), its major metabolite in humans, 2-pyrrolidone-N-butyric acid (PBA), and enantiomer, (R)-alpha-ethyl-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide (REV), in a well-established mouse model. All compounds were administered by intraperitoneal injections once daily to SWV/Fnn mice on gestational days 8-1/2 to 12-1/2. LEV was administered at doses of 600, 1,200, and 2,000 mg/kg/day, piracetam (PIR) and PBA, at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg/day, and REV, at 600 mg/kg/day. On gestational day 18(1/2), fetuses were examined for gross external malformations and prepared for skeletal analysis by using Alizarin Red S staining. No significant gross external malformations were observed in any of the study groups. Fetal weights were significantly reduced in most study groups. Resorption rates were significantly increased only in the 2,000-mg/kg/day LEV group. The overall incidence of skeletal abnormalities and specifically of hypoplastic phalanges was significantly increased in both PBA treatments and in the intermediate 1,200-mg/kg/day LEV group. In contrast to that in humans, 24-h urinary excretion analysis in mice showed that 65-100% of the LEV doses were excreted unchanged, whereas only 4% was excreted as the metabolite PBA. Results of this study demonstrate that both LEV and its major metabolite in humans, PBA, do not induce major structural malformations in developing SWV/Fnn embryos and suggest that they provide a margin of reproductive safety for the pregnant epileptic population when compared with other AEDs tested in this mouse model.

  9. In Situ Growth of Metal Sulfide Nanocrystals in Poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-Phenyl C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Films for Inverted Hybrid Solar Cells with Enhanced Photocurrent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Sun, Yingying; Li, Xinjie; Li, Cheng; Tong, Junfeng; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Peng; Xia, Yangjun

    2018-06-20

    It has been reported that the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells can be improved by incorporation of nano-heterostructures of metals, semiconductors, and dielectric materials in the active layer. In this manuscript, CdS or Sb 2 S 3 nanocrystals were in situ generated inside the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid (P3HT:PC 61 BM) system by randomly mixing P3HT and PC 61 BM in the presence of cadmium or antimony xanthate precursor. Hybrid solar cells (HSCs) with the configurations of tin-doped indium oxide substrate (ITO)/CdS interface layer/P3HT:PC 61 BM: x wt.% CdS/MoO 3 /Ag and ITO/CdS interface layer /P3HT:PC 61 BM: x wt.% Sb 2 S 3 /MoO 3 /Ag were fabricated. Hybrid active layers (P3HT:PC 61 BM: x wt.% CdS or P3HT:PC 61 BM: x wt.% Sb 2 S 3 ) were formed completely by thermally annealing the film resulting in the decomposition of the cadmium or antimony xanthate precursor to CdS or Sb 2 S 3 nanocrystals, respectively. The effects of x wt.% CdS (or Sb 2 S 3 ) nanocrystals on the performance of the HSCs were studied. From UV-Vis absorption, hole mobilities, and surface morphological characterizations, it has been proved that incorporation of 3 wt.% CdS (or Sb 2 S 3 ) nanocrystals in the active layer of P3HT:PC 61 BM-based solar cells improved the optical absorption, the hole mobility, and surface roughness in comparison with P3HT:PC 61 BM-based solar cells, thus resulting in the improved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the devices.

  10. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M.; Piper, Matthew D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits. PMID:28441450

  11. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Leitão-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Francisco, Ana Patrícia; Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M; Piper, Matthew D W; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bee Pollen: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    BELHADJ, Hani; HARZALLAH, Daoud; BOUAMRA, Dalila; KHENNOUF, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; GHADBANE, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

  13. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shengjun; Yang, Xianqing; Li, Laihao

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic products are extremely perishable food commodities. Developing methods to keep the freshness of fish represents a major task of the fishery processing industry. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as food preservative is a novel approach. In the present study, the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi was examined. Fish fillets were dipped in Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 (obtained from China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) suspension as LAB-treated group. Changes in K-value, APC, sensory properties and microbial flora were analyzed. Results showed that LAB treatment slowed the increase of K-value and APC in the earlier storage, and caused a smooth decrease in sensory score. Gram-negative bacteria dominated during refrigerated storage, with Pseudomonas and Aeromonas being relatively abundant. Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 had no obvious inhibitory effect against these Gram-negatives. However, Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 changed the composition of Gram-positive bacteria. No Micrococcus were detected and the proportion of Staphylococcus decreased in the spoiled LAB-treated samples. The period that tilapia fillets could be used as sashimi material extended from 24 h to 48 h after LAB treatment. The potential of using LAB in sashimi processing was confirmed.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of some lactic Acid bacteria isolated from bee pollen: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Hani; Harzallah, Daoud; Bouamra, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; Ghadbane, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133.

  15. Dual-coated lactic acid bacteria: an emerging innovative technology in the field of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Margolles, Abelardo

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are living micro-organisms that do not naturally have shelf life, and normally are weakly protected against the digestive action of the GI tract. A new dual coating technology has been developed in an effort to maximize survival, that is, to be able to reach the intestine alive and in sufficient numbers to confer the beneficial health effects on the host. Dual-coating of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is the result of fourth-generation coating technology for the protection of these bacteria at least 100-fold or greater than the uncoated LAB. This innovative technique involves a first pH-dependent protein layer that protects bacteria from gastric acid and bile salt, and a second polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from external factors, such as humidity, temperature and pressure, as well as the digestive action during the passage through the GI tract. Dual-coated probiotic formulation is applicable to different therapeutic areas, including irritable bowel syndrome, atopic dermatitis, acute diarrhea, chronic constipation, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. An updated review of the efficacy of doubly coated probiotic strains for improving bacterial survival in the intestinal tract and its consequent clinical benefits in humans is here presented.

  16. Bovicin HC5 inhibits wasteful amino acid degradation by mixed ruminal bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lima, Janaína R; Ribon, Andréa de O Barros; Russell, James B; Mantovani, Hilário C

    2009-03-01

    Streptococcus bovis HC5 produces a broad spectrum lantibiotic (bovicin HC5) that inhibits pure cultures of hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB). Experiments were preformed to see if: (1) S. bovis HC5 cells could inhibit the deamination of amino acids by mixed ruminal bacteria taken directly from a cow, (2) semi-purified bovicin was as effective as S. bovis HC5 cells, and 3) semi-purified and the feed additive monensin were affecting the same types of ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria. Because purified and semi-purified bovicin HC5 was as effective as S. bovis HC5 cells, it appeared that bovicin HC5 was penetrating the cell membranes of HAB before it could be degraded by peptidases and proteinases. Mixed ruminal bacteria that were successively transferred and enriched nine times with trypticase did not become significantly more resistant to either bovicin HC5 (50 AU mL(-1)) or monensin (5 microM), and amplified rDNA restriction analysis indicated that bovicin HC5 and monensin appeared to be selecting against the same types of bacteria.

  17. Small molecule inhibitor of lipoteichoic acid synthesis is an antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Stefan G.; Elli, Derek; Kim, Hwan Keun; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria requires the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new therapeutics. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall polymer of Gram-positive bacteria, consists of 1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid. LTA synthase (LtaS) polymerizes polyglycerol-phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol, a reaction that is essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. We screened small molecule libraries for compounds inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] blocked phosphatidylglycerol binding to LtaS and inhibited LTA synthesis in S. aureus and in Escherichia coli expressing ltaS. Compound 1771 inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and prolonged the survival of mice with lethal S. aureus challenge, validating LtaS as a target for the development of antibiotics. PMID:23401520

  18. Determination of antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Erginkaya, Z; Turhan, E U; Tatlı, D

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the antibiotic resistance (AR) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products was investigated. Yogurt, white cheese, tulum cheese, cokelek, camız cream and kefir as dairy products were collected from various supermarkets. Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Enterecoccus spp. were isolated from these dairy products. Lactobacillus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (58%), erythromycin (10.8%), tetracycline (4.3%), gentamicin (28%), and ciprofloxacin (26%). Streptococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (40%), erythromycin (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (30%). Bifidobacterium spp. were resistant to vancomycin (60%), E 15 (6.6%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (33%). Enterococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), rifampin (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%). As a result, LAB islated from dairy products in this study showed mostly resistance to vancomycin.

  19. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sauce-type Kimchi.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suk Hee; Park, Joung Whan; Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from naturally fermented sauce-type kimchi. Sauce-type kimchi was prepared with fresh, chopped ingredients (Korean cabbage, radish, garlic, ginger, green onion, and red pepper). The two isolated bacteria from sauce-type kimchi were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rDNA sequencing and tentatively named Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2, respectively. Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 was isolated from the early and middle fermentation stages of sauce-type kimchi whereas Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 was isolated from the late fermentation stage. The resistance of Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 to artificial gastric and bile acids led to bacterial survival rates that were 100% and 84.21%, respectively.

  20. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sauce-type Kimchi

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hee; Park, Joung Whan; Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from naturally fermented sauce-type kimchi. Sauce-type kimchi was prepared with fresh, chopped ingredients (Korean cabbage, radish, garlic, ginger, green onion, and red pepper). The two isolated bacteria from sauce-type kimchi were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rDNA sequencing and tentatively named Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2, respectively. Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 was isolated from the early and middle fermentation stages of sauce-type kimchi whereas Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 was isolated from the late fermentation stage. The resistance of Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 to artificial gastric and bile acids led to bacterial survival rates that were 100% and 84.21%, respectively. PMID:24471087

  1. DNA Fingerprinting of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Sauerkraut Fermentations▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Breidt, Fredrick; Lu, Zhongjing; Fleming, Henry P.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. In this study, 686 isolates were collected from four commercial fermentations and analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. Unexpectedly, only two isolates of P. pentosaceus and 15 isolates of L. brevis were recovered during this study. A better understanding of the microbiota may aid in the development of low-salt fermentations, which may have altered microflora and altered sensory characteristics. PMID:17921264

  2. [Lactic acid bacteria proteinase and quality of fermented dairy products--A review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Lanwei; Han, Xue

    2015-12-04

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could synthesize cell envelope proteinase with weak activity, which primarily degrades casein. In addition to its crucial role in the rapid growth of LAB in milk, LAB proteinases are also of industrial importance due to their contribution to the formation of texture and flavor of many fermented dairy products. The proteolytic system, properties of proteinase, the degradation product of casein and its effect on the quality of fermented dairy products were reviewed in this manuscript.

  3. Antiallergic effect of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria in a murine animal model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sandy; Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Lin, Meei-Yn

    2007-06-27

    The objective of this study was to assess the antiallergic effect of fermented milk prepared, respectively, with Streptococcus thermophilus MC, Lactobacillus acidophilus B, Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb, L. bulgaricus 448, and Bifidobacterium longum B6. Female BALB/c mice fed fermented milk were immunized intraperitoneally with ovalbumin (OVA)/complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to evaluate the immune response by observing the secretion of cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma and serum antibody IgE. The results showed that supplementation with lactic acid bacteria fermented milk did not significantly change the IL-2 spontaneous and OVA-stimulated secretions of splenocytes. However, both spontaneous and OVA-stimulated secretions of splenocytes from mice fed lactic acid bacteria fermented milk showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) than those from OVA/CFA-immunized mice fed non-fermented milk (OVA/CFA-milk group). The spontaneous secretion of IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokine) by splenocytes from mice fed L. bulgaricus 448 or L. bulgaricus Lb fermented milk significantly increased as compared to that from the OVA/CFA-milk group. The results showed that the ratios of IFN-gamma to IL-4 of both spontaneous and OVA-stimulated secretions in splenocytes from mice fed lactic acid bacteria fermented milk increased significantly as compared to that of PBS- or OVA/CFA-milk groups. The serum levels of OVA-specific IgE in fermented milk fed groups, especially the group fed S. thermophilus MC fermented milk, were significantly lower than those in the OVA/CFA-milk group through a 6 week feeding experiment. The results showed that milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria demonstrated in vivo antiallergic effects on OVA/CFA-immunized mice via increasing the secretion ratio of IFN-gamma/IL-4 (Th1/Th2) by splenocytes and decreasing the serum level of OVA-specific IgE.

  4. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A.; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001%(w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the Staphylococcus aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01%(w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1%(w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters. PMID:20089325

  5. Effect of fatty acids on growth of conjugated-linoleic-acids-producing bacteria in rumen.

    PubMed

    Koppová, I; Lukás, F; Kopecný, J

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms with high activity of linoleic acid delta12-cis,delta11-trans-isomerase were isolated from the digestive tract of ruminants and characterized. The isolate with the highest isomerase activity was identified as Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis. The susceptibility of this strain to 3 fatty acids added to the grow medium was determined. A significant inhibition of bacterial growth (during a 3-d period) by linoleic acid (0.1 %) and oleic acid (5 ppm) was observed; no inhibition was found in the presence of stearic acid.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Commercial Probiotic Culture

    PubMed Central

    MENCONI, Anita; KALLAPURA, Gopala; LATORRE, Juan D.; MORGAN, Marion J.; PUMFORD, Neil R.; HARGIS, Billy M.; TELLEZ, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the identification and characterization (physiological properties) of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB 18 and 48) present in a commercial probiotic culture, FloraMax®-B11. Isolates were characterized morphologically, and identified biochemically. In addition, the MIDI System ID, the Biolog ID System, and 16S rRNA sequence analyses for identification of LAB 18 and LAB 48 strains were used to compare the identification results. Tolerance and resistance to acidic pH, high osmotic concentration of NaCl, and bile salts were tested in broth medium. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria and susceptibility to antibiotics were also tested. The results obtained in this study showed tolerance of LAB 18 and LAB 48 to pH 3.0, 6.5% NaCl and a high bile salt concentration (0.6%). Both strains evaluated showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), and Campylobacter jejuni. These are important characteristics of lactic acid bacteria that should be evaluated when selecting strains to be used as probiotics. Antimicrobial activity of these effective isolates may contribute to efficacy, possibly by direct antimicrobial activity in vivo. PMID:24936379

  7. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  8. Molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria on ileum broiler chicken fed by bran and bran fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniyah, Laelatul; Nur Jannah, Siti; Rukmi, Isworo; Sugiharto

    2018-05-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is a digestive tract microflora that have a positive role in poultry health. The number and diversity of LAB in the digestive tract affected by several factors, among them was the kind of feed. The purpose of this research was to know diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) ileum broiler’s after feeding with prebiotic bran and Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran which was added to commercial feed. As much as 15 broilers were used to determine the diversity of LAB. All broilers were fed using commercial feed. The control used commercial feed no addition of bran or fermented bran, and commercial feed with fermented bran and nonfermented bran were as a treatment. To determine the diversity of LAB, T-RFLP method was applied. The Hae III and Msp I were used as restriction enzymes. The number of phylotype, relative abundance, Shannon diversity index (H '), evenness (E), and Dominance (D) were examined. The results indicated that the addition of prebiotic bran on commercial feed showed a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria on broiler’s ileum, compared with control and addition of Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran. LAB group that dominates in the ileum is Lactobacillus sp. and L. delbruecii subs bulgaricus.

  9. Two Pathways of Glutamate Fermentation by Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Buckel, Wolfgang; Barker, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate to acetate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—the methylaspartate and the hydroxyglutarate pathways which are used by Clostridium tetanomorphum and Peptococcus aerogenes, respectively. Although these pathways give rise to the same products, they are easily distinguished by different labeling patterns of the butyrate when [4-14C]glutamate is used as substrate. Schmidt degradation of the radioactive butyrate from C. tetanomorphum yielded equally labeled propionate and carbon dioxide, whereas nearly all the radioactivity of the butyrate from P. aerogenes was recovered in the corresponding propionate. This procedure was used as a test for the pathway of glutamate fermentation by 15 strains (9 species) of anaerobic bacteria. The labeling patterns of the butyrate indicate that glutamate is fermented via the methylaspartate pathway by C. tetani, C. cochlearium, and C. saccarobutyricum, and via the hydroxyglutarate pathway by Acidaminococcus fermentans, C. microsporum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and F. fusiformis. Enzymes specific for each pathway were assayed in crude extracts of the above organisms. 3-Methylaspartase was found only in clostridia which use the methylaspartate pathway, including Clostridium SB4 and C. sticklandii, which probably degrade glutamate to acetate and carbon dioxide by using a second amino acid as hydrogen acceptor. High levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase were found exclusively in organisms that use the hydroxyglutarate pathway. The data indicate that only two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate by the bacteria analyzed. The methylaspartate pathway appears to be used only by species of Clostridium, whereas the hydroxyglutarate pathway is used by representatives of several genera. PMID:4813895

  10. Isolation of Soil Bacteria Adapted To Degrade Humic Acid-Sorbed Phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, D. J.; Bleam, W. F.; Hickey, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these studies was to determine how sorption by humic acids affected the bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to PAH-degrading microbes. Micellar solutions of humic acid were used as sorbents, and phenanthrene was used as a model PAH. Enrichments from PAH-contaminated soils established with nonsorbed phenanthrene yielded a total of 25 different isolates representing a diversity of bacterial phylotypes. In contrast, only three strains of Burkholderia spp. and one strain each of Delftia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated from enrichments with humic acid-sorbed phenanthrene (HASP). Using [14C]phenanthrene as a radiotracer, we verified that only HASP isolates were capable of mineralizing HASP, a phenotype hence termed “competence.” Competence was an all-or-nothing phenotype: noncompetent strains showed no detectable phenanthrene mineralization in HASP cultures, but levels of phenanthrene mineralization effected by competent strains in HASP and NSP cultures were not significantly different. Levels and rates of phenanthrene mineralization exceeded those predicted to be supported solely by the metabolism of phenanthrene in the aqueous phase of HASP cultures. Thus, competent strains were able to directly access phenanthrene sorbed by the humic acids and did not rely on desorption for substrate uptake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of (i) a selective interaction between aerobic bacteria and humic acid molecules and (ii) differential bioavailability to bacteria of PAHs sorbed to a natural biogeopolymer. PMID:16000791

  11. Anaerobic degradation of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether and guaiacoxyacetic acid by mixed rumen bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W; Supanwong, K; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S; Kawakami, H

    1985-01-01

    Veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (0.2 g/liter), a lignin model compound, was found to be degraded by mixed rumen bacteria in a yeast extract medium under strictly anaerobic conditions to the extent of 19% within 24 h. Guaiacoxyacetic acid, 2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethanol, vanillic acid, and vanillin were detected as degradation products of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Guaiacoxyacetic acid (0.25 g/liter), when added into the medium as a substrate, was entirely degraded within 36 h, resulting in the formation of phenoxyacetic acid, guaiacol, and phenol. These results suggest that the beta-arylether bond, an important intermonomer linkage in lignin, can be cleaved completely by these rumen anaerobes. PMID:3841472

  12. Butyrate induces apoptosis by activating PDC and inhibiting complex I through SIRT3 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sha; Liu, Cai-Xia; Xu, Wei; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Zhao, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    The underlying anticancer effects of butyrate, an end-product of the intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, remain elusive. Here, we report that butyrate promotes cancer cell apoptosis by acting as a SIRT3 inhibitor. Butyrate inhibits SIRT3 both in cultured cells and in vitro . Butyrate-induced PDHA1 hyperacetylation relieves the inhibitory phosphorylation of PDHA1 at serine 293, thereby activating an influx of glycolytic intermediates into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and reversing the Warburg effect. Meanwhile, butyrate-induced hyperacetylation inactivates complex I of the electron transfer chain and prevents the utilization of TCA cycle intermediates. These metabolic stresses promote apoptosis in hyperglycolytic cancer cells, such as HCT116 p53 -/- cells. SIRT3 deacetylates both PDHA1 and complex I. Genetic ablation of Sirt3 in mouse hepatocytes abrogated the ability of butyrate to induce apoptosis. Our results identify a butyrate-mediated anti-tumor mechanism and indicate that the combined activation of PDC and inhibition of complex I is a novel tumor treatment strategy.

  13. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Survival and Growth of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Refrigerated Pickle Products.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sicun; Breidt, Fred; Price, Robert; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2017-01-01

    We examined 10 lactic acid bacteria that have been previously characterized for commercial use as probiotic cultures, mostly for dairy products, including 1 Pediococcus and 9 Lactobacilli. Our objectives were to develop a rapid procedure for determining the long-term survivability of